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7E5TB1CTW

r?T.^ T M^cH rasioiLi;


opfSitTiu:-^

. Si.

STUDY No.

iOTION STUDIES OF GEjI^'j T/JGS.

Prepared by: Capt. C. Tunnicliffe . Gen. List

LIST OF CONTEOTS

ABSTRACT

SECTI0N1

SECTio;: 2.
'
^o
HOTKllr STUDY
N

OF TIGER.
^^ opsiQDr

oECTIOir 3.
MOTION STUDY 0;'
ROYAL TIGER.
TI3
TI0 f
:
SKY OF Panther
SDCT io; i 5. CONclusxors _ ro ..

- -S 0N 0P
STIffiF
RESTRICTED

-L REFORT
Tt.TT-.HV QPF '
TTfl RES^.l^CH

jo.

Oa'UJ - 1 - - * ^ ^

oJitdiso 0-' t-ljkj.

Prepared by: Capt. G. Tunniclift f


Gen. List,

ABSTRACT

.3 report describes the


'lot-inn

"
controls and
to

acco:rootn"
* i SZbJ&S&J* *c
a
P3rt S
vehic2 intended to Hv
T ^ j.~4 , , + ,

- ssas or ho

a^, : r 0 ry : "'

a^rr-"
:

(.)
1
g g rxu.
,uip]

If:-'- -o .
Uns. - tney
^^ ^ ,,hc
load?
Jffg-jl
loa
1,
^or3 ri 1
fro..,
_^
^ao*o 0
thrxj

Timber
S3CTIC-. 1.

. O: jtudy.

This series jf studies wo3 undertaken at the- F.V. Wing I'.C.S


.
and at P.V.D.D., v.lth the objects of firstly, inspecting
the main
loadinS arrangenjent.-: and c haring them v.itli
those of British
oc ndly -^ninine the cr. a pmition and seating fran
f ?
1 10r 1 Y10 ' /?Jlnt 111x1 tiJ assess
atijn Of
ation 1r th
'
hew they would affect oner
the various controls
and devices of each crew SSbS.
ri2s
0
*; m flrst
!**=
1
The last part is
if extpares the features of
ae of British
SrSrf S 3*
ld of a auaaaiy of
h tank with the
,
tl
* *
the fir-t
of-

tnfa 1 T , others' '

^ * * "<*> - =c. -jut M f ,

3MOJ
A series
.
to toe
W ln nc dri 1 1 ^
,^-p >
^-Us
loculinr
^ to*
t3J303
1
l^aOin .. 1+;
ttaodlSfe,
*1 .

^ wu
(o)
:
A fwh '*
v
h a a
r i
topwatclJ
th,

n c
^ed ^ **
ut
the
. touo. w.
oc qucnt
(V) d

,

fil4d4y

uf e-dT; "owoa'tS4l0
,*^
to; boS ,Xjr ^l ila
nf *&ZtXrr
lnc and 7, ^Great-,

Sti11
<*2^ for
*o

vehiclc
recSa
e
^
pu^03o
a.
sectio:

'OTUi' 3 JUDY OF

v. . F CTU K '6 , . .
o) - SD. KFZ, 182.

(THE "TIGSK" , .ODHJ, 'H 1


) .

HtoT OF OONTEHTS.

1
INTRODUCTION
'
'
a THE VEHICLE.
Lit XEJ iANDER
y-) ooat and Poaiti-mu

1C
with his left hand. In doxng so ; his
If he use- hisrxQt
chafe against the turret mi" caozn-.
the back of it on
hand for traversing, he is liable to scrape
the sharp edge of the clinometer

The hydraulic power traverse system is controlled by a


rocking footplate on the floor in front of the gunner ' seat,
(3cc Bioto 2). The footplate is piv ng its transverse
axis. In the neutral position. the plate is tilted lower at
the front than at the back. On left traverse the heel end of'
the; plate is depressed until
the plate is horizontal. On rinht
2 , LZi th0 plate is a< r08sed
of * &*
of only 8" forward
nd fatiguing. > ratl ' n is
Thc investi ^tTr' both awkward
sufficient ankle s b vots flowed
hiu barely p
flexibility ? +?

eotly tilted
the
CVat0d f aturc was
fa'^iat ?
t! " it*
bf^SS * fbbOtrtoolly l
v

b OQ p 1 rv X .
* X
* *** Podal is .
0
P Bat *
of

i' XG-te
(c) s* crtc ^tiy n *
()
Sights ? actua 1Xy

tvrir-^S^ ,
and v-;..,
J z
1 1
tilt 1 1
the

a la
13
,** brb^mar tcl Cac
head3et

* ^oSr-or i8 n crfc
^ **<* the
^o X ted
r 3
.
u
on th
th
0
hand. ^ Jt
-^Ooetin-. ^
. .

r4gllt
<=ni on of tho

a .las.

r'
3iti
, S?2 the
. the r
c ,_
800
^-
arr ,
^ 0 3it'
If h uses
chafe against the turret ring casing. f ^ oi
the back it on
hand far traversing, he is liable to scrape
the sharp edge of the clinometer.

The hydraulic power traverse system is controlled by cl

rocking footplate on the floor in front of the gunner's sent.


(Sec Ihoto 2). The footplate is pivoted along its transverse
axis. In the neutral position the plate is tilted lower at
the front than at the back. On left traverse, the heel end of
the plate is depressed until the
plate is horiz >ntal. 0 n rircht
vs v * ">

platc s
Of the front Of the
onu fatiguing.
gunner' s scat
8" forward
la D2th awkward
of J
The investigator's
b vjts allovred f 'ff
r f th "
sufficient ankle hia barely
flexibility +
accur^ CMtrjl ofSot^?3?l
operator reeved his^o
^ f? St
and quick yet

-Has sar*.
The -^ain. airm- 4.

pFS
- =5S*.
* x v *!,
8

rn o
G
g^er eSrinC ?oaal is
^ ^ C ntre
of

~- c
, , -i ate. mat
&<***. - s a-
gunnel*, is
"*=**
*2 jK. 4^ toiss
<?J3
x
lower oi? r*"-*.
Ve in mUntet!
lt:L f* ^Sfr u-*S' 3 v'^-th
+u
. Sfe
hand. pr a tt n M
fc
,

dectin~
- _ of th

a* . * * 5 *.

11 1 Ghti ovo
iTv^Saiyn. T ri . .
r . SUim..,,
' J'
:it ior,4 Cr
^'0d 5f
nt'al
t,
' ilo
C'vP '
'^r ^...p-Sht

f

p TTCER. 'll!.
STUDY QL tF

1 .
ttjtroduction._
interest in
n n
nnfl i-din- have been the major
Anr .unition stv.RXf c.
-positions and controlo

jtsy^trs:' ss.'zsrj & *


t
; .

by
the School cf Tank Techn?lc"y.

We recodJond that the S.T.T. Report in c nj unction with


this rep:rt.

2. PIP ':rl? 7 KV oy THE V 2 HICL 1 -.

The Ti^cr is - hc?.vy tank woirhinr 56 tons in battle order.


. 7 oS ,^!? ^
m* 1 68 8 * 8 Kw.K 36 ;n n unt
Its
o axially with
-
:

*> ;*
5^ ,, 1 1
tr is *>**> *>-
? SS! ** SSSiTSS? th*
5 121
la
.
1 *" 3
^ 4^ 2 th,

CC/...JTy =
.

v/nen fu,
^lthourh tho vehicl
.

position pc uPper se.-'it s


C
TP
1
C ;'--J1
eer fr ,)uc ausu
th ^lfortab le in it
;
h tu^ot S a
unc
No backr rv ot
'.
^ .

1 s i:rr,iri^a
vnli ^nst h-i
<h
ls ra-ht
.

rtf* ;rf-,%V

ter *
; j
'

^olo^^^hooi
as
itj * d
Wr *
3
bxr
!

t ^na
rr a *Vh
" 1110
o a ;
t,J
'ou j
c tnnJc 'ri
si^i ^U31Vhl^aion a ij\

^ r-'
25*. *. ,
&Mt
iST

"
u -
S^z ^, ***a
Nfi!
r

i.

la; *u?,
Saat

**? *&* J St***


to n. (So, a fe OoS^ot." <Vn
.
***

at tr.;
^-'Uouo,
;
i.'*^*-
''aaa
ouic^'^f 3 wfc
/
^ is l3* and
"

gUfiMe r ~
'
^ ^haa it cl 3*"
,
j.
ficcr^ j +.

*SSaffS2 '
'** both the
W a tCh
C r3 o
thtt Ri.,~qu;irrsn
7
3
SrSTis s arl^e^?*
oomfortablo. The
tut thcbackrost is snaller and loss
the steering band
knees ar cranped in the confined space between
casings, but the position is otherwise spacious and
cor.ifortable,

(L) Thc_Bow^Gun. The ;, 34 bow gun is hous ball-mounting in


the front vertical plate* It is controlled by a pistol grip an
bead . (seo Photo 6). Since tho gun is breech
heavy, a compensating spring is fitt .lance it. However
ia^the vehicle inspected, the gun and counting
are still unbalanced
ar_ the neadpan pressed down heavily
on the bow-gunner 1 s head
causing acute discoofort.

