You are on page 1of 46

Management Information Systems, Cdn. 6e (Laudon et al.

)
Chapter 13 Developing Information Systems

1) The most common form of IT-enabled organizational change is automation.


Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 410
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.1 Systems As Planned Organizational Change

2) Calculating paycheques and payroll registers, giving bank tellers instant access to customer deposit
records are both examples of early automation.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 410
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.1 Systems As Planned Organizational Change

3) A paradigm shift involves rethinking the nature of the business and the nature of the organization.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 411
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.1 Systems As Planned Organizational Change

4) Many companies today are focusing on developing new information systems that will improve their
business processes.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 411
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.1 Systems As Planned Organizational Change

5) Work flow management is the process of streamlining business procedures so that documents can be
moved easily and efficiently.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 411
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.1 Systems As Planned Organizational Change

6) One of the most important strategic decisions that a firm can make is not deciding how to use
information systems to improve business processes but rather understanding what business processes
need improvement.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 412
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
1
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
A-level Heading: 13.1 Systems As Planned Organizational Change

7) Work flow management (WFM) enables organizations to manage incremental process changes that
are required simultaneously in many areas of the business.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 411
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.1 Systems As Planned Organizational Change

8) Seven sigma is a specific measure of quality, representing 3.4 defects per million opportunities.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 411
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.1 Systems As Planned Organizational Change

9) TQM consists of setting strict standards for products, services, and other activities and then measuring
performance against those standards.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 410
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.1 Systems As Planned Organizational Change

10) The activities that go into producing an information system solution to an organizational problem or
opportunity are called systems analysis.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 411
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

11) The systems design would include a feasibility study to determine whether that solution was feasible
or achievable from a financial, technical, and organizational standpoint.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 417
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

12) Systems design is the analysis of the problem that the organization will try to solve with an
information system.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 417
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

2
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
13) The information requirements of a new system involve identifying who needs what information,
where, when, and how. Requirements analysis carefully defines the objectives of the new or modified
system and develops a detailed description of the functions that the new system must perform.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 417
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

14) Unit testing, or program testing, consists of testing each program separately in the system.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 419
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

15) System testing tests the functioning of the information system as a whole.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 419
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

16) Acceptance testing provides the final certification that the system is ready to be used in a production
setting.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 419
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

17) Conversion is the process of changing from the old system to the new system.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 419
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

18) In a parallel strategy, both the old system and its potential replacement are run together for a time
until everyone is assured that the new one functions correctly.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 419
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

3
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
19) The direct cutover strategy replaces the old system entirely with the new system on an appointed
day.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 419
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

20) The pilot study strategy introduces the new system to only a limited area of the organization, such as
a single department or operating unit.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 420
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

21) The phased approach strategy introduces the new system in stages, either by functions or by
organizational units.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 420
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

22) Object-oriented development uses the kernel as the basic unit of systems analysis and design.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 422
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

23) The systems life cycle consists of developing an experimental system rapidly and inexpensively for
end users to evaluate.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 425
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.3 Alternative Systems-Development Approaches

24) End-user languages are software tools that provide immediate online answers to requests for
information that are not predefined.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 426
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.3 Alternative Systems-Development Approaches

4
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
25) Rationalization allows a software package to be modified to meet an organization's unique
requirements without destroying the integrity of the package software.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 428
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.3 Alternative Systems-Development Approaches

26) Request for Proposal (RFP) is a detailed list of questions submitted to packaged-software vendors.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 428
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.3 Alternative Systems-Development Approaches

27) Rationalization of procedures describes a radical rethinking of the business models.


Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 428
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.1 Systems As Planned Organizational Change

28) Failure to address properly the organizational changes surrounding the introduction of a new system
can cause the demise of an otherwise good system.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 410
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Evaluation
A-level Heading: 13.1 Systems As Planned Organizational Change

29) TQM describes the measurement of quality as 3.4 defects per million.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 410
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.1 Systems As Planned Organizational Change

30) Thorough testing is not required if, during the programming stage, the design documents are
sufficiently detailed.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 419
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Analysis
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

5
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
31) The system is not in production until conversion is complete.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 420
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

32) Documentation reveals how well the system has met its original objectives.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 3 Type: TF Page Ref: 421
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

33) A data flow diagram offers a logical and graphical model of information flow, partitioning a system
into modules that show manageable levels of detail.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 421
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

34) A structure chart is a bottom-up chart, showing each level of design, its relationship to other levels,
and its place in the overall design structure.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 421
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

35) Object-oriented development is more incremental than traditional structured development.


Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 423
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

36) Objects are grouped into hierarchies, and hierarchies into classes.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 423
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

6
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
37) CASE tools facilitate the creation of clear documentation and the coordination of team development
efforts.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1 Type: TF Page Ref: 424
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

38) The oldest method for building information systems is prototyping.


Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 425
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.3 Alternative Systems-Development Approaches

39) Prototyping is more iterative than the conventional lifecycle.


Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 425
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.3 Alternative Systems-Development Approaches

40) A problem with prototyping is that the systems constructed using this method may not be able to
handle large quantities of data in a production environment.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 426
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.3 Alternative Systems-Development Approaches

41) End-user-developed systems can be completed more rapidly than those developed through the
conventional systems lifecycle.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1 Type: TF Page Ref: 428
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.3 Alternative Systems-Development Approaches

42) One advantage of fourth-generation tools is that they can easily handle processing large numbers of
transactions or applications with extensive procedural logic and updating requirements.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 1 Type: TF Page Ref: 427
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.3 Alternative Systems-Development Approaches

7
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
43) In some forms of outsourcing, a company hires an external vendor to create the software for its
system, but operates the software on its own computers.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1 Type: TF Page Ref: 429
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.3 Alternative Systems-Development Approaches

44) Hidden costs typically increase the total cost of an offshore outsourcing project by an extra 50 to 75
percent.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 431
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.3 Alternative Systems-Development Approaches

45) Systems development activities always take place in sequential order.


Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 425
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.3 Alternative Systems-Development Approaches

46) Developing a new information system is one kind of unplanned organizational change.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 410
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.1 Systems As Planned Organizational Change

47) Information technology can promote various degrees of organizational change, ranging from large to
far-reaching.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 410
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.1 Systems As Planned Organizational Change

48) Paradigm shifts and prototyping often fail because extensive organizational change is so difficult to
orchestrate.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 411
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.1 Systems As Planned Organizational Change

8
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
49) Once the existing process is mapped and measured in terms of time and cost, the process design
team is finished.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 413
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.1 Systems As Planned Organizational Change

50) Once a process has been implemented and optimized, it needs to be measured twice.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 414
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.1 Systems As Planned Organizational Change

51) New information systems are an outgrowth of a process of organizational problem solving.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 415
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

52) Systems development can be broken down into six core activities.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 417
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

53) Approximately 20 percent of the time devoted to maintenance is used for debugging or correcting
emergency production problems.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 420
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

54) There are alternative methodologies for modelling and designing systems, the most prominent are
structured methodologies and object-oriented development.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 421
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

9
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
55) To be used effectively, CASE tools require organizational discipline.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Type: TF Page Ref: 424
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

56) The four kinds of structural organizational change enabled by IT, in order from least to most risky,
are
A) rationalization, automation, reengineering, and redesigning.
B) rationalization, automation, reengineering, and paradigm shift.
C) automation, rationalization, reengineering, and paradigm shift.
D) automation, redesigning, restructuring, and paradigm shift.
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 410
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Analysis
A-level Heading: 13.1 Systems As Planned Organizational Change

57) The local bank has taken their loan application screening process and input the loan application into
a computer database. This makes it possible for those who process the loan to do it faster and more
efficiently. This is an example of ________.
A) a paradigm shift
B) re-engineering
C) rationalization
D) automation
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 410
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Analysis
A-level Heading: 13.1 Systems As Planned Organizational Change

58) Ford Motor Company's invoiceless processing, which reduced headcount in Ford's North American
accounts payable organization of 500 people by 75 percent. Ford changed its accounts payable process
so that the purchasing department enters a purchase order into an online database that can be checked by
the receiving department when the ordered items arrive. If the received goods match the purchase order,
the system automatically generates a cheque for accounts payable to send to the vendor. There is no need
for vendors to send invoices. This is an example of ________.
A) a paradigm shift
B) re-engineering
C) rationalization
D) automation
Answer: B
Diff: 3 Type: MC Page Ref: 411
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Analysis
A-level Heading: 13.1 Systems As Planned Organizational Change

10
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
59) The Canadian trucking and transportation firm Trans-X used new information systems to change its
business model. Trans-X created a new business managing the logistics for other companies. This more
radical form of business change is called ________.
A) a paradigm shift
B) re-engineering
C) rationalization
D) automation
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 411
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Analysis
A-level Heading: 13.1 Systems As Planned Organizational Change

60) ________ is a specific measure of quality, representing 3.4 defects per million opportunities.
A) Six sigma
B) TQM
C) BPM
D) BPR
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 411
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.1 Systems As Planned Organizational Change

61) John is in the process describing what the new system should do to meet information requirements,
and John will show how the system will fulfill this objective. Like the blueprint of a building or house,
John will give all the specifications that give the system its form and structure. John details the system
specifications that will deliver the functions identified during systems analysis. John is in which stage of
system development?
A) system design
B) system analysis
C) programming
D) testing
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 418
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Analysis
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

11
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
62) John is in the process of developing a new system. John is defining the problem, identifying its
causes, specifying the solution, and identifying the information requirements that must be met by a
system solution. John creates a road map of the existing organization and systems, identifying the
primary owners and users of data along with existing hardware and software. John will then detail the
problems of existing systems. By examining documents, work papers, and procedures; observing system
operations; and interviewing key users of the systems, John can identify the problem areas and
objectives a solution would achieve. John is in which stage of system development?
A) system design
B) system analysis
C) programming
D) testing
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 416
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Analysis
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

63) John is in the process of developing a new system. During the current stage, system specifications
that were prepared during the design stage are translated into software program code. John is in which
stage of system development?
A) system design
B) system analysis
C) programming
D) testing
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 419
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Analysis
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

64) John is in the process of developing a new system. This current stage is exhaustive and thorough and
must be conducted to ascertain whether the system produces the right results. John must answer the
question, "Will the system produce the desired results under known conditions?" The amount of time
needed to answer this question has been traditionally underrated in systems project planning. This stage
is time consuming: data must be carefully prepared, results reviewed, and corrections made in the
system. In some instances, parts of the system may have to be redesigned. The risks resulting from
glossing over this step are enormous. John is in which stage of system development?
A) system design
B) system analysis
C) programming
D) testing
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 419
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Analysis
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

12
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
65) Susan has decided on a conversion strategy to the new system. In this strategy, both the old system
and its potential replacement are run together for a time until everyone is assured that the new one
functions correctly. This is the safest conversion approach because, in the event of errors or processing
disruptions, the old system can still be used as a backup. However, this approach is very expensive, and
additional staff or resources may be required to run the extra system. Which conversion strategy are they
employing?
A) phased approach strategy
B) pilot study strategy
C) direct cutover strategy
D) parallel strategy
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 419
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Analysis
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

66) Eddy has decided on a conversion strategy to the new system. In this strategy, it replaces the old
system entirely with the new system on an appointed day. It is a very risky approach that can potentially
be more costly than running two systems in parallel if serious problems with the new system are found.
There is no other system to fall back on. Dislocations, disruptions, and the cost of corrections may be
enormous. Which conversion strategy are they employing?
A) phased approach strategy
B) pilot study strategy
C) direct cutover strategy
D) parallel strategy
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 419
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Analysis
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

67) Eddy has decided on a conversion strategy to the new system. In this strategy, it introduces the new
system to only a limited area of the organization, such as a single department or operating unit. When
this limited area is complete and working smoothly, it is installed throughout the rest of the organization,
either simultaneously or in stages. Which conversion strategy are they employing?
A) phased approach strategy
B) pilot study strategy
C) direct cutover strategy
D) parallel strategy
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 420
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Analysis
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

13
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
68) Bobby has decided on a conversion strategy to the new system. In this strategy, he will introduce the
new system in stages, either by functions or by organizational units. If, for example, the system is
introduced by functions, a new payroll system might begin with hourly workers who are paid weekly,
followed six months later by adding salaried employees (who are paid monthly) to the system. If the
system is introduced by organizational units, corporate headquarters might be converted first, followed
by outlying operating units four months later. Which conversion strategy are they employing?
A) phased approach strategy
B) pilot study strategy
C) direct cutover strategy
D) parallel strategy
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 420
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Analysis
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

