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2011
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,

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. . .

64 ,
.
,
.
,
.

. ., . ., . . .
: ,
. .: . . , 2011. 100 .

-
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( 7 06.09.2011 )


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. ., . ., . .

( M O R P H O L O G Y ) ...
1. (Parts of Speech)
(NOUN)...
2.
(Definition of Nouns Gender according
to Final Letters)..
3. (Cases)..
4. * (Noun Declension)...
5. (Endings of Nouns)
6. . .
* (Nouns Endings of Nom. and Gen. Pl.)...
7.
(Genitive Meaning Attribute and Attitude)
8. (?) (? ?) (?)
(? ?) ,
(onstruction (?) (? ?) (?) (? ?)
in Present, Past and Future)...
9.
() (The Main Meanings
of Noun Oblique Cases (Generalization))..
? ?.........................................................
? ?...........................................................
? ?.........................................................
? ?.........................................................
/, ? /, ?...................................
(ADJECTIVE)...
10.
(Adjective Endings in Nom.)....
11. ()
(Adjective Declension (Questions))...
12.
(Models of All Groups Adjective Declension).
13.
(Cases Endings of Nouns and Adjectives)...
14.
(Formation of Adverbs from Adjectives)..
15.
(Formation of Adjective
and Adverb Degrees of Comparison)
(NUMERAL)..
16. ( )
(ardinal Numerals (Structure of Word)).
17.
(ardinal and Ordinal Numerals)..
18.
(Declension of ardinal Numerals)...
j ...
k 1 (, , , )...
l 2 ( / )...
m 3, 4 (, )..
n 5-20, 30 ( , )..
o 40, 90, 100 (, , ).
p 5080 ( )
q 200900 ( ).
(PRONOUN)...
19. (Types of Pronouns)...
20. *
(Personal and Reflexive Pronouns Declension).
21. (Possessive Pronouns).
22.
(Possessive Pronouns Declension)
23. ,
(Declension of Demonstrative
Pronouns , and Universal Pronoun ).
24.
(Usage of Personal and Reflexive Pronoun ).
25. ,
()
(Cases Endings of Nouns, Adjectives and Pronouns (Generalization)).
(VERB).
26. I II
(The Endings of Verbs of the First and the Second Conjugations)...
27. ,
(Conjugation, Accent Type and Verb Government)..
28. (Conjugation of Verbs
and )
29.
(Imperative Formation)..
30. (Verb Aspects)..
31. ()
(Main Meanings of Verb Aspects (Scheme))....
32.
(Meanings of Perf. and Imperf.)
33.

(Usage of Perf. and Imperf. for Designation of Simultaneous
and Successive Actions)....
34.
(Temporal Forms of Perf. and Imperf.).
35.
( ) (Forms of Perf. and Imperf. (Indicative)).
36. * (Aspect Pairs of Verbs).
(Verbs of Movement (Motion))
37. -, -
(The Meaning of Verbs without Prefixes -,
-)...
38. -, -
- - (The Meaning of Verbs -,
- with Prefixes - and -)...
39. (Verbs of Movement
(Motion) with Prefixes)..
40. - - (Verbs of
Movement (Motion) with Prefixes - and -).
41. I II
(The I and II Groups of Verbs of Movement (Motion) without Prefixes).
42.
(The Verbs of Motion Prefixes and Corresponding
Prepositions)..
43. (Prefixes-antonyms)
44.
(The Meanings of Perf. and Imperf. Verbs of Motion with Prefixes)...
45.
(Active and Passive Voice)
46.
(Formation of Active Participles)..
47. ( + . .)
(Formation of Passive Participles).
48.
(Synonymy of Sentences
with Participles and Sentences with Pronon )
49.
(Formation of Adverbial Participles and Their Use in Speech).
50.
(Synonymy of Sentences
with Adverbial Participles and ompound Sentences)..
(PREPOSITION)..
51. * (Russian Prepositions).
52.
(Prepositions and Their Collocability with Cases)
53.
(Antonym and Synonym Prepositions)..
(TIME AND SPACE)
(Designation of Time)...
54.
j (Months)...
k (Days of Week)..
55. ? ? (How Long Time?)...
56. , : , ,
* (Season, Month: Noun, Adverb, Adjective).
57. ? (What's time?)..
58. (Expression of Time)
59.
(? ? ? ? ?)* (Words for Designation of Place
and Direction (What? Where? Which way? Where from? What?))..
60.
( )
(Designation of Direction and Place).
..
61.
(Compound Sentences with Pronoun )...
62.
(Compound Sentences of Cause and Consequence)..
(Direct and Indirect Speech)
63.
(Punctuation Marks of Direct Speech)...
64.
(Transformation of Direct Speech into Indirect Speech)...
j
(Direct Speech is Interrogative Sentence
with Interrogative Word)..
k
(Direct Speech is Interrogative Sentence
without Interrogative Word).
l
(Direct Speech is Statement).
m
(Direct Speech is Sentence with Imperative)

1
(Parts of Speech)
Part of Speech Questions
? Noun Who?
? What?
? ? Adjective What?
? Whose?
? Numeral / How many?
Number How much?
? Which?
? ? Pronoun Who? What?
? ? What?
? Whose?
? How many?
How much?
? Which?
? Verb
?
? Adverb How?
? When?
? Where?
?
? Why?
? .
Preposition
Conjunction
Particle
Interjection
(NOUN)
2

(Definition of Nouns Gender according to Final Letters)
1. (vowel)
) -, - 1)
(person according to sex):
. ,
. ,
2) - . , ,
) -, - . ,
) - . ,
2. (consonant)
) - .
-
-
-
- .
-
-
-
)
. , ,
(hard)
- . ,
.
(soft)
. ,
(-)

3
(Cases)
1. . ? ?
2. . ? ?
3. . ? ?
4. . ? ?
5. . ? ?
6. . (//) ? (//)
4
1
* (Noun Declension)

. . . . . . . . . . . .

