Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 30

The olivine Mineral 0 Comments

Series
Olivine is one of the most common minerals in the earth, and is a major rock
forming mineral. Despite this, good specimens and large crystals are
uncommon and sought after. Only few localities yield large examples of this
mineral, although small and microscopic grains are found worldwide. Olivine
is also found in meteorites, and large grains have been reported in many of
them.

Olivine is not scientifically classified by the IMA as an individual mineral


species, but is rather recognized as a mineral group with the Forsterite
and Fayalite end members. Fayalite and Forsterite create a solid solution
series, and most specimens identified as Olivine fall somewhere in between
this series, almost always leaning more towards Forsterite with a greater
content of magnesium. Pure Forsterite is uncommon, and pure Fayalite is
very rare.

Chemical Formula The Olivine group is composed of the following primary members:
Forsterite: Mg2SiO4
Olivine (Chrysolite): (Mg,Fe)2SiO4
Fayalite: Fe2SiO4

The intermediary variety, Olivine, is not scientifically recognized as a


separate mineral, but is nevertheless well-established. The mineral
Tephroite (Mn2SiO4), which many consider a member of the Olivine
group, forms a series with Forsterite.

There are other rarer members of the Olive group such as Tephroite.

Composition Magnesium iron silicate. The series ranges from the magnesium end
member, Forsterite (Magnesium silicate), through the intermediary
member, Olivine (also known as Chrysolite), to the iron end member,
Fayalite (Iron silicate).
Color Forsterite and Olivine can be olive-green, light green, dark green,
yellow-green, yellow-brown, and brown. Rarely white, gray, or orange.
Pure Forsterite is colorless, but this is extremely rare. Fayalite is
usually yellow-brown to brown.
Streak Colorless
Hardness 6.5 - 7
Crystal System Orthorhombic
3D Crystal Atlas
(Click for animated model)

Crystal Forms Most often as rounded grains, in dense aggregates of grainy crystals, as
and Aggregates fractured masses, and as rounded waterworn pebbles and grains. Large
crystals, which are prismatic and stubby, are uncommon except at a few
select localities. Crystals often have rounded faces.

Transparency Transparent to translucent


Specific Gravity 3.2 - 3.4
Luster Vitreous
Cleavage 2,1 ; 3,1- forming a 90 angle
Fracture Conchoidal
Tenacity Brittle
Complex Tests Soluble in hydrochloric acid.
In Group Silicates; Nesosilicates
Striking Features Color, localities, and hardness
Environment Olivine occurs in mafic and ultramafic igneous rocks. It is also found in
metamorphic rocks and Serpentine deposits as a primary mineral.
Popularity (1-4) 1
Prevalence (1-3) 1
Demand (1-3) 1

Olivine ON EBAY

VARIETIES

Chrysolite

- Describes a yellowish or yellowish green form of Olivine. May also be used as a synonym
for Olivine, or to describe the intermediary member of the Olivine series. Chrysolite is also
an old name occasionally used to describe yellow, transparent Chrysoberyl.

Dunite

- Solid, grainy masses of Olivine. Usually classified as a rock.

Olivinoid

- Extraterrestrial form of Olivine found in meteorites.


Peridot

- Transparent green variety of Olivine that is used as a popular gemstone.

POLYMORPHS

Wadsleyite, Ringwoodite

USES
Olivine has several industrial uses. It is used as a flux for steel production, and is also an
important ore of the metal magnesium.

Peridot, the transparent olive-green to yellow-green variety, is a well-known gemstone. It is


very popular in jewelry, and is used in many jewelry items including rings, bracelets,
necklaces, and earrings. Peridot is the birthstone for the month of August.

For additional information, see the gemstone section on Peridot.

NOTEWORTHY LOCALITIES
The most classic source of gem Peridot is St. John's Island (Zagbargad) in the Red Sea,
Egypt, which once produced outstanding large crystals. This deposit has produced Peridot
since ancient times and has long since been exhausted. The largest Peridot crystals now come
from Pakistan at Sapat Gali, Mansehra, in the Kohistan District. Large gemmy Peridot
crystals also come from Mogok, Burma (Myanmar).

Other significant worldwide deposits of Olivine include the Eifel Mountains of Germany;
Monte Somma, Vesuvius, Italy; Mt. Brianon, Langeac, Auvergne, France; the heim
Quarry, Mre og Romsdal, Norway; Taganana, Tenerife, Canary Islands; and Katukubura,
near Kolonne, Sri Lanka.

In the U.S., the most significant and well-known deposit, which has produced excellent gem
Peridot, is the San Carlos Indian Reservation, in Gila Co., Arizona. Two other important
Peridot localities are Buell Park, Apache Co., Arizona; is the Kilbourne Hole, Doa Ana Co.,
New Mexico. The Day Book Quarry, in Burnsville, Yancey Co., North Carolina, has
produced some good Olivine specimens. In Canada, large Olivine crystals come from the
Parker mine, Notre-Dame-du-Laus, Qubec.

COMMON MINERAL ASSOCIATIONS


Feldspars, Serpentine, Hornblende, Augite, Spinel, Diopside, Chromite, Magnetite, Spinel,
Iron-nickel

DISTINGUISHING SIMILAR MINERALS


Tourmaline - Different environment and crystal structure.
Apatite - Softer (5), different crystal habits.
Garnet - Occurs in different crystals, lacks cleavage.

The Mineral tephroite 0 Comments


Tephroite is uncommon member of the Olivine group. It is the manganese
counterpart of Forsterite, and forms a series with Forsterite. Tephroite gets it
name from the Greek word "tephros", meaning ash-colored, referring to its
ash-gray color habit.

Chemical Formula Mn2SiO4


Composition Manganese silicate, sometimes with some magnesium and zinc. Forms
a series with Forsterite.
Variable Formula (Mn,Mg,Zn)2SiO4
Color Gray, grayish-green, olive-green, brown, reddish-brown, pink
Streak Light gray
Hardness 6
Crystal System Orthorhombic
Crystal Forms As rounded and fractured crystals, usually short and prismatic, but
and Aggregates occasionally elongated. Also occurs grainy, massive, and in large
cleavage fragments.
Transparency Translucent. Rarely transparent.
Specific Gravity 4.0 - 4.1
Luster Vitreous, greasy, waxy
Cleavage 2,1 ; 3,1- forming a 90 angle
Fracture Conchoidal to uneven
Tenacity Brittle
In Group Silicates; Nesosilicates
Striking Features Cleavage angles, color, and hardness.
Environment In manganese-rich metamorphic deposits.
Popularity (1-4) 3
Prevalence (1-3) 3
Demand (1-3) 3

Tephroite ON EBAY
NOTEWORTHY LOCALITIES
Worldwide localities for Tephroite include Broken Hill, New South Wales, Australia; the
Wessels Mine, Hotazel, Kalahari manganese fields, South Africa; and Langban, Sweden. In the
U.S., the most well-known Tephroite is from Franklin, Ogdensburg, and Sparta, all in Sussex
Co., New Jersey. Tephroite is also found in the Jail Hill Quarry, Haddam, Middlesex Co.,
Connecticut.