69) In the case of ________, the decision tends to be much more cost-driven. A skilled programmer in
India or Russia earns about $11 000 per year, compared to $65 000 per year for a comparable
programmer in Canada.
A) offshore outsourcing
B) outsourcing
C) end users
D) off the shelf
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 429
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.3 Alternative Systems-Development Approaches

70) ________ focuses on rapid delivery of working software by breaking a large project into a series of
small sub-projects that are completed in short periods of time using iteration and continuous feedback.
A) JAD
B) RAD
C) Prototyping
D) Agile development
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 432
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.4 Application Development For The Digital Firm

14
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
71) Business processes are analyzed, simplified, and redesigned in
A) BPR.
B) rationalization of procedures.
C) automation.
D) a paradigm shift.
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 411
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.1 Systems As Planned Organizational Change

72) In automation
A) business processes are simplified.
B) business processes are reorganized to cut waste and eliminate repetitive, paper-intensive tasks.
C) standard operating procedures are streamlined to remove bottlenecks.
D) employees are enabled to perform their tasks more efficiently.
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 410
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.1 Systems As Planned Organizational Change

73) Based on your reading of the chapter, the redesign of mortgage application process by major
mortgage banks was an example of which type of organizational change?
A) automation
B) paradigm shift
C) business process reengineering
D) restructuring
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 411
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Analysis
A-level Heading: 13.1 Systems As Planned Organizational Change

74) The process of streamlining business procedures so that documents can be moved easily and
efficiently is called
A) business process reengineering
B) automation
C) work flow management
D) rationalization
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 410
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.1 Systems As Planned Organizational Change

15
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
75) Which of the following statements about business process reengineering is NOT true?
A) It is primarily an ongoing effort by a firm that continually readjusts and measures the effectiveness of
new procedures.
B) It typically focuses on one or two strategic business processes that need radical change.
C) BPR projects tend to be expensive and organizationally disruptive.
D) To judge effectiveness, the performance of a business process should be measured both before and
after re-engineering.
Answer: A
Diff: 3 Type: MC Page Ref: 411
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.1 Systems As Planned Organizational Change

76) ________ provide(s) a methodology and tools for dealing with the organization's ongoing need to
reviseand ideally optimizeits numerous internal business processes and processes shared with other
organizations.
A) BPR
B) BPM
C) CASE tools
D) TQM
Answer: B
Diff: 3 Type: MC Page Ref: 412
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.1 Systems As Planned Organizational Change

77) Enabling organizations to make continual improvements to many business processes and to use
processes as the fundamental building blocks of corporate information systems is the goal of
A) BPM.
B) BPR.
C) reengineering.
D) work flow management.
Answer: A
Diff: 3 Type: MC Page Ref: 412
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.1 Systems As Planned Organizational Change

78) The idea that the achievement of quality control is an end in itself describes a main concept of
A) BPM.
B) BPR.
C) six sigma.
D) TQM.
Answer: D
Diff: 3 Type: MC Page Ref: 411
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.1 Systems As Planned Organizational Change

16
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
79) Which process develops a detailed description of the functions that a new information system must
perform?
A) feasibility study
B) requirements analysis
C) systems design
D) test plan development
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 417
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

80) The entire system-building effort is driven by


A) organizational change.
B) feasibility studies.
C) the information value chain.
D) user information requirements.
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 420
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Analysis
A-level Heading: 13.3 Alternative Systems-Development Approaches

81) Systems design:


A) describes what a system should do to meet information requirements.
B) shows how the new system will fulfill the information requirements.
C) identifies which users need what information, where, when and how.
D) is concerned with the logical view of the system solution.
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 418
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

82) System design specifications that address the category of database design issues will include
specifications for
A) transaction volume and speed requirements.
B) data entry.
C) job design.
D) program logic and computations.
Answer: A
Diff: 3 Type: MC Page Ref: 418
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

17
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
83) Transferring data from a legacy system to the new system would be defined by which category of
system design specifications?
A) input
B) database
C) manual procedures
D) conversion
Answer: D
Diff: 3 Type: MC Page Ref: 418
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

84) Determining methods for feedback and error handling would be defined by which category of
system design specifications?
A) training and documentation
B) user interface
C) manual procedures
D) security and controls
Answer: B
Diff: 3 Type: MC Page Ref: 418
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

85) Unit testing


A) includes all the preparations for the series of tests to be performed on the system.
B) tests the functioning of the system as a whole in order to determine if discrete modules will function
together as planned.
C) tests each program separately.
D) provides the final certification that the system is ready to be used in a production setting.
Answer: C
Diff: 1 Type: MC Page Ref: 419
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

86) System testing


A) includes all the preparations for the series of tests to be performed on the system.
B) tests the functioning of the system as a whole in order to determine if discrete modules will function
together as planned.
C) tests each program separately.
D) provides the final certification that the system is ready to be used in a production setting.
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 419
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

18
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
87) Acceptance testing
A) includes all the preparations for the series of tests to be performed on the system.
B) tests the functioning of the system as a whole in order to determine if discrete modules will function
together as planned.
C) tests each program separately.
D) provides the final certification that the system is ready to be used in a production setting.
Answer: D
Diff: 1 Type: MC Page Ref: 419
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

88) In a parallel conversion strategy, the new system


A) is tested by an outsourced company.
B) replaces the old one at an appointed time.
C) and the old are run together.
D) is introduced in stages.
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 419
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

89) In the direct cutover conversion strategy, the new system


A) is tested by an outsourced company.
B) replaces the old one at an appointed time.
C) and the old are run together.
D) is introduced in stages.
Answer: B
Diff: 1 Type: MC Page Ref: 419
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

90) Changes in hardware, software, documentation, or production to a production system to correct


errors, meet new requirements, or improve processing efficiencies are termed
A) compliance.
B) production.
C) maintenance.
D) acceptance.
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 420
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

19
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
91) In what stage of systems development are design specifications created?
A) systems analysis
B) systems design
C) testing
D) conversion
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 418
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

92) The primary tool for representing a system's component processes and the flow of data between
them is the
A) data dictionary.
B) process specifications diagram.
C) user documentation.
D) data flow diagram.
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 421
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

