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Muscles of the Back Region - Listed Alphabetically

Muscle Origin Insertion Action Innervation Artery Notes


erector spinae iliac crest, angles of the extends and segmentally supplied the erector spinae m. is
sacrum, ribs, laterally innervated by segmentally separated into 3
transverse and transverse bends the dorsal primary by: deep columns of muscle:
spinous and spinous trunk, neck rami of spinal cervical a., iliocostalis laterally,
processes of processes of and head nerves C1-S5 posterior longissimus in an
vertebrae and vertebrae, intercostal aa., intermediate position
supraspinal posterior subcostal aa., and spinalis medially;
ligament aspect of the lumbar aa. each of these columns
skull has multiple named
parts
iliocostalis iliac crest and angles of the extends and dorsal primary supplied the most lateral part of
sacrum ribs laterally rami of spinal segmentally the erector spinae; it
bends the nerves C4-S5 by: deep may be subdivided into
trunk and cervical a., lumborum, thoracis
neck posterior and cervicis portions
intercostal aa.,
subcostal aa.,
lumbar aa.
interspinales upper border lower border extend dorsal primary supplied these are small and
of spinous of spinous trunk and rami of spinal segmentally fairly insignificant
process process neck nerves C1-L5 by: deep muscles
above cervical a.,
posterior
intercostal aa.,
subcostal aa.,
lumbar aa.
intertransversarii upper border lower border laterally dorsal primary supplied these are small and
of transverse of transverse bend trunk rami of spinal segmentally fairly insignificant
process process and neck nerves C1-L5 by: deep muscles
above cervical a.,
posterior
intercostal aa.,
subcostal aa.,
lumbar aa.
longissimus transverse transverse extends and dorsal primary supplied the intermediate part of
process at process at laterally rami of spinal segmentally the erector spinae;it
inferior superior bends the nerves C1-S1 by: deep may be subdivided into
vertebral vertebral trunk, neck cervical a., thoracis, cervicis and
levels levels and and head posterior capitis portions
mastoid intercostal aa.,
process subcostal aa.,
lumbar aa.
multifidus sacrum, spinous extend and dorsal primary supplied semispinalis,
transverse processes 2-4 laterally rami of spinal segmentally multifidus and
processes of vertebral bend trunk nerves C1-L5 by: deep rotatores make up the
C3-L5 levels and neck, cervical a., transversospinal
superior to rotate to posterior muscle group
their origin opposite intercostal aa.,
side subcostal aa.,
lumbar aa.
obliquus capitis spinous transverse rotates the suboccipital occipital a. greater occipital nerve
inferior process of the process of head to the nerve (DPR of (DPR of C2) passes
axis atlas same side C1) superiorly around the
inferior margin of
inferior oblique
obliquus capitis transverse occipital extends the suboccipital occipital a. the suboccipital
superior process of bone above head, nerve (DPR of triangle is formed by
atlas inferior rotates the C1) obliquus capitis
nuchal line head to the superior and inferior
same side and rectus capitis
posterior major
rectus capitis spinous inferior extends the suboccipital occipital a. none
posterior major process of axis nuchal line head, rotate nerve (DPR of
to same C1)
side
rectus capitis posterior inferior extends the suboccipital occipital a. rectus capitis posterior
posterior minor tubercle of nuchal line head nerve (DPR of minor is deeper and
atlas medially C1) inserts more medial
than rectus capitis
posterior major
rotatores transverse long rotates the dorsal primary supplied semispinalis,
processes rotatores: vertebral rami of spinal segmentally multifidus and
spines 2 column to nerves C1-L5 by: deep rotatores make up the
vertebrae the cervical a., transversospinal
above origin; opposite posterior muscle group
short side intercostal aa.,
rotatores: subcostal aa.,
spines 1 lumbar aa.
vertebrae
above origin
semispinalis transverse capitis: back extends the dorsal primary supplied three parts are named
processes of of skull trunk and rami of spinal segmentally based on their
C7-T12 between laterally nerves C1-T12 by: deep insertions: capitis,
nuchal lines; bends the cervical a., cervicis and thoracis;
cervicis & trunk, posterior semispinalis,
thoracis: rotates the intercostal aa., multifidus and
spines 4-6 trunk to the subcostal aa., rotatores make up the
vertebrae opposite lumbar aa. transversospinal
above origin side muscle group
spinalis spinous spinous extends and dorsal primary supplied most medial part of the
processes at processes at laterally rami of spinal segmentally erector spinae; may be
inferior superior bends trunk nerves C2-L3 by: deep subdivided into
vertebral vertebral and neck cervical a., thoracis, cervicis and
levels levels and posterior capitis portions
base of the intercostal aa.,
skull subcostal aa.,
lumbar aa.
splenius ligamentum capitis: extends and dorsal primary supplied splenius means
nuchae and mastoid laterally rami of spinal segmentally bandage; it gets its
spines C7-T6 process & bends neck nerves C2-C6 by: deep name from its broad,
superior and head; cervical a., flat shape
nuchal line rotates head posterior
laterally; to same intercostal aa.
cervicis: side
posterior
tubercles of
C1-C3
vertebrae
splenius capitis ligamentum mastoid extends and dorsal primary supplied named for its shape:
nuchae and process and laterally rami of spinal segmentally splenius means
spines of C7- lateral end of bends the nerves C2-C6 by: deep bandage and capitis
T6 vertebrae the superior neck and cervical a., refers to the insertion
nuchal line head, posterior of this portion of the
rotates head intercostal aa. muscle
to the same
side
splenius cervicis ligamentum posterior extends and dorsal primary supplied named for its shape:
nuchae and tubercles of laterally rami of spinal segmentally splenius means
spines of C7- the transverse bends neck nerves C2-C6 by: deep bandage and cervicis
T6 vertebrae processes of and head, cervical a., refers to the insertion
C1-C3 rotates head posterior of this portion of the
vertebrae to the same intercostal aa. muscle
side

Muscles of the Upper Limb - Listed Alphabetically


Muscle Origin Insertion Action Innervation Artery Notes
abductor digiti pisiform base of the abducts the 5th deep branch ulnar a. abductor digiti
minimi (hand) proximal digit of the ulnar minimi, flexor
phalanx of the nerve digiti minimi
5th digit on its brevis, and
ulnar side opponens digiti
minimi are located
in the hypothenar
compartment of
the hand
abductor flexor base of the abducts thumb recurrent superficial abductor pollicis
pollicis brevis retinaculum, proximal branch of palmar br. of the brevis, flexor
scaphoid, phalanx of the median nerve radial a. pollicis brevis, and
trapezium first digit opponens pollicis
are located in the
thenar
compartment of
the hand
abductor middle one- radial side of abducts the thumb radial nerve, posterior the tendons of
pollicis longus third of the the base of the at carpometacarpal deep branch interosseous a. abductor pollicis
posterior first joint longus and
surface of the metacarpal extensor pollicis
radius, brevis make the
interosseous lateral border of
membrane, the anatomical
mid-portion of snuffbox
posterolateral
ulna
adductor oblique head: base of the adducts the thumb ulnar nerve, deep palmar deep palmar arch
pollicis capitate and proximal deep branch arterial arch and deep ulnar
base of the 2nd phalanx of the nerve pass
and 3rd thumb between the two
metacarpals; heads of adductor
transverse pollicis, which is
head: shaft of in the adductor-
the 3rd interosseous
metacarpal compartment
anconeus lateral lateral side of extends the nerve to interosseous none
epicondyle of the olecranon forearm anconeus, recurrent a.
the humerus and the upper from the
one-fourth of radial nerve
the ulna
biceps brachii short head: tip tuberosity of flexes the forearm, musculocutan brachial a. a powerful
of the coracoid the radius flexes arm (long eous nerve supinator only if
process of the head), supinates (C5,6) the elbow is flexed
scapula; long
head:
supraglenoid
tubercle of the
scapula
brachialis anterior coronoid flexes the forearm musculocutan brachial a., a powerful flexor
surface of the process of the eous nerve radial recurrent
lower one-half ulna (C5,6) a.
of the humerus
and the
associated
intermuscular
septa
brachioradiali upper two- lateral side of flexes the elbow, radial nerve radial recurrent although
s thirds of the the base of the assists in pronation a. brachioradialis is
lateral styloid process & supination innervated by the
supracondylar of the radius nerve for
ridge of the extensors (radial),
humerus its primary action
is elbow flexion;
the neutral
position of this
muscle is half way
between
supination and
pronation (elbow
flexed, thumb up)
coracobrachial coracoid medial side of flexes and adducts musculocutan brachial a. the
is process of the the humerus at the arm eous nerve musculocutaneous
scapula mid-shaft (C5,6) nerve passes
through the
coracobrachialis
muscle to reach
the other arm
flexor mm.(biceps
brachii and
brachialis)
deltoid lateral one- deltoid abducts arm; axillary nerve posterior the deltoid muscle
third of the tuberosity of anterior fibers flex (C5,6) from circumflex is the principle
clavicle, the humerus & medially rotate the posterior humeral a. abductor of the
acromion, the the arm; posterior cord of the arm but due to
lower lip of the fibers extend & brachial poor mechanical
crest of the laterally rotate the plexus advantage it
spine of the arm cannot initiate this
scapula action; it is
assisted by the
supraspinatus m.
dorsal four muscles, base of the flex the ulnar nerve, dorsal and bipennate muscles;
interosseous each arising proximal metacarpophalang deep branch palmar remember DAB &
(hand) from two phalanx and eal joint, extend metacarpal aa. PAD - Dorsal
adjacent the extensor the proximal and interosseous mm.
metacarpal expansion on distal ABduct and
shafts lateral side of interphalangeal Palmar
the 2nd digit, joints of digits 2-4, interosseous mm.
lateral & abduct digits 2-4 ADduct - then you
medial sides of (abduction of can figure out
the 3rd digit, digits in the hand where they must
and medial is defined as insert to cause
side of the 4th movement away these actions
digit from the midline
of the 3rd digit)
extensor carpi lateral dorsum of the extends the wrist; radial nerve radial a. works with the
radialis brevis supracondylar third abducts the hand extensor carpi
ridge of the metacarpal radialis longus and
humerus bone (base) flexor carpi
(common radialis in
extensor abduction of the
tendon hand
extensor carpi lower one-third dorsum of the extends the wrist; deep radial radial a. works with the
radialis longus of the lateral second abducts the hand nerve extensor carpi
supracondylar metacarpal radialis brevis and
ridge of the bone (base) flexor carpi
humerus radialis in
abduction of the
hand
extensor carpi common medial side of extends the wrist; deep radial ulnar a. works with the
ulnaris extensor the base of the adducts the hand nerve flexor carpi ulnaris
tendon & the 5th metacarpal in adduction of the
middle one- hand
half of the
posterior
border of the
ulna
extensor digiti common joins the extends the deep radial interosseous extensor digiti
minimi extensor extensor metacarpophalang nerve recurrent a. minimi appears to
tendon (lateral digitorum eal, proximal be the ulnar-most
epicondyle of tendon to the interphalangeal portion of extensor
the humerus) 5th digit and and distal digitorum
inserts into the interphalangeal
extensor joints of the 5th
expansion digit
extensor common extensor extends the deep radial interosseous the extensor
digitorum extensor expansion of metacarpophalang nerve recurrent a. and expansion inserts
tendon (lateral digits 2-5 eal, proximal posterior via a central band
epicondyle of interphalangeal interosseous a. on the base of the
the humerus) and distal middle phalanx,
interphalangeal while lateral &
joints of the 2nd- medial slips insert
5th digits; extends on the distal
wrist phalanx
extensor interosseous its tendon joins extends the index deep radial posterior extensor indicis is
indicis membrane and the tendon of finger at the nerve interosseous a a deep forearm
the the extensor metacarpophalang extensor, whereas
posterolateral digitorum to eal, proximal extensor digiti
surface of the the second interphalangeal minimi is in the
distal ulna digit; both and distal superficial layer of
tendons insert interphalangeal extensors
into the joints
extensor
expansion
extensor interosseous base of the extends the thumb deep radial posterior the tendons of
pollicis brevis membrane and proximal at the nerve interosseous a extensor pollicis
the posterior phalanx of the metacarpophalang brevis and
surface of the thumb eal joint abductor pollicis
distal radius longus make the
lateral border of
the anatomical
snuffbox, in which
the radial arterial
pulse can be felt
extensor interosseous base of the extends the thumb deep radial posterior the tendon of
pollicis longus membrane and distal phalanx at the nerve interosseous a extensor pollicis
middle part of of the thumb interphalangeal longus hooks
the joint around the dorsal
posterolateral radial tubercle; it
surface of the forms the medial
ulna border of the
anatomical
snuffbox, in which
the radial arterial
pulse can be felt
flexor carpi common flexor base of the flexes the wrist, median nerve ulnar a. works with the
radialis tendon from second and abducts the hand extensor carpi
the medial third radialis longus and
epicondyle of metacarpals brevis mm. to
the humerus abduct hand
flexor carpi common flexor pisiform, hook flexes wrist, ulnar nerve ulnar a. the ulnar nerve
ulnaris tendon & of hamate, and adducts hand passes between the
(ulnar head) base of 5th two heads of
from medial metacarpal origin of the flexor
border of carpi ulnaris m.
