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Management Information Systems, Cdn. 6e (Laudon et al.

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Chapter 4 Social, Ethical, and Legal Issues in Information Systems

1) Advances in data storage have made routine violation of individual privacy more difficult.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 1 Type: TF Page Ref: 104
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.1 Understanding Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues Related to Systems

2) Software piracy is bad for business.


Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1 Type: TF Page Ref: 117
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

3) In today's new economic environment, managers who violate the law and are convicted will most
likely spend time in prison.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 1 Type: TF Page Ref: 101
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.1 Understanding Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues Related to Systems

4) Ethical issues in information systems have been given new urgency by the rise of the Internet and
electronic commerce.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1 Type: TF Page Ref: 103
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.1 Understanding Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues Related to Systems

5) Ethical, social, and legal or political issues are not linked.


Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 103
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.1 Understanding Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues Related to Systems

6) The major ethical, social, and political issues raised by information systems include property rights
and obligations.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1 Type: TF Page Ref: 103
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.1 Understanding Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues Related to Systems

1
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
7) The major ethical, social, and political issues raised by information systems include accountability
and control.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 103
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.1 Understanding Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues Related to Systems

8) The major ethical, social, and political issues raised by information systems include informed consent.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 103
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.1 Understanding Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues Related to Systems

9) One of the four key technological trends responsible for ethical stresses is that computing power
doubles every 18 months.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1 Type: TF Page Ref: 104
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.1 Understanding Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues Related to Systems

10) One of the four key technological trends responsible for ethical stresses is networking advances and
the Internet.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 104
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.1 Understanding Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues Related to Systems

11) One of the four key technological trends responsible for ethical stresses are the use of iPhones.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 104
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.1 Understanding Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues Related to Systems

12) The use of computers to combine data from multiple sources and create electronic dossiers of
detailed information on individuals is called spoofing.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 1 Type: TF Page Ref: 105
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.1 Understanding Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues Related to Systems

2
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
13) Nonobvious relationship awareness (NORA) is technology that can find obscure hidden connections
between people or other entities by analyzing information from many different sources to correlate
relationships.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 106
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.1 Understanding Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues Related to Systems

14) Ethics are principles of right and wrong that can be used by individuals acting as free moral agents
to make choices to guide their behaviour.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 106
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.2 Ethics in an Information Society

15) Responsibility is a very minor element of ethical action.


Answer: FALSE
Diff: 1 Type: TF Page Ref: 106
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.2 Ethics in an Information Society

16) Privacy is the right to be left alone when you want to be, without surveillance or interference from
other individuals or organizations.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 109
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

17) Liability extends the concept of responsibility further to the area of laws.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 107
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.2 Ethics in an Information Society

18) Golden Rule Ethical principle states "Do unto others as you would have them do unto you."
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 108
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.2 Ethics in an Information Society

3
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
19) Descartes' rule of change categorical imperative is a principle that states that if an action is not right
for everyone to take, it is not right for anyone.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 108
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.2 Ethics in an Information Society

20) Risk aversion principle states that one should take the action that produces the least harm or incurs
the least cost.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 108
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.2 Ethics in an Information Society

21) Many companies monitor what their employees are doing on the Internet to prevent them from
wasting company resources on nonbusiness activities.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 109
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.2 Ethics in an Information Society

22) The claim to privacy is protected in the Canadian, U.S., and German constitutions in a in exactly the
same way and in other countries through various statutes.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 3 Type: TF Page Ref: 109
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

23) Right now Quebec, Ontario, and Alberta are the only provinces with privacy laws for the private
sector that meet European Union standards.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 3 Type: TF Page Ref: 110
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

24) In 2000, Parliament passed the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act
(PIPEDA), Canada's modern privacy law.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 109
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

4
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
25) In Europe, privacy protection is much more accommodating than in many non-European countries.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 110
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

26) A safe harbour is a private, self-regulating policy and enforcement mechanism that meets the
objectives of government regulators and legislation but does not involve government regulation or
enforcement.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 110
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

27) Web sites use "cookies" in order to obtain the names and addresses of their visitors.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 111
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

28) A cookie is a small file containing information about you and your Web activities that is deposited
on your hard disk by a Web site.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 111
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

29) Spyware is software that comes hidden in downloaded applications and can track your online
movements.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 112
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

30) Most Internet businesses do very little to protect the privacy of their customers.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 113
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

5
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
31) P3P encrypts or scrambles e-mail or data so that it cannot be read illicitly.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 113
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

32) Protection for trade secrets is enforced at the federal level.


Answer: FALSE
Diff: 3 Type: TF Page Ref: 115
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

33) Copyright is the legal protection afforded intellectual property, such as a song, book, or video game.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 115
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

34) The Copyright Office began registering software programs in the 1990s.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 116
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

35) The drawback to copyright protection is that the underlying ideas behind the work are not protected,
only their manifestation in a product.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 116
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

36) According to the courts, in the creation of software, unique concepts, general functional features,
and even colours are protectable by copyright law.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 116
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

6
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
37) The key concepts in patent law's determination of nonobviousness are originality, novelty, and value.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 3 Type: TF Page Ref: 116
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

38) Despite the passage of several laws defining and addressing computer crime, accessing a computer
system without authorization is not yet a federal crime.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 121
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

39) Spam is unsolicited e-mail.


Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1 Type: TF Page Ref: 121
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

40) The European Parliament has passed a ban on unsolicited commercial messaging.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 121
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

41) RSI is unavoidable for a computer keyboard worker.


Answer: FALSE
Diff: 1 Type: TF Page Ref: 124
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

42) Technostress is a computer-related malady whose symptoms include fatigue.


Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 124
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

43) Radiation from computer display screens has been proved to be a factor in CVS.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 124
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

7
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
44) Your behaviour is being tracked, and you are being targeted on the Web so that you are exposed to
certain ads and not others.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 99
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.1 Understanding Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues Related to Systems

45) Google is the largest Web tracker, monitoring thousands of sites.


Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 99
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.1 Understanding Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues Related to Systems

46) The technology used to implement online tracking is a combination of cookies, Flash cookies, and
Web beacons (also called "Web bugs").
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 99
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.1 Understanding Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues Related to Systems

47) The growth in the power, reach, and scope of behavioural targeting has drawn the attention of
privacy groups and the Canadian Office of the Privacy Commissioner.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 99
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.1 Understanding Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues Related to Systems

48) Talking on the cell phone while driving is equivalent to a 10-point reduction in IQ and a .08 blood
alcohol level, which law enforcement considers intoxicated.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 122
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

49) Hands-free sets were effective in eliminating risk of driving while using a cell phone.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 122
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

8
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
50) Of users who text while driving, the more older demographic groups, such as the 38-49 age group,
are by far the most frequent texters.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 122
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

51) New studies suggest that digital technologies are helping our ability to think clearly and focus.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 125
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

52) In terms of management productivity, studies of Internet use in the workplace suggest that Web 2.0
social technologies offer managers new opportunities to utilize time and focus on their responsibilities.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 125
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

53) Resources like Wikipedia and Google have helped to organize knowledge and make that knowledge
accessible to the world, and they would have been possible without the Internet.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 125
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

54) Information systems


A) pose traditional ethical situations in new manners.
B) raise new ethical questions.
C) raise the same ethical questions created by the industrial revolution.
D) raise ethical questions primarily related to information rights and obligations.
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 102
AACSB: Ethical understanding and reasoning abilities
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.1 Understanding Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues Related to Systems

9
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
55) In today's new legal environment, managers who violate the law and are convicted will most likely
A) get probation.
B) spend time in prison.
C) pay a fine.
D) pay a fine and get probation.
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 101
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Analysis
A-level Heading: 4.1 Understanding Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues Related to Systems

56) Doors Inc. has just developed a new software that helps put in state of the art manufacturing
techniques into plants. A quick search of the Internet reveals that another company in China already has
a copy of their software that has not yet been put on the market. The moral dimension best described by
this scenario is
A) information rights and obligations.
B) property rights and obligations.
C) accountability and control.
D) quality of life
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 103
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Analysis
A-level Heading: 4.1 Understanding Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues Related to Systems

57) Mary telecommutes with her head office in downtown Toronto. She finds that she is working longer
hours at home than she did at the office. Her work day starts as soon as she gets out of bed as she checks
her e-mail and responds to it. She is also finding that she stays on the computer long after supper in the
evening as she ties up loose ends from the previous day's work. The moral dimension best described by
this scenario is
A) information rights and obligations.
B) property rights and obligations.
C) accountability and control.
D) quality of life
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 103
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Analysis
A-level Heading: 4.1 Understanding Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues Related to Systems

10
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
58) Food Inc. operates a Web site for their firm. They ask visitors to the Web site to give information
such as name, e-mail, address, DOB, etc. Food Inc. has found that they can sell this information to
outside marketing groups for a lot of money. They are in the process of deciding if they should sell their
customers information. The moral dimension best described by this scenario is
A) information rights and obligations.
B) property rights and obligations.
C) accountability and control.
D) quality of life
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 103
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Analysis
A-level Heading: 4.1 Understanding Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues Related to Systems

59) "Free is Me" is a software company that sells file-sharing software. Once customers have
downloaded the software, they can download movies, music, and software programs for free. If these
goods were purchased at a store, they would cost anywhere from ten dollars to several hundred dollars.
This is a great way to get all this stuff for free. The moral dimension best described by this scenario is
A) information rights and obligations.
B) property rights and obligations.
C) accountability and control.
D) quality of life
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 103
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Analysis
A-level Heading: 4.1 Understanding Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues Related to Systems

60) Mary has found a way to get access to her school's grading database. She determines that she can
change her own grades to a higher level without getting caught. She decides not to because she feels she
wouldn't want someone to access her information and change things without permission so she won't do
that to others. The ethical principle best described by this scenario is
A) the golden rule.
B) the Immanuel Kant's categorical imperative.
C) the utilitarian principle.
D) the risk aversion principle
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 108
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Analysis
A-level Heading: 4.2 Ethics in an Information Society

11
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
61) John has found a way to get access to his school's grading database. He determines that he can
change his own grades to a higher level without getting caught. He decides not to because he feels this
would not be right if everyone did this so it is not right that he alone should do it. The ethical principle
best described by this scenario is
A) the golden rule.
B) the Immanuel Kant's categorical imperative.
C) the utilitarian principle.
D) the risk aversion principle
Answer: B
Diff: 3 Type: MC Page Ref: 108
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Analysis
A-level Heading: 4.2 Ethics in an Information Society

62) Ben has found a way to get access to his school's grading database. He determines that he can
change his own grades to a higher level without getting caught. He decides not to because he feels he
needs to choose between earning a grades or a lesser value choice of stealing a grade or getting
something for nothing. He will choose the higher value choice and not changing the grade. The ethical
principle best described by this scenario is
A) the golden rule.
B) the Immanuel Kant's categorical imperative.
C) the utilitarian principle.
D) the risk aversion principle
Answer: C
Diff: 3 Type: MC Page Ref: 108
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Analysis
A-level Heading: 4.2 Ethics in an Information Society

63) Fred has found a way to get access to his school's grading database. He determines that he can
change his own grades to a higher level but there is a chance he might get caught. He decides not to
change his grade because if he gets caught he will get kicked out of school and not be able to go to
college. The ethical principle best described by this scenario is
A) the golden rule.
B) the Immanuel Kant's categorical imperative.
C) the utilitarian principle.
D) the risk aversion principle
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 108
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Analysis
A-level Heading: 4.2 Ethics in an Information Society

12
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
64) Right now ________ is the only province with privacy laws for the private sector that meet
European Union standards.
A) Alberta
B) Ontario
C) Nova Scotia
D) Quebec
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 110
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.2 Ethics in an Information Society

65) Barb is buying a book online. They are asking her to give them a large amount of personal
information before she is able to buy the book. The book site describes what will happen with the
information and they also provide a way for Barb to ask them to collect no more data on her. The
principle best described by this scenario is
A) liability
B) due process
C) safe harbor
D) informed consent
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 110
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Analysis
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

66) Books Inc. sell books on their Web site. They have a policy toward their customer privacy of self-
regulating. Their policy meets all the government regulation and legislation but does not involve
government regulation or enforcement. The principle best described by this scenario is
A) liability
B) due process
C) safe harbour
D) informed consent
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 110
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Analysis
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

13
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
67) Books Inc. sell books at their Web site. They have a policy of putting tiny files on their clients
computers to track visits to their site. This tiny program can customize the clients next visit to Books
Inc. site. This tiny files is a ________.
A) Web bug
B) cracker
C) cookie
D) biscuit
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 111
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Analysis
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