COMMON MINERAL ASSOCIATIONS


Calcite, Rhodonite, Quartz, Spessartine, Willemite

DISTINGUISHING SIMILAR MINERALS


Willemite - Different cleavage, fluoresces bright green.
Rhodonite - Usually pinker in color.

tephroite PHOTOS

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

Mindat.org

Mineralogy Database (David Barthelmy)

The Mineral zircon 0 Comments


Zircon is a well-known mineral that makes an important gemstone of of many
colors. Its brilliant luster and fire, combined with good hardness, make it a
desirable gem. Natural Zircon with good color and transparency is uncommon;
most Zircon crystals are opaque and brownish. However, most Zircon
gemstones, especially the blue and white forms, are enhanced by heat
treatment.

Zircon often contains traces of radioactive elements in its structure, which


causes it to be metamict. This unstable form of Zircon, called Cyrtolite, is
characterized by rounded, almost dome-shaped crystals which are dull or
pitchy in luster. When heated, these metamict Zircon crystals become stable,
and revert to their normal crystal structure. Radioactive Zircon that has
undergone a metamiction process is sometimes called "Low Zircon", and stable
Zircon with an intact crystal lattice "High Zircon".

The dark brown to black color observed in most Zircon crystals is caused from
iron oxide impurities. The green coloring in many rounded pebbles usually
indicates the Zircon is radioactive variety. An interesting habit occasionally
exhibited in Zircon from a few localities is that their color darkens and their
luster dulls upon prolonged exposure to sunlight. This effect can be reversed
by giving the stones a second heat treatment.

For additional information, see the gemstone section on Zircon.

Chemical Formula ZrSiO4


Composition Zirconium silicate, often with some hafnium and occasionally with
some uranium, thorium, and yttrium. It can contain up to 20 percent of
hafnium in its structure; if it exceeds that amount then it is no longer
Zircon but Hafnon.
Variable Formula (Zr,Hf)SiO4 ;
(Zr,Hf,U,Th,Y)SiO4
Color The most common color is dark brown. Also black, gray, light brown,
brownish-red, orange, pink, yellow, light blue, light green, light purple
white, and colorless. Sometimes multicolored black and dark red, or
multicolored with lighter and darker streaks.
Streak Colorless
Hardness 7.5
Crystal System Tetragonal
3D Crystal Atlas
(Click for animated model)

Crystal Forms As short and stubby crystals, as well as prismatic which are sometimes
and Aggregates elongated. Crystals are almost always terminated with a pyramidal
termination. Crystals may be doubly terminated, and occasionally
entirely pyramidal resembling an octahedron. Also grainy, as fibrous
aggregates, and as rounded, waterworn pebbles. Twinned Zircon
crystals are uncommon but do exist. Crystals can also be in a metamict
where they exhibit rounded crystal faces.
Transparency Transparent to opaque
Specific Gravity 4.6 - 4.8
Luster Greasy to adamantine. Radioactive Zircon has a pitchy luster.
Cleavage 3,2
Fracture Conchoidal to uneven
Tenacity Brittle
Other ID Marks May be fluorescent orange-yellow in shortwave ultraviolet light.

In Group Silicates; Nesosilicates


Striking Features Crystal shape, hardness, and weight
Environment Most often in igneous environments, usually in granite pegmatites and
in nepheline syenite pegmatites. Also in high-grade metamorphic rocks
and in placer deposits.
Popularity (1-4) 1
Prevalence (1-3) 2
Demand (1-3) 1

Zircon ON EBAY

VARIETIES

Cyrtolite

- Variety of Zircon with traces of radioactive elements in its chemical structure. Cyrtolite is
a metamict and unstable mineral.

Jacinth

- Yellow, orange, brown, or red variety of Zircon. Also synonym of Hyacinth.

Jargon

- Colorless, pale gray, or pale yellow variety of Zircon.

Seiland Zircon

- Lustrous dark red Zircon from Seiland Island, Norway.


Starlite

- Blue gem variety of Zircon.

USES
Zircon is an important gemstone, with several color forms used in various forms of jewelry.
Zircon is also the most significant ore of the element zirconium, and it is also the most
important ore of the rare element hafnium, which can be present in considerable quantities in
Zircon. In several localities, Zircon is also an ore of the radioactive element thorium.

NOTEWORTHY LOCALITIES
Many good localities for Zircon are known worldwide. In Russia, excellent Zircon specimens
come from the Lovozero Massif in the Kola Peninsula; and at Vishnevye in the Ural
Mountains. Sharp, lustrous brownish-red crystals come from Pakistan in Gilgit, Chilas, and
Harchu; and crystals of similar quality from Darra-i-Pech, Nangarhar Province, Afghanistan.
Transparent gemmy green and brown Zircon comes from Mogok, Burma (Myanmar); and
large elongated crystals from the Giant Crystal Quarry, Ratnapura, Sri Lanka.

Important European Zircon localities include Store Kufjord, Seiland Island, Norway (famous
for its fabulous transparent dark red crystals); the Nibbio mine, Mergozzo, Piedmont, Italy;
the alluvials of Rochefort-Montagne, Puy-de-Dme, Auvergne, France; and the Laach lake
volcanic complex, Eifel Mts, Germany (as strangely-colored white and light yellow crystals).

Large, dull crystals come from Mud Tank in the Harts Ranges, Northern Territory, Australia;
and short, stubby pyramidal crystals from Peixe, Goias, Brazil. Outstanding cream-colored
Zircon crystals come from Mount Malosa, Zomba Region, Malawi; and large crystals have
come from several of the Madagascar pegmatites, especially in the Amboasary District,
Tular Province.

In Canada, one of the most exceptional Zircon localities is the Bancroft District, Hastings
Co., Ontario (especially in Dungannon Township). Large, well formed crystals are famous
from Tory Hill, Wilberforce, Haliburton Co., Ontario. Lustrous sharp crystals come from the
famous Poudrette quarry, Mont Saint-Hilaire, Qubec; and large crystals from the Kipawa
Alkaline complex, Lac Sheffield, Tmiscamingue, Qubec.

