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LINEN ROOM: This is the room where current linen is stored for issue and
receipt. The room should be large, airy and free from heat and humidity. It
should have adequate shelves, easily accessible, to stack all linen. The linen
room should have a counter across which the exchange of linen takes place. The
room should preferably be adjoining the laundry so that the supply of linen to
and from laundry is quick and smooth. Only authorized personal working in the
linen room should be permitted to enter it.
Linen Room Activity: The following activities are carried out in a linen room
Collection of soiled linen
Collecting and sorting of soiled linen
Packing of soiled linen for the laundry
Dispatch of soiled linen to the laundry
Receipt of fresh linen from the laundry
Checking and sorting of fresh linen
Storage of fresh linen
Distribution of fresh linen to the floors and the other areas
Stock taking for linen and maintenance of records
Stitching ,repairing and monogramming of all hotel linen a uniforms
storage And issue.
Discarding of unusable linen


The linen room supervisor reports to the assistant house keeper supervises
the work of the linen room and may have several attend to assist his in
providing clean, presentable linen through the house.
attendants report to the linen room supervisor
He is responsible for sorting all the sheets, pillow cases, towels, table
clothes, napkins, and so on into separate stacks.
Issue clean linen on a clean for soiled basis.
Place soiled linen in containers and send to these the laundry.
Examine and count each item when they are sent to the laundry and again
in their return.
Send torn articles to the seamstress for repair.
Maintain proper records of discards and determine the percentage of
This room stocks the uniforms in current use. It is possible that smaller hotels
may choose to combine the uniform Room with the Linen Room. A separate
uniform room really depends on the volume of uniforms in circulation. The only
difference would be that the uniform room would have adequate hanging
facilities as many uniforms are best maintained when hung.

In uniform room supervisor reports to the assistant housekeeper .he is

responsible for the maintenance of the hotel staff uniform .

Duties & responsibilities:

Be responsible for providing clean ,serviceable uniform to hotel staff

Keep an inventory control of the various uniforms in various stages of
uses such as when sorted ones are handed over (or) which are being
washed (or) dry cleaned
Set the budget for the procurement of the additional material for staff

A uniform room attendant reports to the uniform room supervisor. He/she is in

actual contact with the staff for the issue of uniforms.

Issue clean uniforms while receiving soiled ones.

Send soiled uniforms for laundering.
Examine the laundered items to ensure cleanliness and
Send torn uniforms to the seamstress for mending.
Keep a count of uniforms.
Shelve laundered after verifying the types of articles.
Count and record linen to fill requisitions.


The laundry can be defined as a place where the washing and

finishing of clothes and other washable articles are carried out.

The cost of linen and its laundering is so high that it is sensible for
anyone responsible for linen to know a little of the work done in a laundry. It is
an advantage if the housekeeper and (or) the linen keeper visits the laundry so
that misunderstandings may be prevented and good co-operation ensured .


In any residential establishment, a lot of dirty linen accumulates in the

various units and departments. It is essential to ensure a continuous supply of
linen, which is well laundered, so that operations can be carried out smoothly
and efficiently. Linen is an expensive item, so how it will be laundered requires
serious consideration. People involved in handling linen should have some
knowledge of the process. Moreover, the Housekeeper and Linen keeper should
have a good rapport with the Laundry Manager. Although it is essential that
good quality linen be purchased, the life of the linen depends on the care of
linen in use and the treatment it gets at the laundry.

A good laundry facility ensures the following:

- Careful handling of linen articles while laundering.
- correct processing and use of a suitable laundry agent.
- While materials are kept white, excessive bleach is not used.
- Proper counting and records maintained to avoid shortages of linen.
- Speedy operations to meet with operational requirements.

WASHING MACHINES: Those used in hotel laundries are typically of the

tumbler type. Their capacities typically vary from 7 to 200 kg. The wash barrels
of those used in hotels are usually of stainless steel. Machines with a capacity of
100kg or more generally have a drum that has two or three compartments.
These are also referred to as tunnel washing machines.

HYDRO EXTRACTORS: These are large centrifuges, ranging in capacity

from 7 to 70 kg. The basket is made of stainless steel. They are electrically
operated. Clothes from the washer are put into a hydro- extractor to removed
about 50-80 percent of the excess water.

