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TIMBER

LECTURE - 1
Types of timber physical properties
seasoning, conversion, defects decay and
preservation of timber industrial timber
plywood block, particle and fibre board
WOOD as being a generic term, whereas TIMBER is wood converted into
boards, plans, beams, etc. use in construction or woodworking.

Wood is the hard, fibrous material that makes up the tree under the bark,
whereas timber may be defined as a wood which retains its natural physical
structure and chemical composition and is suitable for various engineering
works.

Following is the classification of timber as per IS: 399, except the


classification of timber based on grading which is given in IS: 6534

Structure of tree:
From the visibility aspect, the structure of a tree can be divided into two categories
1. Macro structure
2. Micro structure
(a) Pith: The innermost central portion or
core of the tree is called pith or medulla.

(b) Heart wood: The inner annual rings


surrounding the pith is known as heart wood.

(c) Sap wood: The cuter annual rings


between heart wood and cambium layer is
known as sap wood.

(d) Cambium layer: Thin layer of sap


between sap wood and inner bark is known
as cambium layer.

(e)Inner bark: The inner skin or layer


covering the cambium layer is known as
inner bark.

(f) Outer Bark: The outer skin or cover of the


tree is known as outer bark.

(g) Medullary rays: The thin radial fibers


extending from pith to cambium layer are
known as medullary rays.
Types of Timber
On Basis of its Position

On the Basis of its Grading (IS:6534)

On the Basis of Modulus of Electricity

On the Basis of Availability

On the Basis of Durability

On the Basis of Seasoning Characters

On the Basis of Treatability


ON BASIS OF ITS POSITION
Standing Timber: implies a living tree.
Rough Timber: forms a part of the felled tree.
Converted Timber or Lumber: are logs of timber sawn into planks, posts, etc.
ON BASIS OF ITS Grading (IS:6534)
All grading specifications are clearly distinguished between
Structural Or Stress Grading, and Commercial or utility grading
based on Indian Standard classification.
Structural Grading is also known as stress grading. However, there
is a small distinction between the two. Structural grading refers to
the principle by which the material is graded on the basis of
visible defects which have known effects on the strength
properties of the material.
Stress grading refers to the principle by which the material is
graded by consideration of maximum principle stresses to which it
can be subjected.
Commercial Grading also known as yard grading or utility grading refers to
the principle by which the material is graded by consideration of usefulness of
the material and price factors.
Commercial grading is further divided in the
following classes:
Grade A: Based on dimensions and general
appearance. The dimensions of lengths, widths and
thicknesses of converted materials are measured
Grade B : Based on the best ultimate use of the
material Here, each grade is further divided into A, B
and C classes to indicate occurrence of defects. Only
two lengths are recognized, long (L) which is 5m and
above, and short(S) that is under 5m. Each log is
stamped such as BAL (Beam, A-class, long), PBS
(Plank, B-class, short), etc. Some times another letter
is also added indicating the species, e.g. T for teak.
Grade C : Based on qualitative evaluation of defects
and rough estimate of out-turn of utilizable
material.
ON BASIS OF ITS Modulus of Electricity
The species of timber recommended for constructional purpose are classified as
Group A: Modulus of elasticity in bending above 12.5 kN/mm2
Group B: Modulus of elasticity in bending above 9.8 kN/mm2 and below 12.5
kN/mm2
Group C: Modulus of elasticity in bending above 5.6 kN/mm2 and below 9.8
kN/mm2

ON BASIS OF ITS Availability

According to availability, timber can be of three grades, namely X, Y and Z.


XMost common, 1415 m3 or more per year
YCommon, 355 m3 to 1415 m3 per year
ZLess common, below 355 m3 per year
This is based upon the figures supplied by the forest departments.
ON BASIS OF ITS Durability
High Durability average life of 120 months and over.
Medium Durability average life of less than 120 months but of 60 months or more.
Low Durability average life of less than 60 months.