In the U.S., one of the most important localities is the Eureka Tunnel, St. Peters Dome,
Cheyenne District, El Paso Co., Colorado. Very good Zircon crystals come from Pacoima
Canyon in the San Gabriel Mts, Los Angeles Co., California; and an old Zircon locality that
once produced fine large crystals is the Wichita National Wildlife Refuge near Indiahoma,
Comanche Co., Oklahoma. Doubly terminated gray floater crystals come from Zirconia and
Tuxedo, Henderson Co., North Carolina. Massive Cyrtolite comes from Spruce Pine,
Mitchell Co., North Carolina; and large sharp crystals from the Tigerville Prospect,
Greenville Co., South Carolina.
COMMON MINERAL ASSOCIATIONS
Albite, Quartz, Biotite, Chlorite, Orthoclase, Nepheline, Monazite, Xenotime, Aegirine,
Garnet

DISTINGUISHING SIMILAR MINERALS


Vesuvianite - Softer (6), lighter in weight.
Cassiterite - Heavier.
Spinel - Zircon in pseudo-octahedral form can be similar, though Spinel is lighter in weight
(3.5 - 4.1).
Anatase - Slightly different crystal habits, often striated, softer.
Hafnon - Cannot be distinguished without complex tests.

The Mineral schorlomite 0 Comments


Schorlomite is sometimes regarded as a titanium-rich variety of Andradite,
but it is recognized by the IMA as a distinct mineral species. Schorlomite is a
rare member of the Garnet group, and some specimens labeled as
Schorlomite are really just the Melanite form of Andradite. Schorlomite is
named for its resemblance to the black Tourmaline mineral Schorl.

Chemical Formula Ca3(Fe3+,Ti)2(Si,Ti)3O12


Composition Calcium iron titanium silicate
Color Dark brownish-black to black
Streak Colorless
Hardness 7 - 7.5
Crystal System Isometric
3D Crystal Atlas
(Click for animated model)

Crystal Forms As small dodecahedral and trapezohedral crystals. Crystals are usually
and Aggregates microcrystalline. Also grainy and massive.
Transparency Opaque
Specific Gravity 3.8 - 3.9
Luster Vitreous
Cleavage None
Fracture Conchoidal to uneven
Tenacity Brittle
In Group Silicates; Nesosilicates; Garnet Group
Striking Features Color, crystals, and environment
Environment In alkaline-rich igneous environments.

Popularity (1-4) 4
Prevalence (1-3) 3
Demand (1-3) 3

Schorlomite ON EBAY

OTHER NAMES
Ferrotitanite

NOTEWORTHY LOCALITIES
Schorlomite is not a common mineral. Its type locality, which has produced good individual
crystals, is Magnet Cove, Hot Spring Co., Arkansas. Other localities include Jabal Bou-
Agrao, Khnifra Province, Morocco; Tanfit, Ouarzazate Province, Morocco; and Hillesheim,
in the Eifel Mountains of Germany.

COMMON MINERAL ASSOCIATIONS


Calcite, Magnetite, Orthoclase, Nepheline, Apatite

The Mineral uvarovite 0 Comments


Uvarovite is a rare member of the Garnet group that is consistently deep green
in color. Its most widespread habit is as lustrous, tiny, emerald-green crystals
densely coating a matrix. Uvarovite is the only true chromium Garnet; other
forms of Garnet such as Andradite and Grossular may have a deep green color
due to chromium impurities and can sometimes be mistakenly labeled as
Uvarovite. Uvarovite was first discovered in 1832 by Germain Henri Hess, who
named the new mineral after Count Sergei Semenovitch Uvarov (1765-1855), a
Russian statesman and mineral collector.

Chemical Formula Ca3Cr2Si3O12


Composition Calcium chromium silicate
Color Green to emerald-green
Streak Colorless
Hardness 6.5 - 7
Crystal System Isometric
3D Crystal Atlas
(Click for animated model)

Crystal Forms Most often in drusy groupings of dodecahedral crystals. Seldom in


and Aggregates single crystals. Also in crusty and spiky aggregates of tiny crystals.
Transparency Translucent
Specific Gravity 3.7 - 3.8
Luster Vitreous to adamantine
Cleavage None
Fracture Conchoidal to uneven
Tenacity Brittle
In Group Silicates; Nesosilicates; Garnet Group
Striking Features Color, crystal aggregates, and hardness
Environment In metamorphic chromium-rich environments, especially Serpentine
deposits.

Popularity (1-4) 2
Prevalence (1-3) 3
Demand (1-3) 1

Uvarovite ON EBAY

OTHER NAMES
Synonym of Uvarovite. May also refer to other green chromium-rich
Chrome Garnet forms of Garnet such as deep emerald-green Demantoid and Grossular.

USES
Uvarovite crystals are too small to be faceted into gemstones. However, plates of Uvarovite
crystals are sometimes polished in cabochons and used as pendants.
Also see the gemstone section on Uvarovite and Garnet.

Uvarovite is also a rare mineral with a very interesting color, and is very well sought by
mineral collectors.

NOTEWORTHY LOCALITIES
Uvarovite is a rare mineral, and its occurrences are limited. The largest crystals of this
mineral come from Outukumpu, Finland, where they come as individual crystals often
embedded in a matrix. The most prolific Uvarovite and type locality is the Saranovskii Mine
in Sarany, in the Ural Mountains of Russia, where it occurs as small emerald-green crystal
grouping often covering a matrix. Small crystals are found in Val Malenco, Lombardy, Italy;
and in the Kop Krom mine, Erzerum, Turkey. In the U.S., Uvarovite occurs in California in
Jackson, Amador Co.; Jacksonville, Tuolumne Co.; and near Livermore, Alameda Co.

COMMON MINERAL ASSOCIATIONS


Chromite, Olivine, Serpentine, Diopside, Tremolite, Chalcopyrite

DISTINGUISHING SIMILAR MINERALS


Grossular - Usually in larger crystals, which are paler in color and are less lustrous.
Demantoid - Usually occurs in larger crystals, color not usually as deep emerald-green;
otherwise very hard to distinguish.
Dioptase - Softer, occurs in different crystals and environments.
Torbernite and Zeunerite - Softer, occur in different crystals forms and environments.

The Mineral grossular 0 Comments


Grossular is member of the Garnet group, and is its most varicolored form,
occurring in almost all colors except for blue. Grossular is often dark in color,
but it also forms the lightest colored forms of Garnet, and can even be white
or colorless. Although not as famous as Almandine and Pyrope, Grossular has
some important gem varieties. These include the rare emerald-green
Tsavorite and the orange to orange-brown Hessonite.

