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DR B R AMBEDKAR NATIONAL OF TECHNOLOGY JALANDHAR-144011, INDIA

DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRIAL AND PRODUCTION ENGINEERING


IVTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON PRODUCTION AND INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING, CPIE-2016

ANALYSIS OF CLEARANCE ON LOAD CARRYING CAPACITY AND


COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION IN HYDRODYNAMIC JOURNAL
BEARING USING CFD
Amit Mahajan1, Sarabjeet S. Sidhu2, R.K Awasthi3 , Sandeep Devgan4, Harpuneet Singh5,
Jasjeevan Singh6
1,4
Research Scholar, IKGPTU, Kapurthala, Punjab, India
1,4,5,6
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Khalsa College of Engineering &
Technology, Amritsar-143001, Punjab, India
2,3
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Beant College of Engineering &Technology,
Gurdaspur-143521, Punjab, India

ABSTRACT
Bearing clearance plays a vital role in enhancing the performance of fluid film journal bearing. A
variation of few microns in radial clearance may cause a serious effect on the bearing life. The
different bearing performance parameters viz. load carrying capacity; fluid film thickness,
pressure distribution, coefficient of friction; Sommerfeld number and fluid flow rate are mainly
influenced by modifying the clearance between journal and bearing. The present work
investigates the combined effect of relative clearance with the variation in L/D ratio and
parameter speed of journal on the two leading non-dimensional performance parameters-the load
carrying capacity and the coefficient of friction of fluid film journal bearing. By using finite
difference based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method, the two- dimensional Reynolds
equation is solved under steady state condition. ADI technique incorporated with FORTRAN 90
computer code is utilized in the present study for scrutinizing the effect of relative clearance on
these performance parameters. The results indicate that the load carrying capacity of the fluid
film increases and the coefficient of friction decreases with the reduction in clearance, which
requires the optimal value of clearance ratio for better performance.

NOMENCLATURE
ADI: Alternating direction implicit cr: Relative radial clearance (c/co)
JFO : Jakobsson Floberg and Olsson
cr: Clearance ratio
LCC : Load carrying capacity( W )
COF : Coefficient of friction (f) kg
CFD: Computational fluid dynamics : Density of lubricant, ( )
m3
: Eccentricity ratio, (e/c)
N
e: Eccentricity p : Fluid film pressure,
m2
U : Mean surface velocity
N
pc : Cavitation pressure,
: Attitude angle, (radians) m2

c: Radial clearance : speed parameter

co: Original radial clearance h : Film thickness, m


DR B R AMBEDKAR NATIONAL OF TECHNOLOGY JALANDHAR-144011, INDIA
DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRIAL AND PRODUCTION ENGINEERING
IVTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON PRODUCTION AND INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING, CPIE-2016

g : Switch function (cavitation index) h


h :
co
N 2
: Dynamic viscosity, m
s i : Index for axial direction
L j : Index for circumferential direction
: Aspect ratio
D
x : Circumferential coordinate (direction)
Fx : Horizontal force component, N
z : Axial coordinate (direction)
Fy : Vertical force component, N zj
zj :
co
: Bulk modulus

xj
xj :
co

1. INTRODUCTION
In hydrodynamic bearing, the fluid film separates the journal and bearing and thus permits a
relative motion between the contacts surfaces with nominal friction. This fluid film carries away
the generated heat and also reduces the wear of machine elements (Tiwari and Kumar,2012).
Clearance [ c R r ] between the journal and bearing shells is the most important factors when
it comes to the health and durability of assembly because that open area is filled with oil which
provides a cushion between the journal itself and the bearing (Bhandari,2010). Diminutive
variations in the clearance may cause serious changes in different performance parameters of the
bearing (Chu and Kay, 1974). The oil keeps the journals and the bearings separated when all the
elements in hydrodynamic journal bearing assembly are operated at optimum clearance. But a
problem arises when there is change in the gap between journal and bearing. Thus, the control of
this parameter is necessary for achieving high performance. This important parameter can be
managed at three stages of bearing life cycle viz. designing, manufacturing, and usage (Sharma
et al. 2009). Figure1 shows the geometry of fluid film journal bearing.
Figure 1.Geometry of Journal Bearing

2. BACKGROUND AND REVIEW


DR B R AMBEDKAR NATIONAL OF TECHNOLOGY JALANDHAR-144011, INDIA
DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRIAL AND PRODUCTION ENGINEERING
IVTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON PRODUCTION AND INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING, CPIE-2016