olecranon &
upper 2/3 of
the posterior
border of the
ulna
flexor digiti hook of proximal flexes the ulnar nerve, ulnar a. flexor digiti
minimi brevis hamate & the phalanx of the carpometacarpal deep branch minimi brevis,
(hand) flexor 5th digit and abductor digiti
retinaculum metacarpophalang minimi, and
eal joints of the 5th opponens digiti
digit minimi are in the
hypothenar
compartment of
the hand
flexor posterior base of the flexes the median nerve ulnar a., anterior ulnar nerve
digitorum border of the distal phalanx metacarpophalang (radial one- interosseous a. innervates the
profundus ulna, proximal of digits 2-5 eal, proximal half); ulnar portion of
two-thirds of interphalangeal nerve (ulnar profundus that acts
medial border and distal one-half) on digits 4 & 5
of ulna, interphalangeal (the ulnar 2 digits)
interosseous joints
membrane
flexor humeroulnar shafts of the flexes the median nerve ulnar a. median nerve
digitorum head: common middle metacarpophalang travels distally in
superficialis flexor tendon; phalanges of eal and proximal the forearm on the
radial head: digits 2-5 interphalangeal deep surface of the
middle 1/3 of joints flexor digitorum
radius superficialis m.
flexor pollicis flexor proximal flexes the recurrent superficial flexor pollicis
brevis retinaculum, phalanx of the carpometacarpal branch of the palmar br. of the brevis, abductor
trapezium 1st digit and median nerve radial a. pollicis brevis, and
metacarpophalang opponens pollicis
eal joints of the are the three
thumb muscles of the
thenar
compartment of
the hand
flexor pollicis anterior base of the flexes the median nerve anterior the tendon of
longus surface of distal phalanx metacarpophalang interosseous a. flexor pollicis
radius and of the thumb eal and longus passes
interosseous interphalangeal through the carpal
membrane joints of the thumb tunnel with the
other long digital
flexor tendons and
the median nerve
infraspinatus infraspinatous greater laterally rotates the suprascapular suprascapular a. infraspinatus,
fossa tubercle of the arm nerve supraspinatus,
humerus teres minor and
(middle facet) subscapularis are
the rotator cuff
muscles
interosseous, four muscles, base of the flex the ulnar nerve, dorsal and bipennate muscles;
dorsal (hand) each arising proximal metacarpophalang deep branch palmar remember DAB &
from two phalanx and eal joint, extend metacarpal aa. PAD - Dorsal
adjacent the extensor the proximal and interosseous mm.
metacarpal expansion on distal ABduct and
shafts lateral side of interphalangeal Palmar
the 2nd digit, joints of digits 2-4, interosseous mm.
lateral & abduct digits 2-4 ADduct - then you
medial sides of (abduction of can figure out
the 3rd digit, digits in the hand where they must
and medial is defined as insert to cause
side of the 4th movement away these actions
digit from the midline
of the 3rd digit)
interosseous, four muscles, base of the flexes the ulnar nerve, palmar unipennate
palmar arising from proximal metacarpophalang deep branch metacarpal aa. muscles;
the palmar phalanx and eal, extends remember PAD &
surface of the extensor proximal and distal DAB: Palmar
shafts of expansion of interphalangeal interossei ADduct
metacarpals 1, the medial side joints and adducts and Dorsal
2, 4, & 5 (the of digits 1 & 2, digits 1, 2, 4, & 5 interossei ABduct,
1st palmar and lateral side (adduction of the and you will be
interosseous is of digits 4 & 5 digits of the hand able to figure out
often fused is in reference to where they must
with the the midline of the insert
adductor 3rd digit)
pollicis m.)
latissimus vertebral floor of the extends the arm thoracodorsal thoracodorsal a. the inserting
dorsi spines from T7 intertubercular and rotates the arm nerve (C7,8) tendon twists so
to the sacrum, groove medially from the that fibers
posterior third posterior cord originating highest
of the iliac of the insert lowest
crest, lower 3 brachial
or 4 ribs, plexus
sometimes
from the
inferior angle
of the scapula
levator transverse medial border elevates the dorsal dorsal scapular levator scapulae is
scapulae processes of of the scapula scapula scapular a. named for its
C1-C4 from the nerve (C5); action
vertebrae superior angle the upper part
to the spine of the muscle
receives
branches of
C3 & C4
lumbrical flexor extensor flex the median nerve superficial lumbricals,
(hand) digitorum expansion on metacarpophalang (radial 2) via palmar arterial (lumbricus is latin
profundus the radial side eal joints, extend palmar digital arch for "worm") arise
tendons of of the the proximal and nerves & from the
digits 2-5 proximal distal ulnar nerve profundus tendons
phalanx of interphalangeal (ulnar 2) via and have the same
digits 2-5 joints of digits 2-5 deep branch pattern of
innervation as
does the profundus
muscle (ulnar and
median nn. split
the task equally)
opponens hook of shaft of 5th opposes the 5th ulnar nerve, ulnar a. opposition is a
digiti minimi hamate and metacarpal digit deep branch rotational
flexor movement of the
retinaculum 5th metacarpal
around the long
axis of its shaft;
opponens digiti
minimi, abductor
digiti minimi, and
flexor digiti
minimi brevis are
in the hypothenar
compartment of
the hand
opponens flexor shaft of 1st opposes the thumb recurrent superficial opposition is a
pollicis retinaculum, metacarpal branch of palmar branch rotational
trapezium median nerve of the radial a. movement of the
1st metacarpal
around the long
axis of its shaft;
opponens pollicis,
abductor pollicis
brevis, and flexor
pollicis brevis are
in the thenar
compartment of
the hand
palmar four muscles, base of the flexes the ulnar nerve, palmar unipennate
interosseous arising from proximal metacarpophalang deep branch metacarpal aa. muscles;
the palmar phalanx and eal, extends remember PAD &
surface of the extensor proximal and distal DAB: Palmar
shafts of expansion of interphalangeal interossei ADduct
metacarpals 1, the medial side joints and adducts and Dorsal
2, 4, & 5 (the of digits 1 & 2, digits 1, 2, 4, & 5 interossei ABduct,
1st palmar and lateral side (adduction of the and you will be
interosseous is of digits 4 & 5 digits of the hand able to figure out
often fused is in reference to where they must
with the the midline of the insert
adductor 3rd digit)
pollicis m.)
palmaris fascia skin of the draws the skin of superficial br. ulnar a. palmaris brevis
brevis overlying the palm near the the ulnar side of of the ulnar n. improves the grasp
hypothenar ulnar border of the hand toward
eminence the hand the center of the
palm
palmaris common flexor palmar flexes the wrist median nerve ulnar a. palmaris longus is
longus tendon, from aponeurosis absent in about
the medial 13% of forearms;
epicondyle of it may be present
the humerus on one side only
pectoralis medial 1/2 of crest of the flexes and adducts medial and pectoral branch the deep fascia on
major the clavicle, greater the arm, medially lateral of the its anterior surface
manubrium & tubercle of the rotates the arm pectoral thoracoacromial should not be
body of humerus nerves (C5- trunk fused to the fascia
sternum, costal T1) of the mammary
cartilages of gland - if it is, this
ribs 2-6, is an important
sometimes clinical sign
from the rectus indicating breast
sheath of the disease
upper
abdominal wall
pectoralis ribs 3-5 coracoid draws the scapula medial pectoral branch branches of medial
minor process of the forward, pectoral nerve of the pectoral nerve
scapula medialward, and (C8, T1) thoracoacromial usually pierce
downward trunk pectoralis minor to
reach the
pectoralis major
muscle
pronator medial side of anterior pronates the median nerve anterior pronator quadratus
quadratus the anterior surface of the forearm via the interosseous a. is the deepest
surface of the distal one- anterior muscle in the
distal one- fourth of the interosseous distal forearm; it
fourth of the radius nerve works with
ulna pronator teres and
has the same nerve
supply
pronator teres common flexor midpoint of pronates the median nerve ulnar a., anterior median nerve
tendon and the lateral side forearm ulnar recurrent passes between the
(deep or ulnar of the shaft of a. two heads of
head) from the radius origin of pronator
medial side of teres
coronoid
process of the
ulna
rhomboideus spines of medial border retracts, elevates dorsal dorsal scapular named for its
major vertebrae T2- of the scapula and rotates the scapular a. shape
T5 inferior to the scapula inferiorly nerve (C5)
spine of the
scapula
rhomboideus inferior end of medial border retracts, elevates dorsal dorsal scapular a named for its
minor the of the scapula and rotates the scapular shape
ligamentum at the root of scapula inferiorly nerve (C5)
nuchae, spines the spine of the
of vertebrae scapula
C7 and T1
serratus ribs 1-8 or 9 medial border it draws the long thoracic lateral thoracic a lesion of long
anterior of the scapula scapula forward; nerve (from a. thoracic nerve will
on its costal the inferior fibers ventral rami cause winging of
(deep) surface rotate the scapula C5-C7) the scapula (i.e.,
superiorly the medial border
of the scapula falls
away from the
posterior chest
wall and looks like
an angel's wing)
serratus thoracolumbar ribs 9-12, pulls down lower branches of lowest posterior a respiratory
posterior fascia, spines lateral to the ribs the ventral intercostal a., muscle, it receives
inferior of vertebrae angles primary rami subcostal a., ventral ramus
T11-T12 and of spinal first two lumbar innervation;
L1-L2 nerves T9- aa. embryonically
T12 related to the
intercostal
muscles, not the
deep back mm.
serratus ligamentum ribs 1-4, lateral elevates the upper branches of posterior a respiratory
posterior nuchae, spines to the angles ribs the ventral intercostal aa. 1- muscle, it receives
superior of vertebrae primary rami 4 ventral ramus
C7 and T1-T3 of spinal innervation;
nerves T1-T4 embryonically
related to the
intercostal
muscles, not the
deep back mm.