68) Orange Computers sell software on their Web site. They have a policy of putting secret software on
their clients computers when they install the actual software which they purchase from Orange
Computers. This secret software calls out to other Web sites to send banner ads and other unsolicited
material to the user. This secret software is ________.
A) a Web bug
B) a cookie
C) spyware
D) illegal
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 112
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Analysis
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

69) Software is protected from being stolen, replicated, and sold by anyone but the owner of the
software or those given his permission by what law?
A) Canadian property law
B) Canadian patent law
C) Canadian copyright law
D) There is no legal protection.
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 117
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Analysis
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

70) The introduction of new information technology has a


A) dampening effect on the discourse of business ethics.
B) ripple effect raising new ethical, social, and political issues.
C) beneficial effect for society as a whole, while raising dilemmas for consumers.
D) waterfall effect in raising ever more complex ethical issues.
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 104
AACSB: Ethical understanding and reasoning abilities
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.1 Understanding Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues Related to Systems

14
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
71) In the information age, the obligations that individuals and organizations have concerning rights to
intellectual property fall within the moral dimension of
A) property rights and obligations.
B) system quality.
C) accountability and control.
D) information rights and obligations.
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Type: MC Page Ref: 103
AACSB: Ethical understanding and reasoning abilities
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.1 Understanding Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues Related to Systems

72) In the information age, the obligations that individuals and organizations have regarding the
preservation of existing values and institutions fall within the moral dimension of
A) family and home.
B) property rights and obligations.
C) system quality.
D) quality of life.
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 103
AACSB: Ethical understanding and reasoning abilities
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.1 Understanding Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues Related to Systems

73) The four key technical trends responsible for current ethical stresses related to information
technology are (1) doubling of computer power every 18 months, (2) data analysis advances, (3)
declining data storage costs, and (4) ________.
A) advances in wireless networking
B) international standards for data protection
C) networking advances and the Internet
D) increased ease in file sharing and copying
Answer: C
Diff: 1 Type: MC Page Ref: 104
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.1 Understanding Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues Related to Systems

74) Advances in data storage techniques and rapidly declining storage costs have
A) been accompanied by relevant federal statutes protecting personal data.
B) made universal access possible.
C) doubled every 18 months.
D) made routine violations of privacy cheap and effective.
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 104
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.1 Understanding Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues Related to Systems

15
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
75) The use of computers to combine data from multiple sources and create electronic dossiers of
detailed information on individuals is called
A) profiling.
B) phishing.
C) spamming.
D) targeting.
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Type: MC Page Ref: 105
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.1 Understanding Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues Related to Systems

76) NORA is a
A) profiling technology used by the EU.
B) federal privacy law protecting networked data
C) new data analysis technology that finds hidden connections between data in disparate sources.
D) sentencing guideline adopted in 1987 mandating stiff sentences on business executives.
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 106
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.1 Understanding Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues Related to Systems

77) Which of the five moral dimensions of the information age do the central business activities of
ChoicePoint raise?
A) property rights and obligations
B) system quality
C) accountability and control
D) information rights and obligations
Answer: D
Diff: 3 Type: MC Page Ref: 105
AACSB: Ethical understanding and reasoning abilities
CASE: Analysis
A-level Heading: 4.1 Understanding Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues Related to Systems

78) Accepting the potential costs, duties, and obligations for the decisions you make is referred to as
A) responsibility.
B) accountability.
C) liability.
D) due process.
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 107
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.2 Ethics in an Information Society

16
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
79) The feature of political systems in which a body of laws is in place that permits individuals to
recover the damages done to them by other actors, systems, or organizations is referred to as
A) accountability.
B) responsibility.
C) due process.
D) liability.
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 107
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.2 Ethics in an Information Society

80) The feature of social institutions that means mechanisms are in place to determine responsibility for
an action is called
A) due process.
B) accountability.
C) the courts of appeal.
D) the judicial system.
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 107
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.2 Ethics in an Information Society

81) The process in law-governed societies in which laws are known and understood and there is an
ability to appeal to higher authorities to ensure that the laws are applied correctly is called
A) liability.
B) due process.
C) the courts of appeal.
D) accountability.
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 106
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.2 Ethics in an Information Society

82) Which of the following is not one of the five steps discussed in the chapter as a process for
analyzing an ethical issue?
A) assign responsibility
B) identify the stakeholders
C) identify the options you can reasonably take
D) identify and clearly describe the facts
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 107
AACSB: Ethical understanding and reasoning abilities
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.2 Ethics in an Information Society

17
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
83) A colleague of yours frequently takes for his own personal use small amounts of office supplies,
noting that the loss to the company is minimal. You counter that if everyone were to take the office
supplies, the loss would no longer be minimal. Your rationale expresses which historical ethical
principle?
A) Kant's Categorical Imperative
B) The Golden Rule
C) The Risk Aversion Principle
D) The "No free lunch" rule
Answer: A
Diff: 3 Type: MC Page Ref: 108
AACSB: Ethical understanding and reasoning abilities
CASE: Analysis
A-level Heading: 4.2 Ethics in an Information Society

84) A classic ethical dilemma is the hypothetical case of a man stealing from a grocery store in order to
feed his starving family. If you used the Utilitarian Principle to evaluate this situation, you might argue
that stealing the food is
A) acceptable, because the grocer suffers the least harm.
B) acceptable, because the higher value is the survival of the family.
C) wrong, because the man would not want the grocery to steal from him.
D) wrong, because if everyone were to do this, the concept of personal property is defeated.
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 108
AACSB: Ethical understanding and reasoning abilities
CASE: Analysis
A-level Heading: 4.2 Ethics in an Information Society

85) Immanuel Kant's Categorical Imperative states that


A) if an action cannot be taken repeatedly, then it is not right to be taken at any time.
B) one should take the action that produces the least harm or incurs the least cost.
C) one can put values in rank order and understand the consequences of various courses of action.
D) if an action is not right for everyone to take, it is not right for anyone to take.
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 108
AACSB: Ethical understanding and reasoning abilities
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.2 Ethics in an Information Society

86) The ethical "no free lunch" rule states that


A) if an action cannot be taken repeatedly, then it is not right to be taken at any time.
B) one should take the action that produces the least harm or incurs the least cost.
C) one can put values in rank order and understand the consequences of various courses of action.
D) everything is owned by someone else, and that the creator wants compensation for this work.
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 108
AACSB: Ethical understanding and reasoning abilities
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.2 Ethics in an Information Society

18
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
87) The ethical rules discussed in the textbook
A) are based on political philosophies.
B) cannot be guides to actions.
C) cannot be applied to many e-commerce situations.
D) do not allow for competing values.
Answer: B
Diff: 3 Type: MC Page Ref: 108
AACSB: Ethical understanding and reasoning abilities
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.2 Ethics in an Information Society

88) FIP principles are based on the notion of the


A) accountability of the record holder.
B) responsibility of the record holder.
C) mutuality of interest between the record holder and the individual.
D) privacy of the individual.
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 113
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

89) European privacy protection is ________ than in the United States.


