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Nonconventional Technologies Review 2014 Romanian Association of Nonconventional Technologies

Romania, September, 2014

ELECTRICAL EFFICIENCY OF EDM POWER SUPPLY

Emanoil Toma1 and Carmen Simion2


1
"Lucian Blaga" University of Sibiu-Romania, Department of Computers and Electrical Engineering, emanoil.toma@ulbsibiu.ro
2
"Lucian Blaga" University of Sibiu-Romania, Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, carmen.simion@ulbsibiu.ro

ABSTRACT: In this paper the authors present for comparison the principal types of Pulse Generator for Electrical Discharge
Machining. Some ways to improve electrical efficiency, based on development of electronic power devices, development of digital
signal controllers and development of power converters topology are also presented. A resonant converter with series-parallel LCC
circuit, for EDM applications, was analyzed by PSpice simulation. The performances of EDM Power Supply were improved by
adding an electric circuit with double role: energy recovering and ignition voltage limiter. The ignition voltage slew rate was
increased by adding a supplementary MOSFET Switch in parallel with the gap. Two, three and finally four converters were
parallelized, in this way the output current increased. A bloc-schema was proposed for EDM experimental set up.
KEY WORDS: Pulse Generator, Current Limiting, Resonant Converters, Current Source, Digital Signal Controller

wearing crater in the electrode tool. The debris


1. INTRODUCTION
appears in the gap and it must be eliminated. For
In Electrical Discharge Machining an electric high this, it is necessary to stop the current through the
voltage is applied between Electrode Tool (ET) and gap for a short time period.
Work Piece (WP). Usually, the gap has dimensions
between 5m and 500m and a dielectric liquid is 2. PULSE GENERATORS
present inside. After a delay time, (unknown, The Pulse Generator applies the electrical voltage
dependant of dielectric state, surface state etc.), an between Electrode Tool and Working Piece,
electric spark starts up between ET and WP. Voltage necessary for Electrical Discharge Machining
decreases at a low level (20-30V) and current (EDM).
increase to a level which depend on power circuit. 2.1 RC pulse generator
Die Sinker Electrical Discharge Machining principle
is graphical represented in figure 1, where: This type of pulse generator was used on the earlier
EDM machines. When the gap is passive, the current
1. is the electrode tool. trough the resistor R charges the capacitor at the
2. is the passive gap (with dielectric liquid). high voltage. After the ignition is started, the
3. work piece. capacitor is discharged trough the active gap.
4. wearing crater. R

5.
6.
active gap (with dielectric liquid).
erosion crater.
= C Dielectric

~ E
ET
WP

Mains

Figure 2. RC Pulse generator for EDM


The control of pulse parameters is not realized and
electric efficiency is poor (2040%). But the
frequency of pulses can be high (above 1MHz) and
this type of generator is actually used in
micromachining [4].
2.2 Controlled Pulse generators
.
These types of generators are very useful on
Figure 1. Die Sinker EDM Principle
numerical controlled machines. They use one or
A complex of phenomena determines to come in more electronic switch and their performances had
sight an erosion crater on the work piece and a improved especially by evolution of electronic

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power devices [4, 8]. One of most important ta is the ignition delay time.
requirements for these types of generators is current td is the discharge time.
limiting. Resistive current limiting technique use in tu is the voltage pulse width (1...3000s)
principle a resistor and a fixed voltage power supply, tp is the pause time (1...3000s).
as is shown in figure 3. T is the period of the voltage pulses.
K ti is the current pulse width.
R
The energy for one discharge is:

(1)
ET The amplitude of current pulse is:
U0 TMR
WP (2)
Results:

(3)
Figure 3. Resistive current limiting technique for EDM
where:
controlled pulse generator (4)
Delay ignition time ta is a stochastic variable,
The timer electronic bloc (TMR) imposes pulse depending on the gap state. TMR command bloc
duration and period of repetition. The typical defines control mode by imposing parameters tu or ti,
diagram for normal discharge (roughing Die Sinker which, in conjunction with amplitude of current
EDM Technology) is shown in figure 4, [8], where: pulse determine the energy pulse [4, 8]. The
u
principals working mode are: isopulse mode, where
Uo ti and implicit wi is constant, and isofrequency mode,
where tu is constant. In the isopulse mode, the
control of process is more accurate and
technological results are better.
Ud
Analyzing the principia schema (figure 3) and the
chronograms (figure 4), it results that difference
t
td tp
between ignition voltage U0 and gap voltage Ud is
tr ts tf
supported by R during the discharge time period (ti).
tm
Considering ideal switch (K), dissipated power on
ta
tu the resistor is:
i
T (5)
The consumed power is:
Id (6)
The utile power is:
t
(7)
ti
It results the electric efficiency of Pulse Generator:
Figure 4. RC Pulse generator for EDM
Uo is the breakdown voltage and his value is (8)
fixed by power supply. Uo have a value For a small difference between ignition voltage U0
between 100V and 300V. and gap voltage Ud, the efficiency can be acceptable
Ud is the discharge voltage, and it has a little (eq. Ud=24V; U0=60V, the efficiency is 40%). But
fall and radiofrequency noise. Ud have a for high ignition voltage the efficiency is very poor
value between 20V and 30V. The (eq. Ud=24V; U0=300V, the efficiency is 8%).
radiofrequency noise has maximum power Using two power supplies, one having high voltage -
spectrum in 50MHz 90MHz range. low current for ignition, and another having low
Id is the current value during the discharge voltage - high current for sustaining the discharge
(1A.....10A.......200A) process, like in figure 5, the efficiency can be
tr is the rise time of voltage pulse. acceptable. Driver block assures properly command
tm is the holding time of the ignition voltage. for switches, TMR block imposes time duration for
ts is the starting discharge time. pulses, Threshold Detector (TD) senses the moment

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of discharge apparition for starting timers. The compared with reference. The error amplifier
efficiency can grow around 50% (eq. for: Ud=24V; command Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) module
U01=300V; U02=45V). and finally the switch K [9].
R1 K1 D1
i1 In Continuous Conduction Mode (CCM), there are
two situation as shown in figure 8:
i2 K UL K UL
R2 K2 D2 i i i
L L
U 01 i
Driver TMR TD U0 U0
U 02 UD
ud ET D ud ET
ET
WP WP
WP
a) b)
Figure 8. The states of Buck Converter in CCM mode
Figure 5. Two sources pulse generators for EDM
u
In figure 8a) the switch K is "ON", and, assume
ideal circuit elements, it results:
U 01
(9)

(10)

U 02 (11)
Ud
The current increases with high slope. In figure 8b)
t the switch K is "OFF" and results:
ta t u2 (12)
t u1
(13)
i
The current decreases slowly. Because after the
I 2 +I 1
I2 EDM pulse is finished current decreases too slowly,
another switch is necessary. Electrical schema is
shown in figure 9 [5] and chronograms in figure 10.
I1 D2
t

K1 D3
Figure 6. Chronograms for two sources pulse generators L i

2.3 Pulse generator with inductive current limiting


For increase the efficiency is necessary to replace U0 D1
K2
D4
the limiting current resistor R by a coil with ET
inductance L and adopt the chopper technique for WP
limiting the current. Step Down (Buck) Converter
can be use in a closed loop to control the value of Figure 9. Buck Converter based EDM pulse generator
current intensity as it is shown in figure 7. i
L i ta
K

t
CS
U0 Driver PWM EA u cd K
1
ET t
REF
D ucd K
WP 2
t

Figure 7. Buck Converter as a Current Source for EDM pulse Figure 10. Chronograms for Buck Converter based EDM pulse
generator generator
Current sensing block (CS) provides a voltage The supplementary diodes prevent undesirable
proportional with the current and this value is phenomenon: D2 prevents upper voltage, D3 inverse

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current and D4 inverse voltage. The authors have power supply has different values, dependant on the
simulated the principia schema by emulating the gap state (open-circuit in pre-ignition state, low
principal states of gap (high resistor in parallel with resistance on normal discharge (dependant on the
small capacitor for pre-ignition state and switch in programmed current) and very low resistance on
series with small resistor for discharge state). The short-circuit conditions). The resonant circuit which
efficiency increased to 70..75% for high input have two capacitors, one in parallel with load (or
voltage U0=300V. The most important power losses equivalent resistance load) and one in series,
are during the switching time when an important presents an interesting property to be an AC current
voltage and current appears on the power electronic source at 0 resonant frequency, [1, 2, 5] where:
devices (especially for K1 and D1). The efficiency
can be improved by decreasing U0 at 100V,
recovering the energy stored on the core's magnetic
field and adopting interleaving technique [6, 7]]. We (14)
can increase the efficiency by adopting Synchronous
Buck Converter With low R[on] switches. And, In figure 11, it is presented circuit used for Pspice
finally, we can use the novel silicon carbide AC simulation:
transistors (SiC) e. g. C2M0080120D, MOSFET L1 Cs
1 2 3
transistor which have: R[on] = 80m and switching 140u H 47n
time much lower than silicon devices. These novel V V
{Rv al}
Ri
devices don't have yet Pspice model for simulation. Vi
I
An experimental setup is necessary for research and 200Vac
0Vdc
Cp
10n
this will be treated in the future work.
2.4 EDM Pulse Generator based on LCC resonant
PARAMETERS:
Converter Rv al = 10