93) To understand and define the contents of data flows and data store, system builders use
A) a data dictionary.
B) process specifications diagrams.
C) user documentation.
D) data flow diagrams.
Answer: A
Diff: 3 Type: MC Page Ref: 421
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

94) To show each level of a system's design, its relationship to other levels, and its place in the overall
design structure, structured methodologies use
A) structure charts.
B) Gantt and PERT charts.
C) process specifications.
D) data flow diagrams.
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 422
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

20
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
95) An entire information system is broken down into its subsystems by using
A) high-level data flow diagrams.
B) low-level data flow diagrams.
C) process specifications.
D) structured diagrams.
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 421
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

96) In object-oriented development


A) the class is used as the basic unit of systems analysis and design.
B) an object is a collection of data that is acted on by external processes.
C) processing logic resides within objects.
D) a strict, step-by-step development process is essential.
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 423
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Evaluation
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

97) In an object-oriented development framework for a university, how would the classes Degree,
Mathematics, and Physics be related?
A) Degree would be a sister class to Mathematics and Physics.
B) Degree is a superclass to Mathematics and Physics.
C) Mathematics and Physics would be ancestors to Degree.
D) Degree would be a subclass to Mathematics and Physics.
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 423
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Analysis
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

98) Object-oriented modeling is based on the concepts of


A) objects and relationships.
B) classes and objects.
C) class and inheritance.
D) objects and inheritance.
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 423
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

21
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
99) Object-oriented development could potentially reduce the time and cost of writing software because
A) object-oriented programming requires less training.
B) iterative prototyping is not required.
C) objects are reusable.
D) a single user interface object can be used for the entire application.
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 423
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

100) CASE tools automate


A) the tedious and error-prone portions of analysis and design.
B) code generation.
C) testing.
D) all of the above.
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 424
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

101) The oldest method for building information systems is


A) component-based development.
B) prototyping.
C) object-oriented development.
D) the systems development lifecycle.
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 425
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

102) In the traditional systems development lifecycle, end users:


A) are important and ongoing members of the team from the original analysis phase through
maintenance.
B) are important only in the testing phases.
C) have no input.
D) are limited to providing information requirements and reviewing the technical staff's work.
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 425
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

22
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
103) In which type of systems building are the development stages organized so that tasks in one stage
are completed before the tasks in the next stage begun?
A) traditional
B) prototyping
C) RAD
D) All of the above
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Type: MC Page Ref: 425
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

104) As a technical project manager you have decided to propose implementing a prototyping
methodology for a small Web-based design project. What is the order of steps you will follow in this
project?
A) Develop the prototype; use the prototype; revise and enhance the prototype.
B) Identify user requirements, develop the prototype, use the prototype, revise and enhance the
prototype.
C) Define the requirements, develop solutions, select the best prototype, and implement the prototype.
D) Define the requirements, develop the prototype, revise and enhance the prototype.
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 425
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Synthesis
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

105) A systems building approach in which the system is developed as successive versions, each version
reflecting requirements more accurately, is described to be
A) end-user oriented.
B) iterative.
C) object-oriented.
D) agile.
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 425
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

106) Which type of fourth-generation language tools are end-users most likely to work with?
A) report generators and query languages
B) report generators and application generators
C) PC software tools and query languages
D) PC software tools and report generators
Answer: C
Diff: 3 Type: MC Page Ref: 427
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

23
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
107) Which type of fourth-generation language tool contains preprogrammed modules that can be used
to create entire applications?
A) PC software tools
B) report generators
C) application generators
D) application software packages
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 427
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

108) When systems are created rapidly, without a formal development methodology
A) end users can take over the work of IT specialists.
B) the organization quickly outgrows the new system.
C) hardware, software, and quality standards are less important.
D) testing and documentation may be inadequate.
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 425
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

109) Management should control the development of end-user applications by


A) developing a formal development methodology.
B) requiring cost justification for end-user IS projects.
C) establishing standards for user-developed applications.
D) both B and C.
E) both A and B.
Answer: D
Diff: 3 Type: MC Page Ref: 428
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

110) Fourth-generation tools cannot replace conventional development tools because they
A) cannot handle large numbers of transactions or extensive procedural logic.
B) are not designed to integrate with legacy systems.
C) do not incorporate methods for documentation.
D) do not incorporate methods for testing.
Answer: A
Diff: 3 Type: MC Page Ref: 427
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

24
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
111) If an organization's requirements conflict with the software package chosen and the package cannot
be customized, the organization will have to
A) change its procedures.
B) outsource the development of the system.
C) redesign the RFP.
D) change the evaluation process.
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 428
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

112) Hidden costs such as ________ can easily undercut anticipated benefits from outsourcing.
A) monitoring vendors to make sure they often are fulfilling their contractual obligations
B) transitioning to a new vendor
C) identifying and evaluating vendors of information technology services
D) all of the above
Answer: D
Diff: 1 Type: MC Page Ref: 430
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Evaluation
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

113) The process of creating workable information systems in a very short period of time is called
A) RAD.
B) JAD.
C) prototyping.
D) B and C.
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 431
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.4 Application Development For The Digital Firm

114) Which type of systems development is characterized by significantly speeding up the design phase
and the generation of information requirements and involving users at an intense level?
A) RAD
B) JAD
C) prototyping
D) end-user development
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 431
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.4 Application Development For The Digital Firm

25
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
115) You are an IT project manager for an advertising firm. The firm wishes to create an online tool that
will be used to survey focus group reactions to products in development. The most important
consideration for the firm is being able to offer the tool as soon as possible as a new corporate service.
However, you know that many of the senior managers that are business owners of this project have
difficulty in understanding technical or software development issues, and are likely to change their
requirements during the course of development. What development method would be most successful
for this project?
A) RAD
B) JAD
C) end-user development
D) prototyping
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 431
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Synthesis
A-level Heading: 13.4 Application Development For The Digital Firm

116) Groups of objects are assembled into software components for common functions, which can be
combined into large-scale business applications, in which type of software development?
A) object-oriented development
B) component-based development
C) structured methodologies
D) RAD
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 432
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.4 Application Development For The Digital Firm

117) Compared to the use of proprietary components, Web services promise to be less expensive and
less difficult to implement because of
A) their ability to integrate seamlessly with legacy systems.
B) the use of universal standards.
C) the ubiquity of the Internet.
D) the ability to reuse Web services components.
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 432
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.4 Application Development For The Digital Firm

26
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
118) ________ development focuses on rapid delivery of working software by breaking a large project
into a series of small sub-projects that are completed in short periods of time using iteration and
continuous feedback.
A) Agile
B) Rapid application
C) Joint application
D) Object-oriented
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 432
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.4 Application Development For The Digital Firm

119) Developing a new information system is one kind of planned________.