ON BASIS OF ITS Seasoning Characters


Timbers are classified depending upon their behaviour to cracking and splitting during normal
air-seasoning practice under three categories.
High Refractory (Class A) are slow and difficult to season-free from defects.
Medium Refractory (Class B) may be seasoned free from surface defects, etc. if some protection is
given against rapid drying.
Low Refractory (Class C) These can be rapidly seasoned free from defects.
ON BASIS OF ITS Treatability
This classification is based upon the resistance offered by the heartwood of a species to
preservatives under a working pressure of 1.05 N/mm2 as
(a) Easily treatable.
(b) Treatable but complete preservation not easily obtained.
(c) Only partially treatable.
(d) Refractory to treatment.
(e) Very refractory to treatment, penetration of preservative being practically nil from the
sides and ends.
Physical properties/ Characteristics of Good Timber

The principal characteristics of timber of concern are strength,


durability and finished appearance
1. Narrow annual rings, closer the rings greater is the
strength.
2. Compact medullary rays.
3. Dark colour.
4. Uniform texture.
5. Sweet smell and a shining fresh cut surface.
6. When struck sonorous sound is produced.
7. Free from the defects in timber.
8. Heavy weight.
9. No woolliness at fresh cut surface
Seasoning of Timer

Timber cut from freshly felled trees is too wet for normal use and is
dimensionally unsuitable.
Seasoning of timber is the process by which moisture content in the
timber is reduced to required reducing moisture content, the
strength, elasticity and durability properties are developed. A
well seasoned timber has 15% moisture content in it. :
1. Reduce the shrinkage and warping after placement in structure.
2. Increase strength, durability and workability.
3. Reduce its tendency to split and decay.
4. Make it suitable for painting. Seasoning
5. Reduce its weight

Natural Artificial
Natural Seasoning of Timber
Natural seasoning is the process in which timber is seasoned
by subjecting it to the natural elements air or water. Natural
seasoning may be water seasoning or air seasoning.
Water Seasoning
Water seasoning is the process in which timber is
immersed in water flow which helps to remove present
in the timber. It will take 2 to 4 weeks of time and after
that the timber is allowed to dry. timber is ready to
use.

Air Seasoning
In the process of air seasoning timber logs are arranged in
layers in a shed. The arrangement maintaining some
gap with the ground. So, platform is built on ground at
300mm height from are arranged in such a way that air is
circulated freely between logs.
By the movement of air, the moisture content in timber
slowly reduces and seasoning occurs. a slow process it will
produce well seasoned
Natural or Air Seasoning: The log of wood is sawn into planks of
convenient sizes and stacked under a covered shed in cross-wise direction
in alternate layers (Fig. 4.2) so as to permit free circulation of air. The
duration for drying depends upon the type of wood and the size of planks.
The rate of drying is however very slow. Air seasoning reduces the
moisture content of the wood to 1215 per cent. It is used very
extensively in drying ties and the large size structural timbers.
Artificial Seasoning: The prevalent methods of
artificial seasoning are as follows:
Boiling
Kiln Seasoning
Chemical Seasoning
Electric Seasoning
Water Seasoning
The logs of wood are kept completely
immersed in running stream of water, with
their larger ends pointing upstream.
Consequently the sap, sugar, and gum are
leached out and are replaced by water. The
logs are then kept out in air to dry. It is a quick
process but the elastic properties and strength
of the wood are reduced.
Boiling: in water or exposing the wood to the
action of steam spray is a very quick but
expensive process of seasoning.
Kiln Seasoning: is adopted for rapid seasoning of
timber on large scale to any moisture content.
In kiln seasoning timber is placed in a chamber
with some special heating arrangement. In this
process one thing should be kept in mind that
heating system should be under control, other
wise timber will be crack or wrap . The time
required for this seasoning is 3 to 12 days. This is
quick process.
Chemical Seasoning

In chemical seasoning carbon dioxide, ammonium carbonate or urea are used as


agents for seasoning, those are applied in dry state, the inter surface of timber
dries first than outer side. This ensures uniform seasoning. The time required for
this seasoning is 30 to 40 days.
Electrical Seasoning
Electric Seasoning: The logs are placed in such a
way that their two ends touch the electrodes.
Current is passed through the setup, being a bad
conductor, wood resists the flow of current,
generating heat in the process, which results in
its drying. The drawback is that the wood may
split.
DEFECTS
Defects can occur in timber at various stages, principally during
the growing period and during the conversion and seasoning
process.
CHEMICAL STAIN:-The wood is sometimes
discoloured by the chemical action caused
with it by some external agency. This is known
as chemical stain.