Tnc bow-gunner also


^nis is conveniently
operates the
situate
^ +u
ir cxoss set
wireless an+ in fv, _
the vehicle ^ , .

4 easily accessible.
'
box to hi = left,
'

where J

ff2f b fb VVpad epic=!


mounted in the
roo^ha tcb
only
otherviaLnl^ic^if ?
tf
^
counted - acir.
** angle of
f'- rgj:

1K
SSbf
facing half-rib*
given Se b ov3
episc
&>*

^
'viclc

.T"
Conclusi
"

u;

on
.
*
ouuid
?0 r h

'

m ^ e" h
-
- Vf^ablo and his
a,
causes
si
taoj; f lai

acute tii-e 12 heatlPan


-
uonu ort
Pm,JR
'
a)
- fitted.
( n thc
turret roof

ir nt
( 0) n * of the
tur ret oo,
r jQf
^^ IJanderla
cuPla,
(c)

(d) on
th
the
on the
turret
-
drivor a
"

.
,
^ ***

the Xa
Wner> 8
-Loader , 1
*
P8itin,
seat,
.

111
0 r-^lo
tQ S

Sh^J?.
itches"
Ser
C
tv-o
^-darlr^^
032
c::iClt

^
^bc

Tho -
rc ulnr ariVcr
orran

's
.


or
i r
^asona>n

i%

vn4d
d C
have
j\
08t oon i^ r v/ixf

l9B >
providcd
i 3

^ thc n
crl' t l a The

SJ <
ri^n
t
B i t! ro-r

* * undor
i^- **** h^
Bin S
Bin j
i
mdr
T Cr
lcf?
l^t
,aW huu;f h**>
'
001
fcuil fi
t ^olda

fts, - 55ff*
r r, r ;

&&*
,

*
v. t.
, + il rounds arc stowed
-

- s^HS'SS 2 - traversed throu& x


apply equally to the other side with the turret
180. For example, comacnts and loading tines for Bin B at
r
11 o'clock apply equally to Bin D at j o'clock.

Tabic 1 shows the availability of the bins at various turret


positions. Rounds from Bin can be obtained in an arc between
ii and 12 o'clock * and from
Bin d between 2 and 6 o'clock. The lower three layers of Bin C
"
'-v.ii-.iB at 8 j' clock and the whole
bin between 5 and 7 o'
clock,

A
und in
t
huU - are a1 *,
'^oar ^Uated

-
to ^ hi.03 A, (c\ * *
"
has So * loader Z/ h *<"* baSQ
vS * ' d :ind <UX>
Position f
ohotructcd^^8 .
4 the bi- -
S
u? bin. \
?~ iaa hold itT.? hc
ont ^
J
iog ,atcr L^lar
I-1 ' the iiV-'n
su^^ o1 ^ Position G rrc

~ H'C't
re froj.i
J

-Clock.
loader .,
in jjj
car loaa
noa he
"
B fo)
ha-
tn p it into t yracurc-J
; avoranr 2
c s tjv,
P '?> P
~ -
round.
cd - .
b otc to 4.1

"
7
for
*** b &
at n /r .
ir JR 9 f.-\ t:L on.
as,, irio &
tbc
^
.

3 ) a -ns B -n<
1 ai. r ,^) Jock t fc cl
o< cl AJh
k ti, ^ u
( D)
'

to*. v
.,
-i, ;

.
- ;*
T-
*
**t ba ' 11^
0b a L r^ 1 a bs?Pse
11 ->h3;
<*. ' .
'
S '

' *
Bll1.
r
Poaiti
n
180o ^
^aov.'e<i.
w
(c)

" C C3
'

ho
*
res^co^,
ctl wS_
a- t
lifted .
she f, .

-i.2E.ri; =
**, ,
At? *
' tt
" iAjy * .<


^ the -, is C l ^ -<
a c *~
sepai,
- Qrat
g each
t

3 r ri
Cjr.tai-t- ic is
-
f the
* 7T-r tT?'-' r on the
f^ eaehw^^ijy ^ *
. ,
' ' 1/1 thc 0
>ttCr ***
t*20
4 r. _
It
.
.... ro&r in
cir.dlr.r to
qualities in action 9
Thi3 vehicle -has already
pro
-
^ ; -f-t-

.? *
good
fifrhtirwc
j jv. bad
a,. features,
written .on its ,,

and oony reports have been


studied the uain features are
Fron the notion study of the iteus
ollows - :

The leader's position is the only roolly canfortc-ble me; all the
thcr3 arc restricted and would cause disc :u rt.

Th pinner's p sition and the layout and design ;f some af his


controls arc bad.

t S C r thc nain ar-iaucnt are unnecessarily


'dS v ? I'^ high by
J

-
-3, loading arrai'*genents
, and crc*/ i :s
* ,,. ioac . = 0 ..,
it ions and controls -
uni .
:
_GOOD ?EdTII3v

Availability of
3 SCat
option
^aci'ua Ouanor'a crarsped
ut-i
pteition ^ position
-
innoer*
-
c-r. * .

wJ hatch doors Desi.-u f Position


tion -,f v,drolc3s n, 7
s- * sun controls
x
set Design of aaMrfH
High loadin- itxon v.
bins
Difficulty of
HG -ading coaxial
Drivers end
- v,-gunner3
feot
Design of i
c

iW3iae Cl03ed
turret.
COMMANDERS POS it ON
Lg-jPIifc

OF

,IL6
MOTION STUDY OF

D/71 (Sd.Kfz1 C. -j
Pz.KEFW. VI (B) "TIGER" FUR 8cm. JC.
t?.

LIST OP CONTENTS

DESCRIPTION OP THE VEHICLE

THE COJi UNDER


anb Positions
\) Vision
c ) Conclusion

the gunner
W
>b
Seat and
Position
Con trola
s

$ Conolu^on
nd Visi n

IiQAD2R
Scat and
ana1 Poosltl
/,<
b
.. .

(
> ) Control
Controls I
-on
<
Vision
W c
Con
onol
OlUU3ion
3 io
5*
drive

^sion
} b ncl
UEion
O, rp,^
0,5 * coses
DlCJITQjtj
8.
1
--Cfj.jsg

9. r
10.

''^lON
^OTOo,.,
-r HS i
MOTION STUDY OF TIIE
t
KOZJj TlgETi 1

i i.^.iri.rion : v ryz vehicle

The Ps Kpfw VI (B) is commonly known as the Hoyal Tiger. It weighs


.approximately JO tons in battle order. It mounts an 8. 8cm. Kw K 43
3 un and a 7.9%m IE 34 in the turret, and a hull KG
glacis plate*.
34 is mounted in the

10 Meh; '^c turret


oaaaander, gunner and
ln the hull.
leader
ai r in thc turret,-
andiZ

f the crcw
the driver .and
f the
bow-gunnor
W '

Th ~ vehicle
atudied vas" P * v n r,
D,D * No *
sood condition. 3234, an early
e m
model in reasonably
noaci

TH5 Cft; vnrre


"
;;lth^SiH2ion. hi,

**>*&- gw...
SSUsac,
fa) S
0, t

^ar f
'^H|
CQr
!!


'

OUnto 'l t:'


m tiv n ai ts
+
the Hi 9 on th
nt hb -
\
a h<-
lef
lc It iG \Sa
r>
-hd B , if*
not
ad,- W- , <3di of
-'sho
the a
' cl

^unt^-.
Ju.-. > 1
i ' ,PeQ
-t?pod, ;**h
ind 5' 1
u-i^v,
1111
'
8Unner
unnor
Both the SL - + .
sroatea
greater"

u an d probal
- ne handwheel
t i in : .

'


SSr^e^oS^i0 iaa 3.long. A- f>*

locked ;
s IX***
i-rv.-arj *hich
he wncei r
lower than the V ilane *ii? iOUni that the
" :r l0 tho rear
- '
ti J
t urns
the vOifol ? ri -=
ft
y F0Sltl n ^ is unccafortablc
Pcrtunntelv frr- +Ur

S.tSLST
>&
A'SSVS
j^-tSSr.^ass:
;
-7
front tc back and r
L2 '
-
-
B 8eat *
lc, *T?
.

0 Thc
It oan bi 1
nd ls Pivoted along
*. .
cod in tJft E
ncufcrnl
-
V Position when
.?
not required.
-Ode of the* ia+r ?

oner's shat * 6" to tho right


n- On 1 ft
this is awknard
-r -.vorcc' ic *oult in either
T
of tho
lcf * f ot deprossea the left
:

h n h 1 - 3
lUse
0 right
On
u uicr 3 lc
]

led Jm
,

.
1

it t t
traverse, the side

'
r ana hit t the side of the hole cut into
; . >ff the plate. Tho plate
'
though vbon uscd in:

tl e hand lever 7 .'


# it provod i are satisfactory

*^ r ^*


The hand
rtsido f thoseat. The
'ri^ht
(risrVvf- tr- >
eree), 1 , .
f'-r^ards
;rv,nr ^s (left traverse) cr backwards
-

.nd it'
.


