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Network with the Integration of Distribution

Generator using Matlab

DOI: 10.17485/ijst/2016/v9i12/89947

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ISSN (Print) : 0974-6846

TS please include this in the header Vol 9(12), DOI: 10.17485/ijst/2016/v9i12/89947, March 2016 ISSN (Online) : 0974-5645

Network with the Integration of Distribution

Generator using Matlab

T. D. Sudhakar1*, M. Raja Rajan2, K. N. Srinivas3, R. Raja Prabu3, T.V. Narmadha1

and M. Mohana Krishnan4

1

Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, St. Josephs College of Engineering, Chennai 600119,

Tamil Nadu, India;

t.d.sudhakar@gmail.com, nar_velu@yahoo.co.in

2

Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Jerusalem College of Engineering Chennai 600100,

Tamil Nadu, India;

rajaderaja24@gmail.com

3

Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, BS Abdur Rahman University, Chennai 600048, Tamil Nadu, India;

knsrinivas@gmail.com, dean.academicresearch@bsauniv.ac.in

4

Department of Power Electronics and Drives, SSN College of Engineering Chennai 603110, Tamil Nadu, India;

mohana2621994@gmail.com

Abstract

Background: Due to increasing power demand across the country, the usage of renewable systems is being increased. One

such efficient and compactly available renewable energy is solar power. In this paper, a clear view of harnessing maximum

DC solar power output and converting it to AC is discussed. Methods: A method of grid interconnection of solar powered

inverter is presented with IEEE-15 bus system as an example model using Matlab simulation. Findings: A detailed analysis

of bus voltage, load current and line current is made with the simulated model. Applications/Improvements: The data

obtained could be used for fine optimization of the position in which the distribution generator interconnection is to be made.

with the grid, then Phase Locked Loop (PLL) 5 control has

Solar power is the most abundant and easily available to be employed to generate iring pulse to inverter. PLL

power based on the present global warming conditions1. ensures synchronization of inverter and grid.

Harvesting solar power seems to be simple but it also has In this paper, solar panel is mathematically modeled

a major disadvantage of varying power output with varia- using simulink of matlab and a DC-DC buck converter is

tion of irradiance and temperature2. In order to overcome used to employ MPPT. hen a normal three phase inverter

this variation in power output, Maximum Power Point is used to convert DC to AC. he iring pulse to inverter

Tracking (MPPT) is been employed wherever solar panels is given based on the PLL synchronization control. In

are used3. he DC power is then converted to AC power order to interconnect the inverter output to the grid, the

using inverter circuit. Distributed generators connected AC voltage is stepped up to 11KV, which is the standard

to grid have become very popular due to its high reliable primary distribution voltage. hen, IEEE-15 bus system

Modeling and Simulation of Distribution Network with the Integration of Distribution Generator using Matlab

is modeled using Simulink of Matlab. With this IEEE-15 Table 1. Electrical characteristic data of the MSX-60

bus system6, the solar inverter with PLL is interconnected solar module

as a Distribution Generator (DG). he DG is connected Parameter Value

on various buses of IEEE-15 and the nodal voltage, line Open circuit voltage (Voc) 21.1 V

current, load current are measured. It is observed that

Short circuit current (Isc) 3.8 A

the voltage proile improves when DG is connected and it

Number of series cell (Ns) 20

varies with the bus in which it is connected. A thorough

Number of parallel cell (Np) 1

comparison of bus voltage, load current and line current

is made. Module open circuit voltage 422 V

Module short circuit current 3.8 A

Maximum power (PMPP) 1137 W

2. Solar Inverter with Phase

Locked Loop

So, 20 such panels are added in series to form a module

he solar module is mathematically modeled using whose characteristic is given in Table 1.

equations and is made to deliver maximum power he solar panel model designed using simulink of

using Perturb and Observe (P and O) algorithm7. his matlab is shown in Figure 2.

is then converted into 3 phase AC using inverter with A buck converter is used to employ MPPT. In order

