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Management Information Systems, Cdn. 6e (Laudon et al.

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Chapter 5 IT Infrastructure and Emerging Technologies

1) IT infrastructure technology is purely a set of physical devices and software applications that are
required to operate the entire enterprise.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 1 Type: TF Page Ref: 140
AACSB: Use of information technologyF
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

2) The "service platform" perspective makes it easier to understand the business value provided by
infrastructure investments.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1 Type: TF Page Ref: 141
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

3) The minicomputer era was a period of highly centralized computing under the control of professional
programmers and systems operators.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 1 Type: TF Page Ref: 142
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

4) IBM mainframes offered powerful machines at far lower prices than DEC minicomputers, making
possible decentralized computing, customized to the specific needs of individual departments.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 1 Type: TF Page Ref: 142
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

5) In client/server computing, desktop or laptop computers called servers are networked to powerful
clients computers that provide the client computers with a variety of services and capabilities.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 1 Type: TF Page Ref: 142
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

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2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
6) Cloud computing are Web-based applications that are stored on remote servers and accessed via the
"cloud" of the Internet using a standard Web browser.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1 Type: TF Page Ref: 142
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

7) Moore's law is the assertion that the number of components on a chip doubles each year.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1 Type: TF Page Ref: 145
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

8) Packing more transistors into a tiny microprocessor has exponentially increased processing power.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1 Type: TF Page Ref: 145
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

9) Network technologies uses individual atoms and molecules to create computer chips and other
devices that are thousands of times smaller than current technologies permit.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 1 Type: TF Page Ref: 147
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

10) The cost of storing digital information is falling at an exponential rate of 100 percent a year.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1 Type: TF Page Ref: 147
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

11) Moore's Law and the law of mass storage help us understand why computing resources are now so
readily available.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1 Type: TF Page Ref: 147
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

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2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
12) One technology driver transforming IT infrastructure is the rapid decline in the costs of
communication and the exponential growth in the size of the Internet.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1 Type: TF Page Ref: 147
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

13) Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) is a suite of communications protocols


and a common addressing scheme that enables millions of computers to connect together in one giant
global network (the Internet).
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1 Type: TF Page Ref: 149
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

14) Cookie servers are ultra-thin computers consisting of a circuit board with processors, memory, and
network connections that are stored in racks.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 1 Type: TF Page Ref: 151
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.2 Infrastructure Components

15) Unix and Linux are non-scalable, unreliable, and much more expensive than mainframe operating
systems.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 1 Type: TF Page Ref: 151
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.2 Infrastructure Components

16) Once a firm decides to work with an enterprise vendor, switching can be difficult and costly, though
not impossible.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1 Type: TF Page Ref: 154
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.2 Infrastructure Components

17) Implementing new infrastructure requires significant changes in business processes and procedures,
training and education, and software integration.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1 Type: TF Page Ref: 154
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.2 Infrastructure Components

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2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
18) Grid computing involves connecting geographically remote computers into a single network to
create a virtual supercomputer by combining the computational power of all computers on the grid.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1 Type: TF Page Ref: 155
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.3 Contemporary Hardware Platform Trends

19) Organizations using cloud computing generally do not own the infrastructure, they do not have to
make large investments in their own hardware and software.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1 Type: TF Page Ref: 156
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.3 Contemporary Hardware Platform Trends

20) A virtual server uses the hardware of one physical computer to provide the appearance, services, and
capabilities of multiple servers, each of which appear to be running their own operating system and
providing a unique operating environment.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1 Type: TF Page Ref: 156
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.3 Contemporary Hardware Platform Trends

21) Open source software is software produced by a community of several hundred thousand
programmers around the world.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1 Type: TF Page Ref: 160
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.4 Contemporary Software Platform Trends

22) SaaS (Software as a Service) are services for delivering and providing access to software remotely
as a Web-based service.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1 Type: TF Page Ref: 164
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.4 Contemporary Software Platform Trends

23) A long-standing issue among information system managers and CEOs has been the question of who
will control and manage the firm's IT infrastructure.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1 Type: TF Page Ref: 166
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.5 Management Issues

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2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
24) If too much is spent on infrastructure, it lies idle and constitutes a drag on firm financial
performance.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1 Type: TF Page Ref: 166
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.5 Management Issues

25) Client/server computing is a widely used form of centralized processing.


Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 142
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

26) In two-tiered client/server architecture, the processing is split between two types of servers.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 3 Type: TF Page Ref: 144
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

27) N-tier computing is a multi-tier, load-balancing scheme for Web-based applications in which
significant parts of Web site content, logic, and processing are performed by smaller, less expensive
servers located nearby the user.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 3 Type: TF Page Ref: 144
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

28) Application server software is responsible for locating and managing stored Web pages.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 144
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

29) An application server may reside on the same computer as a Web server or on its own dedicated
computer.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 144
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

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2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
30) Enterprise integration requires software that can link disparate applications and enable data to flow
freely among different parts of the business.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 152
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.2 Infrastructure Components

31) The mainframe market has grown steadily over the past decade.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 151
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.2 Infrastructure Components

32) The operating system is used to manage the computer's activities.


Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1 Type: TF Page Ref: 151
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.2 Infrastructure Components

33) SANs create large central pools of storage that can be rapidly accessed and shared by multiple
servers.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 154
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.2 Infrastructure Components

34) Like an ASP, a Web-hosting service provides shared applications to subscribed users, but does this
through a Web portal.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 154
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.2 Infrastructure Components

35) Autonomic computing is implemented primarily with enterprise or ISP servers.


Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 158
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.3 Contemporary Hardware Platform Trends

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2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
36) Java software is designed to run on any computer or computing device, regardless of the specific
microprocessor or operating system it uses.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1 Type: TF Page Ref: 162
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.4 Contemporary Software Platform Trends

37) Web services can exchange information between two different systems regardless of the operating
system or programming languages on which the systems are based.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 162
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.4 Contemporary Software Platform Trends

38) Whereas XML is limited to describing how data should be presented in the form of Web pages,
HTML can perform presentation, communication, and data storage tasks.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 1 Type: TF Page Ref: 162
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.4 Contemporary Software Platform Trends

39) Hypertext markup language specifies how text, graphics, video, and sound are placed on a Web page
document.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1 Type: TF Page Ref: 162
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.4 Contemporary Software Platform Trends

40) The collection of Web services that are used to build a firm's software systems constitutes what is
known as a service-oriented architecture.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 162
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.4 Contemporary Software Platform Trends

41) Today most business firms have discontinued operating their legacy systems, replacing these with
inexpensive Web services and hosted software.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 162
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.4 Contemporary Software Platform Trends