subclavius first rib and its inferior surface draws the clavicle nerve to clavicular br. of it serves an
cartilage of the clavicle (and hence the subclavius the important
shoulder) down (C5) thoracoacromial protective function
and forward trunk - it cushions the
subclavian vessels
from bone
fragments in
clavicular
fractures
subscapularis medial two- lesser tubercle medially rotates upper and subscapular a. subscapularis,
thirds of the of the humerus the arm; assists lower supraspinatus,
costal surface extention of the subscapular infraspinatus, and
of the scapula arm nerves (C5,6) teres minor are the
(subscapular rotator cuff
fossa) muscles
Supinator lateral lateral side of supinates the deep radial recurrent deep radial nerve
epicondyle of proximal one- forearm nerve interosseous a. passes through the
the humerus, third of the supinator to reach
supinator crest radius the posterior
& fossa of the compartment of
ulna, radial the forearm
collateral
ligament,
annular
ligament
supraspinatus supraspinatous greater abducts the arm suprascapular suprascapular a. supraspinatus
fossa tubercle of the (initiates nerve (C5,6) initiates abduction
humerus abduction) from the of the arm, then
(highest facet) superior trunk the deltoid muscle
of the completes the
brachial action; a member
plexus of the rotator cuff
group
teres major dorsal surface crest of the adducts the arm, lower circumflex teres major inserts
of the inferior lesser tubercle medially rotates subscapular scapular a. beside the tendon
angle of the of the humerus the arm, assists in nerve (C5,6) of latissimus dorsi,
scapula arm extension from the and assists
posterior cord latissimus in its
of the actions
brachial
plexus
teres minor upper 2/3 of greater laterally rotates the axillary nerve circumflex fixes the head of
the lateral tubercle of the arm (C5,6) from scapular a. the humerus in the
border of the humerus the posterior glenoid fossa
scapula (lowest facet) cord of the during abduction
brachial & flexion of the
plexus arm; a member of
the rotator cuff
group
Trapezius medial third of lateral third of elevates and motor: spinal transverse named for its
the superior the clavicle, depresses the accessory cervical a. shape; trapezius is
nuchal line, medial side of scapula (XI), an example of a
external the acromion (depending on proprioceptio muscle that
occipital and the upper which part of the n: C3-C4 migrates during
protuberance, crest of the muscle contracts); development from
ligamentum scapular spine, rotates the scapula its level of origin
nuchae, tubercle of the superiorly; retracts (cervical) to its
spinous scapular spine scapula final position,
processes of pulling its nerve
vertebrae C7- and artery along
T12 behind
triceps brachii long head: olecranon extends the radial nerve deep brachial long head of the
infraglenoid process of the forearm; the long (profunda triceps separates
tubercle of the ulna head extends and brachii) a. the triangular and
scapula; lateral adducts arm quadrangular
head: spaces (teres
posterolateral major, teres minor
humerus & and the humerus
lateral are the other
intermuscular boundaries); all
septum; medial three heads of
head: origin insert by a
posteromedial common tendon
surface of the
inferior 1/2 of
the humerus

Muscles of the Head and Neck - Listed Alphabetically


Muscle Origin Insertion Action Innervation Artery Notes
anterior scalene anterior scalene elevates the first brachial plexus, ascending a muscle of
tubercles of the tubercle of the rib; flexes and C5-C7 cervical a., a inspiration; an
transverse first rib laterally bends branch of the important
processes of the neck thyrocervical landmark of the
vertebrae C3-C6 trunk neck; it is located
between the
subclavian vein
and the
subclavian
artery; the roots
of the brachial
plexus pass
posterior to it;
the phrenic nerve
crosses its
anterior surface
aryepiglottic apex (superior epiglottis draws the inferior laryngeal br. the mucosa is
part) of the epiglottis laryngeal of the raised by the
arytenoid posteriorly and nerve, from superior underlying
cartilage downward recurrent thyroid a. aryepiglottic m.
during laryngeal to form the
swallowing nerve, a branch aryepiglottic fold
of the of vagus
(X)
arytenoid, muscular posterior draws arytenoid inferior laryngeal br. the oblique
oblique process of the surface of the cartilages laryngeal of the arytenoid m. lies
arytenoid contralateral together, nerve, from superior posterior to the
cartilage arytenoid adducting the recurrent thyroid a. transverse
cartilage, near vocal folds laryngeal arytenoid m.; the
its apex nerve, a branch arytenoideus is
of the of vagus often considered
(X) to be one muscle
with oblique and
transverse fibers
arytenoid, posterior surface posterior draws arytenoid inferior laryngeal br. the transverse
transverse of the arytenoid surface of the cartilages laryngeal of the arytenoid m.lies
cartilage contralateral together, nerve, from superior anterior to the
arytenoid adducting the recurrent thyroid a. oblique arytenoid
cartilage vocal folds laryngeal m.; the
nerve, a branch arytenoideus is
of the vagus often considered
nerve (X) to be one muscle
with oblique and
transverse parts
auricular anterior: galea auricle wiggle the ears anterior & superficial the auricular
aponeurotica anteriorly, superior: temporal a., muscles are
anterior to ear; superiorly and temporal posterior derived from the
superior: galea posteriorly branches of auricular a. mesenchyme of
aponeurotica facial nerve the second
superior to ear; (VII); posterior: pharyngeal arch,
posterior: posterior as are the
mastoid process auricular muscles of facial
branch of facial expression
nerve (VII)
buccinator pterygomandibu angle of mouth pulls the corner buccal branches facial a. although the
lar raphe, and the lateral of mouth of the facial buccinator is
mandible, and portion of the laterally; presses nerve (VII) important in
the maxilla upper and the cheek against mastication, it is
lateral to the lower lips the teeth innervated by the
molar teeth buccal branch of
the facial nerve
and NOT by the
buccal nerve
from V3 (a
sensory nerve)
chondroglossus medial side of ascends to pulls the sides of hypoglossal lingual a. chondroglossus
the lesser horn blend with the the tongue down nerve (XII) is often
and body of the intrinsic tongue considered to be
hyoid bone musculature part of the
hyoglossus
muscle
ciliary meridional meridional relaxes the parasympatheti ophthalmic a. relaxation of the
fibers: scleral fibers: ciliary suspensory c fibers in the suspensory
spur; circular process; ligament of the oculomotor ligament allows
fibers: encircle circular fibers: lens nerve (III), the lens to
the ciliary encircle the synapsing in thicken for
process ciliary process the ciliary accommodation
ganglion (near vision)
constrictor, oblique line of midline constricts vagus (X), via ascending the most external
inferior the thyroid pharyngeal pharyngeal the pharyngeal pharyngeal a., of the three
pharyngeal cartilage, lateral raphe cavity plexus, with aid superior pharyngeal
surface of from the thyroid a., constructor mm.
cricoid cartilage superior inferior
laryngeal and thyroid a.
recurrent
laryngeal
nerves
constrictor, lesser and midline constricts the vagus (X), via ascending of the three
middle greater horns of pharyngeal pharyngeal the pharyngeal pharyngeal a. pharyngeal
pharyngeal the hyoid bone raphe cavity plexus constrictors, this
and the inferior one is
part of the intermediate in
stylohyoid both
ligament superior/inferior
position and
depth
constrictor, medial pterygoid pharyngeal constricts the vagus (X), via ascending the most internal
superior plate, pterygoid tubercle and pharyngeal the pharyngeal pharyngeal a. of the three
pharyngeal hamulus, midline cavity plexus pharyngeal
pterygomandibu pharyngeal constructor mm.
lar raphe, raphe
mylohyoid line
of mandible
corrugator medial part of skin of the pulls eyebrows temporal supratrochlea this muscle
the supercillary medial half of together branch of the r a. causes the
arch the eyebrow medially facial nerve furrowed brow of
(VII) the worried look
cricoarytenoid, arch of the muscular draws the inferior superior an antagonist of
lateral cricoid cartilage process of the muscular process laryngeal laryngeal a., the posterior
arytenoid of the arytenoid nerve, from the cricothyroid cricoarytenoid
cartilage cartilage recurrent branch of the m.; the arteries
anteriorly, which laryngeal superior that supply the
pivots the nerve, a branch thyroid a. larynx
arytenoid of the vagus anastomose
cartilage and nerve (X) within the larynx
adducts the vocal to supply the
folds mucous
membranes and
muscles
cricoarytenoid, posterior surface muscular draws the inferior superior the posterior
posterior of the lamina of process of the muscular process laryngeal laryngeal a., cricoarytenoid is
the cricoid arytenoid posteriorly, nerve, from the cricothyroid the only
cartilage cartilage which pivots the recurrent branch of the ABductor of the
arytenoid laryngeal superior vocal folds; the
cartilage and nerve, a branch thyroid a. arteries that
abducts the vocal of the vagus supply the larynx
folds nerve (X) anastomose
within the larynx
to supply the
mucous
membranes and
muscles
cricopharyngeus lateral surface of midline constricts the recurrent cricothyroid cricopharyngeus
the cricoid pharyngeal pharyngeal laryngeal branch of the represents the
cartilage raphe cavity and the nerve, a branch superior lowest fibers of
entrance to the of the vagus thyroid a., the inferior
esophagus nerve (X) ascending pharyngeal
pharyngeal a. constrictor; it is
continuous with
the esophagus
below and marks
the beginning of
it
cricothyroid arch of the inferior border draws the thyroid external branch cricothyroid this is the only
cricoid cartilage of the thyroid cartilage of superior branch of the intrinsic muscle
cartilage forward, laryngeal superior of the larynx that
lengthening the nerve, a branch thyroid a. is not supplied
vocal ligaments of the vagus by the recurrent
nerve (X) laryngeal n.;
ALL other
laryngeal
muscles are
innervated by
recurrent
laryngeal nerve,
via its inferior
laryngeal branch
depressor anguli oblique line of angle of the pulls the corner marginal inferior labial a "frown" muscle
oris the mandible mouth of the mouth mandibular & branch of the
downward buccal branches facial a.,
of the facial mental a.
nerve (VII)
depressor labii anterior surface skin of the depresses the marginal inferior labial this muscle is
inferioris of the mandible lower lip lower lip mandibular branch of the used to bare the
branch of the facial a., lower incisor
facial nerve mental a. teeth
(VII)
depressor septi maxilla near the nasal septum depresses the buccal branch superior depressor septi is
midline above nasal septum; of facial nerve labial branch considered a part
the incisor teeth involved in (VII) of the facial of the nasalis m.
flaring the a.
nostrils
digastric anterior belly: body of the elevates the anterior belly: anterior belly: the digastric m.
digastric fossa hyoid via a hyoid bone; mylohyoid submental a.; forms two sides
of the mandible; fibrous loop depresses the nerve, from the posterior of the
posterior belly: over an mandible mandibular belly: submandibular
mastoid notch of intermediate division of the occipital a. triangle; it is
the temporal tendon trigeminal formed from
bone nerve (V); mesenchyme
posterior belly: derived from the
facial nerve first two
(VII) pharyngeal
arches, hence its
dual innervation
dilator pupillae outer margin of inner margin of dilates the pupil sympathetic ophthalmic a. none
iris iris fibers via short
ciliary nerves,
synapsing in
superior
cervical
sympathetic
ganglion
epicranius frontalis: galea frontalis: skin elevates the frontalis: frontalis: the frontalis and
aponeurotica; of the eyebrows and temporal supraorbital occipitalis
occipitalis: eyebrows; wrinkles the branches of the and muscles are two
superior nuchal occipitalis: forehead facial nerve supratrochlea bellies of the
line galea (VII); r aa.; epicranius
aponeurotica occipitalis: occipitalis: muscle; also
posterior occipital a. known as:
auricular occipitofrontalis
branch of the m.
facial nerve
(VII)
frontalis galea skin of the elevates the temporal supraorbital frontalis is the
aponeurotica eyebrow eyebrows and branches of the and anterior belly of
wrinkles the facial nerve supratrochlea the epicranius
forehead (VII) r aa. muscle
genioglossus mental spine on fans out to protrudes the hypoglossal lingual a. an extrinsic
the inner aspect insert into the tongue (inferior nerve (XII) muscle of the
of the mental tongue from fibers); depresses tongue; XII
symphysis the tip to the tongue (middle innervates all
base fibers) tongue muscles
except
palatoglossus
[innervated by
vagus (X), as are
most of the
palate and
pharynx
muscles];
genioglossus is
used to test the
function of
cranial nerve XII
geniohyoid mental spines of body of the elevates the ventral primary lingual a., thyrohyoid and
the mandible hyoid bone hyoid bone; ramus of spinal submental a. geniohyoid
depresses the nerve C1 via receive ansa
mandible fibers carried cervicalis fibers
by the that travel with
hypoglossal the hypoglossal
nerve nerve distal to
the superior limb
of the ansa
cervicalis
hyoglossus upper border of spreads out depresses the hypoglossal lingual a. an extrinsic
the greater horn into the sides of the nerve (XII) muscle of the
of the hyoid and intrinsic tongue; retracts tongue
body of the muscles of the the tongue
hyoid bone tongue
inferior oblique floor of the orbit sclera on the elevates and oculomotor ophthalmic a. clinicians
lateral to the inferior surface abducts the nerve (III), examining the
lacrimal groove of the eyeball corneal part of inferior eye will ask the
the eye; rotates division patient to look
the superior pole toward the bridge
of the iris of the nose to test
laterally; when the function of
the eye is this muscle
adducted, this
muscle elevates
the cornea
inferior oblique line of midline constricts vagus (X), via ascending the most external
pharyngeal the thyroid pharyngeal pharyngeal the pharyngeal pharyngeal a., of the three
constrictor cartilage, lateral raphe cavity plexus, with aid superior pharyngeal
surface of from the thyroid a., constructor mm.