A) less far-reaching
B) less liable to laws
C) much less stringent
D) much more stringent
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 110
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

90) U.S. businesses are allowed to use personal data from EU countries if they
A) have informed consent.
B) create a safe harbor.
C) develop equivalent privacy protection policies.
D) make their privacy protection policies publicly available.
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 113
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

19
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
91) When a cookie is created during a Web site visit, it is stored
A) on the Web site computer.
B) on the visitor's computer.
C) on the ISP's computer.
D) in a Web directory.
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 114
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

92) The Online Privacy Alliance


A) encourages self-regulation to develop a set of privacy guidelines for its members.
B) protects user privacy during interactions with Web sites.
C) has established technical guidelines for ensuring privacy.
D) is a government agency regulating the use of customer information.
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 113
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

93) A(n) ________ model of informed consent permits the collection of personal information until the
consumer specifically requests that the data not be collected.
A) opt-in
B) opt-out
C) P3P
D) PGP
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 113
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

94) P3P stands for


A) Privacy for Personal Protection.
B) Platform for Privacy Preferences.
C) Personal Privacy Policy.
D) Personal Privacy Protection.
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 113
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

20
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
95) The P3P standard is concerned with
A) controlling pop-up ads based on user profiles and preventing ads from collecting or sending
information.
B) allowing users to surf the Web anonymously.
C) scrambling data so that it can't be read.
D) blocking or limiting cookies.
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 113
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

96) The limitation of trade secret protection for software is that it is difficult to prevent the ideas in the
work from falling into the public domain when
A) the courts become involved.
B) hackers are able to break into the source code.
C) the software is widely distributed.
D) a new version of the software is released.
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 115
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Analysis
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

97) Intellectual property can best be described as


A) intangible property created by individuals or corporations.
B) unique creative work or ideas.
C) tangible or intangible property created from a unique idea.
D) the expression of an intangible idea.
Answer: A
Diff: 3 Type: MC Page Ref: 115
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

98) What legal mechanism protects the owners of intellectual property from having their work copied by
others?
A) patent protection
B) intellectual property law
C) copyright law
D) Fair Use Doctrine
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 115
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

21
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
99) "Look and feel" copyright infringement lawsuits are concerned with
A) the distinction between tangible and intangible ideas.
B) the distinction between an idea and its expression.
C) using the graphical elements of another product.
D) using the creative elements of another product.
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 116
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

100) The strength of patent protection is that it


A) puts the strength of law behind copyright.
B) allows protection from Internet theft of ideas put forth publicly.
C) is easy to define.
D) grants a monopoly on underlying concepts and ideas.
Answer: D
Diff: 3 Type: MC Page Ref: 116
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

101) One of the difficulties of patent protection is


A) that only the underlying ideas are protected.
B) digital media cannot be patented.
C) preventing the ideas from falling into public domain.
D) the years of waiting to receive it.
Answer: D
Diff: 3 Type: MC Page Ref: 116
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

102) Which of the following adjusts copyright laws to the Internet age by making it illegal to make,
distribute, or use devices that circumvent technology-based protections of copyrighted materials?
A) Digital Millennium Copyright Act
B) Privacy Act
C) Freedom of Information Act
D) Electronic Communications Privacy Act
Answer: A
Diff: 3 Type: MC Page Ref: 117
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

22
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
103) In general, it is very difficult to hold software producers liable for their software products when
those products are considered to be
A) part of a machine.
B) similar to books.
C) services.
D) artistic expressions.
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 118
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

104) ________ are not held liable for the messages they transmit.
A) Regulated common carriers
B) Private individuals
C) Organizations and businesses
D) Elected officials
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 119
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

105) It is not feasible for companies to produce error-free software because


A) any programming code is susceptible to error.
B) it is too expensive create perfect software.
C) errors can be introduced in the maintenance stage of development.
D) any software of any complexity will have errors.
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 119
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

106) The most common source of business system failure is


A) software bugs.
B) software errors.
C) hardware or facilities failures.
D) data quality.
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 119
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

23
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
107) Which of the following is not one of the three principal sources of poor system performance?
A) software bugs and errors
B) hardware or facility failures caused by natural or other causes.
C) insufficient integration with external systems.
D) poor input data quality.
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 119
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

108) The "do anything anywhere" computing environment can


A) make work environments much more pleasant.
B) create economies of efficiency.
C) centralize power at corporate headquarters.
D) blur the traditional boundaries between work and family time.
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 120
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

109) The practice of spamming has been growing because


A) telephone solicitation is no longer legal.
B) it is good advertising practice and brings in many new customers.
C) it helps pay for the Internet.
D) it is so inexpensive and can reach so many people.
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 121
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

110) The U.S. CAN-SPAM Act of 2003


A) makes spamming illegal.
B) requires spammers to identify themselves.
C) has dramatically cut down spamming.
D) does not override state anti-spamming laws.
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 121
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

24
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
111) Which of the five moral dimensions of the information age does spamming raise?
A) quality of life
B) system quality
C) accountability and control
D) information rights and obligations
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 121
AACSB: Ethical understanding and reasoning abilities
CASE: Analysis
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

112) Re-designing and automating business processes can be seen as a double-edged sword because
A) increases in efficiency may be accompanied by job losses.
B) increases in efficiency may be accompanied by poor data quality.
C) support for middle-management decision making may be offset by poor data quality.
D) reliance on technology results in the loss of hands-on knowledge.
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 123
AACSB: Ethical understanding and reasoning abilities
CASE: Analysis
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

113) The term "________ divide" refers to large disparities in access to computers and the Internet
among different social groups and different locations.
A) computer
B) technology
C) digital
D) electronic
Answer: C
Diff: 1 Type: MC Page Ref: 123
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

114) CVS refers to


A) eyestrain related to computer display screen use.
B) carpal vision syndrome.
C) wrist injuries brought about by incorrect hand position when using a keyboard.
D) stress induced by technology.
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 124
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

25
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
115) ________ can be induced by tens of thousands of repetitions under low-impact loads.
A) CTS
B) CVS
C) RSI
D) technostress
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 124
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

116) ________ is the largest Web tracker, monitoring thousands of sites.