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2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
42) Scalability refers to the ability of a computer, product, or system to expand to serve a large number
of users without breaking down.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1 Type: TF Page Ref: 165
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.5 Management Issues

43) TCO refers to the original cost of purchased technology: both hardware and software.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 1 Type: TF Page Ref: 166
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.5 Management Issues

44) Outsourcing means contracting with others to perform some operations that could not be done in-
house by the company itself.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 1 Type: TF Page Ref: 138
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

45) Digital management services store and manage corporate data and provide capabilities for analyzing
the data.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 1 Type: TF Page Ref: 140
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

46) Single-touch interfaces are potentially more versatile than multi-touch interfaces.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 1 Type: TF Page Ref: 152
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.2 Infrastructure Components

47) IT research and development services provide the firm with research on potential future IT projects
and investments that might help the firm differentiate itself in the marketplace.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1 Type: TF Page Ref: 141
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

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2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
48) The iPhone's multi-touch display and software lets you control everything with only your fingers.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1 Type: TF Page Ref: 152
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.2 Infrastructure Components

49) Data hungry tasks such as video on demand, downloading music, exchanging photos, and
maintaining Web sites require more and more power-hungry machines.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1 Type: TF Page Ref: 159
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.3 Contemporary Hardware Platform Trends

50) Some organizations spend more money to keep their data centres cool than they spend to lease the
property itself.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1 Type: TF Page Ref: 159
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.3 Contemporary Hardware Platform Trends

51) PCs typically stay on more than twice the amount of time they are actually being used each day.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1 Type: TF Page Ref: 159
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.3 Contemporary Hardware Platform Trends

52) Virtualization is a highly effective tool for cost-effective green computing, because it reduces the
number of servers and storage resources in the firm's IT infrastructure.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1 Type: TF Page Ref: 159
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.3 Contemporary Hardware Platform Trends

53) It is always necessary to purchase new technologies to achieve "green" goals.


Answer: FALSE
Diff: 1 Type: TF Page Ref: 159
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.3 Contemporary Hardware Platform Trends

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54) Which type of infrastructure services provides voice and video connectivity to employees,
customers, and suppliers?
A) networking
B) telephone
C) VOIP
D) telecommunications
Answer: D
Diff: 1 Type: MC Page Ref: 140
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

55) John is the IT manager at his service firm. He has seen IT purchases go up dramatically over the last
two years. John would like to see his firm obtain computing power and software over the Internet. What
he wants is a form of ________.
A) private computing
B) public computing
C) grid computing
D) cloud computing
Answer: D
Diff: 1 Type: MC Page Ref: 145
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

56) Which of the following is NOT an IT infrastructure service component?


A) operating system software
B) computing platforms to provide a coherent digital environment
C) physical facility management to manage the facilities housing physical components
D) IT management services to plan and develop the infrastructure and provide project management
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Type: MC Page Ref: 140
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

57) Larry is the IT manager at his retail firm. He has seen IT purchases go up dramatically over the last
two years. John would like to see his firm obtain additional computing power by applying the resources
of many computers in a network to a single marketing problem. What he wants is a form of ________.
A) private computing
B) public computing
C) grid computing
D) cloud computing
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 155
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Analysis
A-level Heading: 5.3 Contemporary Hardware Platform Trends

10
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
58) Mary is the purchasing agent for her university. She purchased state-of-the-art computers two years
ago for the entire university. Mary is looking to purchase computers next year to replace the existing
computers. She is astonished that she now can get twice the computing power on each computer for the
same price she bought the old slower computers for just 19 months ago. This is an illustration of
________.
A) Clark's Law
B) the Law of Mass Digital Storage
C) network economics
D) Moore's Law
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 145
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Analysis
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

59) Barb is the librarian for her university. Barb is finding that more and more of the library material is
in digital form and the amount of it is just exploding. She determines that the library needs to keep
current with this pace so she is looking to purchase more secondary storage. This is an illustration of
________.
A) Clark's Law
B) the Law of Mass Digital Storage
C) network economics
D) Moore's Law
Answer: B
Diff: 3 Type: MC Page Ref: 147
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Analysis
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

60) The university purchased a mainframe some years ago when it was part of the mainframe era. Today,
mainframes ________.
A) are obsolete
B) are the size of netbooks
C) are a declining market
D) are a growing market
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 151
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Analysis
A-level Heading: 5.2 Infrastructure Components

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2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
61) Implementing new infrastructure requires significant ________ in business processes and
procedures, training and education, and software integration.
A) value chain
B) reductions
C) changes
D) time
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 154
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Analysis
A-level Heading: 5.2 Infrastructure Components

62) Cam's Cooling Inc. has found a great market for their services. They are installing cooling systems
in firms who are using many network servers. These many servers are hard to keep cool and they use an
enormous amount of electricity. Firms are trying to find ways to reduce the cost of electricity and the
heat that having many servers creates. One good solution to the problem that lets firms maintain the
same level of productivity is ________.
A) turn off the servers
B) creating mashups
C) virtualization
D) job sharing
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 156
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Analysis
A-level Heading: 5.3 Contemporary Hardware Platform Trends

63) A ________ is an integrated circuit to which two or more processors have been attached for
enhanced performance, reduced power consumption, and more efficient simultaneous processing of
multiple tasks.
A) multiplier processor
B) divider processor
C) multicore processor
D) manycore processor
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 158
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Analysis
A-level Heading: 5.3 Contemporary Hardware Platform Trends

64) Salesforce.com is a good example of a firm using a ________.


A) software package
B) Software as a Service (SaaS)
C) software outsourcing
D) service-level agreement (SLA)
Answer: B
Diff: 3 Type: MC Page Ref: 164
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Analysis
A-level Heading: 5.4 Contemporary Software Platform Trends
12
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
65) Jean's Jewellery has installed an information system to grade their diamonds and give an appraised
value to each diamond. They purchased this software from a software distributor. This is an example of
purchasing a ________.
A) software package
B) Software as a Service (SaaS)
C) software outsourcing
D) service-level agreement (SLA)
Answer: A
Diff: 3 Type: MC Page Ref: 164
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Analysis
A-level Heading: 5.4 Contemporary Software Platform Trends

66) Paul's Paints needs software for their new enterprise system that will manage all their inventory and
purchases. They have a firm in India creating the software. They have found that India can develop it
faster and less expensive than Paul"s IT people can do it. Paul's Paints needs a ________ to manage this
process.
A) software package
B) Software as a Service (SaaS)
C) software outsourcing
D) service-level agreement (SLA)
Answer: D
Diff: 3 Type: MC Page Ref: 164
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Analysis
A-level Heading: 5.4 Contemporary Software Platform Trends

