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How to Build a Microphone Amplifier

Last Updated on August 19, 2017 by Swag 20 Comments

In this article we are going to see how to build a microphone amplifier circuit with
operational amplifier LM324. This circuit can be used as good pre-amplifier for audio

By: Girish Radhakrishnan

The heart of the mic amplifier circuit is an op-amp LM324 which is quad op-amp
moulded in single IC. We are going to use one of them for our project. Readers can try
different op-amp such as IC 741 etc or IC LM321.

Microphone is a device which converts sound waves into electrical signals. But the raw
electrical signal from the microphone is not enough to process signals for your project.

A typical microphone used for hobby projects may give out approximately 0.02V peak
to peak signal, which is insufficient to detect by an IC or microcontroller. To produce
higher voltage signal, we would need an amplifier.
higher voltage signal, we would need an amplifier.

The major advantage of an op-amp based amplifier is that we can adjust the gain by
changing the specific resistor values.

The gain of the shown amplifier is given by:

Gain=1+ (R2/R1)

If we are connecting a headphone at the output, we need at least 2V peak to peak

signal in order to hear reasonable amount of sound. So, we need to amplify the given
signal by at least 100 times.

Output = 0.02V x 100 = 2V

The amount or the times by which you are going to amplify the input signal is called
gain. Here the gain is 100. It is a dimensionless value, hence there's no unit.


It is recommended to keep R1 value constant for beginners and change R2 value for
adjusting the gain.

Here we are keeping R1 value as 1K ohm and R2 as 100K ohm. Applying the gain
formula we get 100 as the result.

Gain= 1+ (100K/1K) = 101 (Gain)

So if you are going to connect something more powerful such as a small speaker, we
may need to increase the gain yet more.

Always remember, you cannot get something more from the nothing, therefore we
need to apply sufficient voltage at the input.

If you need a peak to peak 10V, you need to apply at least 12V; otherwise clipping
might occur at the output. This may not give good and clean sound output.

The proposed microphone amplifier circuit can amplify the input signal thousands of
time; this doesnt mean that you may drive a home theater speaker.

This circuit can merely output the current at mA range. If you need to drive those bulky
speakers you may need current greater than 1 ampere.

Pin Diagram:

Circuit diagram:

The power source is differential power supply, which consists of two 9V battery
coupled with capacitors for smooth and noise less power. 2.2uF capacitor is for
eliminating DC voltage entering the IC.

4.7K resistor helps powering the microphone. R1 and R2 is gain adjust resistor, you
may calculate your own values. 2.2uf capacitor at the output is to truncate DC
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Filed Under: Audio Projects, opamp, Uncategorized


John Cyran Lemoncito says

February 4, 2017 at 10:37 pm

Hi i tried doing this project but i don't get any output from the headphones.. I check the
connections and it is fine. Do you think the problem is with my lm324?


Swagatam says
February 5, 2017 at 1:08 pm

Hi, try connecting a 10K resistor between the non-inverting (+) input of the opamp and the
positive rail, see whether this helps or not.


Kesava Raj says

January 7, 2017 at 5:17 am
Very very Thank u sir


Kesava Raj says

January 6, 2017 at 4:12 pm

Output of this circuit mono. But in stereo amplifier there is 2 input.

If i connect in one channel only one spk will work.is there any circuit like mono to stereo
connection.otherwise shall i connect the single output same to both left and right it will make
any problem sir


Swagatam says
January 7, 2017 at 4:33 am

you can make two such circuits by using the other spare opamps inside LM324 for enabling
stereo connection


Kesava Raj says

January 6, 2017 at 4:08 pm

Shall i use 9.0.9v 500ma transformer to drive this circuit.

For using in 2.1 amplifier sir


Swagatam says
January 7, 2017 at 4:30 am

will do


Kesava Raj says

Kesava Raj says
January 6, 2017 at 4:03 pm

If any possible to make single power supply


Swagatam says
January 7, 2017 at 4:30 am

your previously linked circuit of mic preamp is good and can be used..single power supply can
be made using another opamp as shown below



Nagesh Nitore says

December 8, 2016 at 8:29 am

CONNECTED LM324 IC PIN NO.??????????


Sharoj Al Hasan says

June 22, 2016 at 8:15 am

sir i need A Circuit. That Can Relay On Every 30 Second. After 30 Second


Swagatam says
June 24, 2016 at 2:22 am

Sharoj, you can try a IC 4060 circuit for this.

Carrick Austin says
May 26, 2016 at 3:36 pm

thanks for great article


Swagatam says
May 26, 2016 at 4:15 pm

Our pleasure!


Mujahid Bhutta says

May 25, 2016 at 4:19 pm

I am going to make it tooday i hope it will be enough amlified to saturate the base of a


Swagatam says
May 26, 2016 at 11:05 am

sure..yes it will do.


Mujahid Bhutta says

May 25, 2016 at 4:02 am

OWSUM ckt SIR!!!! just one confusion that should i connect gnd's of microphone,output and R1 to
the gnd b/w that two 9V batteries ?


Swagatam says
Swagatam says
May 25, 2016 at 11:39 am

thanks Mujahid,

yes it needs to be connected to ground which is the junction between the (+) and (-) of the two


Sharoj Al Hasan says

May 23, 2016 at 4:55 am

Sir What Is Input voltage???

Where the Microphone Input ???


Swagatam says
May 25, 2016 at 3:27 am

The 9V 0 9V is the supply input, and the MIC is the microphone input


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