Ocvfik et al.(1958) scrutinized the effect of bearing-clearance on the friction power loss, the film
thickness, and the peak pressure in the oil film. They reported that the load capacity passes
through a maximum value at a small bearing clearance and then decreases with increasing
bearing clearance. Mitsui (1986) concluded that with the decreases of clearance ratio, there is an
increment in the maximum bearing temperature, speed and lubricant viscosity.Prasad (1988)
presented the effects of viscosity and clearance on the performance of hydrodynamic Journal
Bearings. The higher clearance leads to an increase in the axial flow rate particularly under high
applied loads and high rotational speeds (Pierre et al. (2000)). El-Kersh et al. (2001) analyzed the
effect of thermal expansion on three polymer composite journal bearings at different rotational
speeds and clearance ratio. They found that, the increase of bearing clearance ratio leads to
increase the friction coefficient and minimum oil film thickness and at the same time reduces the
maximum bearing temperature and load carrying capacity. Similar observations were made by
Abass et al. (2007). They scrutinized the counter rotating floating ring journal under different
working conditions. Their investigation revealed that by decreasing the radii ratio (R 2/R1) of the
ring and clearance ratio (c1/c2), the coefficient of friction decreases at the same time, with this the
load carrying capacity of the bearing increases. Gangrade and phalli (2016) found that the
performance of hydrodynamic journal bearing is mainly affected by clearance ratio, aspect ratio
and speed.

3. OUTCOME OF LITERATURE REVIEW


The above literature presented highlights a great deal of research dealing with the influence of
clearance ratio on bearing performance with different configuration. The study shows a limited
research on of fluid film bearing having a most accurate model. Thus, thorough study dealing
with JFO based cavitation model for studying the clearance effect on bearing performance
parameters has been selected in the current work, so as to fill the gap in the existing literature.

4. OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH
The main objective of the current work is to make a theoretical study of the effect of relative
clearance on the load carrying capacity and coefficient of friction for different bearing
configurations with journal rotating at different angular speeds. For this purpose, ADI technique
and computer code developed in Fortran 90 using salford compileris used.

5. METHODOLOGY
Using the conservation of global mass in a fluid-film and incorporating Elrod algorithm, an
expression for conservation of mass in journal bearings is given by (Vaidyanathan and Keith Jr,
1989)

h m X m Z 0 [1]

t x z
Equation [1] represents the mass conservation equation: the first term on the left is the squeeze
term, while the second and the third term are the net mass flow rate in the x direction (i.e., the
flow direction) and in the z -direction (i.e., the axial direction) respectively. Where the mass flux

( m x ) is composed of a shear flow term (coquette flow) and pressure induced term (Poiseulle

flow) and ( m z ) composed of only pressure induced term,
DR B R AMBEDKAR NATIONAL OF TECHNOLOGY JALANDHAR-144011, INDIA
DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRIAL AND PRODUCTION ENGINEERING
IVTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON PRODUCTION AND INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING, CPIE-2016

On rearranging the above equation will be

h 3 P h 3 P h U ( h)
[2]
x 12 x z 12 z t 2 x

Incorporating elrod algorithm, a single expression for conservation of mass in journal bearings is
given by(Vaidyanathan and Keith Jr, (1989)):

c gh 3 c gh 3 U ch

x 12 x z 12 z 2 x
[3]

After applying finite difference method and utilizing alternating direction implicit (ADI)
technique, the resulting expression is:

Fi , j in11,j Di , j in, j 1 Ei , j in1, 1j Ai , j in, j 11/ 2 Bi , j in, j 11/ 2 Ci , j


[4]

Where, , = ( , +1 + , )3 g , +1 , , = , 1 1 g , 1 +
3
( , + , 1 ) g , 1

3 3
, = , g +1, , , = , g 1,

3 3
, = , + , g , + , 1 g , + (
, +

, 1 )3 g , (
, +
,+1 )3g,
g g g g
g , 1 + , 2, 1
3 , , +1
, = , 1 , , 1
, g , +

, +1
2
, + [ , + , 3 g, g,1 + , + ,+1 )3 g,
g,+1 , 3g+1, 2 g, + g1,

The minimum film thickness ( h ) for equilibrium conditions (i.e. journal centre equilibrium
position) can be obtained by Equation [7] (Dubois and Ocvfik (1953)),

h c X j cos Z j sin
[5]

h c Xj Zj
cos( ) sin( )
co co co co [6]

h crel X j cos Z j sin [7]


Where and g is a switch function,
c

g = 1 For full-film region, g = 0 For cavitated region


DR B R AMBEDKAR NATIONAL OF TECHNOLOGY JALANDHAR-144011, INDIA
DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRIAL AND PRODUCTION ENGINEERING
IVTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON PRODUCTION AND INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING, CPIE-2016

The load that the bearing will support at particular film geometry is given by [15]
l b
W p dx dz [8]
0 0

The obtained load formula is expressed in terms of bearing geometry, lubricant viscosity and
speed, hence the bearing operating and design parameters can be optimized to give the best
performance.