67) Place the following eras of IT infrastructure evolution in order, from earliest to most recent: (1)
Cloud Computing Era (2) Client/Server, (3) Enterprise Era, (4) Personal Computer, and (5) Mainframe
and Minicomputer.
A) 4, 5, 3, 2, 1
B) 5, 4, 2, 3, 1
C) 4, 5, 2, 3, 1
D) 5, 4, 2, 1, 3
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 143
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Synthesis
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

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2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
68) The introduction of the minicomputer:
A) allowed computers to be customized to the specific needs of departments or business units.
B) enabled decentralized computing.
C) offered new, powerful machines at lower prices than mainframes.
D) all of the above.
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 142
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

69) In a multi-tiered network:


A) the work of the entire network is centralized.
B) the work of the entire network is balanced over several levels of servers.
C) processing is split between clients and servers.
D) processing is handled by multiple, geographically remote clients.
Answer: B
Diff: 1 Type: MC Page Ref: 144
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

70) A client computer networked to a server computer, with processing split between the two types of
machines, is called a(n):
A) service-oriented architecture.
B) on-demand architecture.
C) multi-tiered client/server architecture.
D) two-tiered client/server architecture.
Answer: D
Diff: 1 Type: MC Page Ref: 144
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

71) Interpretations of Moore's law assert that:


A) computing power doubles every 18 months.
B) transistors decrease in size 50 percent every two years.
C) data storage costs decrease by 50 percent every 18 months.
D) none of the above.
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 145
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

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2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
72) Today's nanotechnology-produced computer transistors are roughly equivalent in size to:
A) the width of a fingernail.
B) a human hair.
C) a virus.
D) an atom.
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 146
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

73) Which of the following factors provides an understanding of why computing resources today are
ever more available than in previous decades?
A) network economics
B) law of mass digital storage and Moore's law
C) declining communications costs, universal standards, and the Internet
D) all of the above
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 145
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

74) Specifications that establish the compatibility of products and the ability to communicate in a
network are called
A) network standards.
B) telecommunications standards.
C) technology standards.
D) Internet standards.
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 149
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

75) ________ unleash powerful economies of scale and result in declines in manufactured computer
products.
A) Internet and Web technologies
B) Technology standards
C) Linux and open-source software
D) Client/server technologies
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 149
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

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2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
76) The multitasking, multi-user, operating system developed by Bell Laboratories that operates on a
wide variety of computing platforms is
A) Unix.
B) Linux.
C) OS X.
D) COBOL.
Answer: A
Diff: 3 Type: MC Page Ref: 149
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.2 Infrastructure Components

77) The network standard for connecting desktop computers into local area networks that enabled the
widespread adoption of client/server computing and local area networks and further stimulated the
adoption of personal computers is
A) TCP/IP.
B) COBOL.
C) the ethernet.
D) ASCII.
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 149
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.2 Infrastructure Components

78) Software that manages the resources of the computer is called


A) operating system software.
B) application software.
C) data management software.
D) network software.
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Type: MC Page Ref: 149
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

79) A SAN is a ________ network.


A) server area
B) storage area
C) scalable architecture
D) service-oriented architecture
Answer: B
Diff: 1 Type: MC Page Ref: 143
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

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2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
80) The leading networking hardware providers include
A) Dell, HP/Compaq, and IBM.
B) Cisco, Lucent, and Nortel.
C) Seagate, Maxtor, and Western Digital.
D) IBM, Oracle, and Sun.
Answer: B
Diff: 1 Type: MC Page Ref: 154
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.2 Infrastructure Components

81) As referred to in the text, legacy systems are


A) traditional mainframe-based business information systems.
B) electronic spreadsheets used on a PC.
C) any pre-1990 Wintel systems.
D) systems found on older ASPs.
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Type: MC Page Ref: 155
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.2 Infrastructure Components

82) Legacy systems are still used because they


A) can only be run on the older mainframe computers.
B) are too expensive to redesign.
C) integrate well using new Web services technologies.
D) contain valuable data that would be lost during redesign.
Answer: B
Diff: 1 Type: MC Page Ref: 155
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

83) Connecting geographically remote computers in a single network to create a "virtual supercomputer"
is called
A) co-location.
B) edge computing.
C) grid computing.
D) utility computing.
Answer: C
Diff: 1 Type: MC Page Ref: 155
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.3 Contemporary Hardware Platform Trends

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2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
84) The business case for using grid computing involves all of the following EXCEPT
A) cost savings.
B) increased accuracy.
C) speed of computation.
D) agility.
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 155
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Analysis
A-level Heading: 5.3 Contemporary Hardware Platform Trends

85) Which type of computing refers to firms purchasing computing power from remote providers and
paying only for the computing power they use?
A) on-demand
B) grid
C) edge
D) autonomic
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 157
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.3 Contemporary Hardware Platform Trends

86) Which of the following does grid computing utilize to create enormous supercomputing power?
A) massive unused data centres
B) underutilized mainframe computers
C) networked computers with idle resources
D) networks with low usage
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 155
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.3 Contemporary Hardware Platform Trends

87) An example of autonomic computing is


A) spyware protection software that runs and updates itself automatically.
B) software programmed to run on any hardware platform.
C) cell phones taking on the functions of handheld computers.
D) programming languages that allow non-programmers to create custom applications.
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 158
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Analysis
A-level Heading: 5.3 Contemporary Hardware Platform Trends

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88) An industry-wide effort to develop systems that can configure, optimize, tune, and heal themselves
when broken, and protect themselves from outside intruders and self-destruction is called
A) grid computing.
B) utility computing.
C) virtualization
D) autonomic computing.
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 158
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.3 Contemporary Hardware Platform Trends

89) The process of presenting a set of computing resources (such as computing power or data storage) so
that they can all be accessed in ways that are not restricted by physical configuration or geographic
location is called
A) cloud computing.
B) autonomic computing.
C) virtualization.
D) multicore processing.
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 156
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.3 Contemporary Hardware Platform Trends

90) Which type of software is created and updated by a worldwide community of programmers and
available for free?
A) software packages
B) mashups
C) outsourced
D) open source
Answer: D
Diff: 1 Type: MC Page Ref: 160
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.4 Contemporary Software Platform Trends

91) Linux is
A) primarily concerned with the tasks of end users.
B) designed for specific machines and specific microprocessors.
C) an example of open-source software.
D) especially useful for processing numeric data.
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 161
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.4 Contemporary Software Platform Trends