A) organizational change
B) organizational development
C) organizational technology
D) organizational process
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 410
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.1 Systems As Planned Organizational Change

120) Information technology can promote various degrees of organizational change, ranging from
________ to far-reaching.
A) incremental
B) monumental
C) immense
D) mammoth
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 410
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.1 Systems As Planned Organizational Change

121) Paradigm shifts and ________ often fail because extensive organizational change is so difficult to
orchestrate.
A) re-engineering
B) re-modelling
C) re-building
D) re-entering
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 411
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.1 Systems As Planned Organizational Change

27
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
122) Once the existing process is ________ in terms of time and cost, the process design team will try to
improve the process by designing a new one.
A) mapped and measured
B) mapped and filtered
C) made and measured
D) made and filtered
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 413
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.1 Systems As Planned Organizational Change

123) Once a process has been________, it needs to be continually measured.


A) implemented and optimized
B) implemented and adjusted
C) implemented and readjusted
D) implemented and stabilized
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 414
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.1 Systems As Planned Organizational Change

124) New information systems are an outgrowth of a process of organizational ________.


A) problem creating
B) problem solving
C) creative solving
D) creative problems
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 415
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

125) Systems development can be broken down into ________ core activities.
A) four
B) six
C) two
D) eight
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 417
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

28
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
126) Approximately 20 percent of the time devoted to maintenance is used for ________ or correcting
emergency production problems.
A) production
B) debugging
C) programming
D) development
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 420
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

127) There are alternative methodologies for modelling and designing systems, the most prominent are
________.
A) unstructured methodologies and model-oriented development
B) structured methodologies and object-oriented development
C) unstructured methodologies and object-oriented development
D) structured methodologies and model-oriented development
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 421
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

128) To be used effectively, ________ tools require organizational discipline.


A) SACE
B) CASE
C) SCAE
D) EASC
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 424
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

129) Systems differ in terms of their ________ complexity and in terms of the organizational problems
they are meant to solve.
A) terms and technological
B) size and terms
C) size and technological
D) terms and systems
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 423
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.3 Alternative Systems-Development Approaches

29
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
130) "The system designer (usually an information systems specialist) works with the user only long
enough to capture the user's basic information needs" describes which step in the prototyping process?
A) Identify the user's basic requirements
B) Develop an initial prototype
C) Use the prototype
D) Revise and enhance the prototype
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 425
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.3 Alternative Systems-Development Approaches

131) "The system designer creates a working prototype quickly, using tools for rapidly generating
software" describes which step in the prototyping process?
A) Identify the user's basic requirements
B) Develop an initial prototype
C) Use the prototype
D) Revise and enhance the prototype
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 425
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.3 Alternative Systems-Development Approaches

132) "The user is encouraged to work with the system to determine how well the prototype meets his or
her needs and to make suggestions for improving the prototype" describes which step in the prototyping
process?
A) Identify the user's basic requirements.
B) Develop an initial prototype.
C) Use the prototype.
D) Revise and enhance the prototype.
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 425
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.3 Alternative Systems-Development Approaches

133) "The systems developer notes all changes the user requests and refines the prototype accordingly"
describes which step in the prototyping process?
A) Identify the user's basic requirements.
B) Develop an initial prototype.
C) Use the prototype.
D) Revise and enhance the prototype.
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 425
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.3 Alternative Systems-Development Approaches

30
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
134) A(n) ________ is an organizational change that involves rethinking the nature of the business and
the nature of the organization itself.
Answer: paradigm shift
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 111
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.1 Systems As Planned Organizational Change

135) The most common form of IT-enabled organizational change is ________.


Answer: automation
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 410
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.1 Systems As Planned Organizational Change

136) ________ of procedures is the streamlining of standard operating procedures.


Answer: Rationalization
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 410
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.1 Systems As Planned Organizational Change

137) A more powerful type of organizational change is ________, in which business processes are
analyzed, simplified, and redesigned.
Answer: business process re-engineering (BPR)
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 411
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.1 Systems As Planned Organizational Change

138) ________ management is the process of streamlining business procedures so that documents can be
moved easily and efficiently.
Answer: Work flow
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 411
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.1 Systems As Planned Organizational Change

139) One of the most important strategic decisions that a firm can make is not deciding how to use
information systems to improve business processes but rather understanding what business processes
need ________.
Answer: improvement
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 412
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.1 Systems As Planned Organizational Change

31
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
140) The majority of ________ projects do not achieve breakthrough gains in business performance
because the organizational changes are often very difficult to manage.
Answer: re-engineering
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 411
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.1 Systems As Planned Organizational Change

141) ________ is primarily a one-time effort, focusing on identifying one or two strategic business
processes that need radical change.
Answer: Business process re-engineering
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 411
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.1 Systems As Planned Organizational Change

142) ________ is a concept that makes quality control a responsibility to be shared by all people in an
organization.
Answer: Total quality management (TQM)
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 411
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.1 Systems As Planned Organizational Change

143) ________ is a specific measure of quality, representing 3.4 defects per million opportunities.
Answer: Six sigma
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 411
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.1 Systems As Planned Organizational Change

144) The activities that go into producing an information system solution to an organizational problem
or opportunity are called ________.
Answer: systems development
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 415
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

145) ________ is the analysis of the problem that the organization will try to solve with an information
system.
Answer: Systems analysis
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 416
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

32
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
146) The ________ details the system specifications that will deliver the functions identified during
systems analysis.
Answer: systems designer
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 418
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

147) ________ must have sufficient control over the design process to ensure that the system reflects
their business priorities and information needs, not the biases of the technical staff.
Answer: Users
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 418
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

148) ________, or program testing, consists of testing each program separately in the system.
Answer: Unit testing
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 419
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

149) ________ tests the functioning of the information system as a whole.