Grossular forms a solid solution series with Andradite, and can be virtually
indistinguishable from it in localities where they both occur together. In some
localities such as Mali, a distinction between these two Garnets is sometimes
too complex, and a specimen may just be called "Andradite/Grossular since
its full identification is lacking. Grossular is named for its color resemblance to
gooseberries, which are scientifically known as ribes grossularium.

Chemical Formula Ca3Al2Si3O12


Composition Calcium aluminum silicate, often with some iron, manganese, or
chromium replacing some aluminum
Variable Formula Ca3(Al,Fe3+,Mn,Cr)2Si3O12
Color Brown, orange, green, yellow-green, and gray. Less often pink, red, and
yellow. Rarely white, and colorless. Some massive specimens may be
multicolored white, light green, and pink.
Streak Colorless
Hardness 6.5 - 7.5
Crystal System Isometric
3D Crystal Atlas
(Click for animated model)
Crystal Forms Usually in sharp dodecahedral crystals and dense dodecahedral
and Aggregates aggregates. Crystals often have growth patterns, etchings, and
striations. Occasionally in trapezohedral crystal or trapezohedral-
dodecahedral modifications. Also massive and in dense growths of tiny
crystals.
Transparency Transparent to nearly opaque
Specific Gravity 3.6
Luster Vitreous
Cleavage None
Fracture Conchoidal to uneven
Tenacity Brittle
Other ID Marks Occasionally fluorescent in ultraviolet light.

In Group Silicates; Nesosilicates; Garnet Group


Striking Features Crystal forms and common association with Vesuvianite
Environment In contact metamorphic rocks in skarns and hornfels and in asbestos
Serpentine deposits.

Popularity (1-4) 2
Prevalence (1-3) 2
Demand (1-3) 1

Grossular ON EBAY

OTHER NAMES
Grossularite
Wiluite

VARIETIES

African Jade

- Synonym of Transvaal Jade.

Hessonite
- Orange to orange-brown, transparent variety of Grossular Garnet.

Hydrogrossular

- Synonym of Hydrogarnet

Leuco-garnet

- Colorless, transparent variety of Grossular Garnet.

Mali Garnet

- Garnet from the African country of Mali that ranges from green to yellow to brown
(though most often a greenish-yellow). The deposit of these Garnets was discovered in Mali
in 1994, and their scientific classification is not clearly identified; they can be either
Grossular or Andradite depending on their chemical composition. X-ray analysis has
determined most of these Garnets to be an intermediary form of the Grossular / Andradite
series, though closer in chemical structure to Grossular. Although this is a relatively new
term, it has become extensively used in the gem trade.

Raspberry Garnet

- Raspberry-red Grossular Garnet from the Lake Jaco area in Sierra de la Cruz,
Coahuila, Mexico.

Rosolite

- Pink to raspberry-red variety of Grossular Garnet from the Lake Jaco area in Sierra de la
Cruz, Coahuila, Mexico.

Transvaal Jade

- Massive veins of opaque Grossular Garnet that resembles Jade. It is white to light green in
color, and may be colored in a white, green, and pink combination. See Hydrogarnet for more
details.
Tsavorite

- Rare emerald-green, transparent variety of Grossular Garnet from Kenya and Tanzania in
Africa. Tsavorite is a relatively recent gemstone, with the term "Tsavorite" first being coined
by Tiffany and Co. in the 1970's. Though its name is not historically significant and has been
only recently coined, this term has become widely used and accepted in the gemstone
industry.
For more detailed see the gemstone section on Tsavorite.

USES
Although slightly softer than other Garnets, Grossular Garnets have good color and
transparency and make good gemstones, though large cuttable crystals are uncommon. The
most prized Grossular gemstone is the rare and valuable emerald-green Tsavorite. Hessonite
is occasionally used as a gemstone, as well as the light green to yellowish-green variety. The
massive, vein-like material usually categorized as Hydrogrossular is occasionally carved into
ornaments and cabochons.
See the gemstone section on Grossular, Tsavorite, and Garnet for more information.

Grossular is a valuable mineral to collectors, and good transparent specimens can demand a
high price.

NOTEWORTHY LOCALITIES
Grossular has many good localities worldwide. This list describes some of the better-known
locations. Italy is famous for its many Grossular occurrences, especially the Hessonite
variety; noteworthy Italian localities include the Val D'Ala; where it occurs with outstanding
Diopside; Condove, Val D'Susa; Bellecombe, in the Val D'Aosta; Carboneri, in the Val
D'Pellice; and Urbe, Savona Province. Other European localities are Felskinn, Saas Fee,
Wallis, Switzerland; and the Ocna de Fier-Dognecea District, Banat Mts, Romania.

The desirable deep green Tsavorite variety comes from the Scorpion Mine, Tsavo National
Park, Kenya (hence its name); and the Merelani Hills, Arusha, Tanzania. Large brown floater
crystals come from the Kayes Region, Mali. Light green crystals, sometimes in a rare
trapezohedral form, come from the the Vilyui River Basin, Yakutia, Russia.

In Mexico, exceptionally large crystals and clusters are found near Lake Jaco, in Sierra de la
Cruz, Coahuila. Most crystals are beige to light-greenish-gray, though a very attractive
raspberry-red form is found there as well.

Perhaps the most outstanding locality of Grossular is the Jefferey Mine in Asbestos, Qubec,
Canada. This mine was famous for its lustrous transparent brown Hessonite crystals, as well
as a chromium-rich deep green form. Other occurrences in Qubec include the Thetford
Mines and nearby Black Lake, which produce deep green chromium-rich crystals; and the
Orford Nickel mine, St-Denis-de-Brompton, where electric green microcrystals embedded on
Diopside were found.
In the U.S., some of the finest Grossular crystals have come from Eden Mills, Orleans &
Lamoille Cos., Vermont, in sharp transparent crystals. Orange-brown Grossular comes from
Maine at the Pitts-Tenney Quarry, Minot, Androscoggin Co.; and at Sanford, York Co. Small
Grossular crystals embedded in large massive Grossular matrix can be found at West
Redding, Fairfield Co., Connecticut. Other U.S. localities include the Hunting Hill quarry,
Rockville, Montgomery Co., Maryland; Vesper Peak, Sultan Basin, Snohomish Co.,
Washington; Bishop, Inyo Co., California; and Havila, Kern Co., California. Light greenish-
gray floater crystals come from the Wah Wah Mountains in Beaver Co., Utah.