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92) Which of the following statements about Linux is NOT true?
A) It plays a major role in the back office running local area networks.
B) It is available in free versions downloadable from the Internet.
C) It has garnered 80 percent of the server operating system market.
D) Linux applications are embedded in cell phones, smartphones, netbooks, and other handheld devices.
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 161
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.4 Contemporary Software Platform Trends

93) Which of the following is a technique used to allow users to interact with a Web page without
having to wait for the Web server to reload the Web page?
A) UDDI
B) widgets
C) Ajax
D) Java
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 161
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.4 Contemporary Software Platform Trends

94) A software tool with a graphical user interface for displaying Web pages and for accessing the Web
and other Internet resources is called
A) a JVM.
B) a Web browser.
C) an FTP client.
D) all of the above.
Answer: B
Diff: 1 Type: MC Page Ref: 161
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.4 Contemporary Software Platform Trends

95) Sets of loosely coupled software components that exchange information with each other using
standard Web communication standards and languages are referred to as
A) Web services.
B) EAI software.
C) SOA.
D) SOAP.
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 162
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.4 Contemporary Software Platform Trends

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96) Running a Java program on a computer requires
A) a Java Virtual Machine to be installed on the computer.
B) a Java Virtual Machine to be installed on the server hosting the Java applet.
C) a miniature program to be downloaded to the user's computer.
D) no specialized software, as Java is platform-independent.
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 161
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.4 Contemporary Software Platform Trends

97) What is the foundation technology for Web services?


A) XML
B) HTML
C) SOAP
D) UDDI
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 162
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.4 Contemporary Software Platform Trends

98) A set of self-contained services that communicate with each other to create a working software
application is called
A) Web services.
B) EAI software.
C) SOA.
D) SOAP.
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 163
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.4 Contemporary Software Platform Trends

99) Which of the following is an example of an SOA environment?


A) Amazon.com's operation of hundreds of services, such as billing or customer interface, delivered by
different application servers
B) E*Trade's use of lower-cost Linux servers that delivered increased computer performance
C) Thermos's use of hosted Oracle systems software running on Oracle's computers
D) none of the above
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 163
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Analysis
A-level Heading: 5.4 Contemporary Software Platform Trends

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100) Software applications that are based on combining different online software applications are called
A) integrated software.
B) Ajax.
C) mashups.
D) virtual software.
Answer: C
Diff: 1 Type: MC Page Ref: 164
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.4 Contemporary Software Platform Trends

101) Your firm needs to implement electronic timesheet software and needs to keep within a small
budget. Which of the following would be the most costly method of implementing this new software?
A) purchasing a software package
B) programming the new software in-house
C) leasing the software over the Internet
D) outsourcing the software programming to an overseas vendor
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 164
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Analysis
A-level Heading: 5.4 Contemporary Software Platform Trends

102) Prewritten, commercially available sets of software programs that eliminate the need for a firm to
write its own software programs for certain functions, are referred to as
A) software packages.
B) mashups.
C) outsourced software.
D) open source software.
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Type: MC Page Ref: 164
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.4 Contemporary Software Platform Trends

103) A formal contract between customers and their service providers that outlines the specific
responsibilities of the service provider and to the customer is called a(n)
A) SOA
B) SLA
C) TCO
D) RFQ
Answer: B
Diff: 1 Type: MC Page Ref: 164
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.4 Contemporary Software Platform Trends

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104) SaaS refers to
A) supplying online access over networks to storage devices and storage area network technology.
B) managing combinations of applications, networks, systems, storage, and security as well as providing
Web site and systems performance monitoring to subscribers over the Internet.
C) hosting and managing access to software applications delivered over the Internet to clients on a
subscription basis.
D) none of the above.
Answer: C
Diff: 3 Type: MC Page Ref: 164
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.4 Contemporary Software Platform Trends

105) The practice of contracting custom software development to an outside firm is commonly referred
to as
A) outsourcing.
B) scaling.
C) service-oriented architecture.
D) application integration.
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Type: MC Page Ref: 164
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.4 Contemporary Software Platform Trends

106) Which of the following is not a challenge being faced by Salesforce.com, as discussed in the
chapter case?
A) increased competition from traditional industry leaders such as Microsoft and SAP
B) continuing to differentiate its product and develop complementary new products and services
C) maintaining 24/7 availability for clients
D) moving into a more scalable, on-demand environment
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 165
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.5 Management Issues

107) Which of the following refers to the ability of a computer, product, or system to expand to serve a
larger number of users without breaking down?
A) modality
B) scalability
C) expandability
D) disintermediation
Answer: B
Diff: 1 Type: MC Page Ref: 165
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.5 Management Issues

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108) How would you determine the market demand for your firm's IT services?
A) Perform a TCO analysis.
B) Benchmark your services.
C) Hold focus groups to assess your services.
D) Analyze sales returns on key investments.
Answer: C
Diff: 1 Type: MC Page Ref: 167
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.5 Management Issues

109) Which of the following is not one of the main six factors to consider when evaluating how much
your firm should spend on IT infrastructure?
A) your firm's business strategy
B) the IT investments made by competitor firms
C) market demand for your firm's services
D) your firm's organizational culture
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 167-168
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.5 Management Issues

110) Your firm, an auto parts manufacturer, has just merged with an automobile engine manufacturer,
and the two companies have different SCM systems. Which of the following strategies would be the
most likely course to help to reduce the TCO of the merged firms' technology investments?
A) Use Web services to join the two systems.
B) Move one firm into using the other's system in order to centralize management and support services.
C) Develop single ERP system that encompasses the information needs and business processes of both
firms.
D) Purchase a hosted, on-demand ERP system that encompasses the needs and processes of both firms.
Answer: B
Diff: 3 Type: MC Page Ref: 167
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Evaluation
A-level Heading: 5.5 Management Issues

111) Which model can be used to analyze the direct and indirect costs to help firms determine the actual
cost of specific technology implementations?
A) total cost of ownership
B) return on investment
C) breakeven point
D) cost benefit analysis
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Type: MC Page Ref: 166
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.5 Management Issues

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112) Hardware and software acquisition costs account for about ________ percent of TCO.
A) 20
B) 40
C) 60
D) 80
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 167
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.5 Management Issues

113) The introduction of the IBM 1401 and 7090 transistorized machines in 1959 marked the beginning
of widespread commercial use of these computers. This describes the ________.
A) General-Purpose Mainframe and Minicomputer Era
B) Personal Computer Era
C) Client/Server Era
D) Enterprise Computing Era
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 142
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