? ? ? ? ? (/, ) ? ? ? ? ? (/, )
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
? ?
1 .



.
2 .





.


3 .

.

1
, *, .
5
(Endings of Nouns)

. . . . . . . . . . . .
(/, ) (/, )

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
? ?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
? ?
1 . ? / - - -
? -,
-, - - - - - - -
. ? - - - = ./.
- - - - - -
- - -
2 . ? / -t1 - -, - -
? - ,
- , - / - -
- ,
- - - - - - -
-
- - -/-
= ./. = ./.
. ? - -
- -
-
. ? / - - - -
? - -/ -
- - - - - - - - -
. ? - - - -

1
t , , , , , .
- - -

. . . . . . . . . . . .
(/, ) (/, )

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
? ?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
? ?
3 . ? / - - - -
? - ,
- , - - - - - - - = ./ - -
= .
- ,
-
. ? - - - - - - - - = . - -
6
. . *
(Nouns Endings of Nom. and Gen. Pl.)
. . . . . . . . . . . .
.













.









.













!
.





7

(Genitive Meaning Attribute and Attitude)
.-. .
. + .

? ?

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
( possessive) ( attitude, relation)

. . . .
(?) (?) (?) (?)

. . . .
(?) (?) (?) (?)
8
(?) (? ?) (?) (? ?)
,
(onstruction (?) (? ?) (?) (? ?)
in Present, Past and Future)

: . . . .
(?) (? ?)?

: + . . . .
(?) (? ?).

. . . .
(?) (? ?).
( < )
9
()
(The Main Meanings of Noun Oblique Cases (Generalization))
? ?

1. ? /
. ?
( ) . ?
?
. ? /
?
.
2. . ? / /
(, . ?
- - - - /
) . ? -
3. / /
- . ? =
?
4. - + +
( . ? (
?)
,
, . ?
)
5. . ? + +
?
().
!.. ? +
6. , ; ? + ?
(, ;
, , ;
)
7. , . ? = /
? /
? , ,
,

8. . ? +
/
9. , ? , , / +
. = + ,
?
?
.
10. , , , + ,
. ? ( , /
?)
11. , -, + + /
. ? ( , - ,
?)
12. ? + +
.

. ( )?
13. ? + + +
. . .
?
.
14. . ? , + + /
. + . .
? ?

1. / + +
. ? /

. ?
2. 20 . 20 ? /
?
3. . ?
. ?
4. . ? / ;
, ? / +
/ . (.)

5. + /
, . ? / /
,

6. . ? + ?
. ?
,

7. + +
. ? /

8. / +
?
,
?
() ? + ()
9. + +
. ?
10. , . ? , +
. () + /
? ,

. ()
?
.
() ?
11. ? / + +
.
?
12. , ? + +
,
.

? ?

1. . ? + +
. ? + +
2. ? , +
. + /

.
3. , , +
( . ?


)
4. ( / + +
. )
, ?

. ?

. ?
56 ?
.
5. + + /
. ?
6. / + +
. ?
? ?

1. +
. ? () + + / ?

. ?
2. / + +
. ?
3. / + /
. ? +
?
.
4. ? () / + /
. ( /
?) +
/ ?
5. () +
. ? ( + ?

?)
6. ? + - +
() . /
7. . ? / + +
? /
.
/, ? /, ?

1. , / / + c /
. ? + /

. ?
2. , / + +
? /
.
3. (), , / + + /
. ? / +
4. ()

. ?
5. () / + + +
- . ?

6. (), +
. ? + /
7. ? / + +
.
8. ( + +
) (
? )
.
( A D J E C T I V E )
10
*
(Adjective Endings in Nom.)

. . . . . . . .



? ? ? ?

1 - - - -
I.





2 - - - -



3 -, -, - - - - -




4 -, -, - - - -
-, -



5 - - - -
II.




6 -, -, - - - - -



7 -, - - - - -


11
()
(Adjective Declension (Questions))

. ? ? ? ?
. ? ? ?
. ? ? ?
. ? (= .) / ? ? ? (= .)
? (= .) / ? (= .)
. ? ? ?
. (//) ? (//) ? (//) ?

12

(Models of All Groups Adjective Declension)

. .
. .

1 .
.
.
. / /
.
. (, , ) (, , ) (, , )
2 .
.
.
. / /
.
. (, , ) (, , ) (, , )
3 .
.
.
. / /

.
. (, , ) (, , ) (, , )
4 .
.
.
. / /

.
. (, , ) (, , ) (, , )
5 .
.
.
. / /

.
. (, , ) (, , ) (, , )
6 .
.
.
. / /
.
. (, , ) (, , ) (, , )
7 .
.
.
. / /

.
. (, , ) (, , ) (, , )

13
(Cases Endings of Nouns and Adjectives)
. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . .
. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
-, - , - -, - -, -
-, -, - -, - - -, - - -, - -, -, -, -
-
-, - - -
. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
-, - -, - -, -
-, - - -, - - -, - - -, - -, -, -,

-, - - -
. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
-, - - -, -
-, - - -, - - -, - - -, - -, -
- - -
. ? / ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?/ ? ? ?
= . / . -, -
= . / . = . / . -, - - -, - = . = . / . = . / .
-, - = .
. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
-, -, - -, - -, -
-, - - -, - - -, - - -, - -, -
-, - - -
. ? (/, ) ? ? (/, ) ? ? (/, ) ? ? (/, ) ?
? ? ? ?
- - -
-, - - -, - - -, - - -, - -, -
- - -
14

(Formation of Adverbs from Adjectives)
, (?)