cricoid cartilage superior inferior
laryngeal and thyroid a.
recurrent
laryngeal
nerves
inferior rectus common sclera on the depresses and oculomotor ophthalmic a. because this
tendinous ring at inferior surface adducts the nerve (III), muscle
the apex of the of the eyeball corneal part of inferior approaches the
orbit the eyeball; division eyeball from a
rotates the medial direction,
superior pole of it has a rotational
the iris laterally action on the iris
lateral arch of the muscular draws the inferior superior an antagonist of
cricoarytenoid cricoid cartilage process of the muscular process laryngeal laryngeal a., the posterior
arytenoid of the arytenoid nerve, from the cricothyroid cricoarytenoid
cartilage cartilage recurrent branch of the m.; the arteries
anteriorly, which laryngeal superior that supply the
pivots the nerve, a branch thyroid a. larynx
arytenoid of the vagus anastomose
cartilage and nerve (X) within the larynx
adducts the vocal to supply the
folds mucous
membranes and
muscles
lateral pterygoid superior head: superior head: protracts the lateral pterygoid the only one of
greater wing of capsule and & mandible; opens pterygoid branch of the the muscles of
the sphenoid articular disk the mouth; active branch of the maxillary a. mastication that
bone; inferior of the in grinding mandibular opens the mouth;
head: lateral temporomandi actions of division of the the superior head
surface of the bular joint; chewing trigeminal of lateral
lateral pterygoid inferior head: nerve (V) pterygoid is
plate neck of the sometimes called
mandible sphenomeniscus
due to its
insertion into the
disc of the
temporomandibu
lar joint
lateral rectus common sclera on the abducts the abducens nerve ophthalmic a. loss of function
tendinous ring at lateral surface corneal part of (VI) of the abducens
the apex of the of the eyeball the eyeball nerve will cause
orbit the eye to be
abducted
levator anguli canine fossa of angle (corner) elevates the buccal branch infraorbital a "smile" muscle
oris the maxilla of the mouth angle of the of the facial a., superior
mouth nerve (VII) labial branch
of the facial
a.
levator labii inferior margin skin of the elevates the buccal branch infraorbital levator labii
superioris of the orbit upper lip upper lip of the facial a., superior superioris is used
nerve (VII) labial branch to bare the upper
of the facial incisor teeth, as
a. in a sneer
levator labii frontal process ala of the nose elevates the buccal branch infraorbital none
superioris of the maxilla and skin of the upper lip and of the facial a., superior
alaque nasi upper lip flares the nostril nerve (VII) labial branch
of the facial
a.
levator apex of the orbit skin and fascia elevates the oculomotor ophthalmic a. fibers inserting
palpebrae above the optic of upper eyelid upper eyelid nerve (III) and into the superior
superioris canal and the sympathetics tarsal plate are
superior tarsal (to the superior called superior
plate tarsal portion) tarsal muscle and
are smooth
muscle; lesion of
the sympathetic
supply causes
slight ptosis
(drooping of the
eyelid)
levator scapulae transverse medial border elevates scapula dorsal scapular dorsal named for its
processes of C1- of the scapula nerve (C5); the scapular a. action
4 vertebrae from the upper part of
superior angle the muscle
to the spine receives
branches of C3
& C4 spinal
nerves
levator veli apex of the muscles and elevates the soft vagus nerve ascending a derivative of
palatini petrous part of fascia of the palate (X) via the pharyngeal a. the fourth
the temporal soft palate; pharyngeal pharyngeal arch
bone and the palatine plexus
medial surface aponeurosis
of the auditory
tube cartilage
linguae, within tongue within tongue shapes the hypoglossal lingual a. an intrinsic
longitudinalis near the apex tongue for nerve (XII) muscle of the
speech and tongue;
mastication longitudinalis
has superior and
inferior
subdivisions that
span the length
of the tongue
linguae, within tongue within tongue compresses the hypoglossal lingual a. an intrinsic
transversus sides of the nerve (XII) muscle of the
tongue; shapes tongue whose
the tongue for fibers run
speech and transversely
mastication
linguae, within tongue within tongue shapes the hypoglossal lingual a. an intrinsic
verticalis tongue for nerve (XII) muscle of the
speech and tongue whose
mastication fibers run
superoinferiorly
longus capitis anterior basilar portion flex the head and cervical plexus, deep cervical none
tubercles of of the occipital neck ventral primary a.
vertebrae C3-6 bone rami of spinal
nerves C1-4
longus colli anterior anterior arch of flex neck, rotate cervical and deep cervical none
tubercles and atlas, anterior and laterally brachial plexus, a.
anterior surfaces tubercles of bend neck C2-7
of the bodies of C5-6, anterior
vertebrae C3-T3 surfaces of
bodies of
vertebrae C2-4
masseter zygomatic arch lateral surface elevates the nerve to the masseteric a powerful
and zygomatic of the ramus mandible masseter, from branch of the chewing muscle
bone and angle of the mandibular maxillary a.
the mandible division of the
trigeminal
nerve (V)
medial medial surface medial surface elevates and medial pterygoid this muscle
pterygoid of the lateral of the ramus protracts the pterygoid branch of the mirrors the
pterygoid plate, and angle of mandible branch of the maxillary a. masseter m. in
pyramidal the mandible mandibular position and
process of the division of the action with the
palatine bone, trigeminal ramus of the
tuberosity of the nerve (V) mandible
maxilla between the two
mm.
medial rectus common sclera on the adducts the oculomotor ophthalmic a. this muscle
tendinous ring at medial surface corneal part of nerve (III) directly opposes
the apex of the of the eyeball the eyeball (inferior the action of the
orbit division) lateral rectus m.
mentalis anterior surface skin of the chin elevates the skin marginal mental a., mentalis has no
of the mandible of chin mandibular inferior labial direct action on
near the mental branch of the branch of the the oral aperture
symphysis facial nerve facial a.
(midline) (VII)
middle lesser and midline constricts the vagus (X), via ascending of the three
pharyngeal greater horns of pharyngeal pharyngeal the pharyngeal pharyngeal a. pharyngeal
constrictor the hyoid bone raphe cavity plexus constrictors, this
and the inferior one is
part of the intermediate in
stylohyoid both
ligament superior/inferior
position and
depth
middle scalene posterior upper surface elevates the first brachial plexus, ascending a muscle of
tubercles of the of the first rib rib; flexes and C3-C8 cervical a. respiration
transverse behind the laterally bends (inspiratory);
processes of subclavian the neck also called
vertebrae C2-C7 artery scalenus medius;
penetrated by the
dorsal scapular n.
and long thoracic
n.
musculus posterior nasal mucosa of the shortens the vagus nerve lesser the soft palate
uvulae spine uvula uvula (X) via palatine a. and uvula resist
pharyngeal the upward
plexus pressure of the
tongue during
swallowing
mylohyoid mylohyoid line midline raphe elevates the mylohyoid mylohyoid the nerve to
of mandible and body of the hyoid bone and nerve from the branch of the mylohyoid also
hyoid bone the tongue; inferior inferior innervates the
depresses the alveolar nerve, alveolar a. anterior belly of
mandible a branch of the digastric m.; both
mandibular muscles are
division of the derivatives of the
trigeminal second
nerve (V) pharygneal arch
nasalis maxilla above ala of the nose flattens the nose, buccal branch superior nasalis has two
the incisor teeth and midline flare the nostrils of the facial labial branch subsidiary parts:
and the canine aponeurosis nerve (VII) of the facial nasalis pars alaris
teeth a. and pars
transversa
nasalis pars maxilla above ala of the nose flares the nostrils buccal branch superior a subdivision of
alaris the canine teeth of facial nerve labial branch the nasalis m.
(VII) of the facial
a.
nasalis pars maxilla above midline flattens the nose buccal branch superior a subdivision of
transversa the incisor teeth aponeurosis of facial nerve labial branch the nasalis m.
(VII) of the facial
a.
oblique muscular posterior draws arytenoid inferior laryngeal br. the oblique
arytenoid process of the surface of the cartilages laryngeal of the arytenoid m. lies
arytenoid contralateral together, nerve, from superior posterior to the
cartilage arytenoid adducting the recurrent thyroid a. transverse
cartilage, near vocal folds laryngeal arytenoid m.; the
its apex nerve, a branch arytenoideus is
of the of vagus often considered
(X) to be one muscle
with oblique and
transverse fibers
oblique, inferior floor of the orbit sclera on the elevates and oculomotor ophthalmic a. clinicians
lateral to the inferior surface abducts the nerve (III), examining the
lacrimal groove of the eyeball corneal part of inferior eye will ask the
the eye; rotates division patient to look
the superior pole toward the bridge
of the iris of the nose to test
laterally; when the function of
the eye is this muscle
adducted, this
muscle elevates
the cornea
oblique, apex of the orbit sclera on the depresses and trochlear nerve ophthalmic a. passes through a
superior above the optic posterior abducts the (IV) fibrocartilagenou
canal superior eyeball; rotates s pulley known
surface of the the superior pole as the trochlea;
eyeball of the iris when the eye is
medially adducted, this
muscle moves
the cornea
inferiorly
occipitalis superior nuchal galea pulls the scalp posterior occipital a. occipitalis is the
line aponeurotica posteriorly; auricular posterior belly of
elevates the branch of the the epicranius
eyebrows facial nerve muscle
(VII)
occipitofrontalis frontalis: galea frontalis: skin elevates the frontalis: frontalis: the frontalis and
aponeurotica; of the eyebrows and temporal supraorbital occipitalis
occipitalis: eyebrows; wrinkles the branches of the and muscles are two
superior nuchal occipitalis: forehead facial nerve supratrochlea bellies of the
line galea (VII); r aa.; occipitofrontalis
aponeurotica occipitalis: occipitalis: muscle; also
posterior occipital a. known as:
auricular epicranius m.
branch of the
facial nerve
(VII)
omohyoid inferior belly: inferior belly: depresses/stabiliz ansa cervicalis transverse the intermediate
upper border of intermediate es the hyoid cervical a. tendon of
the scapula tendon; bone omohyoid is
medial to the superior belly: tethered to the
scapular notch; lower border of clavicle by a
superior belly: the hyoid bone fascial sling
intermediate lateral to the
tendon sternohyoid
insertion
orbicularis oculi orbital part: orbital part: closes the eyelids temporal & supraorbital activated
medial orbital skin of the zygomatic a., involuntarily in
margin and the lateral cheek; branches of the supratrochlea the blink reflex;
medial palpebral palpebral part: facial nerve r a., the palpebral part
ligament; lateral (VII) infraorbital is active in
palpebral part: palpebral raphe a., angular normal blinking
medial palpebral branch of the and the orbital
ligament facial a. part is used to
forcefully close
the eye
orbicularis oris skin and fascia skin and fascia purses the lips buccal branch superior and the "kissing"
of lips and the of the lips of the facial inferior labial muscle
area surrounding nerve (VII) branches of
the lips the facial a.,
mental a.,
infraorbital a.
palatoglossus palatine side of the elevates and vagus nerve tonsilar although
aponeurosis tongue, retracts the (X) via the branch of the palatoglossus
entering it tongue pharyngeal facial a., sounds like a
from above plexus ascending tongue muscle
pharyngeal a. (and would
therefore be
innervated by
XII), it is a
palatal muscle
innervated by X
palatopharyngeu posterior margin posterior wall elevates the vagus nerve ascending palatopharyngeus
s of the bony of the pharynx larynx (X) via pharyngeal a. is part of the
palate and the and the pharyngeal inner
palatine posterior plexus longitudinal
aponeurosis margin of the muscle layer of
thyroid the pharynx
cartilage
platysma fascia overlying inferior border draws the cervical branch facial a. platysma is
the pectoralis of the corners of the of the facial derived from the
major and mandible and mouth down; it nerve (VII) mesenchyme of
deltoid muscles skin of lower aids in the second
face depression of the pharyngeal arch
mandible
posterior posterior surface muscular draws the inferior superior the posterior
cricoarytenoid of the lamina of process of the muscular process laryngeal laryngeal a., cricoarytenoid is
the cricoid arytenoid posteriorly, nerve, from the cricothyroid the only
cartilage cartilage which pivots the recurrent branch of the ABductor of the
arytenoid laryngeal superior vocal folds; the
cartilage and nerve, a branch thyroid a. arteries that
abducts the vocal of the vagus supply the larynx
folds nerve (X) anastomose
within the larynx
to supply the
mucous
membranes and
muscles
posterior posterior lateral surface elevates the brachial plexus, ascending a muscle of
scalene tubercles of the of the second second rib; C7-C8 cervical a. respiration
transverse rib flexes and (inspiratory); it is
processes of laterally bends the longest of the
vertebrae C5-C7 the neck scalene muscles
procerus nasal bone skin between depresses the temporal supratrochlea none
the eyebrows medial corners of branch of the r a.