114) The appearance of the IBM PC in 1981 is usually considered the beginning of this era because this
machine was the first to be widely adopted by American businesses. This describes the ________.
A) General-Purpose Mainframe and Minicomputer Era
B) Personal Computer Era
C) Client/Server Era
D) Enterprise Computing Era
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 142
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

115) Computer processing work is split between these two types of machines. This describes the
________.
A) General-Purpose Mainframe and Minicomputer Era
B) Personal Computer Era
C) Client/Server Era
D) Enterprise Computing Era
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 142
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

25
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116) In the early 1990s, firms turned to networking standards and software tools that could integrate
disparate networks and applications throughout the firm. This describes the ________.
A) General-Purpose Mainframe and Minicomputer Era
B) Personal Computer Era
C) Client/Server Era
D) Enterprise Computing Era
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 142
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

117) Packing over 2 billion ________ into a tiny microprocessor has exponentially increased processing
power.
A) nanos
B) atoms
C) molecules
D) transistors
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 142
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

118) Since the first magnetic storage device was used in 1955, the cost of storing a kilobyte of data has
fallen exponentially, ________ the amount of digital storage for each dollar expended every 15 months
on average.
A) decreasing
B) equalling
C) tripling
D) doubling
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 148
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

119) One reason for the ________ in the Internet population is the rapid decline in Internet connection
and overall communication costs.
A) stagnation
B) decline
C) drop
D) growth
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 149
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

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120) ________ is an easy-to-use software language that greatly expanded the ability of programmers to
write business-related programs and reduced the cost of software. It was sponsored by the U.S. Defense
Department in 1959.
A) COBOL
B) COBAL
C) HTML
D) Growth
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 149
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

121) The new mobile platform also includes small low-cost lightweight "subnotebooks," called
________.
A) netbooks
B) e-books
C) i-books
D) iPads
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 155
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.3 Contemporary Hardware Platform Trends

122) Reducing computer ________ consumption has been a very high "green" priority.
A) power
B) chemical
C) resource
D) transistor
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 158
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.3 Contemporary Hardware Platform Trends

123) ________ are small pieces of software that run on the Internet, a computer, or a cell phone and are
generally delivered over the Internet.
A) Apps
B) Mashups
C) SLA
D) SaaS
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 165
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.4 Contemporary Software Platform Trends

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124) Cloud computing may be a low-cost way to increase ________, but firms should evaluate this
option carefully in light of security requirements and the impact on business processes and work flows.
A) scalability and flexibility
B) scalability and elasticity
C) elasticity and tractability
D) scalability and tractability
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 168
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.5 Management Issues

125) Cost of lost productivity if hardware or software failures cause the system to be unavailable for
processing and user tasks is called ________.
A) downtime
B) infrastructure
C) maintenance
D) installation
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 167
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.5 Management Issues

126) The ________ PC is a computer using the Windows operating system software on a computer with
an Intel microprocessor became the standard PC in the Personal Computer Era.
Answer: Wintel
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 142
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.2 Infrastructure Components

127) IT ________ consists of a set of physical devices and software applications that are required to
operate the entire enterprise.
Answer: infrastructure
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 140
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

128) ________ are services that provide data, voice, and video connectivity to employees, customers,
and suppliers.
Answer: Telecommunications
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 140
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

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129) This "________ platform" perspective makes it easier to understand the business value provided by
infrastructure investments.
Answer: service
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 141
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

130) The ________ era was a period of highly centralized computing under the control of professional
programmers and systems operators
Answer: mainframe
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 142
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

131) At first using the DOS operating system, a text-based command language, and later the Microsoft
Windows operating system, the ________ computer (Windows operating system software on a computer
with an Intel microprocessor) became the standard desktop personal computer.
Answer: Wintel PC
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 142
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

132) In ________, desktop or laptop computers called clients are networked to powerful server
computers that provide the client computers with a variety of services and capabilities.
Answer: client/server computing
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 144
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

133) A ________ will serve a Web page to a client in response to a request for service.
Answer: Web server
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 144
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

134) As the Internet developed into a trusted communications environment, more and more business
firms began using the ________ networking standard to tie their disparate networks together.
Answer: Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 149
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

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135) ________ refers to a model of computing in which firms and individuals obtain computing power
and software applications over the Internet, rather than purchasing their own hardware and software.
Answer: Cloud computing
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 145
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

136) ________ asserts that the number of components on a chip doubles each year.
Answer: Moore's law
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 145
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

137) Packing more ________ into a tiny microprocessor has exponentially increased processing power.
Answer: transistors
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 145
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

138) ________ uses individual atoms and molecules to create computer chips and other devices that are
thousands of times smaller than current technologies permit.
Answer: Nanotechnology
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 146
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

139) Another driver transforming IT ________ is the rapid decline in the costs of communication and
the exponential growth in the size of the Internet.
Answer: infrastructure
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 147
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

140) One reason for the growth in the Internet population is the rapid decline in Internet connection and
overall ________ costs.
Answer: communication
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 148
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

30
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141) Today's enterprise infrastructure and Internet computing would be impossible without agreements
among manufacturers and widespread consumer acceptance of ________ standards.
Answer: technology
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 149
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

142) ________ is a code that made it possible for computers from different manufacturers to exchange
data; later used as the universal language linking input and output devices such as keyboards and mice to
computers.
Answer: AACII
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 149
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

143) ________ is a suite of communications protocols and a common addressing scheme that enables
millions of computers to connect together in one giant global network (the Internet).
Answer: Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 149
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

144) ________ is a network standard for connecting desktop computers into local area networks that
enabled the widespread adoption of client/server computing and local area networks and further
stimulated the adoption of personal computers.
Answer: Ethernet
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 149
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

145) The ________ market has actually grown steadily over the last decade although the number of
providers has dwindled to one: IBM.
Answer: mainframe
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 151
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.2 Infrastructure Components

146) Unix and Linux are scalable, reliable, and much less expensive than mainframe ________ systems.
Answer: operating
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 151
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.2 Infrastructure Components

31
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147) Once a firm decides to work with an ________ vendor, switching can be difficult and costly,
though not impossible.
Answer: enterprise
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 154
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.2 Infrastructure Components

148) A ________ is a high-speed network dedicated to storage that connects different kinds of storage
devices, such as tape libraries and disk arrays, so they can be shared by multiple servers.
Answer: storage area network (SAN)
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 154
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.2 Infrastructure Components

149) ________ new infrastructure requires significant changes in business processes and procedures,
training and education, and software integration.
Answer: Implementing
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 154
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.2 Infrastructure Components