A) Microsoft
B) Yahoo
C) Google
D) Apple
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 99
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.1 Understanding Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues Related to Systems

117) The technology used to implement online tracking is a combination of cookies, Flash cookies, and
Web beacons (also called "________").
A) Web flies
B) net bugs
C) Web bugs
D) net flies
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 99
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.1 Understanding Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues Related to Systems

118) The growth in the power, reach, and scope of behavioural targeting has drawn the attention of
privacy groups and the ________.
A) U.S. Office of the Privacy Commissioner
B) Canadian Commissioner of the Privacy Office
C) Canadian Office of the Privacy Commissioner
D) U.S Office of the Privacy Commissioner
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 99
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.1 Understanding Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues Related to Systems

26
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
119) Hands-free sets were ________ in eliminating risk of driving while using a cell phone.
A) effective
B) affordable
C) ineffective
D) unaffordable
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 122
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

120) Of users who text while driving, the more ________ demographic groups are by far the most
frequent texters.
A) middle aged
B) senior
C) female
D) youthful
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 122
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

121) New studies suggest that digital technologies are ________ our ability to think clearly and focus.
A) enhancing
B) helping
C) increasing
D) damaging
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 125
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

122) In terms of management productivity, studies of Internet use in the workplace suggest that Web 2.0
social technologies offer managers new opportunities to ________ time rather than focus on their
responsibilities.
A) increase
B) magnify
C) utilize
D) waste
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 125
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

27
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
123) Resources like Wikipedia and Google have helped to organize knowledge and make that
knowledge accessible to the world, and they would not have been possible without ________.
A) Facebook
B) Twitter
C) texting
D) the Internet
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 125
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

124) ________ issues are closely linked.


A) Technical, social, and political
B) Ethical, technical, and political
C) Ethical, social, and technical
D) Ethical, social, and political
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 103
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.1 Understanding Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues Related to Systems

125) The doubling of computing power every ________ months has made it possible for most
organizations to use information systems for their core production processes.
A) 36
B) 24
C) 12
D) 18
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 104
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.1 Understanding Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues Related to Systems

126) A new data analysis technology called ________ has given both the government and the private
sector even more powerful profiling capabilities.
A) NORO
B) NORE
C) NORI
D) NORA
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 106
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.1 Understanding Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues Related to Systems

28
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
127) The claim to privacy is protected in the ________ constitutions in a variety of different ways and in
other countries through various statutes.
A) Canadian, U.S., and Mexican
B) Canadian, U.S., and French
C) Canadian, U.S., and Spanish
D) Canadian, U.S., and German
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 109
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

128) The only province with a privacy law governing the private sector is ________; moreover, its
privacy law meets the European standards.
A) Alberta
B) Ontario
C) Manitoba
D) Quebec
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 109
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

129) The principles of right and wrong that can be used by individuals acting as free moral agents to
make choices to guide their behaviour are called ________.
Answer: ethics
Diff: 1 Type: SA Page Ref: 102
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.1 Understanding Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues Related to Systems

130) ________ issues in information systems have been given new urgency by the rise of the Internet
and electronic commerce.
Answer: Ethical
Diff: 1 Type: SA Page Ref: 103
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.1 Understanding Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues Related to Systems

131) ________ is the use of computers to combine data from multiple sources and create electronic
dossiers of detailed information on individuals.
Answer: Profiling
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 105
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.1 Understanding Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues Related to Systems

29
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
132) ________ is technology that can find obscure hidden connections between people or other entities
by analyzing information from many different sources to correlate relationships.
Answer: Nonobvious relationship awareness (NORA)
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 106
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.1 Understanding Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues Related to Systems

133) ________ extends the concept of responsibility further to the area of laws.
Answer: Liability
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 107
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.2 Ethics in an Information Society

134) The ethical principle that states "Do unto others as you would have them do unto you." is the
________.
Answer: Golden Rule
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 108
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.2 Ethics in an Information Society

135) "If an action cannot be taken repeatedly, it is not right to take at all" describes the ethical principal
of ________ rule of change.
Answer: Descartes'
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 108
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.2 Ethics in an Information Society

136) Many companies ________ what their employees are doing on the Internet to prevent them from
wasting company resources on nonbusiness activities.
Answer: monitor
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 109
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.2 Ethics in an Information Society

137) The claim to ________ is protected in the Canadian, U.S., and German constitutions in a variety of
different ways and in other countries through various statutes.
Answer: privacy
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 109
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

30
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
138) Every Canadian province and territory has enacted ________ parallel to the federal Privacy Act and
the Access to Information Act.
Answer: legislation
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 109
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

139) Right now ________ is the only province with privacy laws for the private sector that meet
European Union standards.
Answer: Quebec
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 110
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

140) In Europe, privacy protection is much more ________ than in many non-European countries.
Answer: stringent
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 110
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

141) ________ can be defined as consent given with knowledge of all the facts needed to make a
rational decision.
Answer: Informed consent
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 110
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

142) A ________ is a private, self-regulating policy and enforcement mechanism that meets the
objectives of government regulators and legislation but does not involve government regulation or
enforcement.
Answer: safe harbour
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 110
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

143) The Platform for Privacy Preferences is known as ________.