KNOTS:-These are the bases of branches or


limbs which are broken or cut off from the
tree. The portion from which the branch is
removed receives nourishment from the stem
for a pretty long time and it ultimately results
in formation of dark hard rings which are
known as knots. As continuity of wood fibres
are broken by knots, they form a source of
weakness
SHAKES:-These are longitudinal separations in
wood between the annual rings. These are cracks
which partly or completely separate fibers of
wood. The separations make the wood undesirable
when appearance is important.
Star Cup
shakes shakes

Heart Ring
STAR SHAKES:-These are cracks which extend
from bark towards the sap wood. These are
usually confined upto the plane of sap wood.
These are wider on outside ends and narrower
on inside ends. They are usually formed due to
extreme heat or severe frost during the growth
of tree
CUP SHAKES:-It appears as curved split which
partly or wholly separates annual rings from one
another .It is caused due to excessive frost action
on sap present in the tree especially when the tree
is young.
HEART SHAKES:-These cracks occur in centre of
cross-section of tree and they extend from pith to
sap wood in direction of medullary rays. These
cracks occur due to shrinkage of interior part of
tree which is approaching maturity. The heart
shake divide the tree cross-section into two or four
parts.

RING SHAKES:-When cup shakes cover the


entire ,they are known as ring shakes
TWISTED FIBRES:-These are known as wandering
hearts and caused by twisting of young trees by fast
blowing wind. The timbers with twisted fibers is
unsuitable for sawing.

UPSETS:-These indicate wood fibers which are


injured by crushing or compression. The upsets
are mainly due to improper felling of tree and
exposure of tree in its young age to fast blowing
wind.

BURLS:-They are particularly formed when a


tree receives shock or injury in its young
age. Due to its injury, the growth of tree is
completely upset and irregular projections
appear on the body of timber.
BLUE STAIN :-The sap of wood is stained to bluish
colour by the action of certain type of fungi

BROWN ROT :-The term rot is used to indicate


decay or disease of timber, the fungi of certain type
removes cellulose compounds from wood and
hence wood assumes the brown colour.
WHITE ROT:-It is just opposite of brown rot. In
this certain type of fungi attack lignin of wood
and wood assumes the appearance of a white
mass consisting of cellulose compounds

HEART ROT:-This is formed when branch has come out


of the tree. In such case, the heart wood is exposed to
attack of atmospheric agents. Ultimately the tree
becomes weak and it gives hollow sound when struck
with hammer
WET ROT:-SOME KIND OF FUNGI CAUSEDCHEMICAL
DECOMPOSITION OF WOOD OF TIMBER AND IN
DOING SO CONVERT TIMBER INTO GREYISH BROWN
POWDER.IT IS KNOWN AS WET ROT. SOME
IMPORTANT POINTS TO BE REMEMBERED ABOUT
WET ROT ARE.

DRY ROT :- SOME TYPES OF FUNGI FEED ON


WOODS AND DURING FEEDING THEY ATTACK ON
WOOD AND CONVERT IT INTO DRY POWDER
FORM.THIS IS KNOWN AS DRY ROT.THE
FOLLOWING FACTS TO BE NOTED.
(CAUSED BY)

BEETLES MARINE BOARERS TERMITES


Flour like powder
THEY FORM PIN HOLES OF SIZE ABOUT 2MM DIA IN WOOD
TUNNEL FORMATION IS DONE IN SAP WOOD BY LARVAE OF BEETLE
CONVERSION OF TIMBER INTO FLOUR LIKE POWDER
THEY DO NOT DISTURB OUTER SHELL OR COVER

They are found in salty water


They form tunnels or bores to take shelters
Diameter and length of holes are as high as 25mm and 60 mm respectively
Affected wood looses its colour and strength
No timber is completely immune from attack of marine boarers
LIVES IN COLONY AND VERY FAST IN EATING AWAY THE WOOD
FROM CORE OF CROSS-SECTION.
MAKES TUNNELS IN DIFFERENT DIRECTIONS AND USUALLY
NOT DISTURB THE OUTER SHELL OR COVER.
THE TIMBER PIECE ATTACKED BY TERMITES MAY LOOK SOUND
UNTILL IT COMPLETELY FAILS
FEW GOOD TIMBERS LIKE TEAK,SAL,ETC CAN RESIST THE
ACTION OF TERMITES
CHIP MARK DIAGONAL GRAIN TORN GRAIN WANE
CHIP MARK:-THIS DEFECT IS
INDICATED BY MARK OR SIGNS
PLACED ON FINISHED SURFACE
OF TIMBER.THEY MAY BE
FORMED BY PLANING MACHINE