Answer: System testing
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 419
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

150) ________ provides the final certification that the system is ready to be used in a production setting.
Answer: Acceptance testing
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 419
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

151) In a ________, both the old system and its potential replacement are run together for a time until
everyone is assured that the new one functions correctly.
Answer: parallel strategy
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 419
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

33
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
152) The ________ replaces the old system entirely with the new system on an appointed day.
Answer: direct cutover strategy
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 419
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

153) The ________ introduces the new system to only a limited area of the organization, such as a single
department or operating unit.
Answer: pilot study strategy
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 420
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

154) The ________ introduces the new system in stages, either by functions or by organizational units.
Answer: phased approach strategy
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 420
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

155) Lack of proper training and ________ contributes to system failure, so this portion of the systems
development process is very important.
Answer: documentation
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 420
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

156) The primary tool for representing a system's component processes and the flow of data between
them is the ________.
Answer: data flow diagram (DFD)
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 421
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

157) An entire system can be divided into subsystems with a ________ data flow diagram.
Answer: high-level
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 421
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

34
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
158) The ________ is a top-down chart, showing each level of design, its relationship to other levels,
and its place in the overall design structure.
Answer: structure chart
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 422
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

159) Object-oriented development uses the ________ as the basic unit of systems analysis and design.
Answer: object
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 423
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

160) Object-oriented modelling is based on the concepts of ________ and inheritance.


Answer: class
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 423
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

161) Object-oriented development is more ________ and incremental than traditional structured
development.
Answer: iterative
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 424
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

162) ________ consists of developing an experimental system rapidly and inexpensively for end users to
evaluate.
Answer: Prototyping
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 425
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.3 Alternative Systems-Development Approaches

163) ________ are software tools that provide immediate online answers to requests for information that
are not predefined, such as "Who are the highest-performing sales representatives?"
Answer: Query languages
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 428
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.3 Alternative Systems-Development Approaches

35
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
164) ________ allows a software package to be modified to meet an organization's unique requirements
without destroying the integrity of the package software.
Answer: Customization
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 428
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.3 Alternative Systems-Development Approaches

165) A ________, which is a detailed list of questions submitted to packaged-software vendors.


Answer: Request for Proposal (RFP)
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 428
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.3 Alternative Systems-Development Approaches

166) In the case of ________ outsourcing, the decision tends to be much more cost-driven.
Answer: offshore
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 429
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.3 Alternative Systems-Development Approaches

167) Experts claim it takes from three months to a full year to fully ________ work to an offshore
partner and make sure the vendor thoroughly understands your business.
Answer: transfer
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 429
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.3 Alternative Systems-Development Approaches

168) The term ________ is used to describe this process of creating workable systems in a very short
period of time.
Answer: rapid application development (RAD)
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 431
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.4 Application Development For The Digital Firm

169) A systems analysis includes a(n) ________ that is used to determine whether the solution is
achievable, from a financial, technical, and organizational standpoint.
Answer: feasibility study
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 416
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

36
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
170) ________ contain a detailed statement of the information needs that a new system must satisfy;
identifies who needs what information, and when, where, and how the information is needed.
Answer: Information requirements
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 417
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

171) A(n) ________ is the model or blueprint for an information system solution and consists of all the
specifications that will deliver the functions identified during systems analysis.
Answer: systems design
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 418
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

172) ________ is the process of changing from the old system to the new system.
Answer: Conversion
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 419
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

173) ________ describe the transformation occurring within the lowest level of the data flow diagrams.
Answer: Process specifications
Diff: 3 Type: SA Page Ref: 421
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.3 Alternative Systems-Development Approaches

174) ________ are software tools that enable end users to create reports or develop software
applications with minimal or no technical assistance.
Answer: Fourth-generation languages
Diff: 3 Type: SA Page Ref: 427
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.4 Application Development For The Digital Firm

175) ________ design is a process used to accelerate the generation of information requirements by
having end-users and information system specialists work together in intensive interactive design
sessions.
Answer: Joint application
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 431
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.4 Application Development For The Digital Firm

37
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
176) Developing a new information system is one kind of planned organizational ________.
Answer: change
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 410
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.1 Systems As Planned Organizational Change

177) Information technology can promote various degrees of organizational change, ranging from
________ to far-reaching.
Answer: incremental
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 410
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.1 Systems As Planned Organizational Change

178) ________ shifts and re-engineering often fail because extensive organizational change is so
difficult to orchestrate.
Answer: Paradigm
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 411
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.1 Systems As Planned Organizational Change

179) Once the existing process is ________ and measured in terms of time and cost, the process design
team will try to improve the process by designing a new one.
Answer: mapped
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 413
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.1 Systems As Planned Organizational Change

180) Once a process has been implemented and optimized, it needs to be continually ________.
Answer: measured
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 414
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.1 Systems As Planned Organizational Change

181) New information systems are an outgrowth of a process of organizational ________.


Answer: problem solving
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 415
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

38
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
182) Systems development can be broken down into ________ activities.
Answer: six core
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 417
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

183) Approximately 20 percent of the time devoted to maintenance is used for ________ or correcting
emergency production problems.
Answer: debugging
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 420
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

184) There are alternative methodologies for modelling and designing systems, the most prominent are
________ and object-oriented development.
Answer: structured methodologies
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 421
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

185) To be used effectively, ________ tools require organizational discipline.


Answer: CASE
Diff: 2 Type: SA Page Ref: 424
AACSB: Use of information technology
CASE: Content
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

186) Describe each type of organizational change enabled by information technology. Give an example
of each type of change, as it might be illustrated through the operations of a hotel.
Answer:
1. In automation, employees are assisted with performing tasks automatically. In a hotel, this might
mean that a system is set up for the reservations desk to record and process customer reservations.
2. In rationalization of procedures, standard operating procedures are streamlined. In a hotel, this might
mean that a reservation system that required three or four steps for checking a customer in would be
reduced to one or two steps.
3. In business process reengineering, business processes are analyzed, simplified and redesigned. In a
hotel, the reservation and check-in system might be designed to allow the customers to reserve rooms
and check in themselves, without the need of a hotel employee to confirm the process.
4. In paradigm shift, the very nature of the business is rethought and new business models are defined.
In a hotel, this might mean that the idea of renting rooms on a night-by-night basis to clients might be
rethought of as an extended stay place, or perhaps even as a condominium or other business type.
Diff: 2 Type: ES Page Ref: 410
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Synthesis
A-level Heading: 13.1 Systems As Planned Organizational Change

39
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
187) What is the importance of quality management as it pertains to business processes. Describe two
methods of quality management and distinguish these from BPR.
Answer: Quality management is one area of continuous process improvement. In addition to increasing
organizational efficiency, companies must fine-tune their business processes to improve the quality in
their products, services, and operations. Studies have repeatedly shown that the earlier in the business
cycle a problem is eliminated, the less it costs the company. Thus, quality improvements not only raise
the level of product and service quality, but they can also lower costs.