DRYERS: These are units of tumbler-type equipment meant to remove

moisture from damp, tightly packed linen ( that have come out of hydro-
extractor) by tumbling them in a rotating cylinder through which heated air

FLAT BED PRESSES: These are available in various sizes and can be heated
by electricity or steam. A foot control helps in operating the press. Some are
available as twin presses and rotate from front to back horizontally. An article
of linen is put under one press and then this is sent behind while another article
is put under the press.

STEAM PRESSES: This equipment uses steam and heat to press the cloths.
The neatly folded cloths are sandwiched between two plated, one plate referred
to as the head which gets hot and the other plate referred to as buck through
which steam is passed.

CALENDERING MACHINES: These are large presses meant primarily for

bed sheets, bedcovers, table cloths, and similar articles. They consist of a series
of rollers in pairs, connected by a number of narrow conveyor belts. The speed
of the rollers is adjustable. The sheets are fed in manually.

FOLDING MACHINES: folding machines do not fold the linen as such, but
aid the worker in doing so. The machines hold down one end of the linen to be
folded so that the worker can fold it more easily.

CARTS, TROLLEYS: These are used for the transfer of linen from the
laundry to the linen room and from the linen room to the pantries, and so on.
Linen carts and trolleys may be made of aluminum or steel.

stains are one of the greatest challenges to a housekeeper. Stains
are inevitable in any operation and a housekeepers expertise is judged by her
ability to remove stains of varying types. The process of removing stains is
called spotting.

Good spotting equipment can be obtained at quite a moderate outlay and

it will amply repay its cost in speeding up spotting operations of stains in
addition to creating an excellent standard of work.
Classification of stain:

All stains fall under three categories:

Absorbed stains:- These are caused by staining agents which are thin in
consistency and penetrate the fabric easily. Such stains are soft and pliable,
except where fair amounts of sugars and syrups are present, when some
stiffening will be noticed. Beverages of all types, i.e. beer, tea, coffee, coca
cola, and medicines such as cough mixtures are few of the causes of this type of

Built-up stains:- These are caused by liquids which fail to penetrate the fabric
and lie on the fabric surface. Stains of this nature are diverse such as paint,
distemper, tar, sealing wax, lacquers, glues and resinous compounds.

Compound stains:- These are a combination of the previous two types as they
both penetrate the fabric and leave a built-up residue on the surface of the
material. Such stains are found to be of medium stiffness and never quite hard
or soft and pliable. Blood stains are a good example on this type of stain.

For identification of stains the following are useful guides:

Sight:- By this method classification will be quickly observed, i.e. absorbed,

built-up or compound.

Odor:- By the small emitted especially if the stain is given a light steaming,
perfumes, disinfectants and other aromatic stains can be recognized.

Color:- A few of the color stains which help in identification are bright yellow
which is often a sign of medicinal stains.
Reds can be associated with inks, paints and dye-stuffs; blues with
paints, inks and dye-stuffs; black for tar, inks, paints, heavy red oil; and green
for ink, paints or dye-stuffs.
Feel:- It is of considerable help in establishing the origin of stains, as stiffness
denotes the presence of oxidized oils, varnish, sugars and starches. Sugar and
starch turn white when subjected to the treatment of scratching the stains.

Location:- This helps to pinpoint the cause of the trouble. Perfume stains will
usually be located on the lapels of garments and some cases under the arms.

Condition Fabric Method of Removal

Tea, coffee, cocoa

(A)Fresh White cotton and linen Pour boiling water

through at once. Wash
and boil.

Steep immediately in
All other fabrics. warm water wash.

(B)Dry White cotton and linen 1. Steep in glycerin


2. Spread borax on
stain and pour boiling
water through.

3. Bleach with
household bleach.

1. Steep in glycerin
Unbleached and
2. Steep in hot solution
colored cotton and of borax.
3. Fast dyed fabrics
may be treated
carefully with diluted
household bleach.

1. Steep in a warm
solution of borax.

2. Steep in a warm

Other fabrics. hydrogen peroxide or

sodium per borate

Condition Fabric Method of Removal

Fruit and wine stain

(A)Fresh White cotton and linen Cover stain with salt.

Pour boiling water
through. Wash boil.

All other fabrics. Steep in warm water.

(B)Dry White cotton and linen 1. Spread borax on

stain and pour boiling
water through.

2. Treat with liquid

household bleach.

1. Steep in warm
hydrogen peroxide
All other fabrics.

2. Steep in warm
solution of sodium per

Mildew. This is formed by the growth of a fungus on damp fabric.

Condition Fabric Method of Removal

White cotton and linen 1. Bleach by sunlight.