the eyebrows facial nerve
(VII)
pterygoid, superior head: superior head: protracts the lateral pterygoid the only one of
lateral greater wing of capsule and & mandible; opens pterygoid branch of the the muscles of
the sphenoid articular disk the mouth; active branch of the maxillary a. mastication that
bone; inferior of the in grinding mandibular opens the mouth;
head: lateral temporomandi actions of division of the the superior head
surface of the bular joint; chewing trigeminal of lateral
lateral pterygoid inferior head: nerve (V) pterygoid is
plate neck of the sometimes called
mandible sphenomeniscus
due to its
insertion into the
disc of the
temporomandibu
lar joint
pterygoid, medial surface medial surface elevates and medial pterygoid this muscle
medial of the lateral of the ramus protracts the pterygoid branch of the mirrors the
pterygoid plate, and angle of mandible branch of the maxillary a. masseter m. in
pyramidal the mandible mandibular position and
process of the division of the action with the
palatine bone, trigeminal ramus of the
tuberosity of the nerve (V) mandible
maxilla between the two
mm.
pupillae, dilator outer margin of inner margin of dilates the pupil sympathetic ophthalmic a. none
iris iris fibers via short
ciliary nerves,
synapsing in
superior
cervical
sympathetic
ganglion
pupillae, encircles iris encircles iris constricts the parasympatheti ophthalmic a. none
sphincter pupil c fibers of
oculomotor
nerve (III),
synapsing in
ciliary ganglion
rectus capitis lateral mass of basilar portion flexes the head ventral primary deep cervical none
anterior atlas of occipital ramus of spinal a.
bone nerve C1
rectus capitis transverse occipital bone laterally bends ventral primary deep cervical none
lateralis process of atlas anterolateral to the head ramus of spinal a.
foramen nerve C1
magnum
rectus, inferior common sclera on the depresses and oculomotor ophthalmic a. because this
tendinous ring at inferior surface adducts the nerve (III), muscle
the apex of the of the eyeball corneal part of inferior approaches the
orbit the eyeball; division eyeball from a
rotates the medial direction,
superior pole of it has a rotational
the iris laterally action on the iris
rectus, lateral common sclera on the abducts the abducens nerve ophthalmic a. loss of function
tendinous ring at lateral surface corneal part of (VI) of the abducens
the apex of the of the eyeball the eyeball nerve will cause
orbit the eye to be
abducted
rectus, medial common sclera on the adducts the oculomotor ophthalmic a. this muscle
tendinous ring at medial surface corneal part of nerve (III) directly opposes
the apex of the of the eyeball the eyeball (inferior the action of the
orbit division) lateral rectus m.
rectus, superior common sclera on the elevates and oculomotor ophthalmic a. because this
tendinous ring at superior adducts the nerve (III), muscle
the apex of the surface of the eyeball; rotates superior approaches the
orbit eyeball the superior pole division eye from a
of the iris medial position,
medially it causes the iris
to rotate medially
risorius fascia of the skin of the draws the corner buccal branches transverse risorius is active
lateral cheek angle (corner) of the mouth of the facial facial a., in expressions of
of the mouth laterally nerve (VII) facial a. mirth
salpingopharyng inferior surface pharyngeal elevates the vagus nerve ascending like other
eus of the wall and larynx (X) via the pharyngeal a. muscles of the
anteromedial superior border pharyngeal pharyngeal wall,
end of the of the thyroid plexus salpingopharyng
auditory tube cartilage along eus is derived
cartilage with the from the fourth
palatopharynge pharyngeal arch
us m.
scalene, anterior anterior scalene elevates the first brachial plexus, ascending a muscle of
tubercles of the tubercle of the rib; flexes and C5-C7 cervical a., a inspiration; an
transverse first rib laterally bends branch of the important
processes of the neck thyrocervical landmark of the
vertebrae C3-C6 trunk neck; it is located
between the
subclavian vein
and the
subclavian
artery; the roots
of the brachial
plexus pass
posterior to it;
the phrenic nerve
crosses its
anterior surface
scalene, middle posterior upper surface elevates the first brachial plexus, ascending a muscle of
tubercles of the of the first rib rib; flexes and C3-C8 cervical a. respiration
transverse behind the laterally bends (inspiratory);
processes of subclavian the neck also called
vertebrae C2-C7 artery scalenus medius;
penetrated by the
dorsal scapular n.
and long thoracic
n.
scalene, posterior lateral surface elevates the brachial plexus, ascending a muscle of
posterior tubercles of the of the second second rib; C7-C8 cervical a. respiration
transverse rib flexes and (inspiratory); it is
processes of laterally bends the longest of the
vertebrae C5-C7 the neck scalene muscles
sphenomeniscus greater wing of capsule and pulls the articular lateral pterygoid sphenomeniscus
the sphenoid articular disk disk forward in pterygoid branch of the is another name
of the opening of the branch of maxillary a. for the superior
temporomandi mouth mandibular belly of the
bular joint division of lateral pterygoid
trigeminal m.
nerve (V)
sphincter encircles iris encircles iris constricts the parasympatheti ophthalmic a. none
pupillae pupil c fibers of
oculomotor
nerve (III),
synapsing in
ciliary ganglion
splenius ligamentum capitis: extends and dorsal primary supplied splenius means
nuchae and mastoid laterally bends rami of spinal segmentally bandage; it gets
spines C7-T6 process & neck and head; nerves C2-6 by: deep its name from its
superior nuchal rotates head to cervical a., broad, flat shape
line laterally; same side posterior
cervicis: intercostal aa.
posterior
tubercles of
C1-3
stapedius walls of the neck of the dampens facial nerve anterior entirely enclosed
pyramidal stapes vibration of the (VII) tympanic a. in bone, except
eminence stapes for its tendon; a
derivative of the
second
pharyngeal arch
sternocleidomas sternal head: mastoid draws the spinal sternocleidom carotid sheath
toid anterior surface process and mastoid process accessory nerve astoid branch structures lie
of the lateral 1/2 of down toward the (XI), with of the deep to it
manubrium; the superior same side which sensory supply occipital a.
clavicular head: nuchal line causes the chin from C2 & C3
medial 1/3rd of to turn up toward (for
the clavicle the opposite side; proprioception)
acting together,
the muscles of
the two sides
flex the neck
sternohyoid posterior lower border of depresses/stabiliz ansa cervicalis superior sternohyoid
surfaces of both the hyoid bone, es the hyoid thyroid a. overlies the
the manubrium medial to the bone sternothyroid and
and sternal end omohyoid m. thyrohyoid mm.
of the clavicle insertion
sternothyroid posterior surface oblique line of depresses/stabiliz ansa cervicalis superior sternothyroid lies
of the the thyroid es the hyoid thyroid a. deep to the
manubrium cartilage bone sternohyoid m.
below the origin
of the
sternohyoid m.
styloglossus anterior side of posterolateral retracts and hypoglossal ascending an extrinsic
the styloid side of the elevates the nerve (XII) pharyngeal a., muscle of the
process tongue tongue ascending tongue
palatine
branch of the
facial a.
stylohyoid posterior side of splits around elevates and facial nerve ascending facial nerve
the styloid the retracts the hyoid (VII) pharyngeal a. innervates both
process intermediate bone the stylohyoid m.
tendon of the and the posterior
digastric m. to belly of the
insert on the digastric m.
body of the shortly after
hyoid bone exiting from the
stylomastoid
foramen
stylopharyngeus medial side of superior border elevates the glossopharynge ascending stylopharyngeus,
the styloid of the thyroid larynx al nerve (IX) pharyngeal a. the only muscle
process cartilage and innervated by IX,
also into the is the only
pharyngeal muscle of the
wall pharyngeal wall
NOT innervated
by the vagus (X)
nerve; it is a
derivative of the
third pharyngeal
arch
superior oblique apex of the orbit sclera on the depresses and trochlear nerve ophthalmic a. passes through a
above the optic posterior abducts the (IV) fibrocartilagenou
canal superior eyeball; rotates s pulley known
surface of the the superior pole as the trochlea;
eyeball of the iris when the eye is
medially adducted, this
muscle moves
the cornea
inferiorly
superior medial pterygoid pharyngeal constricts the vagus (X), via ascending the most internal
pharyngeal plate, pterygoid tubercle and pharyngeal the pharyngeal pharyngeal a. of the three
constrictor hamulus, midline cavity plexus pharyngeal
pterygomandibu pharyngeal constructor mm.
lar raphe, raphe
mylohyoid line
of mandible
superior rectus common sclera on the elevates and oculomotor ophthalmic a. because this
tendinous ring at superior adducts the nerve (III), muscle
the apex of the surface of the eyeball; rotates superior approaches the
orbit eyeball the superior pole division eye from a
of the iris medial position,
medially it causes the iris
to rotate medially
temporalis temporal fossa coronoid elevates the anterior and anterior and a powerful
and the temporal process of the mandible; posterior deep posterior chewing muscle;
fascia mandible and retracts the temporal nerves deep a derivative of
the anterior mandible from the temporal aa. the first
surface of the (posterior fibers) mandibular pharyngeal arch
ramus of the division of the
mandible trigeminal
nerve (V)
tensor tympani cartilagenous manubrium of dampens medial superior V3 innervates
auditory tube the malleus vibrations of the pterygoid tympanic both tensor
and the greater tympanic branch of the branch of the muscles of the
wing of the membrane mandibular middle head (tympani
sphenoid bone division of the meningeal a. and veli palatini)
which lies trigeminal which are
adjacent to it nerve (V) derivatives of the
first pharyngeal
arch
tensor veli scaphoid fossa, palatine opens the mandibular ascending remember: V3
palatini lateral wall of aponeurosis auditory tube; division of the pharyngeal a. innervates both
the auditory tube tenses the soft trigeminal tensor muscles
cartilage palate nerve (V) (tympani and veli
palatini); ALL
other palatal
muscles are
innervated by
vagus
thyroarytenoid inner surface of lateral border draws the inferior laryngeal its subsidiary
the thyroid of the arytenoid laryngeal branch of the parts are the
cartilage arytenoid cartilage nerve, from superior thyroepiglottic
anteriorly cartilage forward, relaxing recurrent thyroid a. m. and the
and adducting laryngeal vocalis m.; the
the vocal folds nerve, a branch medial most
of the vagus fibers of
nerve (X) thyroarytenoid
that insert along
the vocal
ligament are
called the vocalis
muscle
thyroepiglottic inner surface of lateral surface draws the inferior laryngeal represents the
the thyroid of the epiglottic laryngeal branch of the superior fibers of
cartilage near epiglottic cartilage nerve, from superior thyroarytenoid
the laryngeal cartilage downward recurrent thyroid a. muscle which fan
prominence laryngeal out to the
nerve, a branch quadrangular
of the vagus membrane and
nerve (X) epiglottis
thyrohyoid oblique line of lower border of elevates the ansa cervicalis superior thyrohyoid lies
the thyroid the hyoid bone larynx; (via fibers thyroid a. deep to the
cartilage depresses/stabiliz running with sternohyoid
es the hyoid the hypoglossal
bone nerve that leave
XII distal to the
superior limb
of ansa)
trachealis posterior edge of posterior edge constricts the preganglionic inferior smooth muscle,
the tracheal of the tracheal bronchi and parasympatheti thyroid a., found in the
cartilage cartilage of trachea c fibers from bronchial aa. submucosal layer
other side the vagus (X)
(joins tracheal nerve
rings
posteriorly)
transverse posterior surface posterior draws arytenoid inferior laryngeal br. the transverse
arytenoid of the arytenoid surface of the cartilages laryngeal of the arytenoid m.lies
cartilage contralateral together, nerve, from superior anterior to the
arytenoid adducting the recurrent thyroid a. oblique arytenoid
cartilage vocal folds laryngeal m.; the
nerve, a branch arytenoideus is
of the vagus often considered
nerve (X) to be one muscle
with oblique and
transverse parts
transverse posterior surface posterior draws arytenoid inferior laryngeal br. the transverse
arytenoid of the arytenoid surface of the cartilages laryngeal of the arytenoid m.lies
cartilage contralateral together, nerve, from superior anterior to the
arytenoid adducting the recurrent thyroid a. oblique arytenoid
cartilage vocal folds laryngeal m.; the
nerve, a branch arytenoideus is
of the vagus often considered
nerve (X) to be one muscle
with oblique and
transverse parts
vocalis surface of the vocal ligament relaxes segments inferior laryngeal br. represents the
thyroid of the vocal laryngeal of the innermost fibers
cartilage, vocal ligament, thereby nerve, from the superior of the
process of the adjusting pitch recurrent thyroid a. thyroarytenoid
arytenoid laryngeal muscle; the
cartilage nerve, a branch cricothyroid m.
of the vagus grossly tenses the
nerve (X) vocal ligaments,
while the vocalis
muscle provides
the mechanism
for fine tuning
the vibrations of
the vocal folds
zygomaticus upper lateral skin of the elevates and zygomatic and transverse a "smile" muscle
major surface of the angle of the draws the corner buccal branches facial a.,
zygomatic bone mouth of the mouth of the facial facial a.
laterally nerve (VII)
zygomaticus lower surface of lateral part of elevates the buccal branch transverse a "smile" muscle
minor the zygomatic the upper lip upper lip of the facial facial a.,
bone nerve (VII) facial a.

