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White spirit

This article is about the solvent. For the band, see White Spirit (band). For the 2012 Hell on
Wheels episode, see The White Spirit.

A 2-litre (4 imp pt) container of white spirit

White spirit (UK)[note 1] or mineral spirits (US, Canada),[1][2][3] also known as mineral
turpentine (AU/NZ), turpentine substitute, petroleum spirits, solvent naphtha (petroleum),
Varsol, Stoddard solvent,[4][5] or, generically, "paint thinner", is a petroleum-derived clear liquid
used as a common organic solvent in painting and decorating.

A mixture of aliphatic and alicyclic C7 to C12 hydrocarbons, white spirit is used as an extraction
solvent, as a cleaning solvent, as a degreasing solvent and as a solvent in aerosols, paints, wood
preservatives, lacquers, varnishes, and asphalt products. In western Europe about 60% of the
total white spirit consumption is used in paints, lacquers and varnishes. White spirit is the most
widely used solvent in the paint industry. In households, white spirit is commonly used to clean
paint brushes after use, to clean auto parts and tools, as a starter fluid for charcoal grills, to
remove adhesive residue from non-porous surfaces, and many other common tasks.

Contents [hide]

1 Content

2 Types and grades

3 Chemical numbers

4 Physical properties

5 Use

6 Toxicity

7 See also

8 Footnotes

9 References

10 External links
Content[edit]

White spirit is a mixture of aliphatic and alicyclic C7 to C12 hydrocarbons with a maximum
content of 25% of C7 to C12 aromatic hydrocarbons. A typical composition for mineral spirits is >
65% C10 or higher hydrocarbons,[6] aliphatic solvent hexane, and a maximum benzene content
of 0.1% by volume, a kauri-butanol value of 29, an initial boiling point of 145 C (293 F) to 174
C (345 F), and a density of 0.79 g/ml.

The word name "mineral" in "mineral spirits" or "mineral turpentine" is meant to distinguish it
from distilled spirits (distilled directly from fermented grains and fruit) or from true turpentine
(distilled tree resin). Its use is a misnomer because white spirit is derived not from minerals but
from petroleum, a fossil fuel.

Types and grades[edit]

Three different types and three different grades of white spirit exist. The type refers to whether
the solvent has been subjected to hydrodesulfurization (removal of sulfur) alone (type 1),
solvent extraction (type 2) or hydrogenation (type 3).

Each type comprises three different grades: low flash grade, regular grade, and high flash grade.
The grade is determined by the crude oil used as the starting material and the conditions of
distillation.

In addition there is type 0, which is defined as distillation fraction with no further treatment,
consisting predominantly of saturated C9 to C12 hydrocarbons with a boiling range of 140200
C.

Stoddard solvent is a specific mixture of hydrocarbons, typically > 65% C10 or higher
hydrocarbons,[7] developed in 1924 by Atlanta dry cleaner W. J. Stoddard and Lloyd E. Jackson of
the Mellon Institute of Industrial Research as a less volatile petroleum-based dry cleaning
solvent than the petroleum solvents then in use. Dry cleaners began using the result of their
work in 1928 and it soon became the predominant dry cleaning solvent in the United States,
until the late 1950s.[citation needed]

Turpentine substitute is generally not made to a standard and can have a wider range of
components than products marketed as white spirit, which is made to a standard (in the UK,
British Standard BS 245, in Germany, DIN 51632). Turpentine substitute can be used for general
cleaning but is not recommended for paint thinning as it may adversely affect drying times due
to the less volatile components; while it may be used for brush cleaning its heavier components
may leave an oily residue.

Chemical numbers[edit]

CAS EINECS Name Descriptive name Ref

8030-30-6 232-443-2 Naphtha

8052-41-3 232-489-3 Stoddard solvent Stoddard solvent is a US term


corresponding to white spirit type 1 [8]

64742-82-1 265-185-4 white spirit type 1 hydrodesulphurized heavy naphtha


(petroleum) [8]

64741-92-0 265-095-5 white spirit type 2 solvent-refined heavy naphtha


(petroleum) [8]

64742-48-9 265-150-3 white spirit type 3 hydrotreated heavy naphtha


(petroleum) [8]

64742-88-7 265-191-7 white spirit type 0 medium aliphatic solvent naphtha


(petroleum) [8]

Physical properties[edit]

Mineral turpentine

The physical properties of types 1-3 of white spirit are:

Property T1: Low flash T2: Regular T3: High flash

Initial boiling point (IBP) (C) 130144 145174 175200

Final boiling point (C) IBP+21, max. 220

Average relative molecular mass140 150 160

Relative density (15 C) 0.765 0.780 0.795


Flash point (C) 2130 3154 > 55

Vapour pressure (kPa, 20 C) 1.4 0.6 0.1

Volatility (n-butyl acetate=1) 0.47 0.15 0.04

Autoignition temperature (C) 240 240 230

Explosion limits (Flammable Range) (% by volume in air) 0.66.5 0.66.5 0.68

Vapour density (air=1) 4.55 4.55 4.55

Refractive index (at 20 C) 1.411.44 1.41-1.44 1.411.44

Viscosity (cps, 25 C) 0.741.65 0.741.65 0.741.65

Solubility (% by weight in water)< 0.1 < 0.1 < 0.1

Kauri-butanol value 2933 2933 2933

Aniline point (C) 6075 6075 6075

Reactivity reaction with strong oxidizing agents

Odor threshold (mg/m3) 0.56 4

Use[edit]

White Spirit is a petroleum distillate used as a paint thinner and mild solvent. In industry, mineral
spirits are used for cleaning and degreasing machine tools and parts, and in conjunction with
cutting oil as a thread cutting and reaming lubricant.

Mineral spirits are an inexpensive petroleum-based replacement for the vegetable-based


turpentine. It is commonly used as a paint thinner for oil-based paint and cleaning brushes, and
as an organic solvent in other applications. Mineral turpentine is chemically very different from
turpentine, which mainly consists of pinene, and it has inferior solvent properties.[9][not in
citation given] Artists use mineral spirits as an alternative to turpentine since it is less flammable
and less toxic. Because of interactions with pigments in oil paints, artists require a higher grade
of mineral spirits than many industrial users, including the complete absence of residual sulfur.

Mineral spirits were formerly an active ingredient in the laundry soap Fels Naptha, used to
dissolve oils and grease in laundry stains, and as a popular remedy for eliminating the contagious
oil urushiol in poison ivy. It was removed as a potential health risk.
Mineral spirits have a characteristic unpleasant kerosene-like odor. Chemical manufacturers have
developed a low odor version of mineral turpentine which contains less of the highly volatile
shorter hydrocarbons.[10] Odorless mineral spirits are mineral spirits that have been further
refined to remove the more toxic aromatic compounds, and are recommended for applications
such as oil painting, where humans have close contact with the solvent.

In screen printing (also referred to as silk-screening), mineral spirits are often used to clean and
unclog screens after printing with oil-based textile and plastisol inks. They are also used to thin
inks used in making monoprints.

Mineral spirits are often used inside liquid-filled compasses and gauges.[11]

Mineral spirits are also used for re-gripping golf clubs. After the old grip is removed, the mineral
spirits are poured into the new grip and shaken. After the mineral spirits are poured on, the new
underlying tape and the new grip are slid on. After an hour of drying out, the new grip and club
are ready to use.

Although not normally marketed as a fuel, white spirit can be used as an alternative to kerosene
in portable stoves, since it is merely a light grade of kerosene.[citation needed] It cannot be used
as an alternative to white gas, which is a much more volatile gasoline-like fuel.

White spirits are also a major ingredient in some popular automotive fuel/oil additives, such as
Marvel Mystery Oil, as they are capable of dissolving varnish and sludge buildup.[12]

Mineral spirits are also commonly used for cutting fluid in ultraprecision lathes (commonly
referred to as diamond turning machines).

Toxicity[edit]

White spirit is mainly classed as an irritant. It has a fairly low acute toxicity by inhalation of the
vapour, dermal (touching the skin) and oral routes (ingestion). However, acute exposure can lead
to central nervous system depression resulting in lack of coordination and slowed reactions.
Exposure to very high concentrations in enclosed spaces can lead to general narcotic effects
(drowsiness, dizziness, nausea etc...) and can eventually lead to unconsciousness. Oral ingestion
presents a high aspiration hazard. Prolonged or repeated skin exposure over a long period of
time can result in severe irritant dermatitis, also called contact dermatitis. Exposure to white
spirit in direct contact with the skin for several hours can cause severe chemical burns.[13] It is
recommended that skin exposure be kept to a minimum by use of gloves, and that hands be
washed after contact. Occasional exposure to skin is highly unlikely to cause any problems.
[citation needed][original research?]

Exposure to an average white spirit concentration of 240 mg/m3 (40 ppm) for more than 13
years[clarification needed] could lead to chronic central nervous system effects.[citation needed]
White spirit is implicated in the development of "chronic toxic encephalopathy" among house
painters.[citation needed]

Owing to the volatility and low bioavailability of its constituents, white spirit, although it is
moderately toxic to aquatic organisms, is unlikely to present significant hazards to the
environment. It should not however, be purposely poured down the sink or freshwater drain.

People can be exposed to Stoddard solvent in the workplace by breathing it in, swallowing it,
skin contact, and eye contact. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set
the legal limit (Permissible exposure limit) for Stoddard solvent exposure in the workplace as 500
ppm (2900 mg/m3) over an 8-hour workday. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and
Health (NIOSH) has set a Recommended exposure limit (REL) of 350 mg/m3 over an 8-hour
workday and 1800 mg/m3 over 15 minutes. At levels of 20,000 mg/m3, Stoddard solvent is
immediately dangerous to life and health.[14]