2. Treat with liquid

household bleach.

1. Bleach with
All other fabrics
hydrogen peroxide.

1. Steep in glycerin.
Glass stain All fabrics
2. Steep in surgical
methylated spirit to
remove all the green
coloring (chlorophyll)

1. Sleep in enzyme stain


Blood and all protein All washable fabric 2. Steep in cold water
strains and salt.

Proportion: 1.
Tablespoonful to 1

Cover stain with paste

of starch and cold

1. Steep in enzyme stain

Un washable fabrics

2. Bleach in sunlight.

3. Treat with liquid

White cotton and linen household bleach.

1. Steep in enzyme stain


2. Wash

3. Bleach according to
All other fabrics

Iron rust: This is caused by the formation of ferric oxide on the fabric. It is
removed by the action of an acid which forms a soluble iron salt with the oxide.
Iron-rust stains should be removed before the fabric is wetted as dampness
spreads the stain. Liquid household bleach fixes the stain so must never be used.

Condition Fabric Method of Removal

Iron rust stain White cotton and linen 1. spread salts of lemon
over the stain, pour
boiling water through.

2. use commercial rust

remover, following
instructions carefully.

1. Steep in warm
solution of salts of
All other fabrics
2. Use commercial rust

Ink: writing ink generally contains a metal and a dye, hence two treatments are
necessary: treatment with acid to act on the iron and with an alkaline solution to
neutralize the acid and remove the dye.
Condition Fabric Method of Removal

(black ink)

(A)Fresh White cotton and linen Wash out as much as


1. speard salts or lemon

over the stain, pour
boiling water through

2. Treat with borax if

washing is not to be
done immediately.

3.treat with commercial

ink remover followed
by borax solution.

1. Wash out as much as


2. Spread tomato juice

over stain. Leave one
hour. Rinse and wash.
All other fabrics
3. Cover the stain with
salt and steep for one
hour in lemon juice.

(B)Dry All fabrics. 1. Treat with alternate

solutions of lemon juice
and borax.

2. Treat with
commercial ink

Red ink: This stain washes out unless made with a persistent dye.

Condition Fabric Method of Removal

All fabric 1. Steep in borax


2. Steep in ammonia

3.bleach according of

Marketing ink: This stain is difficult to remove and should be treated when

Condition Fabric Method of Removal

All fabrics 1. Steep in iodine

solution followed by
steeping in a solution of
sodium thiosulphate.
2. Bleach according to

Condition Fabric Method of Removal

Ball pen ink All fabrics Saturate a pad of

cotton wool with
surgical spirit or with
grease solvent. Work
with pad over the stain
to absorb the ink into
the pad.

Condition Fabric Method of Removal

Iodine All fabrics 1. Steep in ethyl


2. Steep in sodium
thisulphate solution.

Condition Fabric Method of Removal

Medicine All fabrics Steep in ethyl alcohol

or surgical spirit.

Condition Fabric Method of Removal

Laundry blue All fabrics Steep in a warm
solution of acetic acid
or vinegar.

1tablespoonful to 1 pint.

Condition Fabric Method of Removal

Dye All fabrics Bleach according to

fabric. Reducing
bleaches are often most

Condition Fabric Method of Removal

Paints All fabrics 1. Paints made with

linseed oil should be
steeped in turpentine.

2. Cellulose paints
should be steeped in a
grease solvent.

3. Varnish lacquer
paints will dissolve in
methylated spirits.

4. Some paints have a

special point remover.
Chewing gum: As this has a rubber base it is very difficult to remove.

Condition Fabric Method of Removal

A benzene-based grease
remover may have
some effect.

Otherwise treat with


Scorch: The fibers of the material are burned in this case but a mild scorch
stain may be reduced by bleaching.

Condition Fabric Method of Removal

All fabrics Sunlight bleach. Bleach

according to fabric.

Condition Fabric Method of Removal

Grease stains

(A)solid All fabric 1. scrape off as much as

possible. Place stain
over absorbent paper.
Place a moderately hot
iron on top.

Work from outside of

stain to centre.
Continue until paper
has absorbed the stain.

(B)liquid Cottons and linen Wash with hot water

and a detergent.
(including fish oils) Other fabrics
When hot water cannot
be used the stain should
be treated with grease
solvent before washing

1. cover the stain with

French chalk, leave for
some time to absorb
Un washable fabrics grease.

2. Treat with a safe

grease solvent.