Muscles of the Thoracic Region - Listed Alphabetically


Muscle Origin Insertion Action Innervation Artery Notes
diaphragm xiphoid process, central pushes the phrenic nerve musculophrenic left crus attaches to
costal margin, tendon of the abdominal (C3-C5) a., superior the L1-L2 vertebral
fascia over the diaphragm viscera phrenic a., bodies, the right crus
quadratus inferiorly, inferior phrenic a. attaches to the L1-L3
lumborum and increasing the vertebral bodies
psoas major mm. volume of the
(lateral & medial thoracic cavity
arcuate (inspiration)
ligaments),
vertebral bodies
L1-L3
external lower border of a upper border keeps the intercostal intercostal a. 11 in number; they
intercostal rib within an of the rib intercostal nerves (T1- extend from the
intercostal space below, space from T11) tubercle of the rib to
coursing, blowing out or the costochondral
downward sucking in junction; continuous
and medially during with the external
respiration intercostal
membrane anteriorly
innermost upper borders of fibers course keeps the intercostal intercostal a. innermost intercostal
intercostal a rib up and intercostal nerves (T1- mm. have the same
medially to space from T11) fiber direction as the
insert on the blowing out or internal intercostal
inferior sucking in mm., the only
margin of the during difference being that
rib above respiration they lie deep to the
intercostal
neurovascular
bundle
internal upper border of a lower border keeps the intercostal intercostal a. 11 in number; they
intercostal rib of rib above, intercostal nerves (T1- extend from the
coursing up space from T11) margin of the
and medially blowing out or sternum to the angle
sucking in of the rib;
during continuous
respiration posteriorly with the
internal intercostal
membrane
levatores transverse rib below its elevates the rib dorsal deep cervical a., these are fairly small
costarum processes C7- origin, primary rami intercostal aa. and insignificant
T11 medial to the of spinal muscles
angle nerves C7-
T11
subcostalis angle of ribs angle of a rib compresses the intercostal intercostal a. subcostalis,
2-3 ribs intercostal nerves transversus thoracis
above origin spaces & innermost
intercostal mm.
make up the deepest
intercostal muscle
layer
transversus posterior surface inner compresses the intercostal internal thoracic transversus thoracis,
thoracis of the sternum surfaces of thorax for nerves 2-6 a. subcostalis &
costal forced innermost intercostal
cartilages 2-6 expiration mm. make up the
innermost intercostal
muscle layer

Muscles of the Abdominal Region - Listed Alphabetically


Muscle Origin Insertion Action Innervation Artery Notes
cremaster inguinal forms thin elevates genital branch of cremasteric a., a the cremaster m. is
ligament network of testis (not the branch of the internal abdominal
muscle well genitofemoral inferior epigastric oblique muscle's
fascicles developed in nerve a. contribution to the
around the females) coverings of the
spermatic cord spermatic cord and
and testis (or testis; the
around the cremasteric reflex
distal portion may be elicited by
of the round stroking the
ligament of medial thigh
the uterus) (where the femoral
branch of the
genitofemoral n.
distributes
cutaneously)
dartos subcutaneous skin of the elevates postganglionic cremasteric a., the dartos elevates
connective scrotum and testis (tenses sympathetic posterior scrotal the testis in
tissue of the penis (or the skin of nerve fibers (labial) a. response to cold (it
scrotum and the labium majus the pudendal arriving via the is modified
penis (or labium and clitoris) region in the ilioinguinal arrector pili fibers,
majus and female) nerve and the or the goose-bump
clitoris) posterior scrotal muscles)
nerve
external lower 8 ribs linea alba, flexes and intercostal musculophrenic a., the inguinal
abdominal pubic crest & laterally nerves 7-11, superior epigastric ligament is a
oblique tubercle, bends the subcostal, a., intercostal aa. 7- specialization of
anterior trunk iliohypogastric 11, subcostal a., the external
superior iliac and ilioinguinal lumbar aa., abdominal oblique
spine & nerves superficial aponeurosis; the
anterior half of circumflex iliac a., external spermatic
iliac crest deep circumflex fascia is the
iliac a., superficial external
epigastric a., abdominal oblique
inferior epigastric muscle's
a., superficial contribution to the
external pudendal coverings of the
a. testis and
spermatic cord
interfoveolar transversus anterior compresses iliohypogastric inferior epigastric an inconstant part
abdominis lamina of abdominal and ilioinguinal a. of the transversus
fibers that lie femoral contents nerves abdominis m.
superficial to sheath, which may be
the inferior immediately replaced by a
epigastric distal to origin ligament
vessels of inferior (interfoveolar
epigastric ligament)
vessels
internal thoracolumbar lower 3 or 4 flexes and intercostal musculophrenic a., anterior fibers of
abdominal fascia, anterior ribs, linea laterally nerves 7-11, superior epigastric internal abdominal
oblique 2/3 of the iliac alba, pubic bends the subcostal, a., intercostal aa. 7- oblique course up
crest, lateral 2/3 crest trunk iliohypogastric 11, subcostal a., and medially,
of the inguinal and ilioinguinal lumbar aa., perpendicular to
ligament nerves superficial the fibers of
circumflex iliac a., external
deep circumflex abdominal
iliac a., superficial oblique; the
epigastric a., cremaster muscle
inferior epigastric and fascia is the
a., superficial internal abdominal
external pudendal oblique muscle's
a. contribution to the
coverings of the
testis and
spermatic cord
oblique, lower 8 ribs linea alba, flexes and intercostal musculophrenic a., the inguinal
external pubic crest & laterally nerves 7-11, superior epigastric ligament is a
abdominal tubercle, bends the subcostal, a., intercostal aa. 7- specialization of
anterior trunk iliohypogastric 11, subcostal a., the external
superior iliac and ilioinguinal lumbar aa., abdominal oblique
spine & nerves superficial aponeurosis; the
anterior half of circumflex iliac a., external spermatic
iliac crest deep circumflex fascia is the
iliac a., superficial external
epigastric a., abdominal oblique
inferior epigastric muscle's
a., superficial contribution to the
external pudendal coverings of the
a. testis and
spermatic cord
oblique, thoracolumbar lower 3 or 4 flexes and intercostal musculophrenic a., anterior fibers of
internal fascia, anterior ribs, linea laterally nerves 7-11, superior epigastric internal abdominal
abdominal 2/3 of the iliac alba, pubic bends the subcostal, a., intercostal aa. 7- oblique course up
crest, lateral 2/3 crest trunk iliohypogastric 11, subcostal a., and medially,
of the inguinal and ilioinguinal lumbar aa., perpendicular to
ligament nerves superficial the fibers of
circumflex iliac a., external
deep circumflex abdominal
iliac a., superficial oblique; the
epigastric a., cremaster muscle
inferior epigastric and fascia is the
a., superficial internal abdominal
external pudendal oblique muscle's
a. contribution to the
coverings of the
testis and
spermatic cord
psoas major bodies and lesser flexes the branches of the subcostal a., the genitofemoral
transverse trochanter of thigh; flexes ventral primary lumbar aa. nerve pierces the
processes of femur (with & laterally rami of spinal anterior surface of
lumbar iliacus) via bends the nerves L2-L4 the psoas major m.
vertebrae iliopsoas lumbar
tendon vertebral
column
psoas minor bodies of the iliopubic flexes & branches of the lumbar aa. absent in 40% of
T12 & L1 eminence at laterally ventral primary cases
vertebrae the line of bends the rams of spinal
junction of the lumbar nerves L1-L2
ilium and the vertebral
superior pubic column
ramus
pyramidalis pubis, anterior linea alba draws the subcostal nerve subcostal a., the pyramidalis m.
to the rectus linea alba inferior epigastric is not always
abdominis inferiorly a. present
quadratus posterior part of transverse laterally subcostal nerve subcostal a., the lateral arcuate
lumborum the iliac crest processes of bends the and ventral lumbar aa. ligament of the
and the lumbar trunk, fixes primary rami of diaphragm crosses
iliolumbar vertebrae 1-4 the 12th rib spinal nerves the anterior
ligament and the 12th L1-L4 surface of the
rib quadratus
lumborum m.
rectus pubis and the xiphoid flexes the intercostal superior epigastric rectus sheath
abdominis pubic process of the trunk nerves 7-11 and a. intercostal aa., contains rectus
symphysis sternum and subcostal nerve subcostal a., abdominis and is
costal inferior epigastric formed by the
cartilages 5-7 a. aponeuroses of
external and
internal oblique
and transversus
abdominis mm.
transversus lower 6 ribs, linea alba, compresses intercostal musculophrenic a., transversus
abdominis thoracolumbar pubic crest the abdomen nerves 7-11, superior epigastric abdominis muscle
fascia, anterior and pecten of subcostal, a., intercostal aa. 7- does not
3/4 of the iliac the pubis iliohypogastric 11, subcostal a., contribute to the
crest, lateral 1/3 and ilioinguinal lumbar aa., coverings of the
of inguinal nerves superficial spermatic cord and
ligament circumflex iliac a., testis; transversalis
deep circumflex fascia, the deep
iliac a., superficial fascia that covers
epigastric a., the inner surface
inferior epigastric of the transversus
a., superficial abdominis, forms
external pudendal the internal
a. spermatic fascia

Muscles of the Pelvis and Perineum - Listed Alphabetically


Muscle Origin Insertion Action Innervation Artery Notes
anal sphincter, perineal body encircles the constricts the inferior rectal inferior skeletal (voluntary)
external or central anal canal; anal canal nerves (from the rectal a. muscle, as contrasted
tendinous superficial pudendal nerve) with sphincter ani
point of the fibers attach to internus, which is
perineum the coccyx smooth (involuntary)
muscle; the external
anal sphincter is
considered part of the
pelvic diaphragm
anal sphincter, encircles the encircles the constricts the parasympathetic middle smooth muscle
internal anal canal anal canal anal canal fibers from S4 rectal a. (involuntary), as
contrasted with
sphincter ani
externus, which is
skeletal muscle
(voluntary)
bulbospongiosus, perineal body perineal compresses deep branch of perineal skeletal muscle
in female and fascia of membrane and the vestibular the perineal nerve a.