COMMON MINERAL ASSOCIATIONS


Vesuvianite, Calcite, Diopside, Serpentine, Chlinoclore, Clinozoisite, Wollastonite, Quartz

DISTINGUISHING SIMILAR MINERALS


Spessartine - Very difficult to distinguish without complex methods, though Spessartine
usually forms in trapezohedral crystals whereas Grossular forms in dodecahedral crystals.
Andradite - Very difficult to distinguish without complex methods.
Uvarovite - Usually darker green and in denser aggregates, and found only in chromium-rich
deposits.
Tourmaline - Lighter in weight, forms different crystals.
Vesuvianite - Forms different crystals.

The Mineral pyrope 0 Comments


Pyrope is a member of the Garnet group, and it makes a popular dark red
gemstone. Pyrope is often free of flaws with good transparency, making it an
important jewelry gemstone. Pyrope is much rarer than its Almandine
counterpart, but it is generally more transparent and has less flaws than
Almandine. A well-known environment of Pyrope is kimberlite pipes, where it
can be associated together with Diamonds.

Chemical Formula Mg3Al2Si3O12


Composition Magnesium aluminum silicate. The magnesium is often partially
replaced with some iron, and sometimes also with manganese.
Variable Formula (Mg,Fe,Mn)3Al2Si3O12
Color Deep red to nearly black; rose-red to violet.
Streak Colorless
Hardness 7 - 7.5
Crystal System Isometric
3D Crystal Atlas
(Click for animated model)
Crystal Forms As single dodecahedral and trapezohedral crystals, and sometimes with
and Aggregates slight growth modifications. Crystals are usually rounded or distorted,
and are only occasionally well-formed. Also in dense crystal aggregates
and in grainy form. Crystals are usually embedded unless found in
placer deposits, where they are single and rounded.
Transparency Transparent to nearly opaque
Specific Gravity 3.5 - 3.6
Luster Vitreous
Cleavage None
Fracture Conchoidal to uneven
Tenacity Brittle
In Group Silicates; Nesosilicates; Garnet Group
Striking Features Color, crystal form, hardness, and localities
Environment In intrusive igneous ultramafic rocks such as peridotite and kimberlite.
Also in ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks and in placer deposits.

Popularity (1-4) 2
Prevalence (1-3) 2
Demand (1-3) 1

Pyrope ON EBAY

OTHER NAMES
Arizona Ruby
Bohemian
Garnet
Colorado Ruby
Elie Ruby

VARIETIES

Rhodolite

- In gemstone terms, the expression Rhodolite usually refers to a rose-red form of Garnet
that has a lighter color or more purplish color than typical Garnet gemstones. In mineral
terms, it refers to an intermediary variety between the Pyrope and Almandine series, usually
containing more magnesium than iron thus leaning closer towards Pyrope.
See the gemstone Rhodolite for more detailed information.
USES
The main use of Pyrope is as a gemstone. Its deep red color gives it special distinction, and it
is a very popular Garnet gem. Pyrope is also crushed for use as an abrasive for the production
of Garnet paper.

See the gemstone section on Pyrope, Rhodolite, and Garnet for more information.

NOTEWORTHY LOCALITIES
Pyrope is not a common mineral, and there are fewer localities for this Garnet than all other
common Garnets except Uvarovite. European localities include Vestrev, Bohemia, Czech
Republic; Gorduno, Ticino, Switzerland; and Elie Ness, Fife, Scotland ("Elie Ruby").

Important African deposits of gem Pyrope include the Umba River Valley, in the Tanga
Region, Tanzania; and Lokirima, Turkana District, Kenya. Pyrope is also found in many of
the South African Diamond mines, such as the famous Kimberly Mine.

In the U.S., the most significant Pyrope deposit is near San Carlos (in the San Carlos Indian
Reservation), Gila and Graham counties, Arizona. Significant deposits also exist near Fort
Defiance (Buell Park and Garnet Ridge), Apache Co., Arizona. The variety Rhodolite comes
from Cowee Creek, Macon Co., North Carolina. In Canada, Pyrope is found in Joli
Township, Quebec.

COMMON MINERAL ASSOCIATIONS


Olivine, Phlogopite, Hypersthene, Olivine, Arsenopyrite, Magnetite, Diamond

DISTINGUISHING SIMILAR MINERALS


Almandine - Usually in different environments, and often browner in color; otherwise
difficult to distinguish.
Grossular - Rarely as deep red as Pyrope.
Andradite - Usually occurs in crystal groupings, whereas Pyrope occurs in individual
crystals; otherwise indistinguishable by ordinary means
Spinel - Occurs in different crystal types than Pyrope.
Ruby - Harder (9), usually lighter in color, different crystal forms.

The Mineral almandine 1 Comment


Almandine is the most common member of the Garnet group. It is also a
popular gemstone and the most widely used Garnet in the gem trade. More
gemstones are faceted from Almandine than any other type of Garnet. Only a
small amount of Almandine crystals are transparent and light enough for
gemstone use; most of the Almandine found is rough and opaque and not gem
quality. Some Almandine Garnets display asterism when polished as cabochons,
and are known as "Star Garnets".
Almandine is often embedded in a mica schists, and forms very nice matrix
pieces with perfectly formed symmetrical crystals. The schist matrix often
breaks up due to weathering, resulting in the Almandine crystals breaking loose
into individual, perfectly formed floater crystals which may be quite large.

Chemical Formula Fe3Al2Si3O12


Composition Iron aluminum silicate. The iron is sometimes partially replaced with
magnesium and manganese.
Variable Formula (Fe,Mg,Mn)3Al2Si3O12
Color Dark red, reddish-brown, black. May also be multicolored black with
reddish edges or tinges. Rarely pink or purple.
Streak Colorless
Hardness 7.5 - 8.5
Crystal System Isometric
3D Crystal Atlas
(Click for animated model)

Crystal Forms As well-formed dodecahedral and trapezohedral crystals, and


and Aggregates occasionally in modified combinations of the two. Crystals may be
striated or with stepped growth layers, and are sometimes warped into
rounded ball-like forms. Also in dodecahedral crystal aggregates,
grainy, massive, and as rounded waterworn crystals.
Transparency Transparent to opaque
Specific Gravity 4.3
Luster Vitreous
Cleavage None. May exhibit parting.
Fracture Conchoidal to uneven
Tenacity Brittle
Other ID Marks Paramagnetic (becomes magnetic upon heating).
In Group Silicates; Nesosilicates; Garnet Group
Striking Features Crystal form, color, and hardness
Environment In regional metamorphic environments in mica schist, and in contact
metamorphic hornfels. Also in igneous rocks in diorite and granite
pegmatites, and as a sedimentary mineral in alluvial deposits.