150) A ________ maintains a large Web server, or series of servers, and provides fee-paying subscribers
with space to maintain their Web sites.
Answer: Web hosting service
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 154
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.2 Infrastructure Components

151) ________ applies the resources of many computers in a network to a single problem.
Answer: Grid computing
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 155
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.3 Contemporary Hardware Platform Trends

152) Organizations using ________ computing generally do not own the infrastructure, they do not have
to make large investments in their own hardware and software.
Answer: cloud
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 157
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.3 Contemporary Hardware Platform Trends

32
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153) Going ________ is more than saving power though. It also refers to the need to reduce the use of
hazardous materials in computing devices.
Answer: green
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 158
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.3 Contemporary Hardware Platform Trends

154) ________ software is software produced by a community of several hundred thousand


programmers around the world.
Answer: Open source
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 160
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.4 Contemporary Software Platform Trends

155) Perhaps the most well known open source software is ________, an operating system related to
Unix.
Answer: Linux
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 161
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.3 Contemporary Hardware Platform Trends

156) A ________ is an easy-to-use software tool with a graphical user interface for displaying Web
pages and for accessing the Web and other Internet resources.
Answer: Web browser
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 161
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.4 Contemporary Software Platform Trends

157) ________ is a technique for creating interactive Web applications capable of updating the user
interface without reloading the entire browser page.
Answer: Ajax
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 161
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.4 Contemporary Software Platform Trends

158) ________ is a software architecture of a firm built on a collection of software programs that
communicate with each other to perform assigned tasks to create a working software application.
Answer: Ajax
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 161
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.4 Contemporary Software Platform Trends

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159) Increasingly, software is downloadable from the Internet and composed of interchangeable
components that integrate freely with other applications on the Internet. Individual users and entire
companies mix and match these software components to create their own customized applications and to
share information with others. The resulting software applications are called ________.
Answer: mashups
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 165
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.4 Contemporary Software Platform Trends

160) A ________ is a prewritten commercially available set of software programs that eliminates the
need for a firm to write its own software programs for certain functions.
Answer: software package
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 164
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.4 Contemporary Software Platform Trends

161) ________ are services for delivering and providing access to software remotely as a Web-based
service.
Answer: SaaS (Software as a Service)
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 164
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.4 Contemporary Software Platform Trends

162) A third external source of software is ________, in which a firm contracts custom software
development or maintenance of existing legacy programs to outside firms, frequently firms that operate
offshore in low-wage areas of the world.
Answer: outsourcing
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 164
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.4 Contemporary Software Platform Trends

163) A long-standing issue among information system managers and CEOs has been the question of who
will ________ and manage the firm's IT infrastructure.
Answer: control
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 166
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.5 Management Issues

164) ________ designates the total cost of owning technology resources, including initial purchase
costs, the cost of hardware and software upgrades, maintenance, technical support, and training.
Answer: Total cost of ownership (TCO)
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 166
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.5 Management Issues
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165) ________ uses individual atoms and molecules to create computer chips and other devices thinner
than a human hair.
Answer: Nanotechnology
Diff: 1 Type: SA Page Ref: 146
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

166) ________ states that the value or power of a network grows exponentially as a function of the
number of network members.
Answer: Metcalfe's Law
Diff: 3 Type: SA Page Ref: 147
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

167) ________ are ultrathin computers consisting of a circuit board with processors, memory, and
network connections that are stored in racks.
Answer: Blade servers
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 151
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.2 Infrastructure Components

168) ________ systems are generally older transaction processing systems created for mainframe
computers that continue to be used to avoid the high cost of replacing or redesigning them.
Answer: Legacy
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 155
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.2 Infrastructure Components

169) ________ computing is an industry-wide effort to develop systems that can configure, optimize,
tune, heal, and protect themselves from outside intruders and self-destruction.
Answer: Autonomic
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 158
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.3 Contemporary Hardware Platform Trends

170) A(n) ________ is an integrated circuit to which two or more processors have been attached for
enhanced performance and reduced power consumption.
Answer: multicore processor
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 158
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.3 Contemporary Hardware Platform Trends

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171) ________ can boost server utilization rates to 70 percent or higher.
Answer: Virtualization
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 156
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.3 Contemporary Hardware Platform Trends

172) ________ provides a standard format for data exchange, enabling Web services to pass data from
one process to another.
Answer: XML
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 161
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.4 Contemporary Software Platform Trends

173) ________ takes place when a firm contracts custom software development or maintenance of
existing legacy programs to outside firms.
Answer: Outsourcing
Diff: 1 Type: SA Page Ref: 164
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.4 Contemporary Software Platform Trends

174) ________ means contracting with others to perform some operations that could be done in-house
by the company itself.
Answer: Outsourcing
Diff: 1 Type: SA Page Ref: 138
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

175) ________ services store and manage corporate data and provide capabilities for analyzing the data.
Answer: Data management
Diff: 1 Type: SA Page Ref: 140
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

176) IT ________ and development services provide the firm with research on potential future IT
projects and investments that might help the firm differentiate itself in the marketplace.
Answer: research
Diff: 1 Type: SA Page Ref: 141
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

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177) ________ interfaces are potentially more versatile than single-touch interfaces.
Answer: Multi-touch
Diff: 1 Type: SA Page Ref: 152
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.2 Infrastructure Components

178) Multi-touch gestures are ________ to remember than commands because they are based on
ingrained human movements that do not have to be learned.
Answer: easier
Diff: 1 Type: SA Page Ref: 152
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.2 Infrastructure Components

179) The iPhone's Multi-Touch display and software lets you control everything with only your
________.
Answer: fingers
Diff: 1 Type: SA Page Ref: 152
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.2 Infrastructure Components

180) Data hungry tasks such as video on demand, downloading music, exchanging photos, and
maintaining Web sites require more and more ________-hungry machines.
Answer: power
Diff: 1 Type: SA Page Ref: 159
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.3 Contemporary Hardware Platform Trends

181) Some organizations spend more money to keep their data centres cool than they spend to lease the
________ itself.
Answer: property
Diff: 1 Type: SA Page Ref: 159
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.3 Contemporary Hardware Platform Trends

182) PCs typically stay on more than ________ the amount of time they are actually being used each
day.
Answer: twice
Diff: 1 Type: SA Page Ref: 159
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.3 Contemporary Hardware Platform Trends

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183) ________ is a highly effective tool for cost-effective green computing, because it reduces the
number of servers and storage resources in the firm's IT infrastructure.
Answer: Virtualization
Diff: 1 Type: SA Page Ref: 159
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.3 Contemporary Hardware Platform Trends

184) It is not always necessary to purchase new ________ to achieve "green" goals.
Answer: technologies
Diff: 1 Type: SA Page Ref: 159
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 5.3 Contemporary Hardware Platform Trends

185) List and describe the major components of IT infrastructure.