Synchronous Reference Frame (SRF)8 based PLL. A DC to reduce the simulation time, the buck converter is mod-

link capacitor is used in between solar DC supply and eled as average VSC model as shown in Figure 3. his

inverter to ensure ripple free input current from solar average VSC model not only reduces the simulation time

panel. Without the DC link capacitor the solar panel but also reduces the output ripple content which makes

produces a ripple current which may reduce the total life the analysis easier. A scaling factor is used in order to con-

span of the module. he output of inverter is then con- vert the duty cycle from MPPT block to voltage reference

nected with ilters to reduce the harmonics and then to to the average model VSC buck converter.

transformer to step up the voltage for interconnecting to Perturb and Observe (P and O) algorithm7 is used

the grid which is shown in Figure 1. to produce duty cycle for buck converter to track the

Maximum Power Point (MPP). P and O algorithm is

2.1 Solar Module with MPPT one of the hill climbing techniques of MPPT. It is not

Any solar panel has important parameters such as open only the easiest and simplest to implement but also pro-

circuit voltage (Voc) and short circuit current (Isc), which vides higher eiciency in tracking MPP than any other

decides the power output of the panel. In our model we algorithms. Figure 4 shows the implementation of P

use a solar panel named Solarex_MSX_609 which has a

maximum power output of approximately 60W with16V.

But a higher voltage is needed for grid interconnection.

synchronization control. Figure 2. Simulation model of solar panel.

2 Vol 9 (12) | March 2016 | www.indjst.org Indian Journal of Science and Technology

T. D. Sudhakar, M. Raja Rajan, K. N. Srinivas, R. Raja Prabu, T.V. Narmadha and M. Mohana Krishnan

Figure 3. Average model of buck converter.

inverter voltage and the voltage error is found. his

voltage error is converted into current reference using a

PI controller. hen current reference and inverter cur-

rent is compared to ind the current error which is fed

to the VSC based inverter. As a whole it has an outer

voltage control loop with inner current control10 as

shown in Figure 4.

In order to reduce the diiculty in calculation, the 3

Figure 4. Simulink block of MPPT algorithm. phase rotating variables are converted to DC using parks

transformation11. his technique aids in robust calcula-

tion of grid frequency and also improves the dynamic

and O using user deined function block of Simulink. response. he equations used for SRF based PLL are given

P and O algorithm requires instantaneous solar module from equations 1-4.

voltage and current as input and it provides duty cycle Verr= Vd(ref) Vd(inv) (1)

as output.

Id(ref) = P+ I Ts Verr (2)

2.2 Solar Inverter and Synchronization z-1

Control Id(err) =Id(ref) Id(inv) (3)

Now, the DC power output from the buck converter is

Iq(err) = Iq(ref) Iq(inv) (4)

fed to 3 phase inverter via a DC link capacitor as shown

in [Figure 1]. he inverter is also modeled using VSC in In equations 1-4,Vd(ref) is the direct axis reference voltage,

order to reduce the simulation time and harmonics in Vd(inv) is the direct axis output voltage of inverter, Verr is the

the output. he input to synchronization control block direct axis voltage error component, P is the proportional

is inverter output voltage, inverter output current, grid constant of PI controller, I is the integral constant of PI

output voltage and reference voltage. he output from the controller, Ts is the sampling time, Id(ref) is the direct axis

synchronization control block is 3 phase reference voltage current reference, Id(inv) is the direct axis output current of

which could be directly used by the average VSC modeled inverter, Id(err) is the direct axis current error, Iq(ref) is the

inverter as iring pulse. quadrature axis current reference, Iq(inv) is the quadrature

he SRF PLL is one of the robust and eicient meth- axis output current of inverter, Iq(err) is the quadrature axis

ods of tracking the voltage and frequency output of current error.