Condition Fabric Method of Removal

Lipstick, grease-paints All fabrics Treat fabric with a

grease solvent.

Remove remaining
stain with bleach
suitable for the fabric.
Nail varnish: This usually contains acetone or amylacetate.

Condition Fabric Method of Removal

Cotton and linen and Remove with varnish

all fabrics except remover. Acetone and
acetate and triacetate. amyl acetate are both
injurious to acetates so
much not be used on
these fabrics.

Condition Fabric Method of Removal

Furniture polish All fabrics 1.wash

2.treat with grease

solvent or dry cleaning

Flowers arrangement principle, pattern and material:

In hotels flowers are used extensively there may be large arrangements of

flowers in the foyer and in lounges and restaurant as well as smaller
arrangement in the suite sore hotel provide a bud wise in every room. VIP room
may even have more than one arrangement.

Flower arrangement may be defined as they are of organizing the flower,

other plant material and roe plates into compositions having harmony of form,
texture and colour.

The basic principle to be follow:

Back ground
Rhythm (or) movement

Proportion: Good proportion means of size of each element container, plant

material base accessories should result in a pleasing harmonious appearance.

Back ground: The arrangement may have good style and proportion, but if the
back ground (or) setting in which it has been placed is unsuitable it may lose it

Texture: Plant material comes in various textures, glassy velvety, dull prickly
and so on. It is up to the still of the arranger how combines texture to achieve
beauty in arrangement.

Balance: Hence physical as well as visual balance needs to be considered

Physically balance
Visual balance

Rhythm (or) movement: This involves using techniques and materials that guide
the eye from one part of the display to another using covered stems.

Hiding all (or) pan of any tall, straight stems.

Placing flowers in and out through the.

Colour: This is one of the first things and noticed when we look at a flowers
arrangement colour is a matter of personal taste, but the application of some
general rules in arrangements.

Emphasis (or) Dominance: This involves having one or more areas in the
arrangement to which the eye is drawn and which it rests for a short.

MATERIALS REQUIRED: The materials used for making flower

arrangement are not necessary expensive (or) elaborate (compared to other
crafts) but as with all other crafts they are necessity. The following groups of
ingredients and aids are essential to flower.

Mechanizes - Accessories
Equipment - Plant material
Containers - support
1. Mechanizes: These are items used to keep the flowers, foliage and stems
in place within a container.
2. Flora form: This is also called Oasis it is a cellular plastic material and
few plants such as tulips find water intake difficult when set in form.
3. Green foam: This need to be soaked in water for at least half an hour and
then fresh plant material may be incented into it.
4. Chicken wire: This is also called wire mash or wire netting an fine gauge
wire should be selected to begin with mash may be brought.
5. Pin-holders: These are also called kenzon (or) needle-poir holders.
6. Equipment: Bucket, florists, scissors, watering can floral tape, wire ,
knife, candle holder, cocktail stick, cut flower preservation container vase
and jug, basket.


styles in flowers arrangement and new ones are constantly being added as
this is now a profession and

Based on the angled

Based on the space present in the arrangement.
Based on the type of plant material used.
Based on the effect.

BASED ON THE ANGLE: On the basis of the angle from which a flower
arrangement is viewed it can be classified as:

1. All around arrangement: This arrangement to be seen from all sides and is
therefore chosen for a table or a room center piece.
2. Facing arrangement: It also called the flat back arrangement and is
designed to be seen only from the front, therefore chosen for placement
on sideboard not too close to the wall.
3. Based on the space present in the arrangement: On the basis of space
present arrangement
4. Mass arrangement: Little or no enclose within the boundary of the
arrangement this arrangement in an all around one and line material is
used to create a Skelton the frame work is more or less covered with
flower and other plant material. Colour, shapes, and other features of
neighbor bloom tend to blend together rather than stand out in sharp
5. Line arrangement: In this style open spaces within the boundary of the
arrangement most of the display line material the line concept originated
in the bust and ruler the basic feature of line design is limited used of
plant materials the design is important and the any spaces contained with
the frame line material are vital to the overall effect of the display.
6. Ikebana: The word literally means making flower live in Japanese. This
style has been practiced for thousands of years these arrangements are
more than aesthetic grouping of plant materials. They are symbolic
representations of an ideal harmony that exists between earth and eternal
life. In each arrangement there is an imaginary triangle.
7. Line mass style: In this style some open space is present within the
boundary at the arrangement only parts of the area between the frame
works of line material is filled with leaves and flowers.