The fluid-film reaction components along the line of centers ( Fx ) and perpendicular to the line of
centers ( Fy ) where obtained by using Simpsons numerical integration hence applied to [15]:

1 2
Fx = 2 0 0
sin() [9]

1 2
Fy = 2 0 0
cos() [10]

The resultant fluid-film reaction is expressed as:


W Fx
2
Fy2 [11]

The coefficient of friction is calculated from the load and friction forces:

0 0

f= = [12]

0 0

6. VALIDATION OF CODE
The mathematical model using FDM is generated for the present study and the solution for this
model is developed by using Fortran 90. In order to validate the accuracy of the developed code,
the simulated results are compared with the published results. The computational grid selected
for this purpose is 72 x 10 (with 73 nodes in circumferential direction and 11 nodes in axial
direction). This computational grid is selected as a compromise between accuracy and
computational time.
Figure 2. Comparison of results (Horizontal scale is logarithmic)
DR B R AMBEDKAR NATIONAL OF TECHNOLOGY JALANDHAR-144011, INDIA
DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRIAL AND PRODUCTION ENGINEERING
IVTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON PRODUCTION AND INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING, CPIE-2016

For validation of code, results for Sommerfeld number versus eccentricity ratio are compared
with already published results of Vaidyanathan, K. and Keith Jr, T.G. (1989). It is clear from
Figure.2 and Table1 that the data of published work and present work are nearly equal, which
shows the accuracy of the code. Once the code is validated, the simulated results we obtain from
computer code could be used for understanding the fluid film bearing system. The bearing
system considered in the present work is rigid. The code developed does not account for any
deformation of the bearing occurs owing to the hydrodynamic pressure of fluid film. Also, the
code does not account for the effect of viscosity variation which may occur due to viscous
friction resulting the heat generation.

Table 1. Comparison of results for validation of code


Eccentricity ratio Sommerfeld Number Sommerfeld Number
Present work Published work
0.5 0.28 0.18

0.6 0.16 0.12

0.7 0.09 0.07

0.8 0.04 0.04

0.9 0.02 0.018

7. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


The input parameters used in the current study is described in Table 2. The range of the
parameters selected are most common, and as per the published work. The influence of relative
clearance at fixed bulk modulus and eccentricity ratio on the load carrying capacity and
coefficient of friction of fluid-film journal bearing in terms of dimensionless values have been
described.
Table 2. Input Parameters used in the current study

1. Aspect Ratio ( ) 0.6,1.0,1.4
Geometrical Parameters
2. Relative Clearance (crel) 0.6-1.5

1. Bulk Modulus () 1.0


Eccentricity Ratio ( )
Operating parameters
2. 0.5
1,3,5
3. Speed parameter ()
72
Grid size 1. No. of elements in circumferential direction
2. No. of elements in axial direction
10

7.1Effect on Load Carrying Capacity ( W )

7.1.1. For Different Aspect Ratio


Figure 3 shows that as the relative clearance increases there is decrease in the value of load
carrying capacity (LCC). The film thickness increases with the increase of relative clearance,
which causes pressure to drop and simultaneously load carrying capacity is also dropped. As l/d
increases from 1 to 1.4, the value of LCC started deceasing from the larger value than the finite
DR B R AMBEDKAR NATIONAL OF TECHNOLOGY JALANDHAR-144011, INDIA
DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRIAL AND PRODUCTION ENGINEERING
IVTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON PRODUCTION AND INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING, CPIE-2016

bearing. The LCC passes through a maximum at a small bearing clearance and then decreases
with increasing bearing clearance, the effect diminishing with decreasing length-diameter ratio,
so that very short bearings are less sensitive to increasing bearing clearance. It concludes that the
LCC increases with the reduction of radial clearance. The percentage variation in load carrying
capacity at different l/d ratio is shown in table 3.

Figure 3. Load carrying capacity versus Relative Clearance for different bearing configurations
=0.5,=1
l/d=0.6 l/d=1.0 l/d=1.4

100
80
60
LCC

40
20
0
0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
Relative Clearance (Crel)

Table 3. Percentage variation in load carrying capacity ( W ) at different l/d ratio


Length to Relative Relative Relative Percentage variation(%age) Percentage variation(%age)
diameter Clearance Clearance Clearance
ratio (l/d) (crel) 0.6 (crel) 1.0 (crel) 1.4 W 0 .6 W 1 W 1 W 1 .4
x100 x 100
W1 W1
0.6 18.16 0.647 0.142 96 78
1.0 46.966 2.203 0.504 95 77
1.4 80.107 4.516 1.068 94 76
7.1.2. For Different journal speed
Figure 4 shows the variation of LCC with relative clearance at different parameter speeds for a
finite bearing (l/d = 1). It was already established that LCC has inverse relation with relative
clearance for all types of bearing configurations. Similar trend is also seen in this section for a
finite bearing case for different values of parameter speed of journal. Table 4 represents the
percentage variation in load carrying capacity at different journal speed ().