- - + -, -/-
(? ? ? ?
? ? ? ?)






-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
15

(Formation of Adjective and Adverb Degrees of Comparison)



(superlative)
(comparative)


(superlative)
()

--/- -, Comp. +
+ -, -, -
- - + - /
,
-


,
-
,
-










,






(?) -
(?) (?)
- (?) (?) .
. ,
. . . (?)

.


(?)
(?) .
, (?) (?)
. !


.
(NUMERAL)
16
( )
(ardinal Numerals (Structure of Word))
0 10
1 , , 11 - 100
,
2 , 12 - 20 - - 200
3 13 - 30 - 300 - -
4 14 - 40 400 -
5 15 - 50 - 500 -
6 16 - - 60 - 600 -
7 17 - 70 - - 700 -
8 18 - 80 - 800 - -
9 19 - 90 900 -

1000
10 000
100 000
1 000 000
1 000 000 000

17
1

(ardinal and Ordinal Numerals)

(?) (?)
1 , , ,
2 ,
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
1
, .
, :
, .
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
102
113
120
124
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1001
1011
1021
2000
2011
2020
2022
1000000
100000000
0
18

(Declension of ardinal Numerals)
j
. ?
. ?
. ?
. ? / ?
. ?
. (/, ) ?
k 1 (, , , )

. . . . . . . .


. .
. .
. .
. / / .

. .
. (/, ) (/, ) (/, ) .

l 2 ( / )

. . . . . .

. . .
. . .
. . .
. / / . . / . .
. . .
. (/, ) . .
m 3, 4 (, )


. .
.
. . .
. . .
. / / . . / . .
. . .
(/, ) (/, ) . .
.
n 5-20, 30 ( , )

. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. (/, ) . .
o 40, 90, 100 (, , )



. .
.
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
(/, ) (/, ) (/, ) . .
.
p 5080 ( )

. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. (/, ) . .
q 200900 ( )



. .
.
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
(/, ) (/, ) (/, ) . .
.
(PRONOUN)

19
(Types of Pronouns)
Types Set
Personal I
you
he, it
she, it
it
we
you
they
Reflexive oneself
Possessive my; mine
your; yours
his; its, of it
her; hers; its; of it
our; ours
your; yours
their; theirs
my, your, his, her,
its, our, their,
one's; one's own
Demonstrative that
this
such
such; like this /
that
such
so much; so many
Interrogative ? who?
? what?
? ? what?
? which?
? whose?
? how much?; how
many?
Relative who
what
, what
which
whose
how much; how
many
Universal all, the whole of
any; every
any; every
different; other
each, every
oneself
very; right
other; another
Indeterminate someone,
( / somebody
+ something
-, -, -, several, a few;
-, -) some
- something
- some
- someone,
somebody
- anything
- some
Negative nobody, no one
( / nothing
+ no; none
-) there is nobody
one can (to + inf.)
there is nothing (to
+ inf.)
20
*
(Personal and Reflexive Pronouns Declension)

-

-

-
1 2 3 1 2 3
. ?
?
. ?
?
. ?
?
. ?
?
. ?
?
. (, /
)
?
?

21
(Possessive Pronouns)

(. ., Sing.)

(. ., m.) (. ., f.) (. ., n.) (. , Pl.)
? ? ? ?

22

(Possessive Pronouns Declension)




. ? ? ? ?
. ? ? ?
. ? ? ?
. ?/? ? ? ?/?
. ? ? ?
. () ? () ? () ?
.


.


.


. / /
/ /
/ /
.


. () () )
() () ()
() () ()
. (1 .)
(2 .)
.

.

. / /
/ /
.

. () () ()
() () ()
.-.

23
,
(Declension of Demonstrative Pronouns ,
and Universal Pronoun )




. ? ? ? ?
. ? ? ?
. ? ? ?
. ? / ? ? ?
? / ?
. ? ? ?
. (//) ? (//) ? (//) ?
.


.


.


. / /
/ /
/ /
.


. (//) (//) (//)
(//) (//) (//)
(//) (//) (//)
24

(Usage of Personal and Reflexive Pronoun )
1. . SO
2. . S=O
3. . SO
4. . S=O

25
,
()
(Cases Endings of Nouns, Adjectives and Pronouns (Generalization))




. ? ? ? ? ?
, , -, - , -
-, -, -
, - -, -

. ? ? ? ? ?
-, -
- - -, - -
-, -
. ? ? ? ? ?
-, -
- - -, - -
-
. ? / ? ? / ? ? / ? ? ?
= . / .
= . / . = . / .
-, -
. ? ? ? ? ?
-, -, -
- - -, - -
-, -
. ? ? ? (/, ) ? ?
-
- - -, - -
-


. ? ? ? ? ?
, , -, -
, -, - -
-
. ? ? ? ? ?
-, -
- - -, - -
-
. ? ? ? ? ?
-
- - -, - -
-
. ? ? ? ? ?
- -, -
- - -, - -
- = .
. ? ? ? ? ?
-, -
- - -, - -
-
. ? ? ? (/, ) ?
?
-
- - -, - -
-



. ? ? ? ? ?
, , -, -
, -, - -
-
. ?? ? ? ?
-, -
- - -, - -
-
. ?? ? ? ?
-, -
- - -, - -
-
. ? ? ? ? ?