Answer: P3P
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 113
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

31
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
144) ________ property is considered to be intangible property created by individuals or corporations.
Answer: Intellectual
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 115
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

145) Information technology has made it difficult to protect intellectual property because computerized
information can be so easily copied or distributed on ________.
Answer: networks
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 115
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

146) ________ is a statutory grant that protects creators of intellectual property from having their work
copied by others for any purpose for a period of at least 50 years.
Answer: Copyright
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 115
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

147) Copyright law in Canada is one of the principal means of protecting computer ________ in
Canada.
Answer: software
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 116
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

148) The Internet was designed to ________ information freely around the world, including copyrighted
information.
Answer: transmit
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 117
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

149) ________ services such as Napster, and later Grokster, Kazaa, and Morpheus, sprung up to help
users locate and swap digital music files, including those protected by copyright.
Answer: File sharing
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 117
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

32
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
150) Although software bugs and facility catastrophes are likely to be widely reported in the press, by
far the most common source of business system failure is ________.
Answer: data quality
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 119
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

151) The now-more-efficient global marketplace has reduced the normal social buffers that permitted
businesses many years to adjust to ________.
Answer: competition
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 120
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

152) The danger to ubiquitous computing, telecommuting, nomad computing, and the "do anything
anywhere" computing environment is that the traditional boundaries that ________ work from family
and just plain leisure will be weakened.
Answer: separate
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 120
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

153) ________ Internet use, even for entertainment or recreational purposes, takes people away from
their family and friends.
Answer: Extensive
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 120
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

154) ________ in particular has been on the rise as bullies become more creative in their use of the
Internet to humiliate their peers.
Answer: Cyberbullying
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 120
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

155) ________ is the commission of illegal acts through the use of a computer or against a computer
system.
Answer: Computer crime
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 120
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

33
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
156) ________ has mushroomed because it costs only a few cents to send thousands of messages
advertising wares to Internet users.
Answer: Spamming
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 121
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

157) The ________ describes large disparities in access to computers and the Internet among different
social groups and different locations.
Answer: digital divide
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 123
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

158) ________ is a type of RSI in which pressure on the median nerve through the wrist's bony carpal
tunnel structure produces pain.
Answer: (CTS) Carpal tunnel syndrome
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 124
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

159) ________ refers to any eyestrain condition related to computer display screen use.
Answer: Computer vision syndrome (CVS)
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 124
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

160) The role of ________ from computer display screens in occupational disease has not been proved.
Answer: radiation
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 124
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

161) The ________ model of informed consent permitting prohibiting an organization from collecting
any personal information unless the individual specifically takes action to approve information
collection and use.
Answer: opt-in
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 113
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

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162) ________ is the commission of acts involving a computer that may not be illegal but are
considered unethical.
Answer: Computer abuse
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 121
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

163) Although some people enjoy the convenience of working at home, the "do anything anywhere"
computing environment can blur the traditional ________ between work and family time.
Answer: boundaries
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 120
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

164) The development of information technology will produce ________ for many and costs for others.
Answer: benefits
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 102
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.1 Understanding Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues Related to Systems

165) The liberties that individuals and organizations have with respect to data pertaining to themselves
describe the moral dimension of ________.
Answer: information rights
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 104
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.1 Understanding Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues Related to Systems

166) Accepting the potential costs, duties, and obligations for the decisions one makes is called
________.
Answer: responsibility
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 107
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.2 Ethics in an Information Society

167) ________ refers to the existence of laws that permit individuals to recover damages done to them
by other actors, systems, or organizations.
Answer: Liability
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 107
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.2 Ethics in an Information Society

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2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
168) The ethical principle called ________ states that one should take the action that produces the least
harm or incurs the least cost.
Answer: the Risk Aversion Principle
Diff: 3 Type: SA Page Ref: 108
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.2 Ethics in an Information Society

169) ________ is permission given with knowledge of all the facts needed to make a rational decision.
Answer: Informed consent
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 110
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

170) A(n) ________ is a tiny graphic file embedded in e-mail messages and Web pages that is designed
to monitor online Internet user behaviour.
Answer: Web bug
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 112
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

171) The ________ model prohibits an organization from collecting any personal information unless the
individual specifically takes action to approve information collection and use.
Answer: opt-in
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 113
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

172) A(n) ________ grants the owner an exclusive monopoly on the ideas behind an invention for 20
years.
Answer: patent
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 116
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

173) The commission of acts involving the computer that may not be illegal but are considered unethical
is called ________.
Answer: computer abuse
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 121
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

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2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
174) Your ________ is being tracked, and you are being targeted on the Web so that you are exposed to
certain ads and not others.
Answer: behaviour
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 99
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.1 Understanding Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues Related to Systems

175) ________ is the largest Web tracker, monitoring thousands of sites.


Answer: Google
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 99
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.1 Understanding Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues Related to Systems

176) The technology used to implement online tracking is a combination of cookies, Flash cookies, and
________ (also called "Web bugs").
Answer: Web beacons
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 99
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.1 Understanding Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues Related to Systems

177) The growth in the power, reach, and scope of behavioural ________ has drawn the attention of
privacy groups and the Canadian Office of the Privacy Commissioner.
Answer: targeting
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 99
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.1 Understanding Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues Related to Systems

178) Talking on the ________ while driving is equivalent to a 10-point reduction in IQ and a .08 blood
alcohol level, which law enforcement considers intoxicated.
Answer: targeting
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 122
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

179) ________ sets were ineffective in eliminating risk of driving while using a cell phone.
Answer: Hands-free
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 122
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

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2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
180) Of users who text while driving, the more youthful demographic groups, such as the 1829 age
group, are by far the most ________ texters.
Answer: frequent
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 122
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

181) New studies suggest that ________ technologies are damaging our ability to think clearly and
focus.
Answer: digital
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 125
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

182) In terms of management ________, studies of Internet use in the workplace suggest that Web 2.0
social technologies offer managers new opportunities to waste time rather than focus on their
responsibilities.
Answer: productivity
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 125
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

183) Resources like Wikipedia and Google have helped to organize knowledge and make that
knowledge accessible to the world, and they would not have been possible without the ________.
Answer: Internet
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 125
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

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2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
184) List and describe the five moral dimensions that are involved in political, social, and ethical issues.
Which do you think will be the most difficult for society to deal with? Support your opinion.
Answer: The five moral dimensions are:
1. Information rights and obligations. What rights do individuals and organizations have with respect
to information pertaining to them?
2. Property rights. How can intellectual property rights be protected when it is so easy to copy digital
materials?
3. Accountability and control. Who will be held accountable and liable for the harm done to individual
and collective information and property rights?
4. System quality. What standards of data and system quality should we demand to protect individual
rights and the safety of society?
5. Quality of life. What values should be preserved? What institutions must we protect? What cultural
values can be harmed?