the bulb of corpus bulb and (from pudendal
the vestibule cavernosum of constricts the nerve)
the clitoris vaginal orifice
bulbospongiosus, central perineal compresses deep branch of perineal expels the last drops
in male tendinous membrane, the bulb of the the perineal nerve a. of urine from urethra;
point and the dorsal surface penis, (from pudendal expels semen during
midline raphe of the corpus compresses nerve) ejaculation
on the bulb of spongiosum, the spongy
the penis deep penile urethra
fascia
coccygeus ischial spine side of the elevates the branches of the inferior coccygeus and
coccyx and pelvic floor ventral primary gluteal a. levator ani combined
lower sacrum rami of spinal form the pelvic
nerves S3-S4 diaphragm
deep transverse medial contralateral fixes and deep branch of internal superficial and deep
perineus surface of the muscle and stabilizes the perineal nerve pudendal transverse perineus
ischial ramus perineal perineal from pudendal a. muscles are
body/central body/central nerve separated by the
tendinous point tendinous perineal membrane
point
detruser of smooth fascicles are compresses parasympathetic superior muscles in the neck
bladder muscle in the arranged the urinary nerve fibers from and of bladder must
wall of the roughly in three bladder the pelvic inferior contract and cause
urinary layers splanchnic nerves vesical the internal urethral
bladder (S2-S4 spinal aa. orifice to open before
cord levels) the detruser muscle
can void the bladder
iliococcygeus arcus anococcygeal elevates the branches of the inferior the combination of
tendineus raphe and the pelvic floor ventral primary gluteal a. puborectalis,
levator ani coccyx rami of spinal pubococcygeus and
and the nerves S3-S4 iliococcygeus is
ischial spine called the levator ani
m.
ischiocavernosus medial corpus compresses deep branch of perineal ischiocavernosus m.
surface of the cavernosum the corpus the perineal nerve a. is closely applied to
ischial and crus of the cavernosum (from pudendal the surface of the
tuberosity and penis/clitoris nerve) crus penis/clitoris
the
ischiopubic
ramus
levator ani posterior anococcygeal elevates the branches of the inferior the combination of
surface of the raphe and pelvic floor ventral primary gluteal a. puborectalis,
body of the coccyx rami of spinal pubococcygeus &
pubis, fascia nerves S3-S4 iliococcygeus is the
of the levator ani m.;
obturator coccygeus and
internus m. levator ani combined
(arcus form the pelvic
tendineus diaphragm
levator ani),
ischial spine
levator prostatae posterior fascia of the elevates the branches of the inferior levator prostatae is
aspect of the prostate prostate ventral primary gluteal a. part of the
pubis rami of spinal puborectalis m.
nerves S3-S4
pubococcygeus posterior coccyx elevates the branches of the inferior the combination of
aspect of the pelvic floor ventral primary gluteal a. puborectalis,
superior rami of spinal pubococcygeus and
pubic ramis nerves S3-S4 iliococcygeus is
called the levator ani
m.
puborectalis posterior unites with the draws the branches of the inferior the combination of
aspect of the puborectalis m. distal rectum ventral primary gluteal a. puborectalis,
body of the of other side forward and rami of spinal pubococcygeus and
pubis posterior to the superiorly; nerves S3-S4 iliococcygeus is
rectum aids in called the levator ani
voluntary m.
retention of
feces
pubovaginalis posterior fascia of the draws the branches of the inferior pubovaginalis is part
aspect of the vagina and vagina ventral primary gluteal a. of the levator ani
body of the perineal body forward and rami of spinal muscle
pubis superiorly nerves S3-S4
sphincter ani perineal body encircles the constricts the inferior rectal inferior skeletal (voluntary)
externus or central anal canal; anal canal nerves (from the rectal a. muscle, as contrasted
tendinous superficial pudendal nerve) with sphincter ani
point of the fibers attach to internus, which is
perineum the coccyx smooth (involuntary)
muscle; the external
anal sphincter is
considered part of the
pelvic diaphragm
sphincter ani encircles the encircles the constricts the parasympathetic middle smooth muscle
internus anal canal anal canal anal canal fibers from S4 rectal a. (involuntary), as
contrasted with
sphincter ani
externus, which is
skeletal muscle
(voluntary)
sphincter encircles the encircles compresses deep branch of internal skeletal muscle
urethrae, in urethra urethra and urethra and perineal nerve pudendal
female vagina; extends vagina from pudendal a.
superiorly nerve
along the
urethra as far as
the inferior
surface of the
bladder
sphincter encircles the encircles compresses deep branch of internal skeletal muscle
urethrae, in male urethra urethra, reaches urethra perineal nerve pudendal
lateral surface from pudendal a.
of prostate and nerve
inferior bladder
superficial medial contralateral fixes and deep branch of perineal superficial and deep
transverse surface of the muscle and the stabilizes perineal nerve a. transverse perineus
perineus ischial ramus perineal perineal from pudendal muscles are
body/central body/central nerve separated by the
tendinous point tendinous perineal membrane
point
transverse medial contralateral fixes and deep branch of internal superficial and deep
perineus, deep surface of the muscle and stabilizes the perineal nerve pudendal transverse perineus
ischial ramus perineal perineal from pudendal a. muscles are
body/central body/central nerve separated by the
tendinous point tendinous perineal membrane
point
transverse medial contralateral fixes and deep branch of perineal superficial and deep
perineus, surface of the muscle and the stabilizes perineal nerve a. transverse perineus
superficial ischial ramus perineal perineal from pudendal muscles are
body/central body/central nerve separated by the
tendinous point tendinous perineal membrane
point

Muscles of the Lower Limb - Listed Alphabetically


Muscle Origin Insertion Action Innervation Artery Notes
abductor digiti medial and lateral side of abducts the 5th lateral plantar lateral abductor digiti
minimi (foot) lateral sides of the base of the toe; flexes the nerve plantar a. minimi forms
the tuberosity proximal metatarsophalagea the lateral
of the phalanx of the l joint margin of the
calcaneus 5th digit sole of the foot
abductor hallucis medial side of medial side of abducts the great medial plantar medial abductor
the tuberosity the base of the toe; flexes the nerve plantar a. hallucis forms
of calcaneus proximal metatarsophalagea the medial
phalanx of the l joint margin of the
great toe sole of the foot
(hallux)
adductor brevis inferior pubic pectineal line adducts, flexes, anterior obturator anterior and
ramus and linea aspera and medially division of the a., deep posterior
(deep to the rotates the femur obturator nerve femoral a. divisions of the
pectineus and obturator nerve
adductor longus lie on the
mm.) anterior and
posterior
surfaces of
adductor brevis
adductor hallucis oblique head: lateral side of adducts the great deep branch of plantar the plantar
bases of base of the toe (moves it the lateral arterial arterial arch
metatarsals 2-4; proximal toward midline of plantar nerve arch passes superior
transverse phalanx of the the foot; to the oblique
head: heads of great toe i.e.toward the 2nd head of
metatarsals 3-5 digit) adductor
hallucis
adductor longus medial portion linea aspera of adducts, flexes, anterior obturator the most
of the superior the femur and medially division of the a., deep anterior of the
pubic ramus rotates the femur obturator nerve femoral a. adductor group
of muscles
adductor magnus ischiopubic linea aspera of adducts, flexes, posterior obturator the
ramus and the femur; the and medially division of the a., deep ischiocondylar
ischial ischiocondylar rotates the femur; obturator nerve; femoral a., part of
tuberosity part inserts on extends the femur tibial nerve medial adductor
the adductor (ischiocondylar (ischiocondylar femoral magnus is a
tubercle of the part) part) circumflex hamstring
femur a. muscle by
embryonic
origin and
action, so it is
innervated by
the tibial nerve
obturator adductor
gluteal ridge and a., medial minimus m. is
lower portion adducts and posterior
upper part of the femoral the uppermost
adductor minimus of the inferior laterally rotates division of the
linea aspera of circumflex fibers of the
pubic ramus the femur obturator nerve
the femur a., deep adductor
femoral a. magnus m.
articularis genu anterior surface articular capsule elevates the femoral nerve descending articularis genu
of the femur of the knee articular capsule genicular a. is formed by
above the of the knee joint muscle
patellar surface fascicles deep
to the vastus
intermedius m.
biceps femoris long head: head of fibula extends the thigh, long head: perforating one of the
ischial and lateral flexes the leg tibial nerve; branches of "hamstring"
tuberosity; condyle of the short head: the deep muscles
short head: tibia common fibular femoral a.
lateral lip of the (peroneal)
linea aspera nerve
dorsal interosseous shafts of bases of the abduct digits 2-4 deep branch of dorsal four in number;
(foot) adjacent proximal (move these digits the lateral metatarsal remember
metatarsal phalanges for away from plantar nerve aa. DAB (Dorsal
bones digit 2 (both midline as defined interossei
sides) & digits by a plane passing ABduct) and
3,4 (lateral side) through the 2nd PAD (Plantar
digit); flex the interossei
metatarsophalang ADduct), then
eal joints and logic can tell
extend the you where
interphalangeal these muscles
joints of those insert
digits
extensor digitorum superolateral extensor extends toes 1-4 deep fibular dorsalis the part of the
brevis surface of the expansion of (peroneal) pedis a. extensor
calcaneus toes 1-4 nerve digitorum
brevis that goes
to the great toe
is called the
extensor
hallucis brevis
m.
extensor digitorum lateral condyle dorsum of the extends the deep fibular anterior one of the
longus of the tibia, lateral 4 toes via metatarsophalang (peroneal) tibial a. muscles
anterior surface extensor eal, proximal nerve involved in
of the fibula, expansions interphalangeal anterior
lateral portion (central slip and distal compartment
of the inserts on base interphalangeal syndrome
interosseous of middle joints of the
membrane phalanx, lateral lateral 4 toes
slips on base of
distal phalanx)
extensor hallucis superolateral dorsum of base extends the great deep fibular dorsalis usually
brevis surface of the of proximal toe (peroneal) pedis a. considered to
calcaneus phalanx of the nerve be the medial-
great toe most part of
the extensor
digitorum
brevis m.
extensor hallucis middle half of base of the distal extends the deep fibular anterior one of the
longus the anterior phalanx of the metatarsophalang (peroneal) tibial a. muscles
surface of the great toe eal nerve involved in
fibula and the interphalangeal anterior
interosseous joints of the great compartment
membrane toe syndrome
fibularis lower one third tuberosity of the extends (plantar superficial fibular stress fracture
(peroneus) brevis of the lateral base of the 5th flexes) and everts fibular (peroneal) of the base of
surface of the metatarsal the foot (peroneal) a. the 5th
fibula nerve metatarsal
bone is a
common
runner's injury
fibularis upper after crossing extends (plantar superficial fibular fibularis longus
(peroneus) longus two/thirds of the plantar flexes) and everts fibular (peroneal) lies superficial
the lateral surface of the the foot (peroneal) a. to the fibularis
surface of the foot deep to the nerve brevis m. in the
fibula intrinsic lateral
muscles, it compartment
inserts on the of the leg
medial
cuneiform and
the base of the
1st metatarsal
bone
fibularis distal part of dorsum of the everts the foot deep fibular anterior fibularis tertius
(peroneus) tertius the anterior shaft of the 5th (peroneal) tibial a. is in the
surface of the metatarsal bone nerve anterior
fibula compartment
of the leg, not
the lateral
compartment
(which
contains
fibularis longus
and brevis)
flexor digiti base of 5th lateral side of flexes the lateral plantar lateral none
minimi brevis metatarsal bone base of proximal metatarsophalang nerve plantar a.