;
. juanar'8 left elbow tends to strike

ctor;y *hnn just a footpedal, the oooibimtion


f, tr edni^-n"'*

"^
C ^" n3whecl is
vr '* 1 n
9^" in diameter and jaounted in a vertical
x^" .

ri Hirer's seat.
;
The 3"
(See Photo 2.)
'

.. ;
1 to rip) cd >lo hand. When the handle ic
f ts .

wo
f n v lent, tho gunner's right hand tends to :

jpji n r. lever oj the pc,.-or traverse renrbex, as there is unly 1 clearance


oe tween the two.
; I
bar
. tri or comprises a steel
Th(

ana
tJ e leva tin wheel. The bar is curved
It ia isfa ?t( riW
by th-- -unner's ri ht hand.

I? zncrgoncy firing jear was evident in the vehicle inspected.

k
>>

h
ai
- ** ggg -^-scs^

'*
tor
linon
The <=
***.
dials
< r srr.^
can
0
^ ?naicator
indi
the traverse gunner.
S i. p" 4 It is
Snvico. v th unsatisfactory* itionefl>
Ho vision y controls
JQrj
.

posi i-
The runners ^ -unner ly-

ftSfla^Tj^'-sa- ~
e "
*-* -*-**
r^s ssc
the Lo:.Dta ..
4, .
f the
The
(a) g "* end Position. '^his station indicates
A r.ountinc in

Sf ^ic S^s
nain armament.

half of the turret.


b S uch seat was available in the
in the ccntrd of the right

As it appears from the mountin'; that the scat is removable,


the
designers intcnti.n would seem to have been that the seat would be
removed* durin.- an action to allow the loader greater access when loading*
It would be replaced only when immediate loading was not anticipated.

The loader has ample space for handling ammunition


on his side of
the tiirrot. in additi n, if his hatch is open, a
loader whose height
rool However^ the turret
^

probably koop the hatch

00 Controls. Ai
door '-pen whL lor^ng! ^ loadinC he would

Fr
loader so that ho
hTcaT^i^
8t
traverse handwheel
the is
*unnor to travp>- provided for <-v
power traverse
TDOWGT* n^wi .

G t
the
A latch n Yrre when

wheel prevents the '*

used.
'

fc

0QdCr fr *'- thc


-.'orntin: his
wheel ?o,

Sw^S-ar* 6 vs*?*
Counted intL V i3icn device TT, .

sr <; ;;.Si ir u 5.
;f wo3 t
^ &*

u*
. .

^
l^ivcr
rened-uc so that

he cnn . .

B 'th the lccked by 8 **e


. ^Ssg- 2 *. F sit ior
aetlf, and its a ,

W
- e -t and

Centra
a ?.
backrest .* J 6 a the
Portable.
Si 1100
ri~h + ^V
" ht
le
ai &> ^ f
be a<
.
;s **
controls Vv>
the* seat ;
lthcr
-
*i5T "
b
*W ttfT 1* ** <rrw
a ,

&23T-

- fi
si&
&-. - ZT
'

ato,l.
'
; x
V
S fU M
~
au. * .

sectary
* ln st
" "**"&*
Sfv^^o *
3
.

: 3, Wvtr, l3
S' c SJSj ;; >- '

space i
iriver if ln lv * w ,
leg*?
'
wuatod
is lia
risht st rin^ W h n the
*
ri v '*
hie i
'-7 r:::
lrCCtlCn W as
S .
P

^Us'Zi^r
?

The^ aad
^h levers

,
valmbl0

The control T fc artox ~ive s


lever g
1' with a knT' t'U- 4 f cvcrse ratios.
n - need; to
Perforned
s
have to
'rov-n- v-e '
S ?P
th, c -'
,
of
J tch ..edal
' n 4 1 ncuntod
n the ri-ht
of the driver

r> 'n:
autnoatically^v
for engacin
re th tank
r x,

the c L+fu
tGh
th th
pedal
^ratios
!
e <

be iS used only
^vos ff
^Flic hanlbrakp ? r, ,

tow-rds the rear'.


oriver, the tw ho ,
Tho,,^"^ r
Thou ^ h the brake "t=het type
lev r
anfl
,Jld

ls operated by pullinr

The font ,

Two separate .accelerator


r ,7 ,i
"i led. The louver control is
lojir wV-7
'

door. The
uj er control is a roller 1 '''"
icult tc operate. The
,

L" lonr an** ?"


with the lower pedal i Mounted on a comon linkage
. hin ed' t0 ?
not in use, is fitted as *
vAich can be folded when
a fnr+r-. + ?
find with the foot but is iS clifficult t0
otherwise *sat2factS.

ran.ee, since hisL'u the driVtr tos adequate vision ^ '


^
-h-ul^rs
do the hull of the tank.
cn clus^c-down his sole
~ no '7
1
vision device i-1
U
n ccch silo of its mounting is used to
control the
?' **} le
l- til* .

n rotati n.
f
Altncah the driver
'

...
n ' in fr nt of the veliicle, the
-it in f onl> one erisco , for th
r vor f a larc o a tank is bod. 1
_ . protably
iC
lder 3
'

O is
3 res 5 ciidevious. route.
on^,,
o
^ Itb - fJSft
- '
rely or

not:*
ai-
^ look
SSS SS
-
s*S
AffSS'-i 5 -
iti- -rang
-'ST&Sk
ariw' .
=f K posits-

sssar
opened-up

is C3CC

in. the
vehicle .

the tmw-r.uMNER . fitted

e j,, Q tnVle
*:
lor height.
x<- for
1

s probably
not adjustable
adjustai
J it improbably

The s^icus
position
the -enx
-f^rSo^b^St^rather difficult,
from the hatch to
i

LIGHTING

Feste n loop s ore fitted

(i) Above the manners position

(i ) Above the c :cixic.l 113- 3k

(iii) On the roof in front of the conmander 3 cupola 1

(iv) On the driver's lashboard

(v) Cn the wire lea 3 sot.

1
is reasonable, ottttion * The arranren
athou^tha ? ittin
syrsssr **. s^JMRJSksfe
8* CgEW x-.ccf.ss

E-tch. -..

la
(S^Photrt) 1
is circular 1*7...
t

T ? sas-j*. u A
.
';=??
* * **&
uaQoter

^
-he hotM
1,=
" clJ,M
*
th8 b

- - 3
r

=n
k
r
5 ;;
'
v-
^ y
.
oa
aati sfaete^f.*
<*
Q Penc
y r r
^

a tew n
hatch iss .

<-
of
* ^ #*Vi . 3
^Su*4S"S
Political ^
,.
w
J ^
s and op(

LE hi:
7t and 8.^
SaT--^S|Lsr
vehicle;-
ln Iart
seoonrs'i f in t h e i

I
_

^ssxsis *r o set utsi de
the

'-ndr.
open f
loader Pvr.
10.3
cion Cd but 6*7
ot locke

77^ ^
^
1 4.1
Since no J
that Litton.
Thre,- ~ s
"3Unner '
e seat
was fitt
c
~
ul: be siad
COUlcl
"*

Sftj ? ? " *
he
hatch. T
The

* 1,0< under the best


/ _ >
(=/ Conclusion,
are nil t cennaniYy ~
<rhJ r-
* 1

atisfact wyjtte T^ b 7~8Umer a etches


>; - '
..: ;... -

a
is Olnoat useless 8
&
SSLf^
toh door in s
f 5^1 n - is 4 the escaP ***
'
cW?f
* the tur t b^i
r-: 7
c bins from its
JS "' Ull! bc for

outside the twret


M/IN ,JLu.lKK7 LQAr.Ty,^


^p T

jp-lin' Arr-n
m
-*-r-,, ,.
t p . _

r.. *? ^hiclc, and ful ' *"liJt


Position of the amnunltion
b f n '

Os and
.

-

tides will

"r
1 vehicle, eihty 8. flora abounds
wi fcuiS^a
7C roun in fu
thert
later n
,V ' '
' r nI onds in the
:>' ^
2el. in both vehicles, U8
in
two racks
s r
, nnd the
rcnoin^r ^ th baS

=t a :SK.
;


^ere thrown
on average

nth
tine

u
through

'h
o:

the
^-S
-
_ s g . per

d
case.