Two methods for achieving greater quality are Total Quality Management (TQM) and Six Sigma. In
TQM, quality is the responsibility of all people and functions within an organization. Everyone is
expected to contribute to the overall improvement of quality. Six sigma is a specific measure of quality,
representing 3.4 defects per million opportunities. Most companies cannot achieve this level of quality
but use six sigma as a goal to implement a set of methodologies and techniques for improving quality
and reducing costs.

TQM and six sigma are considered to be more incremental than business process reengineering. TQM
typically focuses on making a series of continuous improvements rather than dramatic bursts of change.
Six sigma uses statistical analysis tools to detect flaws in the execution of an existing process and make
minor adjustments.
Diff: 2 Type: ES Page Ref: 410-411
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Analysis
A-level Heading: 13.1 Systems As Planned Organizational Change

40
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
188) You are consulting for the information technology division of a state university to guide and
facilitate the design of a new system for handling college applications, which has previously been
handled entirely with a paper-based process. They would like to set up a system by which prospective
students can apply online. Describe in detail their first steps and any studies they should perform before
designing the new information system.
Answer: Student answers will vary, but should include an understanding of the first step of systems
developmentsystems analysisalong with feasibility studies and determining information
requirements. An example answer is:

The college will need to perform systems analysis. This consists of defining the problem, identifying its
causes, specifying the solution, identifying the information requirements. It also includes identifying the
primary owners and users of data along with existing hardware and software, the problems of existing
systems, examining documents, work papers, and procedures; observing system operations; and
interviewing key users of the systems. The systems analysis would include a feasibility study to
determine whether that solution was feasible, or achievable, from a financial, technical, and
organizational standpoint. The feasibility study would determine whether the proposed system was a
good investment, whether the technology needed for the system was available and could be handled by
the firm's information systems specialists, and whether the organization could handle the changes
introduced by the system. They should identify several alternative solutions that the organization can
pursue. The process then assesses the feasibility of each.

A written systems proposal report describes the costs and benefits, advantages and disadvantages of each
alternative. It is up to management to determine which mix of costs, benefits, technical features, and
organizational impacts represents the most desirable alternative. They will also need to define the
specific information requirements that must be met by the system solution selected. This involves
identifying who needs what information, where, when, and how. Requirements analysis carefully defines
the objectives of the new or modified system and develops a detailed description of the functions that
the new system must perform.
Diff: 3 Type: ES Page Ref: 416-417
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Synthesis
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

41
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
189) List and describe at least nine factors considered in the design specifications for a new system.
Give at least two examples for each one.
Answer:
Output. Medium, content, timing
Input. Origins, flow, data entry
User interface. Simplicity, efficiency, logic, feedback, errors
Database design. Logical data model, volume and speed requirements, organization and design,
record specifications
Processing. Computations, program modules, required reports, timing of outputs
Manual procedures. What activities, who performs them, when, how, where
Controls. Input controls, processing controls, output controls, procedural controls
Security. Access controls, catastrophe plans, audit trails
Documentation. Operations documentation, systems documents, user documentation
Conversion. Transfer files, initiate procedures, select testing method, cut over to new system
Training. Select training techniques, develop training modules, identify training facilities
Organizational changes. Task redesign, job design, process design, organization structure design,
reporting relationships
Diff: 2 Type: ES Page Ref: 418
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Analysis
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

190) Discuss the role and influence the user plays in software development.
Answer: The user is the primary focus of software development. Whether a new information system
succeeds or fails largely depends on the roles of users. Building successful information systems requires
close cooperation among end users and information systems specialists throughout the systems
development process. If users are heavily involved in the development of a system, they have more
opportunities to mold the system according to their priorities and business requirements, and more
opportunities to control the outcome. They also are more likely to react positively to the completed
system because they have been active participants in the change process. Incorporating user knowledge
and expertise leads to better solutions.
The role of the user in the development of software depends on the method of development used. In
SLDC, work; end users are limited to providing information requirements and reviewing the technical
staff's work. In prototyping, users are involved throughout development, through the use and review of
iterative steps of the prototype. In end-user development, the users themselves create the system. Users
are typically more involved also in RAD, through the use of prototyping and JAD. In joint application
design, end users and information systems specialists work together in an interactive session to discuss
design.
Diff: 2 Type: ES Page Ref: 418
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Synthesis
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

42
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
191) You work for the IT department of a startup ASP, and it is your job to set up the testing processes
for a new enterprise system the company will be hosting. Describe the processes you will recommend.
What unique considerations will you have?
Answer: The first step is to prepare the test plan. Any individual components will need to be tested
separately, first (in unit testing), and then the system as a whole will need to be tested (in system
testing). Finally acceptance testing will be conducted to make sure the system is ready to be used in a
production setting. Because this is a hosted application, the system will need to be tested as accessed
from the variety of platforms that are supported by the application. If the hosted application supports
both Mac and Windows users, the system and its parts will need to be tested using client computers
running these systems.
Diff: 3 Type: ES Page Ref: 419
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Synthesis
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

192) What qualities of object-oriented development make this method especially suitable for Internet
applications?
Answer: Object-oriented development uses the object as the basic unit of systems analysis and design.
The system is modeled as a collection of objects and the relationships between them. E-commerce
companies need to be able to add, change, and retire their technology capabilities very rapidly. Object-
oriented development allows objects to be reused and repackaged with other objects to create new
software, saving money and development time.
Diff: 2 Type: ES Page Ref: 422-423
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Evaluation
A-level Heading: 13.3 Alternative Systems-Development Approaches