(foot) phalanx of 5th eal joint of the 5th
digit digit
flexor digitorum tuberosity of base of the flexes the medial plantar medial and flexor
brevis the calcaneus, middle phalanx metatarsophalang nerve lateral digitorum
plantar of digits 2-5 eal & proximal plantar aa. brevis in the
aponeurosis, after splitting to interphalangeal foot is
intermuscular allow passage of joints of digits 2-5 equivalent to
septae the flexor the flexor
digitorum digitorum
longus tendons superficialis m.
of the arm
flexor digitorum middle half of bases of the flexes the tibial nerve tibial a. flexor
longus the posterior distal phalanges metatarsophalang digitorum
surface of the of digits 2-5 eal, proximal longus in the
tibia interphalangeal leg is
and distal equivalent to
interphalangeal the flexor
joints of digits 2- digitorum
5; plantar flexes profundus m.
the foot of the arm
flexor hallucis cuboid, lateral medial belly: flexes the medial plantar medial each tendon of
brevis cuneiform, medial side of metatarsophalang nerve (lateral plantar a. insertion
medial side of proximal eal joint of the belly contains a
the first phalanx of the great toe occasionally sesamoid bone
metatarsal great toe; lateral receives
belly: lateral innervation
side of the from the lateral
proximal plantar nerve)
phalanx of the
great toe
flexor hallucis lower 2/3 of the base of the distal flexes the tibial nerve fibular flexor hallucis
longus posterior phalanx of the metatarsophalang (peroneal) longus is very
surface of the great toe eal and proximal a. and tibial important in
fibula interphalangeal a. the "push off"
joints of the great part of the
toe; plantar flexes normal gait
the foot
gastrocnemius femur; medial dorsum of the flexes leg; plantar tibial nerve sural aa. the calcaneal
head: above the calcaneus via the flexes foot (from the tendon of the
medial femoral calcaneal popliteal gastrocnemius
condyle; lateral (Achilles') a.), and soleus is
head: above the tendon posterior the thickest and
lateral femoral tibial a. strongest
condyle tendon in the
body
gemellus, inferior ischial obturator laterally rotates nerve to the inferior gemellus is a
tuberosity internus tendon the femur quadratus gluteal a. Latin word that
femoris m. means "little
twin"
gemellus, superior ischial spine obturator laterally rotates nerve to the inferior gemellus is a
internus tendon the femur obturator gluteal a. Latin word that
internus m. means "little
twin"
gluteus maximus posterior upper fibers: extends the thigh; inferior gluteal superior gluteus
gluteal line, iliotibial tract; laterally rotates nerve and inferior maximus is a
posterior lowermost the femur gluteal aa. site of
surface of fibers: gluteal intramuscular
sacrum and tuberosity of the injection
coccyx, femur
sacrotuberous
ligament
gluteus medius external surface greater abducts the femur; superior gluteal superior the angle at
of the ilium trochanter of the medially rotates nerve gluteal a. which the
between the femur the thigh gluteus medius
posterior and tendon
anterior gluteal approaches the
lines greater
trochanter of
the femur is
anterior to the
axis of rotation
of the thigh,
resulting in
medial rotation
gluteus minimus external surface greater abducts the femur; superior gluteal superior the angle at
of the ilium trochanter of the medially rotates nerve gluteal a. which the
between the femur the thigh gluteus
anterior and minimus
inferior gluteal tendon
lines approaches the
greater
trochanter of
the femur is
anterior to the
axis of rotation
of the thigh,
resulting in
medial rotation
gracilis pubic medial surface adducts the thigh, anterior obturator a. the pes
symphysis and of the tibia (via flexes and division of the anserinus is the
the inferior pes anserinus) medially rotates obturator nerve common
pubic ramus the thigh, flexes insertion of the
the leg gracilis,
sartorius, and
semitendinosus
mm.
iliacus iliac fossa and lesser trochanter flexes the thigh; if femoral nerve iliolumbar inserts in
iliac crest; ala of the femur the thigh is fixed a. company with
of sacrum it flexes the pelvis the psoas major
on the thigh m. via the
iliopsoas
tendon
iliopsoas iliac fossa; lesser trochanter flexes the thigh; branches of the iliolumbar a combination
bodies and of the femur flexes and ventral primary a. of the iliacus
transverse laterally bends the rami of spinal and psoas
processes of lumbar vertebral nerves L2-L4; major mm.
lumbar column branches of the
vertebrae femoral nerve
inferior gemellus ischial obturator laterally rotates nerve to the inferior gemellus is a
tuberosity internus tendon the femur quadratus gluteal a. Latin word that
femoris m. means "little
twin"
interosseous, shafts of bases of the abduct digits 2-4 deep branch of dorsal four in number;
dorsal (foot) adjacent proximal (move these digits the lateral metatarsal remember
metatarsal phalanges for away from plantar nerve aa. DAB (Dorsal
bones digit 2 (both midline as defined interossei
sides) & digits by a plane passing ABduct) and
3,4 (lateral side) through the 2nd PAD (Plantar
digit); flex the interossei
metatarsophalang ADduct), then
eal joints and logic can tell
extend the you where
interphalangeal these muscles
joints of those insert
digits
interosseous, base and bases of adduct digits 3-5 deep branch of plantar remember
plantar medial side of proximal (move these digits the lateral metatarsal PAD (Plantar
metatarsals 3-5 phalanges and toward the plantar nerve aa. interossei
extensor midline of the ADduct) and
expansions of foot as defined by DAB (Dorsal
digits 3-5 a plane through interossei
the second digit); ABduct), and
flex the logic will tell
metacarpophalang you where
eal and extend these muscles
interphalangeal must insert
joints of digits 3-5
lumbricals (foot) tendons of the medial side of flex the medial (1st) medial and the lumbricals
flexor the extensor metatarsophalang lumbrical: lateral of the foot
digitorum expansion of eal joint, extend medial plantar plantar aa. have the same
longus digits 2-5 the proximal nerve; lateral action on the
interphalangeal & three toes that the
distal lumbricals: lumbricals in
interphalangeal lateral plantar the hand have
joints of digits 2-5 nerve on the fingers
obturator externus the external trochanteric laterally rotates obturator nerve obturator a. the tendon of
surface of the fossa of the the thigh the obturator
obturator femur externus m.
membrane and passes inferior
the superior to the neck of
and inferior the femur to
pubic rami reach its
insertion site
obturator internus the internal greater laterally rotates nerve to the obturator a. the obturator
surface of the trochanter on its and abducts the obturator internus m.
obturator medial surface thigh internus m. leaves the
membrane and above the pelvis by
margin of the trochanteric passing
obturator fossa through the
foramen lesser sciatic
foramen; the
superior and
inferior
gemellus mm.
insert on the
obturator
internus tendon
pectineus pecten of the pectineal line of adducts, flexes, femoral nerve medial pectineus often
pubis the femur and medially and possibly femoral has a dual
rotates the thigh the anterior circumflex innervation
division of the a.
obturator nerve
peroneus mm. peroneus is the
(SEE fibularis old
mm.) terminology
used for the
fibularis mm.
piriformis anterior surface upper border of laterally rotates ventral rami of piriformis
of sacrum greater and abducts thigh S1-S2 leaves the
trochanter of pelvis by
femur passing
through the
greater sciatic
foramen
plantar base and bases of adduct digits 3-5 deep branch of plantar remember
interosseous medial side of proximal (move these digits the lateral metatarsal PAD (Plantar
metatarsals 3-5 phalanges and toward the plantar nerve aa. interossei
extensor midline of the ADduct) and
expansions of foot as defined by DAB (Dorsal
digits 3-5 a plane through interossei
the second digit); ABduct), and
flex the logic will tell
metacarpophalang you where
eal and extend these muscles
interphalangeal must insert
joints of digits 3-5
plantaris above the dorsum of the flexes the leg; tibial nerve popliteal a. plantaris has a
lateral femoral calcaneus medial plantar flexes the long slender
condyle (above to the calcaneal foot tendon that is
the lateral head tendon equivalent to
of the tendon of
gastrocnemius) the palmaris
longus m. of
the arm; its
tendon is often
called the
"freshman
nerve" because
it is often
misidentified
by the
freshman
medical
student
popliteus lateral condyle posterior surface flexes and rotates tibial nerve popliteal a. has a round
of the femur of the tibia the leg medially tendon of
above soleal line (with the foot origin;
planted, it rotates popliteus
the thigh laterally) unlocks the
knee joint to
initiate flexion
of the leg
psoas major bodies and lesser trochanter flexes the thigh; branches of the subcostal the
transverse of femur (with flexes & laterally ventral primary a., lumbar genitofemoral
processes of iliacus) via bends the lumbar rami of spinal aa. nerve pierces
lumbar iliopsoas tendon vertebral column nerves L2-L4 the anterior
vertebrae surface of the
psoas major m.
psoas minor bodies of the iliopubic flexes & laterally branches of the lumbar aa. absent in 40%
T12 & L1 eminence at the bends the lumbar ventral primary of cases
vertebrae line of junction vertebral column rams of spinal
of the ilium and nerves L1-L2
the superior
pubic ramus
quadratus femoris lateral border quadrate line of laterally rotates nerve to the inferior the nerve to the
of the ischial the femur below the thigh quadratus gluteal a. quadratus
tuberosity the femoris m. femoris m. also
intertrochanteric innervates the
crest inferior
gemellus m.
quadratus plantae anterior portion tendons of the assists the flexor lateral plantar lateral the quadratus
of the flexor digitorum digitorum longus nerve plantar a. plantae m.
calcaneus and longus m. in flexing the toes changes the
the long plantar line of force of
ligament the flexor
digitorum
longus m. to
bring it in line
with the long
axis of the foot
quadriceps femoris anterior surface tibial tuberosity extends the knee; femoral nerve lateral composed of 4
of the femur via the patellar rectus femoris circumflex muscles: rectus
and the anterior ligament flexes the thigh femoral a., femoris, vastus
side of the deep lateralis, vastus
medial and femoral a. intermedius
lateral and vastus
intermuscular medialis
septa
rectus femoris straight head: patella and tibial extends the leg, femoral nerve lateral rectus femoris
anterior inferior tuberosity (via flexes the thigh circumflex is part of the
iliac spine; the patellar femoral a. quadriceps
reflected head: ligament) femoris muscle
above the
superior rim of
the acetabulum
sartorius anterior medial surface flexes, abducts femoral nerve lateral sartorius means
superior iliac of the tibia (pes and laterally femoral "tailor"; its
spine anserinus) rotates the thigh; circumflex actions put the
flexes leg a., lower limb in
saphenous the traditional
a. cross-legged
seated position
of a tailor
semimembranosus upper, outer medial condyle extends the thigh, tibial nerve perforating one of the
surface of the of the tibia flexes the leg branches of "hamstring"
ischial the deep muscles
tuberosity femoral a.
semitendinosus lower, medial medial surface extends the thigh, tibial nerve perforating pes anserinus is
surface of of tibia (via pes flexes the leg branches of the common
ischial anserinus) the deep insertion for
tuberosity femoral a. the gracilis,
(common sartorius, and
tendon with semitendinosus
biceps femoris mm.
m.)
soleus posterior dorsum of the plantar flexes the tibial nerve posterior soleus,
surface of head calcaneus via the foot tibial a. gastrocnemius,
and upper shaft calcaneal and plantaris
of the fibula, (Achilles') mm. are
soleal line of tendon sometimes
the tibia called the
triceps surae
muscle
superior gemellus ischial spine obturator laterally rotates nerve to the inferior gemellus is a
internus tendon the femur obturator gluteal a. Latin word that
internus m. means "little
twin"
tensor fasciae latae anterior part of iliotibial tract flexes, abducts, superior gluteal superior tensor fascia
the iliac crest, and medially nerve gluteal a. latae redirects
anterior rotates the thigh the rotational
superior iliac forces of the
spine gluteus
maximus m.
tibialis anterior lateral tibial medial surface dorsiflexes and deep fibular anterior acts as both an
condyle and the of the medial inverts the foot (peroneal) tibial a. antagonist
upper lateral cuneiform and nerve (dorsiflexion/pl
surface of the the 1st antar flexion)
tibia metatarsal and a synergist
(inversion) of
the tibialis
posterior m.
tibialis posterior interosseous tuberosity of the plantar flexes the tibial nerve fibular acts as both an
membrane, navicular and foot; inverts the (peroneal) antagonist
posteromedial medial foot a. and tibial (dorsiflexion/pl
surface of the cuneiform, a. antar flexion)
fibula, metatarsals 2-4 and a synergist
posterolateral (inversion) of
surface of the the tibialis
tibia anterior m.
vastus intermedius anterior and patella extends the leg femoral nerve lateral vastus
lateral surface femoral intermedius is
of the femur circumflex part of the
a. quadriceps
femoris muscle
vastus lateralis lateral patella and extends leg femoral nerve lateral vastus lateralis
intermuscular medial patellar femoral is part of the
septum, lateral retinaculum circumflex quadriceps
lip of the linea a., femoris muscle
aspera and the perforating
gluteal branches of
tuberosity the deep
femoral a.
vastus medialis medial patella and extends leg femoral nerve lateral vastus medialis
intermuscular medial patellar femoral is part of the
septum, medial retinaculum circumflex quadriceps
lip of the linea a. femoris muscle
aspera