= . = .
. ? ? ? ? ?
-, -
- - -, - -
-
. ? ? ? (/, ) ? ?
-
- - -, - -
-



. ? ? ?
, ,
, -, - -, -, -, -

. ? ? ? ? ?

- - -, - -, -, -,

. ? ? ? ?

- - -, - -, -

. ?/ ? ? ? ?/ ? ? ?

= . / . = . / .

. ? ? ? ? ?

- - -, - -, -

. ? ? ? (/, ) ? ?

- - -, - -, -
( V E R B )

26
I II
(The Endings of Verbs of the First and the Second Conjugations)

. I II I II

1
-, - -, - -

2
-, - - -, - -
, ,
3
-, - - -, - -, -

27
, 1
(Conjugation, Accent Type and Verb Government)
:
+ / . .

; , ,
. . :
. . 1 .
2 .
3 . , ,
. . 1 .
2 .
3 .

1
. . I. .: , 1980. . 682688.
5, 6 / []1-
; I A
2 3











()!

3, 4, 6 / []-
; I 4
5









1
[] ,
.
2
(stressed stem).
3
(unstressed ending).
4
I : , , , .
5
[] ,
.
()!

3, 4, 6 / -
; II
1 2









()!

3, 4, 6 / -
; I ; /










()!

1
(unstressed stem).
2
(stressed ending).
28
(Conjugation of Verbs and )


. .



. .


. .


(+
! ! ! !

29
1
(Imperative Formation)
,

-)

/
,

, --
( , -()

[] []
[])
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
1
, , :
(), ().
, ,
, ,
, ,

-()
, ,

, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
,
-()
, ,
, ,

, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,

, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
!
--
-()
, ,
, ,
--
-()
, ,
, ,

--
-()
, ,
, ,


(monosyllabic stem)
, ,
, -() ,

, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,

30
(Verb Aspects)

? () Imperfective Aspect

? ?

? ?

? ?

! !

? () Perfective Aspect

? ?

? ?

? ?

! !
31
()
(Main Meanings of Verb Aspects (Scheme))

? ?



32

(Meanings of Perf. and Imperf.)

,
, -
(process in his passing, (limited process)
without inherent / intrinsic limit or
completeness)

(action name) , (comp-
( , ) leteness, result) (,
, , );
(duration, regulari- (inherent /
ty, unfinished state) ( intrinsic limit) ,
; );

(repetition, recurrence) ( , (
) );
(process
beginning) (, );

(temporal limitation)
(, );
,
(momentary) (,
; ,
)
33

(Usage of Perf. and Imperf. for Designation
of Simultaneous and Successive Actions)
+ +



. .

, ,
. .
, ,

. .
+



() , ()
.
34

(Temporal Forms of Perf. and Imperf.)




m j n

k l

j . (, .)
k . (, .)
l . (, .)
m . (, .)
n , . (, .)
35
( )
(Forms of Perf. and Imperf. (Indicative))
() ()
Imperfective Aspect Perfective Aspect

. . . . . . . .
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
. .
. .
. .
36
* (Aspect Pairs of Verbs)

--(--) --
I A II A; : /
I A II
I A II ; : /
() I A () II ; : /
() I A () II ; :
/
I A II
() I A () II A; : /
I A II A
I A II A; : /
I A II A; : /
I A II A; : /
I A II A; : /
I A II ; : /
I A II A; : /
() I A () II ; : /
() I A () II
I A II
() I A () II A
() I A () II A; :
/
() I A () ) II A
I A II ; : /
() I A () II
I A II ; : /
I A II
I A II A; : /
I A II ; : /
I A II A; : /
I A II ; : /
() I A () II
I A II A; : /
I A II
I A II ; : /
I A II ; : /
() I A () II A;
: /
() IA () II ; :
/
I A II ; : /
I A II
() I A () II A
I A II ; : /
I A II ; : /
I A II
I A II
I A II
I A II
I A II ; : /
() I A () II
I A II
I A II A; : /
() I A () II ; : /
() I A () II A
I A II A; : /
-- --
I A I A
I A I A
I A I
I A I A
I A I
--
I ; ()- I A; -
I ; ()- , , ,
, , ;
, , ,
I A I ; -
I A I A; -
I ; ()- (. )
I A I A; ()-
I ; ()- (. )
I A I A; -
() I A () I A; -
I ; ()- I A; -
I ; ()- (. )
() I A () I A;
()-
I ; ()- (. )
I ; ()- (. )
() I A () I ; -
() I A () I A; -
I ; ()- (. )
() I ; () (. )
()-
I A I ; -
() I A () I A; ()-
I A I A; ()-
I ; ()- I A; -
--
I A I ; /
I A I ; /
I A I ; , : -,
.: -
I A I
() I A () I ; , :
-, .: -
--
II ; : / I ; /
II ; : / I
--, -- --
I A I A
I A I ; /
I A I ; /
() I A () II
() I A () I A
I A I A
I A I ; ()-
I A I A
I A II
I A I ; /
I A I A
I A I ; /
I A II ; : /
I A I ; /
I A I ; /
--, --, -- --
I A I ; -
I A I
I A I
I A I A
-- --
() I A () II ;
: /
I A II A
() I A () II ; :
/
I A II
() I A () II A;
()-
I A II ; : /
I A II A
-- --
I A II ; -
I A II A;
()-
-- -
II II
-
II A; : / II A; : /
I A I A
I ; / I ; /
II A II A
-- -
I A I ; /
-- ---
I A II ; : /
-- ---
I A II A; : /
-
II
I A
, , , ,
, ; , , ,

