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VERTEBRATE ENDOSKELETON

Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy


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Endoskeleton
Develops in the skin or in the deeper body tissues
Functions:

An internal support structure of an animal


Attachment site for muscle

Mechanism for transmitting muscular forces

Made up of two types of tissues


Bone

Cartilage
Skeletal elements
Dermal skeleton
skinof most living vertebrates has no hard skeletal
parts but dermal bone elements are usually present in
the head region
early vertebrates (ostracoderms) had so much dermal
bone they were called 'armored fishes
Endoskeleton
Somatic axial and appendicular skeletons
Visceral cartilage or bone associated with gills and
skeletal element (such as jaw cartilages) derived from
them
Somatic Skeleton
2 major divisions:
Axial (vertebral column, ribs, sternum and skull)

Appendicular skeleton ( girdles and limbs)


Axial Division
Vertebral column
Vertebrae
Centrum (body)

1or 2 arches

Various processes
Shape of the Centrum
Amphicelous
Concave at both ends
Most fish, a few salamanders (Necturus)
and caecilians
Opisthocoelous
convex in front & concave in back
most salamanders
Procelous
concave in front & convex in back
anurans & present-day reptiles
Acelous
flat-ended
mammals
Heterocelous
saddle-shaped centrum at both ends
birds
Vertebral Arches
Neural arch
on top of the centrum
Hemal arch
a.k.a. chevrons
beneath centrum in
caudal vertebrae of
fish, salamanders, most
reptiles, some birds, &
many long-tailed
mammals
Vertebral Processes
Projections from arches
and centra
Functions:

Some give rigidity to


the column
Articulate with ribs
Serve as sites of muscle
attachment
Vertebral Columns
Cartilaginous fishes
Do not have typical fish vertebral columns

Vertebrae include neural arches (cartilaginous

dorsal plates) and dorsal intercalary plates are


located between successive arches
Vertebral Columns of Tetrapods
Cervical region
Amphibians
single cervical vertebra
allows little head movement
Reptiles
increased numbers of cervical
vertebrae (usually 7)
increased flexibility of head
Birds
variable number of cervical
vertebrae (as many as 25 in
swans)
Vertebral Columns of Tetrapods
Mammals
Usually with seven cervical vertebrae
Reptiles, birds, and mammals
1st two cervical vertebrae are modified and called the atlas and axis
n Atlas
n 1st cervical vertebra
n Ring like (most of centrum gone)
n Provides cradle in which skull can rock (as when nodding yes)
n Axis
n 2nd cervical vertebra
Vertebral Columns of Tetrapods
Dorsal region
Dorsals name given to
vertebrae between cervicals
and sacrals when all
articulate with similar ribs
(e.g. fish, amphibians, and
snakes)
Crocodilians, lizards, birds,
and mammals ribs are
confined to anterior region of
trunk
Thoracic vertebrae with ribs
Lumbar vertebrae without
ribs
Vertebral Columns of Tetrapods
Sacrum and synsacrum
Sacral vertebrae

Have short transverse processes that brace the pelvic


girdle and hindlimbs against the vertebral column
n Amphibians 1 sacral vertebra
n Living reptiles and most birds 2 sacral vertebrae
n Most mammals 3 to 5 sacral vertebrae
Vertebral Columns of Tetrapods
Sacrum
single
bony complex consisting of fused sacral
vertebrae; found when there is more than 1 sacral
vertebra
Vertebral Columns of Tetrapods
Synsacrum
Found in birds
Produced by fusion of last thoracics, all lumbars, all
sacrals, and first few caudals
Fused with pelvic girdle

Provides rigid support for bipedal locomotion


Vertebral Columns of Tetrapods
Caudal region
Primitive tetrapods
n 50 or more caudal vertebrae
Present-day tetrapods
n number of caudal vertebrae is reduced
n arches & processes get progressively shorter (the last few caudals
typically consist of just cylindrical centra )
Anurans
n unique terminal segment called the urostyle
Birds
n last 4 or 5 caudal vertebrae fused to form pygostyle
Apes & humans
n last 3 to 5 caudal vertebrae fused to form coccygeal (or tail bone)
Ribs
may be long or short, cartilaginous or bony;
articulate medially with vertebrae & extend into the body wall
A few teleosts have 2 pair of ribs for each centrum of trunk (dorsal
rib separates epaxial & hypaxial muscles)
Most teleosts - ventral ribs only
Sharks - dorsal ribs only
Agnathans - no ribs
Tetrapods - ribs usually articulate with vertebrae in moveable joints
Early tetrapods - ribs articulated with every vertebra from the atlas to the end
of the trunk
Later tetrapods - long ribs limited to thoracic region
Sternum
strictly
a tetrapod
structure & primarily an
amniote structure.
n Amphibians
n no sternum in early
amphibians & among
present-day
amphibians, only
anurans have one
n Amniotes
n sternum is a plate of
cartilage &
replacement bone
n sternum articulates with
the pectoral girdle
anteriorly & with a
variable number of ribs
DOGFISH
A. Chondrocranium
B. Splanchnocranium
C. Vertebral column ( Trunk and Tail )
TELEOST
A. Skull
B. Vertebral column ( Trunk and Tail )
REPTILE
A. Skull
B. Vertebral column
n Cervical
n Trunk
n Sacral
n Caudal

( The trunk, sacral, and 1st


caudal vertebrae are fused
to the carapace )
AVIAN
A. Skull
B. Vertebral column
n Cervical
n Thoracic
n Lumbar
n Sacral
n Caudal
MAMMALIAN
A. Skull
B. Vertebral column
1. Cervical (7)- 1st atlas, 2nd axis
2. Thoracic - 13- cat, 12 man; neural spine directed caudad
3. Lumbar -Neural spines and transverse processes directed
forward
4. Sacrum - 3- cat, 5 man
5. Caudal - (coccyx)
Appendicular
Appendages
Skeleton of vertebrates consisting of bones or
cartilage that support the appendages.
Includes the skeletal elements within the limbs, as

well as supporting pectoral and pelvic girdles.


General features
Paired appendages are not found in ancestral
vertebrates and are not present in the modern
cyclostomes (e.g., lampreys, hagfishes).
Usually two pairs of appendages are present, fins

in fish and limbs in land vertebrates.


Each girdle consists of ventral and dorsal masses.
General features
The anterior appendages, the pectoral fins or
forelimbs, articulate with the pectoral girdle.
The posterior appendages, called pelvic fins or hind

limbs, articulate with the pelvic girdle.


Girdles
Crescent shaped or arch shaped
Pectoral girdle
Pelvic girdle

Support of the paired appendages


Lower fishes

made of cartilage
Bony fishes and land vertebrates
More or less ossified
Limbs
The skeleton of free limb of the land vertebrate is
divisible into three segments:
proximal

medial
distal