Individual answers for determining the most difficult for society to deal with will vary. One answer
might be: Quality of life issues will be most difficult for society to deal with in societies that are
comprised of many different cultural and ethnic groups, such as the United States. It is difficult to
regulate concerns that are based on subjective values.
Diff: 2 Type: ES Page Ref: 104
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Evaluation
A-level Heading: 4.1 Understanding Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues Related to Systems

185) Discuss at least three key technology trends that raise ethical issues. Give an example of an ethical
or moral impact connected to each one.
Answer: Key technology trends include the following: (1) computer power doubling every 18 months:
ethical impact - because more organizations depend on computer systems for critical operations, these
systems are vulnerable to computer crime and computer abuse; (2) data storage costs are rapidly
declining: ethical impact - it is easy to maintain detailed databases on individualswho has access to
and control of these databases?; (3) data analysis advances: ethical impact - vast databases full of
individual information may be used to develop detailed profiles of individual behaviour; and (4)
networking advances and the Internet: ethical impact - it is easy to copy data from one location to
another. Who owns data? How can ownership be protected?
Diff: 2 Type: ES Page Ref: 104
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Synthesis
A-level Heading: 4.1 Understanding Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues Related to Systems

186) What are the steps in conducting an ethical analysis?


Answer: The steps are: (1) identify and describe clearly the facts; (2) define the conflict or dilemma and
identify the higher-order values involved; (3) identify the stakeholders; (4) identify the options that you
can reasonably take; and (5) identify the potential consequences of your options.
Diff: 1 Type: ES Page Ref: 107
AACSB: Ethical understanding and reasoning abilities
CASE: Analysis
A-level Heading: 4.2 Ethics in an Information Society

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2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
187) List and define the six ethical principles discussed in your text.
Answer: The six ethical principles are the Golden Rule, Kant's Categorical Imperative, Descartes' rule
of change (slippery slope), the Utilitarian Principle, the Risk Aversion Principle, and the "no free lunch"
rule.
- The Golden Rule proposes: do unto others as you would have them do unto you.
- Immanuel Kant's Categorical Imperative proposes, if an action is not right for everyone to take, it is not
right for anyone.
- Descartes' rule of change says: If an action cannot be taken repeatedly, it is not right to take at all.
- The Utilitarian Principle is: Take the action that achieves the higher or greater value.
- The Risk Aversion Principle is: Take the action that produces the least harm or the least potential cost.
- The ethical no free lunch rule says: Assume that virtually all tangible and intangible objects are owned
by someone else unless there is a specific declaration otherwise.tangible objects are owned by someone
else unless there is a specific declaration otherwise.
Diff: 2 Type: ES Page Ref: 108
AACSB: Ethical understanding and reasoning abilities
CASE: Analysis
A-level Heading: 4.2 Ethics in an Information Society

188) Do you believe that professional groups should be allowed to assign their own professional codes
of conduct and police themselves from within? Why or why not?
Answer: This is an opinion question, but anyone who aspires to management will consider himself or
herself a professional and will need to have a clear understanding as to how he or she feels about this
matter. With the recent scandals in large business firms, which have devastated our economy, there is
likely to be a cry for legally sanctioned codes and outside regulatory agencies.
Diff: 2 Type: ES Page Ref: 108
AACSB: Ethical understanding and reasoning abilities
CASE: Evaluation
A-level Heading: 4.2 Ethics in an Information Society

189) What are the major issues concerning privacy in the information age? Do you believe the need for a
country's security should overrule some of the personal privacy and information rights we have
previously taken for granted? Why or why not?
Answer: One answer might be that we should depend upon the Fair Information Practice Principles and
that as long as these principles are not ignored or overset, personal privacy does not conflict with
homeland security. This is a weak argument. Other issues involve online privacy, employee monitoring,
tradeoffs between security and privacy and good business results versus privacy.
Diff: 2 Type: ES Page Ref: 109
AACSB: Ethical understanding and reasoning abilities
CASE: Evaluation
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

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2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
190) How does a cookie work?
Answer: A cookie works as follows: A user opens a Web browser and selects a site to visit. The user's
computer sends a request for information to the computer running at the Web site. The Web site
computer is called the server, since it allows the user's computer to display the Web site. At the same
time it sends a cookie a data file containing information like an encrypted user ID and information
about when the user visited and what he did on the site. The user's computer receives the cookie and
places it in a file on the hard drive. Whenever the user goes back to the Web site, the server running the
site retrieves the cookie to help identify the user.
Diff: 2 Type: ES Page Ref: 111
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Analysis
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

191) Define the basic concepts of responsibility, accountability, and liability as applied to ethical
decisions. How are these concepts related?
Answer: Responsibility is the first key element of ethical action. Responsibility means that an
individual, group, or organization accepts the potential costs, duties, and obligations for decisions made.
Accountability is a feature of systems and social institutions. It means that mechanisms are in place to
determine who took responsible action; i.e., who is responsible for the action. Liability is a feature of
political systems in which a body of law is in place that permits individuals to recover the damages done
to them by others.

These concepts are related as follows: I will assume the blame or benefit for the actions I take
(responsibility); this blame or benefit accrues to me through the requirement that I be able to explain
why I have taken the actions I have (accountability) for actions traceable to me by defined mechanisms
in the organization, and if those actions result in hard to another, I will be held by law to reparations for
those actions (liability).
Diff: 3 Type: ES Page Ref: 107
AACSB: Ethical understanding and reasoning abilities
CASE: Analysis
A-level Heading: 4.2 Ethics in an Information Society

192) What do you consider to be the primary ethical, social, and political issues regarding information
system quality?
Answer: The central quality-related ethical issue that information systems raise is at what point should I
release software or services for consumption by others? At what point can I conclude that my software
or service achieves an economically and technologically adequate level of quality? What am I obligated
to know about the quality of my software, its procedures for testing, and its operational characteristics?
The leading quality-related social issue deals with expectations: As a society, do we want to encourage
people to believe that systems are infallible, that data errors are impossible? By heightening awareness
of system failure, do we inhibit the development of all systems, which in the end contribute to social
well-being? The leading quality-related political issue concerns the laws of responsibility and
accountability, what they should be, and how they should be applied.
Diff: 2 Type: ES Page Ref: 119
AACSB: Ethical understanding and reasoning abilities
CASE: Synthesis
A-level Heading: 4.2 Ethics in an Information Society