193) Identify and describe each of the five systems development approaches.
Answer:
1. Systems lifecycle is a sequential step-by-step formal process, written specification and approvals,
limited role of users.
2. In prototyping, requirements are specified dynamically with experimental systems in a rapid,
informal, and iterative process; users continually interact with the prototype.
3. An applications software package is commercial software that eliminates the need for internally
developed software programs
4. In end-user development, systems are created by end users using fourth-generation software tools,
rapid and informal, minimal role of information systems specialists.
5. In outsourcing systems are built and sometimes operated by an external vendor.
Diff: 2 Type: ES Page Ref: 425-430
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Analysis
A-level Heading: 13.3 Alternative Systems-Development Approaches

43
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
194) What are the advantages and disadvantages of prototyping? Describe the steps in prototyping. Give
at least two circumstances under which prototyping might be useful.
Answer: Prototyping is most useful when there is some uncertainty about requirements or design
solutions. Because prototyping encourages intense end-user involvement throughout the process, it is
more likely to produce systems that fulfill user requirements. Working prototype systems can be
developed very rapidly and inexpensively.

Rapid prototyping can gloss over essential steps in systems development. If the completed prototype
works reasonably well, management may not see the need for reprogramming, redesigned, full
documentation in testing to build a polished production system. This can backfire later with large
quantities of data or large numbers of users in a production environment.

The steps in prototyping are:


1. identify the user's basic requirements,
2. develop an initial prototype,
3. use the prototype,
4. revise and enhance the prototype.

Prototyping might be especially useful in designing end-user interfaces, or situations in which the users
have no clear ideas of what their information requirements are.
Diff: 2 Type: ES Page Ref: 426
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Evaluation
A-level Heading: 13.3 Alternative Systems-Development Approaches

195) What is outsourcing? Describe the advantages and disadvantages to outsourcing software
development.
Answer: In outsourcing, a firm hires an external organization to build or maintain part or all of its
information systems needs. This can include software development and hosting applications, but the
firm may also host any developed applications on its own hardware while having the vendor create and
maintain software or systems. The vendor may be domestic or in another country (in offshore
outsourcing).

The benefit to outsourcing is, in the case of domestic outsourcing, being able to develop systems that in-
house staff may not have the time or skills to do. In the case of offshore outsourcing, a primary benefit is
cost savings, as costs and salaries in foreign countries can be significantly less.

Disadvantages would include relinquishing some control over development, having third party firms
access to privileged company data and information. It is also possible to underestimate costs in
outsourcing, which include costs for transferring knowledge, cultural differences, productivity losses,
and other human resource issues.
Diff: 2 Type: ES Page Ref: 429
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Evaluation
A-level Heading: 13.3 Alternative Systems-Development Approaches

44
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
196) Billy is in the final stages of developing a new accounting system for his car dealership. He is not
sure how to implement the system. Describe four conversion methods and their advantages and
disadvantages.
Answer: In a parallel strategy, both the old system and its potential replacement are run together for a
time until everyone is assured that the new one functions correctly. This is the safest conversion
approach because, in the event of errors or processing disruptions, the old system can still be used as a
backup. However, this approach is very expensive, and additional staff or resources may be required to
run the extra system. The direct cutover strategy replaces the old system entirely with the new system on
an appointed day. It is a very risky approach that can potentially be more costly than running two
systems in parallel if serious problems with the new system are found. There is no other system to fall
back on. Dislocations, disruptions, and the cost of corrections may be enormous. The pilot study strategy
introduces the new system to only a limited area of the organization, such as a single department or
operating unit. When this pilot version is complete and working smoothly, it is installed throughout the
rest of the organization, either simultaneously or in stages. The phased approach strategy introduces the
new system in stages, either by functions or by organizational units. If, for example, the system is
introduced by functions, a new payroll system might begin with hourly workers who are paid weekly,
followed six months later by adding salaried employees (who are paid monthly) to the system. If the
system is introduced by organizational units, corporate headquarters might be converted first, followed
by outlying operating units four months later.
Diff: 2 Type: ES Page Ref: 419-420
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Evaluation
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

197) What are the principal methodologies for modelling and designing information systems?
Answer: The two principal methodologies for modelling and designing information systems are
structured methodologies and object-oriented development. Structured methodologies focus on
modelling processes and data separately. The data flow diagram is the principal tool for structured
analysis, and the structure chart is the principal tool for representing structured software design. Object-
oriented development models a system as a collection of objects that combine processes and data.
Object-oriented modelling is based on the concepts of class and inheritance.
Diff: 2 Type: ES Page Ref: 421-422
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Evaluation
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

198) What are new approaches for systems development in the digital firm era?
Answer: Companies are turning to rapid application design, joint application design (JAD), agile
development, and reusable software components to accelerate the systems development process. Rapid
application development (RAD) uses object-oriented software, visual programming, prototyping, and
fourth-generation tools for very rapid creation of systems. Agile development breaks a large project into
a series of small sub-projects that are completed in short periods of time using iteration and continuous
feedback. Component-based development expedites application development by grouping objects into
suites of software components that can be combined to create large-scale business applications. Web
services provide a common set of standards that enable organizations to link their systems regardless of
their technology platform through standard plug-and-play architecture.
Diff: 2 Type: ES Page Ref: 431-433
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Evaluation
45
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.
A-level Heading: 13.4 Application Development For The Digital Firm

199) Big Books Inc. is looking at developing a new information system for their organization. In
preparation of this undertaking they are investigating how developing a new information systems will
produce organizational change?
Answer: Answers to this question will vary but might include:
Discussion of structural organizational change (pg. 410-411)
A discussion of business process re-engineering and TQM (pg. 410)
Diff: 2 Type: ES Page Ref: 410-411
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Evaluation
A-level Heading: 13.1 Systems As Planned Organizational Change

200) As Big books is selecting a systems development approach, it realizes that this is a major decision
for the firm, they want to know who should participate in the selection process of the systems
development approach?
Answer: There should be some discussion of managing change in the organization and the reasons for
failure in systems development (pg. 414-415)

There should also be some discussion of including a wide array of management and end users of the
information systems to ensure that the systems are effective and efficient. (pg. 418-419)
Diff: 2 Type: ES Page Ref: 414-415, 418-419
AACSB: Analytic skills
CASE: Evaluation
A-level Heading: 13.2 Overview of Systems Development

46
2013 Pearson Canada Inc.