I A
I ; ()-
I ; , : -,
.: -; , ,
,
I A
() I A; ()
--/-()-
-
1 1
IA
2
II : , 2

() I A; ()
-- / -()-
II ; : /
I/II , ,
, , ,

-
II
I A; ()-
I A
II A
I A
II A; : /
II
I A
I A; ()-;
()!
II A ,
I A
I A
II
II A;
: /
I A; /
II ; : /
() I A ()
I A
() II ()
II A; : /
I A
II ; : /
I A
II
() I A; -- / ()
-()-
II A
() II A ()
II A; : /
I A
I A
II A
I A
II
() I A; -- / ()
-()-
I A; -- /
-()-
II ; : /
-
() I A ()
II II A
II II A
() I A; ()- ()
I ; - I A
I ; ()- I A
II II A
-
I A
-
() I A; -- / ()
-()-; ()!
-
II ; /
I A; -- / -()-;
()!
() II ()
II ; : /
-
() II A; : / ()
-
I
()-, -
() II ()
() II ; : / ()
I
--- --
I A II ; : /
()
I A II A
I A I A; -
I A I A; -
() I A () I A; -
I A II A
I A I
II I A; , : -, .:
-; , , ,

() I A () I ; -
() I A () I ; -
I A I
() I A () I ; -
I A I ; -
I A I ; /
I A II
I A I ; -
I A II ; -
I ; -
I A I
() I A () I ; -
I A I ; -
I A I ; -

I ; - I ; -
II II ; /
II I ; /
II ; : / I A; -; , ,
,
I A I
1
II ; : / I ; -; ,
, ,
I A I A; -
I A I A; -
II ; : / I ; -; ,
, ,
II ; : / I ; -; ,
, ,
II ; : / I ; /;
, ,
,
I A I A; -
II ; : / I ; -;
, ,
,
I A I A; -
II ; : / I ; -;
, , ,

I A I A; -

1
() ,
.
II ; : / I ; -; ,
, ,
(VERBS OF MOVEMENT (MOTION))

37
-, -
(The Meaning of Verbs without Prefixes -, -)

I II


, I , - , II , : /

, I , - , II , : /
Ij Ij


.
.


.
.
,
. Ik , ,

,
.

20 . /
. . ,

.

.
.
Il

/ /
.
/
/ .
Im , ,

.
.
38
-, - - -
(The Meaning of Verbs -, -
with Prefixes - and -)
- -
I II




, I , - , II , : /

, I , - , I

, I , -

, I , -

/
7 . /
7 .
7 .

/
. /
/ .
8 .
/ .
.
39
(Verbs of Movement (Motion) with Prefixes)
- () / - -/- -/- -
- ()

? ? ? ?
? ?
? ?
? ( ?)
?
-

? ( ? ?
? ?) ? ( ? ?)
- - -/-
- -
? ? ? ?
? ?

- ? ?
? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ?
? ? ? ? ?
40
- - (Verbs of Movement (Motion) with Prefixes - and -)

- () / -
- ()

? ?

? ( .) ? ( .)
41
I II
(The I and II Groups of Verbs of Movement (Motion)
without Prefixes)
I II



to go, to walk
, I , - , II , : /
. .: , , ,
to go
, I , - , II , : / (by transport)
.: ()()!
to run
, I / II , I



.: ()!
to fly
, II , : / , I
to swim
, I , - , I
.: ()!
to lead, conduct,
, I , - , II , : / drive, guide
. .: , , ,
.: ()!
to carry; bear
, I , - , II , : /
. .: , , ,
.: ()!
to drive,
, I , - , II , : / transport,
. .: , , , convey, carry,
.: ()! take; cart
to creep, crawl
, I , - , I
. .: , , ,

.: ()!
42

(The Verbs of Motion Prefixes and Corresponding Prepositions)

1. - (-) ? () / . . .
.
? ? () . . ?
.
2. - ? () / . . .
() .
? () . . .
? .
3. - ? ? () / . . 3 .
? ? () . . .
(. 1, 2) () / . . .
() . . .
()
4. - ? ? () / . . .
? ? () . . .
(. 1, 2) () / . . .
() . . .
()
5. - ? () . . , , .
() ? ? .
6. - (-) ? ? () . . , , .
.
? () / . . .
.
7. - ? . . .
? ?
.

.
8. - ? . . .
? ? () . . . . .
() .
() .
9. - ? .
? ? . . .
? ? . . .
10. - ? () / . . , , .
,
.
? ? () . . .
!
? ? . . .
.
11. - (-, ? ? . . .
-)
.
108 .
.
? . . .
? (= )!
12. - ? ? () / . . ,
? ? () . . .
(. 1, 2) () / . . , .
() . . .
() .
43
(Prefixes-antonyms)
- -
? / + . . ? / . .
8 . 3 .
. ? ? + . . . ? ? + . .
- (-) -
. ? / + . . . ? / . .
. ? ? + . . ? ? + .
.
- (-) - (-)
. ? / ? . ? / ?
. + . . . + . .
44

(The Meanings of Perf. and Imperf. Verbs of Motion with Prefixes)

+ +
. .
. .