:
^
fStho trial. ^
,

^
b
-loves whon ?
C
c J ?hc
<n
rounds
woUld
arc
th~

pc rc
r oV 3, xs>
hot case, n
0 by wearing finjer dexterity
i^ i n^asodthe sun and no i al
';

^
required.
-linvsible roller,
which is
floor between
KnS on to the hul.c
un.
tSwtS^mAU in lino with the

The feur loaders used in the trials


were
L. i oi A. - Tpr. Ersn, height 5' V',

Loader B Cpi. Francis, height


5 <
i0 ,
Loader C - cm. Weaver, height 6- V all
D ' Cvr - Li ^tt, height 6 -
1 '

i ^ two 'ready' M
^tuatcd in the

^ xn tho vhiclo
,
^Ck d i3 in
18 ^ th& r
th loft 31 h
turret bul^ , nro
L?J; l 0t 1 3.)
(nearer thel ?
L-o-oor) ? cjad Rn
The &Verage
lo ^ing
tl 3 per
round (j seconds) ar
e as
folios'73 :
..

iOUgh . ( *|H I

itckl^ * Sack B no -

reach two of
Since the r e^b-
* cks ,
*
the
22 rcund f - ( hold q in+ r
- *& af{3 to. <.%-)
"WwdrtM
i r*

* a to
ru
,?"*<*
01 the
for
pannier
_iT-nic r Jtacks.
and -nd H.
There are +>
In thes_ racks -~^rs
pannier ra^kn r
hr-''
rear. rcunds sre
; -_ D nd S

stov7d fcrScnt^-f '
and E ,>

~
nem lr position -
R&uge against
mu these ana
, th* d side of the
*
require consid, hin S B n those rounds one
-J-"-

f ?f
rusty and dirty
inereaaj

round -handling hnJv*^


v cP^rat

tines.
Thi^i^
Th as is undesirable,
since it
This type Qf

L5r "=?* ? * the* layer arm


the rounds .ere
layer tele

the centre layer ^f the bi]

1
tht
* .* h; - t i* w Lul??
r
n ^tertheug}
bu
better tc have
'-
'

n it3 lesirners presumably


.

I-rge stcck _f UG 34 rjaraunition,


-P -vc for 3 xx 8.8 cci roun
Th two racks A end B contain
f r ary an -le quite number cf rounds (If or 22)
-r* -n'cement. Jil ht r jur is
ore- lor le i from Rack G with the

turret 12 o'clock, in an
tine per r und jf 1 7.8 sees .
R- cks D an! E it cks D nd E are situated in front of Racks 1 and P
.

spectively. - The r
* hold 7 rounds in two layers

The rounds ore even less accessible


than those in Racks 7 and P.

\ 2 ... r
'

litunted m each side of the ej tr front



t

. round/ sh*
Replenishing Racks .. "nd B from these r cks v/ould be very awkward find
f atijuinr.
ril 1 th .

t0 l
r ccnf^ rt
of n -n relation
i"
cefi** jne d
CONCUR rprV raas
very
nable
a***
;Iia
4
?
1 s badly
is ba-lly 3?
J
'
^blef an - thc
tn P^iSTo^-
u
, .
10 allows a ^fL. l
His
flis
seat 1 ...
acces^x--
acCCSi
1-

^':is,*
ccntr-
v
his i;0Sltiadly
S'-- A J
aesirned. position,
. >

-acious
on-
to his co p s ?xe ha-
3-.i rm- a
'
traverse the loader loading-
',
,-un v hcn round3

s sageSs *vs
arrangenent
the lev^ tbe turret
1 in
and n.nvy
:

s^shs^S'
ds very
clow -n
stowed above ^
but it wakes
hir-h in this
are high
to the loader. loadirv: tines
loadin' 1 n * orran-*cnerit,
Despite thc cool
because:-
vehicle, because; loado
A aTI bQ loaded.
-
--f ^ f , re mother round can bo
bo dispcsoc-
(a) The empty case must
rack
ck fitting is unsatisfactory.
itun 3 o-ti
The design of the
t
(b)

h+ ui rounds
^nc r makes them
th awkward to
, \
, ,, ,,nt
extreme size and weight
.Yoi>
...
of the ,

(c) The :

nanceuvre.

The f ollowin aro the cutstr.ndin. ly Ood and bad features of thc vehicle
as revealed by this Hot ion Study: -

GOOD FE^TUiUSS d;-p rE.drur.ES

i) Very fev* projecting fittings in (vii) Commander's backrest.


fighting ccnjartncnt. (viii) Position
r- (
* of junnor's
XLfci LL L 11 UI*
-unnor's seat, :
i) Driver* 3 oeat and two positio:
ns. (ix) Gunner's
Gunner' 3 cranped
ernrmed station.
stat*
Steering wheel,
i) Driver's and bow-mnnor 1
(x) Gun traverse controls.
s hatch
doors position of loader 1 s hanilwhccl,
Driver's opened-up Loadei^B hatch door,
l\ vision,
y) Loading roller in b ultra,
a) Number of 8. Con
rounds sieved.
SS
U ' Dosi.jn rf ammunition
vision.
rack
iittiiv^s.
C/j
nU3t bc rein oved before
nort J****
(i) HaS
station ^
unTTHW STUDY OF

I'Ti-fE 'PAIyTHEK )

LIST OF CONTENTS

1 . DESCRIPTION OF THE VEHICLE

2. THE COUM/JIDER
fa) Scat and Positiono
(b) Vision
(c) Conclusion

3 . THE GUNNER
Scat and Position
Gun arrangement
Gun Controls
Sighting and Vision
Conclusion

THE DRIVFTR

6.

Vision
W Canclu 8ion
L lCi!TDiG

^access

9.

>
0.
CONCLUSION
T.crTIGN STUPT OF TH5

i
cr the M ilgig,

(tltoW) . \

.
a 4.1, n f fhfi heavy cruiser clnss weighing
Kpfvr V ^**-* / -- 7
45 tons.
*. A.piw
The Pz. v

The length excluding tnc


ifincth (excluding the i

1* 7".
gun;
run;
>
7,,
f ,
vddth 10* 10",>
height 9' 9 and ground clearance

The armament comprises a 7.5cm. Kv: X 42 (1/7) mounted coaxially with,


an feG 34 in the turret, and an M 34 low-gun mounted in the hull glacis
plate

The vehicle has a crew of five - commander, gunner and loader in the
turret, and driver and how- gunner in the hull.

The speed of the vehicle is approx. 50 w.p.h, and the radius of action
approx. 80 iriles,

also examined.
tae B * A '* R *
No> 5
.
^ *as **
badly-damaged service Panther was
?

2 TOE comaas;

IP oc-t -rji-.l ] v n +;

3it
th tUrr0t 7
d ^ ^naL^'SSt 18 th * TOar of
ral32d '*" the floor. * - stand TlJSl p^tf^
lon> ^ 1* 5" vid
th **
the turret
3 b=uii,
hov^:
'h
03 backrest
;/:!iti,, i0 r
r ' c e4
' i3
"
t
^ >*
opiacopef
i
ca ?wwaer

^
**aW. to c u :l*c ^*t..tlc.
taI1 Th
Cainat
c J*"
to the
terra tive
enpty-i*ourd is s+anru
Lf^^ight
short c ammanae
rs
Tho faotret v. lin and v/hioVi on g f* n

1
the ?*8 S

*
Portable -,11^ Retreat "
'ri.de

; r u

3V~
:F-s 2 feet
a s*s
3r st&s 5 sas-*** *.
2
t the
4a&?s. KW of
rt'fh'
1'* 11
seated- f*iscopoc
n ~unted S2T-^ .P
on +tko
l
la l0
u
the vehL
..Jf
the
turret
J WS** -
0 '**.
all *>Of

w
n ''ten QPiscon
T ,
tKt/
VWi:i
hicl 7' are Vojy ., vo^
Thin i a
This
^
0
~ 3ci
F
-^dor s e c iQ
"
n the^L,
'
de
3cor3 7? aa^ arc^
-n
<n tiie
-fhoF r^rp^Vtf
*?3 rts*
aaors ^ 83 i-s
18
Vl ^
^^* tho
ovee-
.
and ...
si
&lve

xnd
* os*
(o) c.
tu ''" aKnlor h
nfrfjrfia. a l t M of
'
-
o'-' ni
^>.
-V
<*.
^ Goth
boa,
'
^0 a S
rCAc,
02i
3?nf
0 i>tn
at:ic
n^
1 n
2 e,
^

: .-.
:;;:
1
3 .) i P?3ition l eunnei .t
a ^ ,

221 r 7
det^ elet-i-. ^^QrtabT^
" i -

elow* to the 1
eun ^*
not ^ ,

- .
. .

2Vjg
r.
-

.
:

^ tliJ
easila.
Is, m.
Qo e asib
-the 7 + + 2e

^
>, bo Q, 7 C
'
nt3
nt f
*it :.^: -ut %, t4c * ne sidc
*P. ah&A*" ^ea% ^ ect
Sh**he* the empty
-- e guarcly -se
iy fa t D .* the ^3hoo
the
, The

the
'''
bSn ?*
Id ig
SG and
deflector'
'
*fns ^ g
,
- .. ...
^- 1%.,..^ !
r (oee Photo s 1301
; ^ 4J .

