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Modeling and Simulation of Distribution

Network with the Integration of Distribution
Generator using Matlab

Article in Indian Journal of Science and Technology March 2016

DOI: 10.17485/ijst/2016/v9i12/89947


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Sudhakar T D Raja Prabu Ramachandran

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ISSN (Print) : 0974-6846
TS please include this in the header Vol 9(12), DOI: 10.17485/ijst/2016/v9i12/89947, March 2016 ISSN (Online) : 0974-5645

Modeling and Simulation of Distribution

Network with the Integration of Distribution
Generator using Matlab
T. D. Sudhakar1*, M. Raja Rajan2, K. N. Srinivas3, R. Raja Prabu3, T.V. Narmadha1
and M. Mohana Krishnan4
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, St. Josephs College of Engineering, Chennai 600119,
Tamil Nadu, India;,
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Jerusalem College of Engineering Chennai 600100,
Tamil Nadu, India;
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, BS Abdur Rahman University, Chennai 600048, Tamil Nadu, India;,
Department of Power Electronics and Drives, SSN College of Engineering Chennai 603110, Tamil Nadu, India;

Background: Due to increasing power demand across the country, the usage of renewable systems is being increased. One
such efficient and compactly available renewable energy is solar power. In this paper, a clear view of harnessing maximum
DC solar power output and converting it to AC is discussed. Methods: A method of grid interconnection of solar powered
inverter is presented with IEEE-15 bus system as an example model using Matlab simulation. Findings: A detailed analysis
of bus voltage, load current and line current is made with the simulated model. Applications/Improvements: The data
obtained could be used for fine optimization of the position in which the distribution generator interconnection is to be made.

Keywords: IEEE-15, Grid Interconnection, Solar Power

1. Introduction nature4. If the AC power output is to be interconnected

with the grid, then Phase Locked Loop (PLL) 5 control has
Solar power is the most abundant and easily available to be employed to generate iring pulse to inverter. PLL
power based on the present global warming conditions1. ensures synchronization of inverter and grid.
Harvesting solar power seems to be simple but it also has In this paper, solar panel is mathematically modeled
a major disadvantage of varying power output with varia- using simulink of matlab and a DC-DC buck converter is
tion of irradiance and temperature2. In order to overcome used to employ MPPT. hen a normal three phase inverter
this variation in power output, Maximum Power Point is used to convert DC to AC. he iring pulse to inverter
Tracking (MPPT) is been employed wherever solar panels is given based on the PLL synchronization control. In
are used3. he DC power is then converted to AC power order to interconnect the inverter output to the grid, the
using inverter circuit. Distributed generators connected AC voltage is stepped up to 11KV, which is the standard
to grid have become very popular due to its high reliable primary distribution voltage. hen, IEEE-15 bus system

*Author for correspondence

Modeling and Simulation of Distribution Network with the Integration of Distribution Generator using Matlab

is modeled using Simulink of Matlab. With this IEEE-15 Table 1. Electrical characteristic data of the MSX-60
bus system6, the solar inverter with PLL is interconnected solar module
as a Distribution Generator (DG). he DG is connected Parameter Value
on various buses of IEEE-15 and the nodal voltage, line Open circuit voltage (Voc) 21.1 V
current, load current are measured. It is observed that
Short circuit current (Isc) 3.8 A
the voltage proile improves when DG is connected and it
Number of series cell (Ns) 20
varies with the bus in which it is connected. A thorough
Number of parallel cell (Np) 1
comparison of bus voltage, load current and line current
is made. Module open circuit voltage 422 V
Module short circuit current 3.8 A
Maximum power (PMPP) 1137 W
2. Solar Inverter with Phase
Locked Loop
So, 20 such panels are added in series to form a module
he solar module is mathematically modeled using whose characteristic is given in Table 1.
equations and is made to deliver maximum power he solar panel model designed using simulink of
using Perturb and Observe (P and O) algorithm7. his matlab is shown in Figure 2.
is then converted into 3 phase AC using inverter with A buck converter is used to employ MPPT. In order
Synchronous Reference Frame (SRF)8 based PLL. A DC to reduce the simulation time, the buck converter is mod-
link capacitor is used in between solar DC supply and eled as average VSC model as shown in Figure 3. his
inverter to ensure ripple free input current from solar average VSC model not only reduces the simulation time
panel. Without the DC link capacitor the solar panel but also reduces the output ripple content which makes
produces a ripple current which may reduce the total life the analysis easier. A scaling factor is used in order to con-
span of the module. he output of inverter is then con- vert the duty cycle from MPPT block to voltage reference
nected with ilters to reduce the harmonics and then to to the average model VSC buck converter.
transformer to step up the voltage for interconnecting to Perturb and Observe (P and O) algorithm7 is used
the grid which is shown in Figure 1. to produce duty cycle for buck converter to track the
Maximum Power Point (MPP). P and O algorithm is
2.1 Solar Module with MPPT one of the hill climbing techniques of MPPT. It is not
Any solar panel has important parameters such as open only the easiest and simplest to implement but also pro-
circuit voltage (Voc) and short circuit current (Isc), which vides higher eiciency in tracking MPP than any other
decides the power output of the panel. In our model we algorithms. Figure 4 shows the implementation of P
use a solar panel named Solarex_MSX_609 which has a
maximum power output of approximately 60W with16V.
But a higher voltage is needed for grid interconnection.