. .

. .
(= (=
). , ).
(= (=
, , ).
). .
.
45

(Active and Passive Voice)
j
S P O
. . . .
(
(coordinate) S)
.
.

O P S
. . . .
( O)
.
.
k
S P O
. . . .
( S)
.
.

O P S
. . (. , . .
., . .) +


. .
() / .
.

l
O P (S)
. . (. .,
3 . . .)
.
.

O P (S)
. . -
(. ., 3 .,
O)
.
.
m
O P (S)
. . (. ., 3 .,
. . / . ., .
.)
.
.

O P (S)
. . (. ,
., . .) +


. .

.
/ ()
.
46

(Formation of Active Participles)
1.

(,
)
. ., 3 ., I -- (,
. . -- ?)
II --
--
- I --
- I --
- II --
- II --
2.
. . -- (,
-- ( / ?)
.)
- --
-
-
-
/ -- /
/ /

47
( + . .)
(Formation of Passive Participles)
1.

(,
)
I -- (, /
. ., 1 ., --
. . II -- ?)
- I --
- I --
- II --
- II
2.
. . (, /

?)
-- () --
--

-- --
--
-- --
--
--
--

-
48


(Synonymy of Sentences with Participles
and Sentences with Pronon )



, ,
. .
, ,
. .
, ,
, . ,
. (
,
.)


, 100 , 100
, ,
. .
,
, ,
,
.
.

49

(Formation of Adverbial Participles and Their Use in Speech)

3 . . . + - / - - + - / -
() ()
() ()
() ()
() ()
() : ()
+ . + .

? ?
, ,
(
( , ).
).
50


(Synonymy of Sentences with Adverbial Participles
and ompound Sentences)



, ( )

. ,
, .
. ( )
,
, .
. ,
.
(PREPOSITION)
51
* (Russian Prepositions)



() . without; minus ( ); less
five days short of a
month
five minutes to six
without exception
. during, at the time of
. instead (of), in place (of)
instead of me, in my place
instead of, rather
than
instead
. round, around, about
. during
. 1) for
I will do it for you
? what for?; wherefore?
a book for children
smoking carriage
it is very warm
for a winter day
2) ( ) to
it is
nothing to him
3) ( ) to ( -.)

he came here to study the language
. 1) (
) to, as far as, up to
we ran as far as
the wood
2) ( ) till,
until, to



3) () before

4) ( ) to, up to, even to



5) () under, less than
16 children under sixteen
6) () about
5000 I have
about 5000 books
30 it was
about 30 degree below zero
() . 1) from (? . .); out of
()
he is of peasant origin





2) of ( );
out of (. );
in ( )
one of his
friends
the best of all
not one in a hundred
3) of ( ); out of (
, ..)
out of this piece
of wood
apricot jam
a three course dinner
silver spoons
? what is it made of?
- . 1) (?) from behind; from
- from behind the house
- from abroad
- to get up from the
table, to rise from the table
2) because of, owing to, on account of;
over ( ); through (
, .)
- because of the storm
- through laziness
- because of him
- through
carelessness
3) for
- to marry for
money
- ? what for?
- therefore
. 1) () except, but
apart/aside from
2) () besides, in addition to
. 1. the day before
2. (-.) on the eve (of)
. . ,

; -
., -.
. opposite
. 1) () about,
approximately
2) by, at, near(ly) (, , );
close (to); around ()
() . 1) (
-.) from
letter from one's friend
from Moscow
to Kharkov
from beginning to
end
2) ( ,
-.) from, with, for, of
to tremble from/with
fear
to die of hunger
to cry out of joy
3) ( ) of
letter of the
first of August
4) ( ) to, belonging to;
of, from
key to a room, room
key
button to/of/from a
coat, coat button
5) () for, against
- something for a
cough
defend against
. after; since
after
() . in the middle/midst (of)
in the middle of the
room
. 1) against
(-.) an
agent/medicine effective against smth.,
smth.-proof agent
against the current
2) () opposite; facing
facing one another
3) () contrary to, against
contrary to
our expectations
4) ( ) against, compared to
ten to
one
. 1) ( ) among, amongst; amid(st)
2) in the middle (of)
() . I; (-./-.) with; and ()
tea with milk
you and I
? what is the matter?
to awake with the
dawn
every day
by courier, by messenger
to be in a hurry to
leave
. II; (-./-.) 1) from; off ()
to fall from a roof
to take a ring
from/off one's finger
-. to paint smb.'s
picture
-. to follow smb.'s
example
with joy, for joy
to leave one's post
2) ( ) since ( -
); from ();
beginning from ( ); in ( ,
); on ( ); at ( )
to write with a
capital letter
-. with smb.'s
permission
to take by storm
with your consent
I have had enough
every minute
from beginning to
end
to be tired after a
journey
. 1) () by, at
by the window
at the gate
by the sea
at the foot of the
mountain
at the piano
at the helm
to sit by the window
to stand by the door
e stood close
to the door, e stood right by the door
by/at one's bed-side
2) (, ) with
to live with
one's parents
to
stay with one's friends
at one's (own) place; () at
home
3) ( )
of



. thanks to, owing to; because of

This ensured that the
problem can be solved./This makes the
problem solvable.
thanks to the fact
that, owing to the fact that, due to the fact
that
() . 1) ( ) to, toward(s)
-. to address smb.
-. to approach
smb.
/ to the east/west of
to sail towards the shore
to draw to a close
2) ( )
by, towards
20- by 20th century
60- by the late 60s