*t ban ^} Gctor eunra /


. :,? aae **Ua
. .

in the
'

' -
3J '-'-
...r.- >2
'
,/r
- I hand, "
% th
^7ST 3
1-
+ ,U1

*?..**
f*f a?.;

* -
*
s remain horizontal
The Beat in
had.ly 7
1
-'

: *. r*u., .!,
sr* - S . Jsrsssurr
In the vehicles inr-
*h ;
' v '
! '
I ~ v averaents were stiff to operate
pressure '
i .
*

v/as very difficult


to star* ovorc ~: ^
the inertia and it
rizht moment.
traverse smoothly end at the
examined and

damsed servic
A damaged UJ It basically
different type^
f footped ,i as!. ^
^
ith a
*
Oration
S-ui that of
transvar s
the pedals
possible owing
was
S!?!r s
to .HO vohoolo .
i
-J conditio.
**
rrirMintcd on a
* r. c-

kt *jl*
^ 2*h taU-tor. operation of the
lc to chaic a carnal
andirhsel is stiff and
:uvl therefore slow.
slow*

un tricar is a steel lover pivoted to the elevating >


The

the _7unner s
The fnn centrals so far described s.re out oi line with
seat. If the latter had been mounted about 6 further to the ri;?ht
of its present position (and this could have been done without
disturb in. any turret equipnont) the r;un caald have been controlled
-

with much re ter c.nfort and probably with more sjjeed and accuracy.

jr '-xtn. jlo uxuu'itcu vm taw no r cc row tne

;~>-'nt end icOrtlcji^.tePto T2P 2a is monocular


cycpie C e is stationary
rijit earpiece f
the-
and ccfortable
-unner' - v,,.^ O
W JSl^
* ' aai^ positioned,
1

ainco the
elevated. The
before he can look
thr~he T^l, * pUah d tc onealto

(0)
Apart fraa the

Conclusion. T,
.;un 3 ^,- ,*1


+ e.
^ r o viaion devices.

a Su^Bgas * 8? as: 10 <> - pun

iua "v
*
f; tea.?
1*, T,
2
,

Ksr*
cwnot
g rct is <lv Vu'\? a th
i. h riht of
.

stand l Vehi^I i tv,.

* Elizas:
'
;udd cause
thr?! ^
ttt
atooa
a l5
W **? ?*
the
1 th Vel 3C f acto-,
Although *ha .
'd cl oWOro =
s
is rent
the
>
the fa
< l>
Eassj, .

"hon
* hc '' t:~e
coctaa^ ..r
1
gone rat.
******* in
th^ooiT
^ ^-52^^ V%&* :
ima Zog***^
?h0
in
V
is
** not
to ^lo,
" of a th *
auiti;^
1 ba
nrc IIod
***. (th
0 s
'
h .
"14
**>{
5&. ft.
tup

M S^a^'ico * oaf:?-- ft?,ft. t


**>

* "
(a, ,h

0
**
u ~ ,h
** - , *
Mtls
^. SSSr.

'

/* >
- " :
0
typo of dr-iir r chsiig
' fflore or 0 ^oat
. & . suitable^ fitted In
r r 1 "
iS tr " i
'

In both
>
V,

'


': = (cc e* t fcr

'
th

'

^S5S"
- brak sh I
^riv-jr' E leca p
.
3in n thc stearin-
,
;' r or' ch

! .
-
^on, ? l i* of the
.
-
-
;

- * -V 1 " lonC and operated

. -...-
* -. lacing the

S* ~~r
assisted
.Then the engine is
the
runnoa^^^
t 0

towed), steering the vehicle


^
steerin' is iyrdraulically
g not running
requires considerable
effort

The gear lever for the synchromesh gearbox, is


pivoted fvor
convenience in both positions# It is mounte 3. on the light of* the
driver and used for selecting the seven forward and one reverse gears#
A latch must be lifted before 1, 6 and 7 gears can be selected, and a
second latch before reverse gear can be selected. Although a check
nay well be essential for reverse gear, the value of the check for
1, 6 and 7 gears seems questionable,

sem^^f*018 ;unted on thc lef *


0iti
the driver and has two
Each f these is conveniently
Pl^ocCbut to o.xrote f:.
ao 8iGn ; i.
'ic

(<=)
^tli
Vi3ion
13^
-=>'

Ln-t
thoir'?^ be
.--resent
^ they
v is
** *
Ut8iJ


=ri^n ****. ,
*
^ivc-r 0
f*
lc
ly
Uch r- 5" J
***na^ *ee to
ratlge
-
*e rLQ C -,p
.

.
f^ qu:' te
l'-
0V,
.
-- ^
V ^iiv-
+A

a3
^-.^ 8t nct^
^Q;
<****u\ "** h i0 ^Po alti .

v. i3T?is i 'r^z.

-
.
'

likely t* f * te bow-fiW and

-'
the JC
*; -
**".( 1 *).
'
'
.

srstssri?*
Pest ~ arc fitted !

(*) on the turret


ro-of **, ^
!'
1 / cxi the turret ro^r ~v
b
.
'
the Sumer 1
e position
(Cy on the turret roof * n *_ ,
011 c thc loader 1 * episcope,
^/ the left ci.dc f* +*, j .
river 3 instrument
panels
(#> '' Vr* rt ht- - - ^ the ^ 1C36 8et .

- .
a- tiofftctory. however, a lour
*
J in Jtec;
th
g for
are th tanco. ^
cffiJSSS KS in the
.n1
null front
^ gis
,prinS' foul the

w grtus^, r as * hul1
sr-vto* e
r^,.

ffSS S E

cm locked *.??&* *??* *


thc vchiol
e

door
iVo^^l
W a"y
fc
rotation of
f
^laSe
a lar*
in^enut
con letcly
hull in
removes
the-

disconnected dQjr oan he


commander's
10* sees. rr his is the

There
fixed 'cupola
*?
an th. Thc abnormally
? ~
^nepth'o/S to
necessary
and access, hut is n
1 5" in diameter hindor3
parallel side,
cupola, which has
thc set of cpiscopes. ..
house night
. .

A--e-rfl tr> take the Puma infra-red


was nodific
The cupola inspected
vis i on c ouiprnc nt

C
- 13

ioor i.; open it can he swung


in' this oosition, it neither fouls thc
to the left .and
th
locked;
commander's head nor impedes access
to end from the turret. As the hatch door opens sideways and not upwards,
the designers intention was presumably that the hatch would be kept
open during, an engagement. (if the vehicle were hit, it would take too
long for the corxiander and gunher to get out of it with the door
- ^^ clog w
*

out main armament


Since thc ormamenu and thc cmpty-case bin prevent the loader
from moving tto the left 3 idc of the turret and usinp* the cupola
side
i .

since no roof hatch is provided for him ?


and
him, the loader
la __ would enter and
;e turret through the
rear escape hatch. Thin is 4-v^ .
of any foot Support inside 0v' :m to the absence
enter or leave the turret
the turret it i - both
by the escape hatch?
^ ,
1 awkward to -

ihc hatch CJUl "be OTViriori

s S; JW*s- -*' * =*WS SKiSW s

each flowing table sivoa the+ . ,


as quickly as " ttV hls SeC nds ^
possible-- fatten and et
3 outsia
aiQe ^he
vehicle
^n

\ t

^ Pt
** u.z tS-^Lr 4
,

r 5 cup;,;
*' *
,
fa ->,
l& a ^e.^ aI
, the c!r.
iver
'h:
*** led*
out'
1
Ollt a* .. "*i c h
'
'f th 0 i the k
is t tc b 0'
for th s est

^. v,
'euflno
t *e is iCU. Ca
80 f
'Sun^V'**' fr
^ato^0 ^tch
io
tf>st
C
** a CJc -,_T it .

004
ce. Ss **
Yemeni- oor.

^-iofe^L.
they
is Sat i sf
acto
0 ?~TS^ihlenent ,

*y.

d v c *e Sn
n*
*
u.r
turret
I.
^
pcri^mc
-T ert--
: :
_

^t^ces^ ~. c3 .

-
r~ix. - **U *&. ^5? the t the
**
p0s lti^ 3h ^a
^n uober
''til
e f
beJ f sho"n
foun d ^
bounds
ilab ie
at Va
riou 3

it win r
and at 3
- ~
5 fen that It ,
.
,
-unnjtech f f
iF 7

" JS 4* '
;
-
a
avoidable
t
^ Connie t^ t
-

,
.
''SSSsSr
This is ^ 1 c h,
bad

foincnaai bl
for
Th 7 J e.-nents.
on^T the other
J'^-rr on the tri- 7
1 ,VOrc .-
Lender A - r*~ ,
- - 0 is
'."

Leader fl . Z/c.
(b) Funnier Stovr.rc . Backs a, B, C and D are the four pannier racks
which are accessible from the turret. Each rack holds 12 rounds
stowed horizontally.
a- J inv four
The i rounds in the hottoa layer are stowed

bases rear, the three rounds in i the next layer bases forward the three
rounds in the next layer bases rear, ^u.
1C-
and the
u tep layer of twS rounds is
stowed bases forward. on '<ar nr f is
The arrangement tm ._-
shown
, -? .r
in Photo
Xi L
i
>
, 1
,
-
^

* each of v/hich is
facilitates access to
the loyc/belov/.
rcnoved fr> it.

arrangement ab TC if
sh^L^oto l7 fcy ens of
thp hook-and-
spmv: heck must be
sprung upper ^
i2 ,
upwards
,
Th
f arrangement
tc be uni
is bad since 0 Vth
AsO' a result,
'

the cli-
th the '7 the be&
layer 77 ^ a, , ; rf

;
Squired to
.

r
considerate
'mt' ^ 7* thoror
ar. roqui
wnach the 3tre^h' 77Z7?
sris
h,vv. adcr
.._
! must ui^atcnt;-.,
ot
-B 2 u**s
-&2 ***** usinr
-as-or

Simply by invrr+,-..* 1(2 . .
rir^Ilrcr'f^-b

y therefore er could have



(It ...
--^?c-
saving 1 ?
ncuntel
,Unte J tho
the ,nn.'S''
V*
,tcn
C Studvin - *v-
-

yonu, ^Panther
r,:un/t^th ^ that

J*nce tnn open by a

^
1,

_ As the _
*hon the Oj, T astoed 5
_ 10
stectri

0 he
Wl!
Dth^^;
n
fT'^cnt
siteictricrn
cnl
+T''
n
nr
n cnont
2-ai

of +v
;-= aeodo
? ^ * t ^3
-
1

in
to &*
^hacle
.
aur
f Urin the
nt ***
acti,^)
.
>

-
" ta ^
*, istrO ig>
.
cj?*
Th =
a*m
* y -
1
tiao

*
taken

'
ft 0
? <* A Tt f* ?** for .5
!Sf* ' c
iock.