Answer: Computer hardware platforms: consists of technology for computer processing and includes
client and server machines and mainframes.

Computer software platforms: includes system software, application software, and enterprise
applications.

Data management and storage includes database management software and hardware for storage, such
as disk arrays, tape libraries, and SANs.

Networking and telecommunications platforms include telecommunication services for voice lines and
Internet access, as well as cellular phone services.

Internet platforms: includes hardware, software, and management services for maintaining Web sites,
intranets, and extranets.

Consulting and system integration services: includes consulting services and staff for maintaining legacy
systems and integrating older systems with new infrastructure technologies.
Diff: 2 Type: ES Page Ref: 140-141
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Analysis
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

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2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
186) Briefly explain why corporations are increasingly interested in using Unix or Linux for their
operating system.
Answer: Linux is an inexpensive and robust open-source relative of Unix. Unix and Linux constitute
the backbone of corporate infrastructure throughout much of the world because they are scalable,
reliable, and much less expensive than mainframe operating systems. They can also run on many
different types of processors. The major providers of Unix operating systems are IBM, HP, and Sun with
slightly different and partially incompatible versions.
Although Windows continues to dominate the client marketplace, many corporations have begun to
explore Linux as a low-cost desktop operating system provided by commercial vendors such as RedHat
Linux and Linux-based desktop productivity suites such as Sun's StarOffice. Linux is also available in
free versions downloadable from the Internet as open-source software. The rise of open-source software,
particularly Linux and the applications it supports at the client and server level, has profound
implications for corporate software platforms: cost, reduction, reliability and resilience, and integration,
because Linux works on all the major hardware platforms from mainframes to servers to clients. Linux
has the potential to break Microsoft's monopoly on the desktop. Sun's StarOffice has an inexpensive
Linux-based version that competes with Microsoft's Office productivity suite.
Diff: 2 Type: ES Page Ref: 151
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Evaluation
A-level Heading: 5.4 Contemporary Software Platform Trends

187) Distinguish between grid computing, cloud computing, and on-demand computing.
Answer: Grid computing involves connecting geographically remote computers into a single network to
create a computational grid that combines the computing power of all the computers on the network with
which to attack large computing problems. In cloud computing, hardware and software capabilities are
provided as services over the Internet. With on-demand computing firms to purchase processing power
from large computer service firms and either pay subscription fees or pay only for the power they use.
Diff: 2 Type: ES Page Ref: 155-157
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Analysis
A-level Heading: 5.3 Contemporary Hardware Platform Trends

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188) Identify and describe five or more of the current trends in contemporary software platforms.
Answer:
1. Growing use of Linux and open-source software. Open-source software is produced and maintained
by a global community of programmers and is downloadable for free. Linux is a powerful, resilient
open-source operating system that can run on multiple hardware platforms and is used widely to run
Web servers.
2. Java is an operating-system and hardware-independent programming language that is the leading
interactive programming environment for the Web.
3. Web services and service-oriented architecture. Software for enterprise integration includes
enterprise applications and middleware such as enterprise application integration (EAI) software and
Web services. Unlike EAI software, Web services are loosely coupled software components based on
open Web standards that are not product-specific and can work with any application software and
operating system. They can be used as components of Web-based applications linking the systems of
two different organizations or to link disparate systems of a single company.
4. Ajax, a new software techniques for enabling Web applications.
5. Mashups, or combining Web applications to create new products.
6. Widgets, small software programs that can be added to Web pages or placed on the desktop to
provide additional functionality.
7. Software outsourcingcompanies are purchasing their new software applications from outside
sources, including application software packages, by outsourcing custom application development to an
external vendor (that may be offshore), or by renting software services from an application service
provider.
Diff: 3 Type: ES Page Ref: 160-164
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Analysis
A-level Heading: 5.4 Contemporary Software Platform Trends

189) Distinguish between Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP), Web Services Description Language
(WSDL), and Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration (UDDI).
Answer: Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) is a set of rules for structuring messages that enables
applications to pass data and instructions to one another. Web Services Description Language (WSDL) is
a common framework for describing the tasks performed by a Web service and the commands and data
it will accept so that it can be used by other applications. Universal Description, Discovery, and
Integration (UDDI) enable a Web service to be listed in a directory of Web services so that it can be
easily located.
Diff: 3 Type: ES Page Ref: 165
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Analysis
A-level Heading: 5.4 Contemporary Software Platform Trends

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2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
190) What is scalability? Why is it essential to the success of the modern business firm?
Answer: Scalability is the ability of the computer, product, or system to expand to survey larger
numbers of users without breaking down. It is important because as firms grow, they can quickly
outgrow their infrastructure. As firms shrink, they can get stuck with excessive infrastructure purchased
in better times. Any modern company must be able to make plans for the future, even though that future
may be different than what was expected. Computer equipment is expensive, though dropping in price,
and budgets must be planned to allow for new purchases, upgrades, and training. It is generally assumed
that a successful company will need more computer capacity for more people as it follows a path to
continued success.
Diff: 2 Type: ES Page Ref: 165
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Evaluation
A-level Heading: 5.5 Management Issues

191) You are starting a market research company with a single business partner and are planning the
hardware and software need for the two of you. Which factors should play into your decision of how
much to spend on these investments?
Answer: Using the competitive forces model for IT infrastructure investment, the most relevant factors
in this decision are:
The firm's business strategy. What capabilities we will want to have over the next five years?
Alignment of IT strategy. How does our IT strategy match up with the business plan?
IT assessment. What are the current technology levels for the services we are offering and our
business type? We would probably not need to be at the bleeding edge, but not behind the times either.
Competitor firm services. What technology-enabled capabilities do our competitors have? We would
want to match services with our competitors.
Competitor firm IT investments. How much are competitor firms investing in their technology?