The efficiency can be improved for a high value by 0

minimizing the switching stress for power electronic Figure 11. Series-parallel LCC resonant circuit for AC analyze
devices. The resonant and quasi-resonant converters
ensure commutation on low voltage (ZVS-Zero In figure 12 is shown the results of simulation,
Voltage Switching) or on low current (ZCS-Zero where you can see the frequency f0=148KHz that
Current Switching), but not for all load conditions. circuit has current source behavior.
In EDM process, the equivalent load resistance for
20A

Ri=0,1
Ri=1

Ri=10
15A

Ri=100

Ri=1000

10A

I=1,865A

f=148KHz

5A

0A
10KHz 30KHz 100KHz 300KHz 1.0MHz
I(Ri)
Frequency

Figure 12. The frequency behavior of series parallel LCC resonant circuit
The complete schema for EDM pulse generator source (S). The source V5 commands switch
simulation is shown in figure 13. The independent transistor X5 and determines duration ti. The
sources V1A and V1B assure command sequences resonant inverter has load high frequency
for both diagonals of MOSFET bridge. The source transformers (U1), which have a null point rectifier
V6 permits or inhibits command for bridge's with diodes D5 and D6 in secondary. Because we
transistors and determines EDM pulse durations tu use an ideal model for transformer, magnetizing
and tp. The voltage dependent sources EG1...EG4 inductance LM is added in exterior and also a
command transistors X1...X4 between gate (G) and leakage inductance Llk . For 3F3 ferrite core type the

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working frequency in 100KHz 200KHz is ideal 15, it is shown the results of simulation for two
for a good volume-losses performances, we used interleaved LCC resonant Converters with X7
150KHz frequency command for resonant LCC action. Also X7 in ON state solves the problem of
bridge inverter. In figure 14, it is shown the results slow decreasing gap current when the EDM pulse is
of simulation; the ignition voltage is not applied in tp time interval. The discharge current has a shape
very fast. For eliminate this inconvenient the switch near to ideal "DC" shape when the number of
X7 is ON during tp duration and remains ON in the interleaved converters increased. In figure 16 we
first microseconds in that we apply command for have conceived a schema for the future experimental
bridge switches. The current through the L resonant set-up. A digital signal controller assures the
tank increased and the energy stored in magnetic commands for all the converters and stepper motor
field will be capable to increase rapidly the voltage drive and has implemented software control strategy.
applied to the gap when X7 becomes OFF. In figure
VA

VA
D9 D8
MUR860 MUR860
300V
RG1 X1 X3 RG3
R1A CD1 G1 G3 CD3 8
EG1 EG3 0
1A 2A + + 2B D10 D11
+ 5 5 +
9
- IRFPS43N50K - MUR860 MUR860
10k - - U1
V1 = 0V V1A E IRFPS43N50K E D5
V2 = 12V M 6A 5
TD = 0 0 GAIN = 1 GAIN = 1 0 0 0
TR = 1N BSS83/PLP S1 S3 Ratio3 = 0.4 Ratio2 = 0.3 RURG3060
TF = 1N L RS CS Llk
PW = 3U 1 2 3
PER = 6.67U 0 0 OUT
RG6 140uH 10m 47N 10uH 4 0
CD6 G6 LM
CP 1m H Ratio1 = 0.3 RL2
10
V1 = 0V V6 10N D6 RL1
V2 = 5V 6 C1
TD = 240U 3.3pF 2.5
TR = 10N RURG3060 1000k
TF = 10N XFMR3 7
PW = 260U
PER = 500U 0 RG2 X2 X4 RG4 RG5 RG7 X7 0 0 X5
R1B CD2 G2 G4 CD4 CD5 CD7 G7 G5
EG2 EG4
1B 2B + + 2A
+ 5 5 + 5 5
10k - - IRFPS43N50K -
- V1 = 0V V5 V1 = 0V V7
V1 = 0V V1B E IRFPS43N50K E V2 = 12V V2 = 5V IRFPS43N50K IRFPS43N50K
V2 = 12V M 6B TD = 20U TD = 240U
TD = 3.335U 0 GAIN = 1 0 0 GAIN = 1 0 TR = 10N TR = 10N 0 0
TR = 1N BSS83/PLP 0 0 TF = 10N TF = 10N
TF = 1N PW = 240U PW = 100U
PW = 3U PER = 500U 0 PER = 500U 0
PER = 6.67U 0 0