^
ydly be
n
,U3

yicnt f
3 in
th e
t ho
-W?*il
^fates
c 7 /7' 77 l:
.

brco
t>Oth
Swihes
The
e
r
'
.

rii is
no 3 C h
+.

y UsceOfr ^ tu^^okT-
4
^^
,
lirv-
cia;
touch<
an - th~ =
.

v
i

T^Och

, lc
*
ia
are
^
t ho
SftaT*" inrt
5 ,
cloo^
- - *

> >. 1

aocn
r -U.".-
;
f ti.
tho
of
C
-t
111
i
1

ia
>f loolf.
io
k r
}io
to
lc
-) -
an
Rack
A

d-w. '-ce.

loc it it 14 ic
; i
t0 ^
fetor -
^

SU 3p4
thc
aver
7e
of ta
* ! --^ |
e h .

y '

itical q+ ^ssible. ^ th ^ef


ore n^fV *nd
tljr ^Sr^I. Them
JtQCk -

^
f? .

S SCr^ SS e
a
^-ce33 ible

th^first

~
f
'

r -ncval cf f^
;

2 K ;

:
"
a/D prevents 1 ^l^ced -bout ftr-T^
^ turret had it

^ r
pTi: rtStrg .*
rt
rounds "*

*
thio

aoto
- si5^r~~e"
w

16 .
*
;

oordin
of

^-
* '

. f
--:"
t^,T^rr? thfhS j^ 3 s-
0

1 n-
-
c-^t ! tI%*Z ***, at 12
o'oloek
k C -35 s ecs.;
' ' secs. at 1 o'clock,
cohujojj

_;
.

lth thc
j, l

tl at 1
^um elevation,.0
.

o'c^ekV" l0Pre8SlOT
^ .
'
ct

--

:
S ^, :,
tl
.

st-posltioned rf

8 >t
:*: L
1

^
'f\
i0 sittt-ito'l to the left

llt^ S
1
'
^., ^ 11 o.^,T a t 9 0 C;l0ClC 7 SC0S,; 4t
a'ac s .
'

~ ' L " il> L thin ' c,c B kaok P 13 awkward to reach;


is -
1 f
- to,
-
. : r ,

which ore higher

;< -Ok 0. 7hia


rook contains 4 rounds and is shown in Photo IS. The
rr.ck 13 situate! In the left cldc of
the hull, to the rifiht front of
r -r c '- - available only at 6 , 7 onl 8 o'clock, - -
r '

h eng nl ly
'

fought, no lolling-

trials were conducted using the rack.

hack H . Thic r ck contains C rcunde and ia situated in the left resr


#

ccm. the hull. It ic accessible t 3, 4, and 5 o'clock and enc


can
round 3an e roneve -leek. Thin single round ,
'

be loaded in ^.6 sees.


hr very retro, loading
v/ 3.3

^ ^/
iri
o'dL were loaded
As en renents at 4 an^ 5
g thc 6 rounds
) o !W..
studied only at A f
; cr round,
cf 4.7 -ecs. .
an average tins
not
o There three racks which are
the-roforo, be ueed f=r

replenishment only.

to the left of the driver, who


kack J is situated in the pannier pass the
would in emergency or when the vehicle
was not in actn,
through
,

to the turret. The rack contains 4 rounds stowed


rounds
horizontally, base roar, in a single layer.

The two racks K and L each hold U rounds and are similar to the
other vertical racks, S, ?, G and H. The only difference is that a
hinged steel plate i3 mounted on top of the racks to prevent damage
by the hull crews feet. hack K is situated immediately behind the
Irivcr and kack L behind the bow-runner, each of
when could pass
ammunition from the racks back into the turret.

(o)
good, u
x-uunas are carried Jf "JSSS S* MW in tha Panther in
from the
,ta turret; the remaining

"f -JVp^S
- w passed ScfbfthTh
"
**
oack by the hull uc;
c.
The worst steware feature ^ xu
stewaro ..... .l.v ..
2 oclock only
A rounds arc Us ri ution of '
. ,

the rounds: at

^ssss availabt ^ ^

"ltion
ere convenient
to tip
sr
SwS
r *
the
>-. J * ,
*** Equate
-

- *-
wsrs3 SLSrs;S%^
-s.tr
ar r- (s

iCl'Q Q* T r*l

SpiiJil? .

^
-

w m ,;5ion f'-cilitie s
"-=
bad. wnlticr the.

-rttol
-
Ls=
* *52--
th0
5;g
.

Driver.. .
asusas
tlO0s
.
-
...

*>
BAD
a,
tip,
H l .

c n .

^ GC hul1
hatchcn
Poa iti
0n
unner'c of gunner,
their , ae at 3 ln3
^
=ontrola> j.
and b
relati^c
No ndJ j

soat.^^nt for
nmanater
(
I
SCISSORS PERISCOPE MOUNTIN^T] 2 '
+ PE-R: ^CP: r.K U.NTEir |

J0+
1
.1 ri'MKir^.
StAT
Cqntroi s

iert
^ARD
c TimTKS OF

section_5

OCNCLUSIOKo

OF THE THREE TnNKS STUDIED

LIST OF CONTENTS

DESCRIPTION OT' THE VEHICLES

THE CCIftL'JttJEft
( a) Scat and Position
0 ; Controls
(
c ) Vision

THE GUNNER
a) Scat and
Position
Gun Controls
Sighting

TiG LOADER

f-i SoT 1

DRIVER

6.
B W-GUNNEk
1 :Posi '

^-Gun fc
ion
Sa Set
vion
7.
^CHTDjg
8.

9. .

10.
>
i n^sraapgiqj c? tk3 vehicles

BBSiS 22 r
with those of Allied design which were used during the same period:-
.

t
f
sc ^tiThL ^d
m
P
^ithc-
n
L^ ^T^t^-=^.P d

4 ths corananir can
-? Sj?
the
turret, ihe w,r
;-r of footrests;
the 1
' ** h c a 30at
r a ^
?b
tho sc .to is adjustable; .-'J.thou^h
forward-backward
-

:
:
essential if the seat is ^positioned,
ustnant.

- r-~y -
ipyctl Tiger. Although the caunandar
1 '

the
'x jrthor can loan back gainst the turret wall in reasonable
- r ~- --* Tiger he oust lean back against his respirator
ocraz f oral of padded backrest is essential fur a tank conxaander: his
3c ~t should also bo designed so that he is net liable to clip off
it v/hen the vehicle is on the jaove ever rough country.

(b) Controls . In the Tiger , the ccnraandor hrts a handwheel which


all cars Him to traverse the turret and lay the gun approximately on
a target v/hich the gunner cannot see. In the ether two tanks, t
gunner :oust roly cn th. instructions# f

by which the
..lthouah wo consider that sone forn of control
o-n tr- -verse the turret is hifhly >
*
, is
3Uch 08 tn
thinl
ocriclc-toly satisfactory.
'V'
The coeroandor turn h a h .l unless
c^t ^
- I. l:r- the latch -n tho main hjUldwboel,
ft
_
- - off
ncr
r - ?*?el, -- ^ wuiaer'fl
f- , I
%

The spars rip ja-o^ded for ^ 8


oin- oaazaxtter sh-ul*,
tanks ic Joorc suitable,
.
; ~
- '
;.vA
qUiCKiy
..
'

-1 *-- ocufcrtahJy.
.
'
-~r. vr -.tuo
CftH Hr VC his
* At
,
'S '
1
OF -

(cl Vision
Ska *^nhoulders
acticn.
ana thrcuch
^/SSccs.
-> 1-
*
- ^th either episcopos
,
thod.
11 three tanks
haw
^ ( Ti
ger) mounted xn
... rded..
Several
On let <ai-r J* ottorepiaccpes in the vehicle, and
--

w rc cavcr^ Wherever
"blind r\rcas j
adherer su~h conditions*
this policy should be with either glass
-
shc^a
-ctati^van
_
be^itte
possible, a that the
blocks e 013 copes contains*. in id, _

eocaudar cln scan any angle without having


to rotate the cupol-
excessively.