Because this is a startup, one other factor may not play such a large role: That of market demand for
services. However, finding out what the market demand for competitor's services may uncover ways that
this new company could have a competitive advantage.
Diff: 3 Type: ES Page Ref: 167-168
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Synthesis
A-level Heading: 5.5 Management Issues

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2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
192) Explain why standards are so important in information technology? What standards have been
important for the growth of Internet technologies?
Answer: Standards are important because they result in different manufacturer's creating products that
can be used either with each other or to communicate with each other. For example, without standards,
each light-bulb manufacturer would have to also create specific light-bulb sockets for use with their
light-bulbs. In the same way, computers and computer technology have been enabled through standards.
Standards have allowed many different manufacturers to contribute to the same, standardized definitions
of a technological application. For example, the ASCII data standards made it possible for computer
machines from different manufacturers to exchange data, and standardized software languages have
enabled programmers to write programs that can be used on different machines.
The standards that have been important for the growth of the Internet include TCP/IP, as a
networking standard, and WWW standards for displaying information as Web pages, including HTML.
Diff: 3 Type: ES Page Ref: 149
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Synthesis
A-level Heading: 5.2 Infrastructure Components

193) An ad hoc group of oceanographers needs to set up a system to analyze massive amounts of data on
ocean temperatures. The technology and hardware for gathering the data and transmitting the data to a
central computer is in place. What additional hardware might they need? What techniques might they
use to make their research more efficient and lower costs?
Answer: To store their data they may want to use a SAN. To process their data, they will need a
supercomputer or grid computing. To lower costs, they could look at on-demand or utility computing as
well as virtualization and implementing multicore processors.
Diff: 3 Type: ES Page Ref: 154
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Synthesis
A-level Heading: 5.3 Contemporary Hardware Platform Trends

194) A small design agency you are consulting for will be creating client Web sites and wants to
purchase a Web server so they can host the sites themselves. How will you advise them on this
purchase?
Answer: They need to understand total cost of ownership: the costs will go beyond the cost of the
server, but they will also need to purchase the server software and any application software they will be
using. They will also need someone in their IT department to manage and maintain the computers. They
will also incur facilities costs for running the computer. They need to have a backup plan should the
server fail. The design agency will need to add up all the potential costs and risks. Additionally, they
need to prepare for their plan if they need more servers? Will they eventually have to run and maintain
their own server farm? What if one of their clients' sites is more popular than anticipated and the server
has difficulty handling the load? How quickly can they add servers or processing power? The company
should look at collocation, Web hosting services, and ASPs to see if their needs will be better met this
way.
Diff: 3 Type: ES Page Ref: 166
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Synthesis
A-level Heading: 5.5 Management Issues

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2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
195) A large computer manufacturer is outsourcing the customer service department of their firm to
India. The firm in India has promised to deliver the customer service functions less costly and more
effective than the large computer firm can deliver the same services themselves. Why will the large
computer firm need a service-level agreement before they proceed with this venture?
Answer: The SLA is a formal contract between customers and their service providers that defines the
specific responsibilities of the service provider and the level of service expected by the customer. SLAs
typically specify the nature and level of services provided, criteria for performance measurement,
support options, provisions for security and disaster recovery, hardware and software ownership and
upgrades, customer support, billing, and conditions for terminating the agreement.
Diff: 3 Type: ES Page Ref: 164
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Synthesis
A-level Heading: 5.4 Contemporary Software Platform Trends

196) Explain how the "service platform" perspective makes it easier to understand the business value
provided by infrastructure investments.
Answer: This "service platform" perspective makes it easier to understand the business value provided
by infrastructure investments. For instance, the real business value of a fully loaded personal computer
operating at 3 gigahertz that costs about $1000 or a high-speed Internet connection is hard to understand
without knowing who will use it and how it will be used. When we look at the services provided by
these tools, however, their value becomes more apparent: The new PC makes it possible for a high-cost
employee making $100 000 a year to connect to all the company's major systems and the Internet. The
high-speed Internet service saves this employee about one hour per day in reduced wait time for Internet
information. Without this PC and Internet connection, the value of this one employee to the firm might
be cut in half.
Diff: 2 Type: ES Page Ref: 141-142
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Synthesis
A-level Heading: 5.1 IT Infrastructure

197) We read constantly in the popular press about the need to "go green " in business. Is there a need to
"go green" in the IT industry or is it just a play for positive public perception?
Answer: Answers will vary, but might include the following:
IT uses huge amounts of energy and creates huge amounts of heat. Going green is more than saving
power though. It also refers to the need to reduce the use of hazardous materials in computing devices,
maximize energy efficiency during the product's lifetime, and promote recyclability or biodegradability
of defunct products and factory waste. Many of the components that go into computers are either
harmful, such as mercury and lead, or hard to recycle. The Silicon Valley Technology Coalition believes
that there are more than 500 million obsolete computers in North America with an additional 130 million
cell phones being disposed of annually.
Diff: 2 Type: ES Page Ref: 160
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Synthesis
A-level Heading: 5.3 Contemporary Hardware Platform Trends

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2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
198) What are the advantages and disadvantages of a multi-touch interface? How useful is it? Explain.
Answer: Multi-touch interfaces are potentially more versatile than single-touch interfaces. They allow
you to use one or more fingers to perform special gestures that manipulate lists or objects on a screen
without moving a mouse, pressing buttons, turning scroll wheels, or striking keys. They take different
actions depending on how many fingers they detect and which gestures a user performs. Multi-touch
gestures are easier to remember than commands because they are based on ingrained human movements
that do not have to be learned, scientists say.

According to Alan Reed, HP's vice president and general manager for Business Desktops, "There is
untapped potential for touch technology in the business marketplace to engage users in a way that has
never been done before."

Touch-enabled PCs might also appeal to elementary schools seeking an easy-to-use computer for
students in early grades or a wall-mountable information kiosk-type device for parents and visitors.
Customers might use touch to place orders with a retailer, conduct virtual video service calls, or to teach
or utilize social networking for business.
Diff: 2 Type: ES Page Ref: 153
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Synthesis
A-level Heading: 5.2 Infrastructure Components

199) What business and social problems does data centre power consumption cause?
Answer: Data-hungry tasks such as video on demand, downloading music, exchanging photos, and
maintaining Web sites require more and more power-hungry machines. Power and cooling costs for data
centres have skyrocketed by more than 800 percent since 1996, with some forecasts claiming that the
combined data centre greenhouse emissions are set to overtake those generated by the airline industry in
the next four years.

The heat generated from rooms full of servers is causing equipment to fail. Some organizations spend
more money to keep their data centres cool than they spend to lease the property itself. It is
a vicious cycle as companies must pay to power their servers and then pay again to keep them cool and
operational. Cooling a server requires roughly the same number of kilowatts of energy as running one.
All this additional power consumption has a negative impact on the environment and on corporate
operating costs.
Diff: 2 Type: ES Page Ref: 160
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Synthesis
A-level Heading: 5.4 Contemporary Software Platform Trends

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2013 Pearson Canada Inc.