3) ( ) for, of, to
-. trust in smb.
love of children
love for/of one's
country
4) () for
? What did he say
it for?
? what is that for?
for lunch
5) ( -.
) on, on the occasion of

on the occasion of the
centenary of the birth of Lev Tolstoy
moreover, besides, in
addition, what is more
. 1) ( ) on; along (); all
along ( )
round the human
body
along the (whole) length,
all along the length
throughout the height
walk on the grass
walk/drive along the
path/road
The
books are lying all over the table
2) (, ) by, over
by post, by mail
by road, by train
over the telephone
3) ( , ) by,
according to (), in accordance
with (
)
by order
by name
4) () by, through
by mistake
through
carelessness
5) ( ) in, at, on
in the morning
at night
on one's free days, on
one's off days
6) ( ) to, up to
up to one's waist
from June till
September
() ., . 1) ( ) in (

.); on (
.); at
( .)
1980 in 1980
at two o'clock
in May
on Wednesday
this year
this month
that day
. 2) ( ,
-.) into, in


3) ( ) to,
into, for


4) (
) to, into
to convert water
into ice
5) ( ) in; within
It can be
done in three days
6) ( , ..) at,
of
four meters
long
17 100 tea at 17
hrivnas a 100 grams
a/per day
7) ( ;
)
five times as much
five times less
. 8) ( ) in, at


9) ( -
.) at a distance of
at a
distance of two kilometres from Kharkov
10) ( ,
, -.) in
a play in five acts
., . 1) (, ) on (?
.; ? .)
, on a wall
2) on, for (? ., ? .)
on vacation
on vacation
for a holiday
on a holiday
9 3) ( ) to,
for, towards
to the Caucasus
the train for Moscow
4) in, during; on ( );
for ( )
two days' leave
(the) next day
on New-Year's Day
5) () for
? what for?
for the winter
for every, for each
6) ( ,
, . .)
on, upon

The responsibility falls on him, the
responsibility is laid upon him
7) ( ,
) to
to subscribe to a
loan
8) ( ,
-. ;
-. , ) with
to fry in oil
9) (
) on
to live on one's
earnings
10) by
to sell by weight
11) ( ) by; in,
into
()
to multiply (divide) fifteen by three
to divide into
three (parts)
a head taller (than)
two years younger
(than)
. 12) in ( ,
, ); at (
, ..)
in the North
a town on the Volga
at a factory
at a concert
in the street; out-of-doors,
outdoors ( )
13) (
) by
, to go by
train, by car
14) ( ,
, -
.) on
a person on
crutches
. in spite of

? 1) (-./-.; -./-.) behind;


. over, across, beyond, the other side of; out
? . of; outside
() , behind
the bed
, beyond the marsh
, overboard
, round the corner
out of town, in the country
abroad
2) (-./-.; -./-.; )
at


. 3) (-.; , ; .
pres. part.) at, to
to spend
all one's time reading
to set to work,
to get down to work
4) (-./-.) after
-. to follow smb.
day after day
5) (-./-.) for
-. to call for smb.
to go for milk
6) (-.) for, on account of, because of
, (-. /
-.) for want (of)
. 7) (-./-.; ) for

8) (-./-.) for

9) (-./-.; ) for; enough
for; as
-. to sign for
smb.
10) (-.) during, for


11) (-.; ;
)
5 five years
prior to his birth

the aeroplane crashed a
kilometre from the village
12) (-.;
,
) by

. 1) over ( ); across
()
to jump over the
hurdle
to walk across
the road
to step across the
threshold
2) through ()
throughout the town
to walk through the
forest
through the window
3) via ( )
to go to
Kiev via Moscow
4) in ( )
3 every 3 hours
in two hours
in a few hour's
time, within a few hours
after a while
to come every
other day
a spoonful every
hour
in a year; a year later (
)
5) through, by way of ()
-. through smb.
() . 1) () over
to hang over the
table
-. to have power
over smb.
victory over the
enemy
2) () above
above sea-level
3) ( ) at;
about; with
to work at/on a
subject
-. to laugh at smb.
() . 1) (-./-.; -./-.)
()
under downhill
2) (-.; ) toward(s), to;
about; on the eve of; close on
on New Year's Eve
() he is getting on
for fifty
towards evening
3) (-.; ) to (the
accompaniment of)

4) (-./-.; ) a la, in
imitation of

5) (-.; ) in
on security
on receipt
. 6) (-./-.; ) near, by, of, in
the environs of
the battle of
Moscow
7) (-.; ) by
? What
is implied by this?
8) (-.; ) in, with
beef with horse-
radish
., . 9) (-.; -.) (used) for, with;
occupied by
premises
occupied by a school
jam-jar
underground
. 1) ( ; . ) before; in
() front of; in the face of; ahead of

The apparatus is located forward of the
boiler room

Quotation is prefixed with the
opening quotation marks
2) ( ) before, prior to
before
3) ( -) to; (as)
compared to
-. to apologize to
smb.

Your story is nothing to ours

The government is facing an
acute problem. The government is
confronted with an acute question
. 1) between
between the
door and the window
2) () among(st)
stuck/sandwiched
between
. . : 1)
() ,
-., -.;
-., -.
pharmacy close
to home
- sit next to smb.
2) ,
-., -.;
-., -., -.,
-., -., -.