An adjustable mounting is incorporate:1, in the tanks to hold r.

scissors telescope. This instrument is fitted Tjrincrily for


observation of fire. The 3 .T.T. t rt oi Tiger states that the
.eleacL> -i\xc the co .vmv.er "an excellent i^rois
of ali/minr the
m
cun ente tor
cgt ot
, a tne
the* minor cannot see
unnor see."
.
"

-ostr?=ts
cupel?.,
C
fc^t^4 r
.dtheugh natlulty-
s i0V '* le - -.hen fitted
rCJ ct3 throuGh the
, it
n;- .
ipr.,.;J 3 crudely
i-iV ?
3itu ^od ani
a
ualauotol -.ivantape, toloaccF has the
hSewTrf Pi

rcascwbl; but
it" ccBMriW
=^dor _
of those tonka
~ cn:l --n1or
h bliai spots")
;
-
cround near to +k shoultl haw
^ "tt c.clcs
THE rjTTTTrr.
axl three
whlol
"^-r-o -t hand. ha* ^^

^
traverse
,-ho al .
horeag i opor -tcd
s ?adc- v-'r n _.,
Bri by
y +h
t" 0
I*.
ti8h t ...

:7sfK i

Jf therefore

iii) , _ .
'"* - stiff, *-
controls are
to ^ .

mndvertentJy
operated.

gunner can t
'
'
*
K "- I aals yet the
( '<i) 7l*
t'tpeiel rcchani
3C8
^capable of ,.. .
amend that - etches.
J* traver.-.- ^at -- ^.he cr^ier
- cm .,o~ .

control of

- is' tCi
9vea i Since
:, the lzttr- 2 ;
.

..
T7 :
^^

-^^antly
-^stantly
*** *i^can
rotated
- In ; .;
n * "-

iiab;
lidb; *
'
ri the gunner turns
4

----- i- :>co axdc to side a


feet hie si-htir. id thero-
,-jtf there-
.

typ: h t a
^jy. th!
n^J S^ tv :^
-
cllea hy
-j<-r, the -
the erthode*
v.-iiccl .axis
.

: ::
.
c-_.-r
b
_^. ~7
th
-"^^rtacic
-
:er
7 ^ ox-raticn, and
Bcyal 5V, the
r
they r.
^ hnnishecl# are toe low
whre- tanks, the v/hool hondloc arc too
not easily accessible.
short tc allow
a- -c ouTit c | urchasc

thr dee x fIrod electrically. In the


Tl^cr vnl Kcy.l Tiger, the firin control io a curve 1 steel bar
hinro'l behind the elevating wheel. Unices the wheel handle is at
tlju top -f its jrc :f :.jjvcaent, the runner nust remove h3 hand
ft" d It i reach the *'irin, t control. This jerlous, however, f

since th. mmer Tight veil finish laying by gripping the rim of
the .iicel t the top for fine ad justnent.
' His hand would then be
adjacent tc the fir in, control. .

The c-ntrcl in Font] -r io short, curved lr.toh


nllc. There is a
^ i:
onto the ,l.v
a the tinner grips * rhon
5rtTthc

v .-- Juct .r.ti .nc !, the -unner ay hold the


h 411
.
.

' -
* *
^J is 'm
net easily accessible t the crucial waft Aen th

target*
inside
the gunner's
^
fmoti Mn-cr
pressure to operate,
'
Since -. ..ej.x-.~~..-
- -

ril =e little
danger

c U

-ii 3 ''tricr.lly either by
The gun should, if
possible,
electric lly- cstuated primers,

solenoid ..4th percussion ixrxrsor containing electric


1 when ro^hagaad,
^4
and such rounds do nvt necessarily need
prmer protection (primer cli^sj
if the bases rxc exposed vhsn stowed,

Bcvdcn-typo :x chemical firing BchnnisniG are lcs3 desirable since


they arc- encrally stiffen:, leas positive and require more maintenance
.

than electric ncchcmisuG,

Anther is vtl -

"*** .*-* sieht


SiTST
X

a
3ieht
^ ^ S^thor
-
3houid
J l8
if *>**&**
;'^uia b

Sr ^C^h
^
*-
e
vie-,.-
>* n

^
^ ^
^
*

.5 than th
*

, Qtat-j

ClO.+ r,
'
^rct n
% 11
thee e
f
at
W -ittea 1
f r
0a
W tK
1-
*do^
tho.Sqj

11
thi.Xj k
Si tjf
that
-"-V ..
loader 'a se . t , .
" '
airable ..
v t>-
, '

-rai space ** letter win v,


* very
.

~ r's w
.

'' ' T
(lC 3
^

oru^tc
-'"w spac
:
S;; "
- seat be ltt , , .

iesi
i;
-- LriP _
;p, -arable

- 3 also
t, _
11
CvvXAyoac
desirable-
- . . --munition; ri- 2^4. ,
.
w" wic icaier
1

led
-- is rr t fc " - thrown
/'TV^ -.1

r -~lcn . The vis

acur.tc
"' ** Ro0^1 Tiger, he has
V'"

. .

* 1
-- 'c-:z- Jil.r*3 devices.

--
.
---
Noraally
r 3taniiby until
..
ttrJc would pc into action wit
t -
- .< u T

W1
.
*>

~
.
vices, tc
4 iniepondentiy
, cr covering an an-le which is "blind"

t rV"' ntly, should be ,;iven a : .


P-riccope on a nido -angle cpisccps. If oowcrinr an angle for
"p- c* -- n^r, should be riven j. criscopc centred cn that ^nrjc but
-

V. .Li.-

(r.) 3^ -t ..r.'l i^citicn . The driver in -.21 three tanks sits in the

cut in the tv/_ ether vehicles, his aer.t is r 2 jus table to nn upper
aitian ;looed-dcwn), The Panther
ts, nc clipping on top of the ether,
norous wi ht td jus tawnt.

he land nore ^ -
^ ^ cr so
occasi'on $ in
4- i ,
- rtant, since the
quickly.
ffo consider
.son. r
- -It.. ^ ^ r? uns
vehicle

TTo frveur the Gcrrjai practice be cruise


tc - :

to stinn^" is operate! only by -


saall part of the feet.
(-) The f,vt is ;i:ro
.
liable t. slip
3Us? fcrward
fcrwarc ^a "stirrqp* than on
to
ram_
:r
^
3*

tN

*he ankle then


r

it
2 ~^ther an 1
Vo *** * <<=


cen 1

fr .
,
Kevrever, ' i*
BgODver

HHPH
'
*
tv.
fcQdicus.
BSlLL ...
l .-:o
'
the -

a t CC *
v - *
il;
SSr *
'

ti^e the

R~
7
chr-rvir*:
-
la both
tes
5
the
!
'-ithwr
n Cr " hi
**a

. ;
"
" ^^
'
*** ' P8 s
-1
S,.ti8
'tisi-~
factQ
c+ ^tory, .

h- J*?* . elu+vu Tl Tr

0
I -'"-*! .

tttoh
., . .
r.
** *"
**iSSy*^i3g
y r J.W*. !u
.
rc^j3 and
inoreM, but nct <v
h eai,
ste^

lcs a
dri v

-:v.
35 s Ss*r>5!*sr . -

r
-el
U -n - VV oVs 74
th0
hyTjf1 ^ ,
3

* **
'
le
* L
,.
,, Ci>o oCi' v,'^
.

...

' '
'J14 ,7>' the '-hly.
tho
Vv*>!
'

'
i-nc
l
"-thc
,
n}t
** feV
0* G
s therefore
5 ,
*-~cnc 'lu' 3 i ,-l
,
- - ^ annual .
'

z* tn- t'T"
; rr'tchet
cX
hans^.v*i

n ls therefore*

t:-~n the h-rI^v: CCkinj thc foot rote i, .


** r
-** Wanr **
. ,

, _
.
because *>s
: satisfy
(-) The ratchet
i 3 ncm-m,,
,

^
- \
'
n-r.^Ty nct o
TJ .
I'-
il
_
is liable to
.
^ accessible.
be 'cci s -.
n+ ,,
s ' 6 rr-tchets
"*
V T fitted ,-n a r
Gernan chicles wore prom
to
On thw wholo ai... -
tisi " - rivin " contr Is -
rv Th
in .
. ,

--'
^nveient ln


1
1
1 iC 7h0n
^throe -
-

ir th r-' "lsed-lcim
-
^sa block, while in th
rotating poriscope is

The
_ ^
- * uu d possible
ti win
n thC Qmanle^ , s instructions
rl icZlcxly liffioui+
ir ^hio^ dut^ SirQbl0 '


..
~7 L
Kc I-rovioion for driving "eponod-ts" is node in the Tiror. In thc
.r vehicl Ivor can have his houldors outside
, :.

rt. His j-; of si ht is excellent,


an essential feature 'hen Irivin ; such larjo vehicles.