Figure 4. Load carrying capacity versus Relative Clearance at various values of parameter speed
=0.5,=1, l/d=1
parameter speed() =1 parameter speed()=3 parameter speed()=5

250
200
LCC

150
100
50
0
0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
RelativeClearance(crel)
DR B R AMBEDKAR NATIONAL OF TECHNOLOGY JALANDHAR-144011, INDIA
DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRIAL AND PRODUCTION ENGINEERING
IVTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON PRODUCTION AND INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING, CPIE-2016

Table 4.Percentage variation in load carrying capacity ( W ) at different journal speed ()


Journal speed Relative Relative Relative Percentage variation(%age) Percentage variation(%age)
() Clearance Clearance Clearance
(crel) 0.6 (crel) 1.0 (crel) 1.4 W 0 .6 W 1 W 1 W 1 .4
x100 x 100
W1 W1
1 46.966 2.203 0.504 95 77
3 140.897 6.609 1.214 95 81
5 234.83 11.016 2.524 95 77

7.2. Effect on coefficient of friction


7.2.1. For Different Aspect Ratio

Figure 5. Coefficient of Friction versus relative clearance for different bearing configurations

=0.5,=1
l/d=0.6 l/d=1.0 l/d=1.4
Coefficient of Friction

50
40
30
20
10
0
0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
Relative Clearance(crel)

Figure 5 and Table 5 illustrates that if relative clearance increases then coefficient of friction is
also increases. It is an indicator of friction force (power loss) relative to LCC. The lower values
indicate the appropriate suitable zone from the view point of power loss.
Table 5. Percentage variation Coefficient of Friction in at different l/d ratio
Length to Relative Relative Relative Percentage variation(%age) Percentage variation(%age)
diameter ratio Clearance Clearance Clearance
(l/d) (crel) (crel) (crel) f 1.0 f 0.6 f 1.4 f 1.0
0.6 1.0 1.4 x100 x 100
f 1.0 f 1.4
0.6 1.281 12.56 37.53 88 66
1.0 0.875 6.232 17.75 85 65
1.4 0.75 4.31 11.793 82 63

7.2.2. For Different Journal Speed


Figure 6 represents that journal speed does not produce any effect on coefficient of friction. It
remains the same for all speed whether it is 1, 3 or 5. The fluid film thickness between bearing
DR B R AMBEDKAR NATIONAL OF TECHNOLOGY JALANDHAR-144011, INDIA
DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRIAL AND PRODUCTION ENGINEERING
IVTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON PRODUCTION AND INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING, CPIE-2016

and shaft remains constant for all speeds. Therefore, the power loss by journal bearing is not
affected by speed. It remains constant for all speed variation.

Figure 6. Coefficient of friction versus relative clearance at various values of parameter speed
=0.5, =1, l/d=1
Coefficient of Friction

parameter speed() =1 parameter speed()=3 parameter speed()=5

25
20
15
10
5
0
0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
Relative Clearance(crel)

8. CONCLUSIONS
In hydrodynamic journal bearing, change of relative clearance produces an intensive effect on
different performance parameters. Load carrying capacity and coefficient of friction are
significant performance parameters in hydrodynamic journal bearing. Effect of relative clearance
on these performance parameters with the variation in aspect ratio and parameter speed of
journal are scrutinized in this study.
1. The fluid film load carrying capacity rises with the increase of aspect ratio and journal
speed parameter but it decreases with the increase of clearance.
2. The coefficient of friction increases with the increase of relative clearance. But its value
goes down with the increases in aspect ratio.
3. At all speeds of the journal, the coefficient of friction (power loss) in journal bearing
remains constant.
4. It is understood from this study that the performance of bearing parametersfluctuates at
different bearing clearances. But this study could not explain a single value of clearance
on which the bearing performs efficiently. So this study can be extended to find the
optimum value of clearance at which bearing performance parameters works
appropriately.

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DR B R AMBEDKAR NATIONAL OF TECHNOLOGY JALANDHAR-144011, INDIA
DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRIAL AND PRODUCTION ENGINEERING
IVTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON PRODUCTION AND INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING, CPIE-2016

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