Popularity (1-4) 2
Prevalence (1-3) 1
Demand (1-3) 1

Almandine ON EBAY

OTHER NAMES
Alamandine
Almandite
Oriental
Garnet

VARIETIES

Common Garnet

- Refers to dark, brownish-red to black, opaque Almandine Garnet.

Precious Garnet

- Refers to a deep red, transparent form of Almandine or Pyrope Garnet.

Syrian Garnet

- Almandine Garnet with a slightly purplish tinge.

USES
When transparent, Almandine Garnet makes a very popular gemstone. Almandine Garnets
are used in all forms of jewelry, and along with Pyrope make the most popular dark red
jewelry gemstone.
For more information, see the gemstone sections on Almandine and on Garnet.

Well formed Almandine crystals are very popular among mineral collectors. Almandine is
also industrially important for use as an abrasive, and when used as a sandpaper, it is known
as garnet paper.

NOTEWORTHY LOCALITIES
Almandine is a very common mineral, and is found worldwide. Only those localities which
have produced excellent specimens are mentioned. Some of the best crystallized Almandine
embedded in mica schist come from the classic locality of the Ziller valley, in the North
Tyrol, Austria. Also high up in the Alps, in an occurrence spanning two countries, is the
Granatenkogel Mountain, with the northern slope in the tztal, North Tyrol, Austria, and the
southern slope in the Passiria Valley, Bolzano Province, Italy.

Other important worldwide occurences include umperk, Moravia, Czech Republic; the
Altay Mine in the Koktokay pegmatite field, Xinjiang Autonomous Region, China; the
Thackaringa District, Yancowinna Co., New South Wales, Australia; and Serrote Redondo,
Pedra Lavrada, Paraba, Brazil.

In the U.S., perhaps the most well-known occurrences are Garnet Ledge and the Sitkine River
on Wrangell Island, Alaska. This locality produces excellent crystals embedded in a shiny
mica schist matrix. The Barton Garnet Mine, in Gore Mountain, North River, Warren Co.,
New York, touts itself as the world's largest Garnet mine, producing extensive amounts of
Almandine for use as garnet paper. Very large crystals have come from there, they are all
crude and incomplete. Large and historic Almandine crystals were found in various
construction projects on the island of Manhattan (New York Co.) in New York City, New
York over the past two centuries. In fact, one the largest complete Almandine crystals ever
found in the U.S. originated from Midtown Manhattan, and is dubbed the "Subway Garnet".

The New England states have a number of outstanding Almandine occurrences, including
Green's Farm, Roxbury, Litchfield Co., Connecticut; the Nathan Hall Quarry, East Hampton,
Middlesex Co., Connecticut; the Russell Garnet mine, Russell, Hampden Co., Massachusetts;
Greenwood, Oxford Co., Maine; and Mt. Apatite, Auburn, Androscoggin Co., Maine.
Excellent trapezohedral crystals came from the Hedgehog Hill Quarry, Peru, Oxford Co.,
Maine.

Enormous Almandine crystals were found in the Sedalia Mine, Salida, Chaffee Co.,
Colorado, often coated with a mica layer; and lustrous dark crystals come from Garnet Hill,
Ely, White Pine Co., Nevada. North Carolina has several localities, most noteworthy is
Spruce Pine, Mitchell Co. Large Almandine crystals, including those that display asterism,
are found at Emerald Creek, Latah Co; and Fernwood, Benewah Co., Idaho.

COMMON MINERAL ASSOCIATIONS


Biotite, Muscovite, Quartz, Staurolite, Andalusite, Hornblende, Epidote, Magnetite,
Nepheline, Leucite, Corundum

DISTINGUISHING SIMILAR MINERALS


Pyrope - Can be indistinguishable by ordinary means, though Pyrope is much rarer and
limited in its localities.
Grossular - Usually lighter in color than Almandine, and often found in specific localities
where Almandine is not found; otherwise indistinguishable by ordinary means.
Andradite - Other than locality differences, Andradite and Almandite cannot be
indistinguishable by ordinary means.
Spinel - Forms different crystals than Almandine.
Ruby - Harder (9), usually more intense red, different crystal forms.
The Mineral spessartine 0 Comments
Spessartine is member of the Garnet group, and is known for its aesthetic
orange and reddish-orange colors. This form of Garnet was once much rarer,
but new abundant finds in Tanzania, China, and Pakistan have really put
Spessartine on the map, making it very well regarded. Spessartine forms a solid
solution series with Almandine, and can be virtually indistinguishable from it in
localities where both these Garnets occur together. Spessartine is named after
the Spessart Mountains, in Bavaria, Germany, which is the type locality for this
mineral.

Chemical Formula Mn3Al2Si3O12


Composition Manganese aluminum silicate. The manganese is often replaced by
some magnesium and iron.
Variable Formula (Mn,Mg,Fe)3Al2Si3O12
Color Orange, brown, brownish-red, red, dark red, pink, yellowish-brown,
yellow, gray, black. Sometimes multicolored red and black.
Streak Colorless
Hardness 7
Crystal System Isometric
3D Crystal Atlas
(Click for animated model)

Crystal Forms Occurs in single trapezohedral crystals, often well developed. Less
and Aggregates often in dodecahedral crystals or in trapezohedral-dodecahedral
combinations. Also in dense crystal clusters, in grainy aggregates,
drusy, massive, and in veins in host rock. Crystals are occasionally
striated and are sometimes in heavily etched complex forms.

Transparency Transparent to translucent


Specific Gravity 4.2
Luster Vitreous
Cleavage None
Fracture Conchoidal to uneven
Tenacity Brittle
In Group Silicates; Nesosilicates; Garnet Group
Striking Features Color, crystal forms, and hardness
Environment In igneous rocks in granite pegmatites, and in contact and regional
metamorphic schists and hornfels.
Popularity (1-4) 2
Prevalence (1-3) 2
Demand (1-3) 1

Spessartine ON EBAY

OTHER NAMES
Spessartite

VARIETIES

Malaya Garnet

- Gemstone trade name for a reddish-orange form of Spessartine Garnet (or a more
accurately a mixture intermediary between Spessartine and Pyrope) that originates in the
Umba River Valley in Tanzania and Kenya. This term is sometimes also used as a synonym
for Spessartine. Although this is a relatively new term, it has become accepted in the gem
trade.

USES
Transparent Spessartine can be faceted as a gemstone and used in jewelry. It is the most
widely used orange and reddish-orange Garnet. Spessartine specimens, especially those
recently found in Tanzania, are very popular among mineral collectors.
Also see the gemstone section on Spessartite and Garnet.