Figure 13. Electrical schema used in PSpice simulation of EDM-LCC Pulse Generator

30A

20A

10A

SEL>>
0A
I(RL2)

200V

100V

0V
0s 20us 40us 60us 80us 100us 120us 140us 160us 180us 200us 220us 240us 260us 280us 300us
V(OUT)
Time

Figure 14. The EDM pulse for one stage of LLC converter without action of X7
30A

20A

10A

0A
I(RL2)

200V

100V

SEL>>
0V
1.00ms 1.02ms 1.04ms 1.06ms 1.08ms 1.10ms 1.12ms 1.14ms 1.16ms 1.18ms 1.20ms 1.22ms 1.24ms 1.26ms 1.28ms 1.30ms
V(OUT)
Time

Figure 15. The EDM pulse for two interleaved stage of LLC converter with the action of X7

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STEP_C PWM1H
STEP_R
Resonant LCC Dielectric
PWM1L
SENS_C
SENS_R EDM
ET
CD_X7_1
Motor MOTOR STAND_BY_C POWER SUPPLY
STAND_BY_R OC1 R1
WP
1
DRIVER MAX 211
PWM2H
ATX_R RX_C Resonant LCC R2 R3
PWM2L
ARX_R TX_C EDM
CD_X7_2
POWER SUPPLY
OC2
2
dsPIC33FJ64GS606
PWM3H
Resonant LCC
PWM3L
EDM
CD_X7_3
POWER SUPPLY
OC3
3

PWM4H
CURRENT
Resonant LCC
PWM4L
EDM
VOLTAGE
CD_X7_4
POWER SUPPLY
OC4
4

Figure 16. The conceived experimental set-up bloc schema.

3. CONCLUSIONS 3. Diaconescu, C., Nanu, D., Vesa, E., An


experimental pulse generator to test the effect of
The RC pulse generators are actually used in
alternative pulses during the pre-ignition phase,
micromachining, where the amplitude of current is
in EDM, Nonconventional Technologies Review,
several amperes, working at a repetitive frequency
Volume XV, Nr. 3, pp. 23-26, (2011).
above 1MHz, but the efficiency is poor (20..40%).
4. Kunieda, M., Lauwers, B., Rajurkar, K.P.,
The controlled pulse generators with resistive
Schumacher B.M., Advancing EDM through
limiting current offers a good control of pulses
Fundamental Insight into the Process, CIRP
shape, but electrical efficiency is poor (20...50%).
Annals - Manufacturing Technology, Volume 54,
The inductive limiting current by chopping
Issue 2, p. 64-87,(2005).
technique increases efficiency at 7075%.
5. Luter, M., Casanueva, R., Schulze H.P.,
The novel silicon carbide devices: diodes, JFET and
Azcondo, F. J., Wollenberg, G., Development
MOSFET transistors which have switching time
Trends of Process Energy Sources for Special
much lower than silicon devices minimize the
Applications of the Spark Erosion,
switching losses and increase the electrical
Nonconventional Technologies Review, Volume
efficiency of EDM Power Supply based on Buck
IX, no.1, , pp. 15-26. (2005).
Converters.
6. Lin, L., Hsu C.-C., Changchien S.-K. Interleaved
The resonant LCC converter with energy recovering
circuit, used for EDM pulse generator increases Four-Phase Buck-Based Current Source With
efficiency at 80..85%. Parallelizing two or more Center-Tapped Energy-Recovery Scheme for
LCC interleaved convertors, the current will be Electrical Discharge Machining, IEEE
Transactions on Power Electronics, Volume: 26 ,
stepping increased and the harmonics will be
Issue: 1, p. 110 - 118, (2011).
diminished. Supplementary switches can configure
7. Lin, L., Hsu C.-C., Changchien S.-K. Interleaved
the shape of EDM voltage and current pulses.
Four-Phase Buck-Based Current Source With
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