--- p-y.-^G-lTl-UZR

(a) Seat and Position The l ov/-runncr in all three tanks sits in the .

earner of ti
front ri ht corner the hull. He is -iven a chafer table seat and
siti n is otherwise j.aci-us, his footroc **
us ins 3 *

boo**0 *
Th~ rstchct-and-coo rrran :x-nt, by which the nnrlc of thc ;

.
.
i -hiated is eiqple and appnrontay quite effective . The backrest
flat in t! Tl Ti or; this facilitates
access

:
v.
4-v turret and is therefore c notewortty feature,
nil
,t \ V.-.-0U.1.
-
'
is a 7. 34 which, Jta

' '
ril and headpnn.
:
.

ore
-

ms

Jfin
ttinc spring is incorporate!
the

k
. +htD un is still
despite the s?nnC/^2nst the headpan
to
T Tiror ,
****' * 10 '

1 '<
* mtw -

adequate,
un mounting is
The padding cn
thv.
over to
unted about 6" too far
to si^ht and
,

In the Panther, the loan ver tc the left


The gunner oust therefore vehicle
lie
as an
the left.
HFTthS gun. This is uncmf^tablo
the neve, these fiulos to
* *>
:
..n. tar

Apparent
^ when the
difficulty
v 9 little thounht was
n iily
'

.
_ .

^
in kee~in~ hie balance on the scat*
positicn Pas lesa mcd. The only
-ivents" user comfort when the
satisfactory to the! of havin the ba.-yunner seatel
squarely to the rain
is t; move the ball mount in;; further right , since the seat cannot be
horn
replaced elsewhere

(c) .'ire less Sot . The wireless set in all three tonk3 i 3 situated
cither to the ri,. ht cr left cf the bew-'unner, where it con be Quickly
find easily if art

( ) Vision. The standard Goman episoopio telescope tr-c K 7 P ? ,<.


lx TOll-podaea and appears satisfactory.
In aTliticn to the oirht
roof end faces
half-right. it is
- R"
unSaodf
->?
^ nOUted in the hull

ancle h thout
c
.g-
needing tc handle
the
^avc Sit tol
bc
f r
Gn
tsr over
tarS

advantaS'
tjeous
a wi
d-dc

UGKTBIG

2
l We reccieneni
tanks to cnobil
v.
G'TCVer
that a
xl cn.
*= adequate
, sinco ft
<.


if -u +
i

jsc- * * -Stass aa*.


,

^ Ln ***. "
o v/hGn it


* 13 ?

aSLiSSss
wtchc3
"nk, exccnt rr^
th^Tu*' 3 bow

* ^z^r55 aS% ^ *
-**

5 JS2-
S :

>W.:= **<

r.


The hatch
is
^factory/
closed th d00rs in the o
r h
^ ^Ser a
ltiQn.
-
;
do^
c
there
not Jror f
3idcr
t

53K J5Sr - ot hj
hc '^ Gcd i
^ vehicle thcri
ttsdat^ r cf but

deai-T" fS^-rflihUt coA


ci
it t
con b^^ehporitt^.
l>or icQ
" * "
^tc h n tr

the
fee? 1 ^ot
ri

^ bc
ivS?s;
hatch

is open. 1 h i'ocf
0 u cd
S^. *1
n thQ
*

Th
it to <3
t his
ir iv h -ro thov
'
*

J 13 ^ hl,If
tc
f
fc loa
c i3rAri'-l
In
t * lrec an 4.
e ^i I" tanks
the; *
cu?cl a * * le
Gunner
Un^ 7
i.unner'a hr-?*
poeitio^f hatch
.
n. J*
th

^
~
'

u tanJc -
restricts

^ 4oa?^^*SS'
1
r-. ^vi oc ~ i 13 circuit ,

a rot
*
* - p %****.
nct *-
"U J :oc, ,.
is

,_
~v,4_L to reach ft,
^ 'curorn to elc<v>
-
,7h n closed, the
.
ft?ont Qnd of the doer.'
f ioor

A loader* r'
]i' -*-
^
*

'
; - -
S&fSSfSi
r Pivots
when the
QnDander,s
''
Norther:
:
-:
sidev7^0
hatoh is provided
to^n^ f
10 1 " cur
Instead' h -cr'th- i
,

7hen the ** 10 1 4
x>8UBabJ J r bc topt
in^^r^J2
^^coSL*?foot?
; su-.orr inside the 0srl:l
turret^?10 cth
'

to the abcor.cc -
!-'

to leave .no turret by


the eocano hatch 2lcttr 2nd av/ktrard '

roof hatch would have

Emer^enqy eocope hatches arc- fitted in + i- <-


In thc :- tank, the hatch i
:
* 0" 1 Tiger.

without considerable assistance


, nn t
fro;-
Z V
~
*!&.
t?
-
at 4 o'clock.
lic thu turro1
\
;

C a rf
; furthermore the hatch ,
,

- ' J" us the turret un travorao.


S W.-r in mounted in thc back plate of
the
^T*
f Ui :
:
fc
.-. i v
SE
A ~ h t=i - ia r -' * and partly
. masked by the .
-

cuonunitian in thc oul x bins. Ever, when the bini arc oty, only a
thin nan can use the h Actively. The h not bo olosed
iaei tun latter an tar aver so. .

nb consider that neither of these escape hatches is satisfactory


fer re v j n. TJ .y i mid ul,-
ovor, for r :.

tun* 3 1 wit since the crew need not lift thc rounds over
.
,

turret to p:.C3 then throuh thc* reef hatches.

A o::ir.ll circular hatch is fit to 1 in the roof of thc Royal TiCr


turret; this is use f r lisj seal of the empty oases ^ftcr firing L

Tht* cases in thc Panther and


Ti~er would bc disposed of ;robab3y by
ejection throu/h the caxiander* s cupola..
In 'balin^-out' fr mn each tank, the jpau^r
took^
> i^.iinr-Out*.
~ Tho
- un r *
,

rr :
the eomaan:?or, loader

; too

k.
ore! ho
easy to open,

, , ~~ f ^oih'S J- &
?* - ~
*

s SS2
projections to

/K^sHTj fliBBIS-Sg^ into the


to token to load it
v.-tw
ajnd the tine
.

^munition,
The stowage of
-- of considerable
interns .

C.un, IS
X
**munition
f *^^^?iftS\S?i?
is carman
is^l
ronutt , no a;
Panther
the -vvnnicr
. , .
s or vertically in snail rack3
in. the
roar in
horizontally, base rear
...

the turret i.crir.ictcr


the hull floor beyond
is stowed horizontally on
munition for tin 8.8 on cun in the TiSer
bins.
the pSrs, and also horizontally in the underfloor

Only in tho Uoyal Tiger , which carries the ammunition in the


lcrgc
bulge in the rear of the turret, is a large quantity of ammunition
available at nil traverse positions. Tho position of these f ready 1
rounds i3 always immediately be hint the gun, whore it is most easily
accessible. The rounds arc completely exposed and carried above the
level of the turret ring.

The followin' table jjivos full


details of the stowage :

1
'
PfiNTHER TIGER ROYAL
;

j
Total No. t f rounds
carried.
j

f TIGER
L No * cf r ^-^3 m
oracurcl bins.
l
^
7Q
: 92 !
64 or 70
__o. or rounds in None None
sheet natSTb^ j

None
hh^
*

r IS ^None t 70

None
Ml-. Ti rounaa atSol None
withcuT7^rr^-r ,
r 22
not be carried
in a

. . ^r': r3 -^ -ociUo. Thc

vlt 3hcul'. be rcrirvi +v. * . .


&

10

-- "- tur ^3 ;.._n -11 three t ante:-


t-.

GjCC rT.TUr-j-JS
r-'D j'SATtlkSS

Specious position for leader. Grew* 8 seats badly placed in


relation t^ their ccntruls.
"Dosi gn cf soots /.jil backrests. D-jsi,*n of ceamunition bin cnl
fittings.
Driving arran ;ooent f Gunner -eid bow -gunner should
have periscope to assist
sighting.
Ccoaand ore *
Item: tive positions Gun controls badly designed
"nd positioned..
Large nurdber of rounds 3 1 cr.vc d in Gunner's cra/nped position.
vehicles.

little consider ticn h s boon given, in the design of these


:at of tho Purth. .

-nl7 " ith ^? COD^fs ' - 1

rh vehicle's mocJ^ ^y

...
study
vrculd h'.ve revealed cost cf these undesirable
extent 'ihyci l-^iat
qualities* 'f U
unnor should have adeqvr-tc
-
with the
throe tanks this is not possible
v;
-
;*i n -ll
vision facilities#
*

oquip^nt previlcl. .

'
: ; ..... IXo f ^f^c^o^rs are***

prone to xnj-uj
storage.
I

Oil the
user
and

r
m gfribution List.
12
SA/AC 1

D.K.T. 2
M.C. cf S 1
D.Vi.D. )
D.R.A.C. o
R. A.C. School
S. A.E.
D.R.A.
D.ihl.E.
War Office Library ^
Admiralty Motion Study Unit rv,

T. P.A. 3 (a)
D.G.F.V. cn-*.

P.D.T.D. (D)
Ordnance Beard
Defence Research Liason (Canada)
Australian' Army Staff
N Z Llili t ary H

Q
Wily Adviser, Union of S.A.
hUitcry Attache' U.S. Enbaasy OMv>v^ro4^o\-^-^

E.^.s. Washington

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