Figure 1. Solar powered inverter with PLL based

synchronization control. Figure 2. Simulation model of solar panel.

2 Vol 9 (12) | March 2016 | Indian Journal of Science and Technology
T. D. Sudhakar, M. Raja Rajan, K. N. Srinivas, R. Raja Prabu, T.V. Narmadha and M. Mohana Krishnan

Figure 5. SRF based Phase locked loop.

Figure 3. Average model of buck converter.

the grid8. he reference voltage is compared with the

inverter voltage and the voltage error is found. his
voltage error is converted into current reference using a
PI controller. hen current reference and inverter cur-
rent is compared to ind the current error which is fed
to the VSC based inverter. As a whole it has an outer
voltage control loop with inner current control10 as
shown in Figure 4.
In order to reduce the diiculty in calculation, the 3
Figure 4. Simulink block of MPPT algorithm. phase rotating variables are converted to DC using parks
transformation11. his technique aids in robust calcula-
tion of grid frequency and also improves the dynamic
and O using user deined function block of Simulink. response. he equations used for SRF based PLL are given
P and O algorithm requires instantaneous solar module from equations 1-4.
voltage and current as input and it provides duty cycle Verr= Vd(ref) Vd(inv) (1)
as output.
Id(ref) = P+ I Ts Verr (2)
2.2 Solar Inverter and Synchronization z-1
Control Id(err) =Id(ref) Id(inv) (3)
Now, the DC power output from the buck converter is
Iq(err) = Iq(ref) Iq(inv) (4)
fed to 3 phase inverter via a DC link capacitor as shown
in [Figure 1]. he inverter is also modeled using VSC in In equations 1-4,Vd(ref) is the direct axis reference voltage,
order to reduce the simulation time and harmonics in Vd(inv) is the direct axis output voltage of inverter, Verr is the
the output. he input to synchronization control block direct axis voltage error component, P is the proportional
is inverter output voltage, inverter output current, grid constant of PI controller, I is the integral constant of PI
output voltage and reference voltage. he output from the controller, Ts is the sampling time, Id(ref) is the direct axis
synchronization control block is 3 phase reference voltage current reference, Id(inv) is the direct axis output current of
which could be directly used by the average VSC modeled inverter, Id(err) is the direct axis current error, Iq(ref) is the
inverter as iring pulse. quadrature axis current reference, Iq(inv) is the quadrature
he SRF PLL is one of the robust and eicient meth- axis output current of inverter, Iq(err) is the quadrature axis
ods of tracking the voltage and frequency output of current error.

Vol 9 (12) | March 2016 | Indian Journal of Science and Technology 3
Modeling and Simulation of Distribution Network with the Integration of Distribution Generator using Matlab

3. Analysis of IEEE-15 Bus System

IEEE-15 bus system12 is a standard distribution network
with line data and load data given in Table 2. he load
data is given with respect to the receiving bus (i.e., To
bus).From Table 2, it is clear that the IEEE-15 bus system
has a total load of 1126.5 KW and 1251.182 KVAR.