Vol 9 (12) | March 2016 | www.indjst.org Indian Journal of Science and Technology 3

Modeling and Simulation of Distribution Network with the Integration of Distribution Generator using Matlab

IEEE-15 bus system12 is a standard distribution network

with line data and load data given in Table 2. he load

data is given with respect to the receiving bus (i.e., To

bus).From Table 2, it is clear that the IEEE-15 bus system

has a total load of 1126.5 KW and 1251.182 KVAR.

without Distribution Generator

First, the IEEE-15 bus system is simulated without any

Figure 6. Current waveforms of solar inverter ater additional DG as shown in Figure 7.

synchronization. he peak values of bus voltages, line current and load

current of IEEE-15 bus system without any DG are given

Inductive ilter is used ater the inverter to reduce in Table 3 and Table 4.

the harmonic content in its output. hen, a 400V/11KV he voltage, load current and line current values

step-up transformer is used to interconnect the solar shown in Table 3 and Table 4 is plotted as a single proile

inverter with the 11KV grid. he solar inverter along with in Figure 7, Figure 8 and Figure 9 respectively.

the transformer is to be called as Distribution Generator

(DG) in the further sections. 3.2 Simulation of IEEE-15 Bus System with

Figure 6 shows the DG, grid and load current wave- Solar Inverter as Distribution Generator

forms ater transformer connection. Due to transformer he solar based inverter with PLL control designed in

action, the output voltage of DG rises to 11KV but the previous section is now integrated with IEEE-15 bus sys-

output current reduces to 0.1073 A as shown in Figure 6. tem as shown in Figure 11.

Bus No. Line data Load data

Resistance Inductance

From To Active Power (KW) Reactive power (KVAR)

(Ohms) (Henry)

1 2 1.35309 1.32349 44.1 44.99

2 3 1.17024 1.14464 70.1 71.44

3 4 0.84111 0.82271 40 142.82

4 5 1.52348 1.0276 44.1 44.99

2 9 2.01317 1.3279 70 71.44

9 10 1.68671 1.1377 44.1 44.99

2 6 2.55727 1.7249 140 142.82

6 7 1.0882 0.734 140 142.82

6 8 1.25143 0.8441 70 71.414

3 11 1.79553 1.2111 140 142.82

11 12 2.44845 1.6515 70 71.414

12 13 2.01317 1.3579 44.1 44.99

4 14 2.23081 1.5047 70 71.414

4 15 1.9702 0.8074 140 142.82

4 Vol 9 (12) | March 2016 | www.indjst.org Indian Journal of Science and Technology

T. D. Sudhakar, M. Raja Rajan, K. N. Srinivas, R. Raja Prabu, T.V. Narmadha and M. Mohana Krishnan

system

Bus No. Peak Line

From To Current (A)

1 2 166.9521

2 3 96.9492

3 4 53.1853

4 5 5.9561

2 9 15.9202

9 10 6.1454

2 6 47.8854

6 7 19.1147

6 8 9.5748

3 11 34.1887

Figure 7. Simulation of IEEE-15 bus system without

distribution generator. 11 12 15.2785

12 13 5.8962

4 14 9.4308

Table 3. Peak values of bus voltages and load current 4 15 18.8551

of IEEE-15 bus system

Peak bus Peak load

Bus No.

Voltage (V) current (A)

1 0.98704 0

2 0.93730 6.1976

3 0.91232 9.5753

4 0.90247 18.9433

5 0.90078 5.9561

6 0.91450 19.1959

7 0.91063 19.1147

8 0.91227 9.5748

9 0.93133 9.7749 Figure 8. Voltage proile of IEEE-15 bus system without

10 0.92941 6.1454

DG.

11 0.90089 18.9102

12 0.89393 9.3823

13 0.89172 5.8962

14 0.89855 9.4308

15 0.89827 18.8551

are connected so as to provide approximately 600KW

power. he voltage, load current and line current proile

of IEEE-15 bus system with DG interconnected at vari-

ous buses is shown in Figure 12, Figure 13 and Figure 14 Figure 9. Load current proile of IEEE-15 bus system

respectively. without DG.