41
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
193) How does the use of electronic voting machines act as a "double-edged sword?" What moral
dimensions are raised by this use of information technology?
Answer: Electronic voting machines can be seen as beneficial by making voting easy to accomplish and
tabulate. However, it may be easier to tamper with electronic voting machines than with countable paper
ballots. In terms of information rights, it seems possible that methods could be set up to determine how
an individual has voted and to store and disseminate this knowledge. Manufacturers of voting machines
claim property rights to the voting software, which means that if the software is protected from
inspection, there is no regulation in how the software operates or how accurate it is. In terms of
accountability and control, if an electronic voting system malfunctions, will it be the responsibility of
the government, of the company manufacturing the machines or software, or the programmers who
programmed the software? The dimension of system quality raises questions of how the level of
accuracy of the machines is to be judged and what level is acceptable? In terms of quality of life, while
it may make voting easier and quicker, does the vulnerability to abuse of these systems pose a threat to
the democratic principle of one person, one vote?
Diff: 3 Type: ES Page Ref: 105
AACSB: Ethical understanding and reasoning abilities
CASE: Synthesis
A-level Heading: 4.1 Understanding Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues Related to Systems

194) What is spyware? Do you think it should be illegal?


Answer: Spyware is a technology that aids in gathering information about a person or organization
without their knowledge.

Should it be illegal? - You will get various answers for this questions. Some may feel that it is a
legitimate business model for companies to collect information to better serve their customers or to
lower the price of another product in which spyware is bundled. Others may feel that it is a total
invasion of privacy and has the strong potential to be used for nefarious purposes.
Diff: 3 Type: ES Page Ref: 112
AACSB: Ethical understanding and reasoning abilities
CASE: Analysis
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

195) What is technostress? What are the best ways in which firms can protect their employees from
getting technostress?
Answer: You will get various answers of ways in which to combat technostress.

Technostress is stress induced by computer use; symptoms include aggravation, hostility toward
humans, impatience, and enervation.

Perhaps firms first need to recognize the problems caused by technostress. Firms then should put
policies in place which reduce the technostress such as job rotation, mandatory breaks, rules for maxim
time on computer in a week etc.
Diff: 3 Type: ES Page Ref: 124
AACSB: Ethical understanding and reasoning abilities
CASE: Analysis
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

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2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
196) Your workplace is considering implementing major changes in their IS infrastructures. This will
cause radical change in the business processes of the firm. Many tasks and jobs will change. What would
you advise you firm are the benefits and costs of considering such changes?
Answer: Re-engineering work is typically hailed in the information systems community as a major
benefit of new information technology. It is much less frequently noted that redesigning business
processes could potentially cause middle-level managers and clerical workers to lose their jobs. One
economist has raised the possibility that we will create a society run by a small "high tech elite of
corporate professionals ... in a nation of the permanently unemployed."

Other economists are much more sanguine about the potential job losses. They believe relieving bright,
educated workers from re-engineered jobs will result in these workers moving to better jobs in fast-
growth industries.

Missing from this equation are unskilled, blue-collar workers and older, less well-educated middle
managers. It is not clear that these groups can be retrained easily for high-quality (high-paying) jobs.
Careful planning and sensitivity to employee needs can help companies redesign work to minimize job
losses.
Diff: 3 Type: ES Page Ref: 123
AACSB: Ethical understanding and reasoning abilities
CASE: Analysis
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

197) What are some of the arguments for and against the use of digital media? Do you think these
arguments outweigh the positives of digital media usage? Why or why not?
Answer: Some researchers suggest that the Internet and other digital technologies are fundamentally
changing the way we thinkand not for the better. Is the Internet actually making us "dumber," and have
we reached a point where we have too much technology? Or does the Internet offer so many new
opportunities to discover information that it is actually making us "smarter." And, by the way, how do
we define "dumber" and "smarter" in an Internet age?

Several authorities claim that making it possible for millions of people to create mediawritten blogs,
photos, videoshas understandably lowered the quality of media. Bloggers very rarely do original
reporting or research but instead copy it from professional resources. YouTube videos contributed by
newbies to video come nowhere near the quality of professional videos. Newspapers struggle to stay in
business while bloggers provide free content of inconsistent quality.

A recent study conducted by a team of researchers at Stanford University found that multitaskers are not
only more easily distracted, but were also surprisingly poor at multitasking compared to people who
rarely do so themselves. The team also found that multitaskers receive a jolt of excitement when
confronted with a new piece of information or a new call, message, or e-mail.
Diff: 3 Type: ES Page Ref: 125
AACSB: Ethical understanding and reasoning abilities
CASE: Analysis
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

43
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
198) What are the ethical, social, and political issues raised by the use of mobile devices in our daily
live, on particular when we are operating moving vehicles?
Answer: A computer-related malady is technostress, which is stress induced by computer use. Its
symptoms include aggravation, hostility toward humans, impatience, and fatigue. According to experts,
humans working continuously with computers come to expect other humans and human institutions to
behave like computers, providing instant responses, attentiveness, and an absence of emotion.
Technostress is thought to be related to high levels of job turnover in the computer industry, high levels
of early retirement from computer-intense occupations, and elevated levels of drug and alcohol abuse.

We are incredibly dependent on information systems and are, therefore, highly vulnerable if these
systems fail. With systems now as as the telephone system, it is startling to remember that there are no
regulatory or standard-setting forces in place that are similar to telephone, electrical, radio, television, or
other public utility technologies. The absence of standards and the criticality of some system
applications will probably call forth demands for national standards and perhaps regulatory oversight.

Although authors have traditionally worked just about anywhere (typewriters have been portable for
nearly a century), the advent of information systems, coupled with the growth of knowledge-work
occupations, means that more and more people are working when traditionally they would have been
playing or communicating with family and friends. The work umbrella now extends far beyond the
eight-hour day.

Even leisure time spent on the computer threatens these close social relationships. Extensive Internet
use, even for entertainment or recreational purposes, takes people away from their family and friends.
Among middle school and teenage children, it can lead to harmful antisocial behaviour, such as the
recent upsurge in cyberbullying.
Diff: 3 Type: ES Page Ref: 125
AACSB: Ethical understanding and reasoning abilities
CASE: Analysis
A-level Heading: 4.3 The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

44
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.