3.1 Simulation of IEEE-15 Bus System

without Distribution Generator
First, the IEEE-15 bus system is simulated without any
Figure 6. Current waveforms of solar inverter ater additional DG as shown in Figure 7.
synchronization. he peak values of bus voltages, line current and load
current of IEEE-15 bus system without any DG are given
Inductive ilter is used ater the inverter to reduce in Table 3 and Table 4.
the harmonic content in its output. hen, a 400V/11KV he voltage, load current and line current values
step-up transformer is used to interconnect the solar shown in Table 3 and Table 4 is plotted as a single proile
inverter with the 11KV grid. he solar inverter along with in Figure 7, Figure 8 and Figure 9 respectively.
the transformer is to be called as Distribution Generator
(DG) in the further sections. 3.2 Simulation of IEEE-15 Bus System with
Figure 6 shows the DG, grid and load current wave- Solar Inverter as Distribution Generator
forms ater transformer connection. Due to transformer he solar based inverter with PLL control designed in
action, the output voltage of DG rises to 11KV but the previous section is now integrated with IEEE-15 bus sys-
output current reduces to 0.1073 A as shown in Figure 6. tem as shown in Figure 11.

Table 2. Line and load data of IEEE-15 bus system

Bus No. Line data Load data
Resistance Inductance
From To Active Power (KW) Reactive power (KVAR)
(Ohms) (Henry)
1 2 1.35309 1.32349 44.1 44.99
2 3 1.17024 1.14464 70.1 71.44
3 4 0.84111 0.82271 40 142.82
4 5 1.52348 1.0276 44.1 44.99
2 9 2.01317 1.3279 70 71.44
9 10 1.68671 1.1377 44.1 44.99
2 6 2.55727 1.7249 140 142.82
6 7 1.0882 0.734 140 142.82
6 8 1.25143 0.8441 70 71.414
3 11 1.79553 1.2111 140 142.82
11 12 2.44845 1.6515 70 71.414
12 13 2.01317 1.3579 44.1 44.99
4 14 2.23081 1.5047 70 71.414
4 15 1.9702 0.8074 140 142.82

4 Vol 9 (12) | March 2016 | Indian Journal of Science and Technology
T. D. Sudhakar, M. Raja Rajan, K. N. Srinivas, R. Raja Prabu, T.V. Narmadha and M. Mohana Krishnan

Table 4. Peak values of line current of IEEE-15 bus

Bus No. Peak Line
From To Current (A)
1 2 166.9521
2 3 96.9492
3 4 53.1853
4 5 5.9561
2 9 15.9202
9 10 6.1454
2 6 47.8854
6 7 19.1147
6 8 9.5748
3 11 34.1887
Figure 7. Simulation of IEEE-15 bus system without
distribution generator. 11 12 15.2785
12 13 5.8962
4 14 9.4308
Table 3. Peak values of bus voltages and load current 4 15 18.8551
of IEEE-15 bus system
Peak bus Peak load
Bus No.
Voltage (V) current (A)
1 0.98704 0
2 0.93730 6.1976
3 0.91232 9.5753
4 0.90247 18.9433
5 0.90078 5.9561
6 0.91450 19.1959
7 0.91063 19.1147
8 0.91227 9.5748
9 0.93133 9.7749 Figure 8. Voltage proile of IEEE-15 bus system without
10 0.92941 6.1454
11 0.90089 18.9102
12 0.89393 9.3823
13 0.89172 5.8962
14 0.89855 9.4308
15 0.89827 18.8551

Here the 20 series and 500 parallel solar panels

are connected so as to provide approximately 600KW
power. he voltage, load current and line current proile
of IEEE-15 bus system with DG interconnected at vari-
ous buses is shown in Figure 12, Figure 13 and Figure 14 Figure 9. Load current proile of IEEE-15 bus system
respectively. without DG.

Vol 9 (12) | March 2016 | Indian Journal of Science and Technology 5
Modeling and Simulation of Distribution Network with the Integration of Distribution Generator using Matlab

Figure 10. Line current proile of IEEE-15 bus system

without DG.
Figure 13. Load current proile analysis of IEEE-15 bus
system with DG.

Figure 11. Simulation of IEEE-15 bus system with

distribution generator.
Figure 14. Line current proile analysis of IEEE-15 bus
system with DG.

based distribution generator is connected to it. Various

network parameters such as bus voltages, load current
and line current have been found out and plotted for vari-
ous position of DG.

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