Vol 9 (12) | March 2016 | www.indjst.org Indian Journal of Science and Technology 5

Modeling and Simulation of Distribution Network with the Integration of Distribution Generator using Matlab

without DG.

Figure 13. Load current proile analysis of IEEE-15 bus

system with DG.

distribution generator.

Figure 14. Line current proile analysis of IEEE-15 bus

system with DG.

network parameters such as bus voltages, load current

and line current have been found out and plotted for vari-

ous position of DG.

5. References

1. Ishaq M, Ibrahim UH, Abubakar H. Design of an of Grid

Photovoltaic System: A case study of government techni-

cal college, Wudil Kano State. International Journal of

Figure 12. Voltage proile analysis of IEEE-15 bus system Scientiic and Technology Research. 2013; 2(12):17581.

with DG. 2. Zaki AM, Amer SI, Mostafa M. Maximum power point

tracking for PV system using advanced neural networks

4. Conclusion technique. International Journal of Emerging Technology

and Advanced Engineering. 2012; 2(12):5863.

A step by step procedure of integrating solar power with 3. Zainudin HN, Mekhilef S. Comparison study of maxi-

grid is clearly presented in this paper. Along with this a mum power point tracker techniques for PV systems.

standard distribution network is modeled and the solar Proceedings of the 14th International Middle East Power

6 Vol 9 (12) | March 2016 | www.indjst.org Indian Journal of Science and Technology

T. D. Sudhakar, M. Raja Rajan, K. N. Srinivas, R. Raja Prabu, T.V. Narmadha and M. Mohana Krishnan

Systems Conference (MEPCON10). Cairo University, 8. Guo XQ, Wu WY, Gu HR. Phase locked loop and synchro-

Egypt. 2010. p.75055. nization methods for grid-interfaced converters: A review.

4. Siva KP, Arutchelvi M, Soundarapandian R. Improved con- PrzegladElektrotechniczny (Electrical Review). 2011.

trol strategy for grid connected scheme based on PV array p.1827.

and wind-driven induction generators. Indian Journal of 9. Belhaouas N, AitCheikh MS, Malek A, Larbes C. Matlab-

Science and Technology. 2014; 7(S7):16573. Simulink of photovoltaic system based on a two-diode

5. Nandurkar MSR, Rajeev M. Design and simulation of model simulator with shaded solar cells. Revuedes Energies

three phase inverter for grid connected photovoltaic sys- Renouvelables. 2013; 16(1):6573.

tems. Proceedings of hird Biennial National Conference, 10. Bobrowska-Rafal M, Rafal K, Jasinski M, Kazmierkowski MP.

NCNTE-2012. 2012. p.803. Grid synchronization and symmetrical components extrac-

6. Amanifar O. Optimal distributed generation placement tion with PLL algorithm for grid connected power electronic

and sizing for loss and THD reduction and voltage proile convertersA review. Bulletin of the Polish Academy of

improvement in distribution systems using particle swarm Sciences, Technical Sciences. 2011; 59(4):48597.

optimization and sensitivity analysis. 2011 16th Conference 11. Krause PC, Wasynczuk O, Sudhof SD. Analysis of elec-

on Electrical Power Distribution Networks (EPDC), Bandar tric machinery and drive systems. IEEE Series on Power

Abbas. 2011. p.1. Engineering. John Wiley Sons Inc: New Jersey; 2013.

7. Pradeep KYA, hirumaliah S, Haritha G. Comparison 12. Amaresh K, Shankar V. Modelling of Photovoltaic

of MPPT Algorithms for DC-DC Converters based PV System Interconnected with Radial Distribution System

Systems. International Journal of Advanced Research in using MATLAB/SIMULINK. International Journal of

Electrical, Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering. Engineering and Innovative technology (IJEIT). 2013;

2012; 1(1):1823. 3(3):2517.

Vol 9 (12) | March 2016 | www.indjst.org Indian Journal of Science and Technology 7

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