NOTEWORTHY LOCALITIES
A new outstanding occurrence of bright orange Spessartine crystals in Tanzania was first
brought to the market in 2008. The deposit is in Nani, Loliondo, Arusha Region, near the
Serengeti National Park. Bright orange crystals once came from Marienfluss, Kunene Region,
Namibia, but these high quality Spessartine forms are very hard to come across today.
Another important African locality is the Jos Plateu, Nigeria. Malaya Garnet (a trade name
for Garnet intermediary between Spessartine and Pyrope) is well-known from Mwakaijembe
in the Umba River Valley, Tanzania.

Another recent outstanding discovery of Spessartine was in China, where it first discovered in
the late 1990's in Tongbei and Yunling, Zhangzhou Prefecture. The Chinese Spessartine is
often in dense aggregates of small gemmy crystals coating Smoky Quartz. The finest dark red
Spessartine, usually associated with contrasting white Albite, comes from Pakistan at
Shengus and the Shigar Valley, Skardu District; and in the Gilgit District. Spessartine of
similar quality is also found in Darra-i-Pech, Nangarhar Province, Afghanistan.
Lustrous Spessartine, sometimes in complex crystals with deep etchings, comes from several
of the gem pegmatite in Minas Gerais, Brazil, especially at Conselheiro Pena, So Jos da
Safira, and Galilia, all in the Doce valley. Especially noted is the Navegadora Mine in So
Jos da Safira which produces heavily etched contorted crystals. Other worldwide Spessartine
occurrences include Broken Hill, New South Wales, Australia; Val Codera, Sondrio, Italy;
San Piero in Campo, Elba Island, Italy; and Iveland, Aust-Agder, Norway.

In the U.S., the most well-known occurrences of Spessartine are the Little Three Mine,
Ramona, San Diego Co., California; the Pack Rat Mine, Jacumba, San Diego Co., California;
Ruby Mountain, Nathrop, Chaffee Co., Colorado; East Grants Ridge, Cibola Co., New
Mexico; and the Thomas Range, Juab Co., Utah.

COMMON MINERAL ASSOCIATIONS


Quartz, Albite, Microcline, Orthoclase, Muscovite, Schorl, Topaz, Riebeckite, Magnetite,
Rhodonite

DISTINGUISHING SIMILAR MINERALS


Pyrope - Color is usually deeper red.
Grossular - Very hard to distinguish without complex methods, although Grossular crystals
are rarely trapezohedral, whereas Spessartine is more often trapezohedral.
Andradite - Very hard to distinguish without complex methods.

The garnet Mineral 2 Comments

Group
Garnet is not a single mineral, but a group contains closely related, isomorphous
minerals that form a series with each other. The Garnet members form
intermediary minerals between each member, and may even intergrow within a
single crystal. The Garnets vary only slightly in physical properties, and some of
the members may be so similar that they are indistinguishable from one another
without x-ray analysis.

The common Garnets can be divided into two subgroups:


Group 1: Garnets containing aluminum (Al) as their second element.
These include Pyrope, Almandine, and Spessartine. ("Pyralspite")

Group 2: Garnets containing calcium (Ca) as their first element.


These include Uvarovite, Grossular, and Andradite. ("Ugrandite")

The members of each group freely intermingle among one another. For
example, the magnesium in Pyrope may be partially replaced by some iron from
Almandine or by some manganese from Spessartine. However, between the two
groups of Garnets, it is much rarer for them to intermingle.

Chemical Formula The Garnet Group is composed of several minerals with related
chemical formulas. The generic formula for the common Garnets is:
X2+3Y3+2Si3O12
X represents Ca, Fe2+, Mn, or Mg
Y represents Al, Cr, or Fe3+

A more comprehensive list can be found in The chemical formula of


Garnet.

The chemical formula for the main individual members of the Garnet
group are:
Pyrope: Mg3Al2Si3O12
Almandine: Fe2+3Al2Si3O12
Spessartine: Mn3Al2Si3O12
Grossular: Ca3Al2Si3O12
Andradite: Ca3Fe3+2Si3O12
Uvarovite: Ca3Cr2Si3O12

Composition Pyrope: Magnesium aluminum silicate


Almandine: Iron aluminum silicate
Spessartine: Manganese aluminum silicate
Grossular: Calcium aluminum silicate
Andradite: Calcium iron silicate
Uvarovite: Calcium chromium silicate
Color Red, brown, black, green, yellow, orange, pink, white, and colorless.
(Garnets come in all colors with the exception of bluish shades.)
Massive specimens from certain localities can be multicolored white,
pink, and/or light green.
Streak Colorless
Hardness 6.5 - 8.0
Crystal System Isometric
3D Crystal Atlas
(Click for animated model)

Crystal Forms In well-formed, distinct, dodecahedral and trapezohedral crystals. Also


and Aggregates in compact crystal groupings, grainy, massive, as rounded crystals, and
as groups of small crystals.
Transparency Transparent to opaque
Specific Gravity 3.5 - 4.3
Luster Vitreous, adamantine, dull
Cleavage None. May exhibit parting.
Fracture Conchoidal to uneven
Tenacity Brittle
In Group Silicates; Nesosilicates; Garnet Group
Striking Features Crystal forms and hardness
Popularity (1-4) 1
Prevalence (1-3) 1
Demand (1-3) 1

Garnet ON EBAY

USES
The Garnets are important minerals, and are primarily known for their gemstone uses. The
transparent varieties are used in all forms of jewelry, with the most extensively used color
being dark red. Other Garnet forms such as the reddish-orange Spessartine, yellow Grossular,
and the green Tsavorite and Demantoid also make fine gemstones.

See the gemstone section on Garnet for more detailed information, as well as the individual
Garnet gemstone variety pages on Almandine, Pyrope, Rhodolite, Spessartite, Grossular,
Tsavorite, Andradite, and Uvarovite for more detailed gemstone information on each
Garnet gemstone form.

Garnets with a high hardness are used as an abrasive, and can be made into sandpaper known
as Garnet paper. Well formed crystals and interesting aggregates very popular among mineral
collectors.

NOTEWORTHY LOCALITIES
See the individual Garnet member pages for detailed locality information for each form of
Garnet.

COMMON MINERAL ASSOCIATIONS


See Individual Garnets

The Mineral andradite 0 Comments


Andradite is a member of the Garnet group, and although not as well-known
as other Garnets such as Almandine or Pyrope, it is still fairly abundant and
can produce fine Garnet gemstones. A valuable gem form of Andradite is the
rare Demantoid, which is a transparent green variety that is highly lustrous
with an adamantine luster. Andradite is named in honor of Jos Bonifcio de
Andrada e Silva (1763-1838), a Brazilian mineralogist, statesman, professor,
and poet, famous for his discovery of Andradite as well as several other
important minerals such as Spodumene.