WANE:-THIS DEFECT IS
DENOTED BY PRESENCE
OF ORIGINAL ROUNDED
SURFACE ON
MANUFACTURED PART OF
TIMBER
DIAGONAL GRAIN:-THE DEFECT IS
FORMED DUE TO IMPROPER
SAWING SAWING OF TIMBER.IT IS
INDICATED BY DIAGONAL MARKS
ON STRAIGHT GRAINED SURFACE
OF TIMBER

TORN GRAIN:-DEFECT CAUSED


WHEN A SMALL DEPRESSION
IS FORMED ON A FINISHED
SURFACE OF TIMBER BY
FALLING A TIMBER OR SO

TORN GRAIN
TWIST CUP BOW SPRING SPLIT HONEY COMBING
BOW:-THIS DEFECT IS
INDICATED BY CURVATURE
FORMED IN DIRECTION OF
LENGTH OF TIMBER

CUP:-THIS DEFECT IS
INDICATED BY CURVATURE
FORMED IN TRANSVERSE
DIRECTION OF TIMBER
CHECK:-A CRACK
WHICH SEPERATES
FIBRES OF WOOD.IT
DOES NOT EXTEND
FROM ONE END TO
THE OTHER

SPLIT
SPLIT:-WHEN CHECK
CHECK EXTENDS FROM ONE END
TO OTHER,IT IS KNOWN AS
A SPLIT
TWIST:-WHEN A PIECE OF
TIMBER HAS SPIRALLY
DISTORTED ALONG ITS
LENGTH,IT IS KNOWN AS A
TWIST

HONEY-COMBING:-DUE TO
STRESS DEVOLOPED DURING
DRYING,VARIOUS RADIAL AND
CIRCULAR CRACKS DEVELOP IN
THE INTERIOR PORTION OF
TIMBER,WHICH RESEMBLES
WITH HONEY-COMB TEXTURE HONEY-COMB STRUCTURE
Preservation of Timber
It means protecting from fungi and insects attack so that its life is increased. The
following are the widely used:
1. Tar 1.Tar Treatment:
2. Paints Hot coal tar is applied to timber with brush. The
coating of tar protects the timber from the attack of
3. Chemical salt fungi and insects. It is a cheapest way of protecting
4. Creosote timber.
5. ASCU Main disadvantage
Appearance is not good after tar is applied
2. Paints Treatment:

Two to three coats of oil paints are applied on clean


surface of wood. The paint protects the timber from
moisture. The paint is to be applied from time to
time.

Paint improves the appearance of the timber.

Solignum paint is a special paint which protects the


timber.
3. Chemical salt Treatment:

These are the preservatives made by dissolving salts in water. The salts used are
copper sulphate, masonry chloride, zinc chloride and sodium fluoride. After treating
the timber with these chemical salt paints and varnishes can be applied to get good
appearance.

4. Creosote oil treatment:

Creosote oil is obtained by distillation of coal tar. The seasoned timber is kept in an air
tight chamber and air is exhausted. Then creosote oil is pumped into the chamber at
a pressure of 0.8 to 1.0 N/mm2 at a temperature of 50C. After 1 to 2 hours timber is
taken out of the chamber.
5. ASCO Treatment:
This preservative is developed by the Forest Research Institute, Dehradun. It consists
of 1 part by weight of hydrated arsenic pent-oxide (As2O5, 2 H2O), 3 parts by weight
of copper sulphate(CuSO45 H2O) and 4 parts by weight of potassium dichromate
(K2Cr2O7) or sodium dichromate (Na2Cr2O72 H2O). This preservative is available in
powder form. By mixing six parts of this powder with 100 parts of water, the solution
is prepared. The solution is then sprayed over the surface of timber.
This treatment prevents attack from termites. The surface may be painted to get
desired appearance.