Chemical Formula Ca3Fe3+2Si3O12


Composition Calcium iron silicate, sometimes with some aluminum, chromium, or
titanium replacing some iron
Variable Formula Ca3(Fe3+,Al,Cr,Ti)2Si3O12
Color Brown, reddish-brown, bronze, orange, yellow, green, brownish-green,
gray, and black. Occasionally iridescent and multicolored with streaks
of brownish yellow, reddish-brown, and black.
Streak Colorless
Hardness 6.5 - 7.5
Crystal System Isometric
3D Crystal Atlas
(Click for animated model)

Crystal Forms Most often as dodecahedral crystals and intergrown dodecahedral


and Aggregates crystal groups. Occasionally trapezohedral, and sometimes in complex
combinations of dodecahedral and trapezohedral crystals. Also occurs
grainy, massive, and in dense spiky crystal agglomerates and balls.

Transparency Transparent to opaque


Specific Gravity 3.8 - 3.9
Luster Vitreous, adamantine, submetallic
Cleavage None
Fracture Conchoidal to uneven
Tenacity Brittle
In Group Silicates; Nesosilicates; Garnet Group
Striking Features Crystal forms, color, hardness, and luster
Environment In contact metamorphic rocks in hornfels, metamorphosed limestones,
and Serpentine deposits; also in igneous rock in basalt and in granite
pegmatites; and in sedimentary placer deposits.

Popularity (1-4) 2
Prevalence (1-3) 3
Demand (1-3) 1

Andradite ON EBAY

VARIETIES
Demantoid

- Emerald-green to green, transparent variety of Andradite Garnet.

Mali Garnet

- Garnet from the African country of Mali that ranges from green to yellow to brown
(though most often a greenish-yellow). The deposit of these Garnets was discovered in Mali
in 1994, and their scientific classification is not clearly identified; they can be either
Grossular or Andradite depending on their chemical composition. X-ray analysis has
determined most of these Garnets to be an intermediary form of the Grossular / Andradite
series, though closer in chemical structure to Grossular. Although this is a relatively new
term, it has become extensively used in the gem trade.

Melanite

- Lustrous black opaque variety of Andradite Garnet.

Rainbow Garnet

- Iridescent form of Andradite Garnet.

Schorlomite

- Rare form of Garnet that is sometimes classified as a titanium-rich variety of Andradite.


However, Schorlomite is scientifically classified as a individual mineral species.

Topazolite

- Lemon-yellow to yellow-green variety of Andradite Garnet.

USES
Andradite can be very lustrous, more so than the other Garnet forms, and makes good
gemstones despite it being slightly lacking in hardness. The yellow, orange, brown, and black
varieties can all faceted as Garnet jewelry, but the Demantoid variety is the main gem form of
Andradite (as well as one of the most valuable forms of Garnet).
Also see the gemstone section on Andradite and Garnet.

Andradite specimens, especially those in well-crystallized forms, can be highly sought after
by mineral collectors.

NOTEWORTHY LOCALITIES
Though Andradite is a less common form of Garnet, there are many fine localities for this
mineral. The most historical and well-known occurrence of the Demantoid variety is the Val
Malenco, Sondrio, Italy. Another Italian Demantoid locality is the Val D'Ala. Good single
crystals of Demantoid come from the Ural Mountains of Russia, especially at Korkodinskoe.
A toothpaste-green Demantoid was recently discovered in Ghazni Province, Afghanistan; and
deep emerald-green Demantoid from Soghan, Kerman Province, Iran. Two important African
Demantoid occurences are Antetezambato, near Ambanja, Antsiranana Province,
Madagascar; and the Tubussis 22 farm and Usakos, Karibib, Erongo Region, Namibia.

Andradite of all colors comes from the famous occurences of Dal'negorsk, Primorskiy Kraj,
Russia (especially at the Sinerechenskoye skarn occurrence). A dark greenish-brown
Andradite comes from Marki Khel, Nangarhar Province, Afghanistan; and excellent dark
lustrous crystals from Dashkesan, Azerbaijan. Good crystals, including an iridescent type,
were found in the Kohse mine, Tenkawa, Japan.

Very good Topazolite comes from Condove, Val D'Susa, Italy; and Melanite from San Vito,
Monte Somma, Vesuvius, Italy. A rusty-brown Andradite comes from Mega Xhorio, Serifos
Island, Greece; and sugary-textured crystals from Monforte, Portalegre District, Portugal.
Very large brown and black Andradite crystals come from the Kayes Region, Mali, especially
at Trantimou. An exceptional pink and red variety comes from the Kalahari manganese fields
in South Africa, most notably in the Wessels Mine (Hotazel) and in the N'Chwaning Mines.

In Canada, a rich emerald-green Demantoid in amphibole came from a find in the Jefferey
Mine in Asbestos, Qubec. Also in Quebec is the famous Mont St. Hilaire deposit; and the
Thetford Mines (and nearby Black Lake), which produce fine Andradite including deep green
Demantoid. Lustrous black Melanite comes from the Ojos Espanoles Mine, Lzaro Crdenas,
Chihuahua, Mexico.

In the U.S,. a famous Andradite locality of brownish-green crystals and bronze Topazolite in
dense crystal groupings is Stanley Butte (and Quartzite Mountain), in the San Carlos Indian
Reservation, Graham Co., Arizona. Very large Andradite crystals come from Garnet Hill,
Calaveras Co., California; and excellent lustrous black Melanite and Topazolite from several
mines in the New Idria District in the Diablo Range, San Benito Co., California. Brownish-
red crystals come from the Nightingale District, Pershing County, Nevada. Good large single
crystals of Melanite come from Magnet Cove, Hot Spring County, Arkansas; and the
Cornwall Iron Mines, Lebanon Co., Pennsylvania. Andradite is abundant in Franklin and
Ogdensburg, Sussex Co., New Jersey, and though mostly in massive form, good crystals have
come from there as well.

COMMON MINERAL ASSOCIATIONS


Albite, Orthoclase, Calcite, Tremolite, Wollastonite, Serpentine, Biotite, Chlorite,
Hedenbergite, Magnetite, Diopside, Epidote
DISTINGUISHING SIMILAR MINERALS
Almandine, Spessartine, and Grossular - Can be very difficult to distinguish it from these
other Garnets, although locality is often a good indicator.
Uvarovite - Occurs in deeper colored green crystals and in aggregates of tiny crystals, as well
as in a different environment.

Оценить