Beside her other writers
seem amateurish
(, ) . 1) (-./-.) about, of
(); on (
,
..); concerning
2) (-.; .;
) with; having
table with three
legs, a three-legged table
. 3) (-./-.;
, )
against, (up)on
lean against the wall
4) (-.) by, in
side by side
hand in hand
5) (-.; -.; .; ) on, at,
about
about this time
. 1) by, at, near; of
where the
Oka flows into the Volga
the battle of
Borodino
to be near death
2) attached to
lyce attached
to a University
3) in the presence of
in my presence
in the presence of
witnesses
4) during
(-.) during the life (of)
5) ( ) under, in
the time of

6) at, on, upon, when
when
crossing the street

7) on the person (of)
documents on
one's person
8) having, possessing
to have plenty of
money
9) under, in view (of), given
under such
conditions
for all that
have nothing to do
with (it), not to be smb.'s fault
herewith; enclosed

52

(Prepositions and Their Collocability with Cases)

. . ?
?
?
? ?
? ?
? ;

- ? - ;
-
- ? -
? .
?
.
- ? - ; -

? ?
?
?
/? ,
=
,
? .
? =
.
? =
= =

? .
? .
? .
?
.
?
.
? ? .
?
.
? .
? .
?
? .
.
?
.
? =

? ? .
?
.
?
.
?
.
?
.
? .
2 .

? .
?
.
? .
? !
? .
? .
?
.
? .
?
.
? =

?
.
? .
?
.
?
.
?
.
?
.
?
.
?
.
? .
?
.
?
.
?
.
?
.
?
.
? .
?
.
?
.
?
.
? ,
.
. . ? .
? .
.
, ?
? .
?
.
?
? .
?
.
?
.
?
? .
?
.

?
.
?
.

?

?

.
. . ? .
? ?
.
? .
? .
? ?
.
? ,
(.- .
.)
? .
/? .
?
.
/?
? .
/? ,
.
.
?
.
() ? ? .
.
? .
.
?
.
?
.
?
.
. . ? ? .
?
.
() ? .
() ? .
? .
() ?
.
?
.
?
.
() ? ? .
?
.
.
() ?
() ? .
?
/? .
?
() .
() ?
.
?
() ? .

.
()
?
() ? .
?
/ ?
.
. . ? .
?
.
? / ?
.
(, ) / ? ;
;

? .
53

(Antonym and Synonym Prepositions)

,

? ? + . + .

? ? + . + .
? ? + . + .
? + . + .
? ? + . - + . -
? + . + .
? ? + . - + . -
? ? + . + .

? , , , / / /
, , , /
+ / /
+ . .
+ .
? , + . /
+ .
? ? + . + .
? + . , /
+ .
+ . + .
? + + .
.
? ? + . + .

? + . , + /
.
? , , + .
? + , ,
. + . ,


? + . + .

?
?
? + . + .

? + . + .

? , + .
+ . , , /
? + .

?

? + . + .
?
? ?
(TIME AND SPACE)
(DESIGNATION OF TIME)
54
j (Months)
? ? ? ( + . .)












k (Days of Week)
?
, ? ? ?
, ( + . .)
?






55
? ? (How Long Time?)
.+.
1 () () () () () () ()
. + .
2
. + . .
3, 4

520,
30 . + . .
56
, : , , *
(Season, Month: Noun, Adverb, Adjective)

? ? ? ? What? (, adjective)
, ? when?
. ., . . () . ., . . () . ., . . () . . ()
(,
sing., m. sing., f. sing., n. pl.
season, month adverb)
. in
winter



.



.



.


57
? (What's time?)
:
01.00, 14.00 , ( -
)
00.0001.00 ()
01.0002.00 () ( )

( , )
: ., .
.00 ? . . + . . 13.00 .
18.00 .
.01.59 , 13.20
?
14.30
.

.00 ? () 01.00 .
. . + . . 13.00 .
14.00 .
.01 () . . + . . 14.05 .
.29 ? 03.17
.
12.15 .
.31.59 + . . + 12.50 .
() ? . . 18.40 .
13.45 .
.30 (-) 12.30
? () + . . ().
17.30
().

58
(Expression of Time)



9 / + . .
?

? , / 9
.
, () + . .
?
.
/ + . .
? /
/ .

2 () , . . + . .
7 () 5 () .
?
1
( )
, + . .
? ()
.
/ / + . .
? () ,
2012 .

1
, , .
1995 + . . +
. .
? 2005 (
() )
.
5 2010 . . + . . + 3
. . ()
1980
? (
()

) .
? / / . . +
/ / .
, 5 , 10

/ + . .
/ / / 10 .
, 5 , 10

? 2 , 3 , . . (+ . .) 3
? 4 , 5 .
, 6 ,
, ,
, . .
() , .
() ,
() , .
,

? , . .
,
, .

,

59
(? ? ? ? ?)*
(Words for Designation of Place and Direction (What? Where? Which way? Where from? What?))
? ? ? ? ?






,










-
-
-
-
60
( )
(Designation of Direction and Place)
? ? ?
, (?) ? ? ?
() / + . . () / + . . / () + . .








(?) ? ? ? ? ? ?
() + . . + . . + . .





61

(Compound Sentences with Pronoun )

j .-. . .-., .
( .). (. / . ). ( ., ___ ).
. . . .
. , (= )
. .
. . . .
. , (=
. , ) .
. . . .
. , (= ,
. ) .
k .-. .-. .-., .-.
( .). (. / . ). ( ., ___ ).
. . . .
. . , (= ) .
. . . .
. , (= )
. .
. . . .
. , (= , )
. .
62

(Compound Sentences of Cause and Consequence)

? ?

[], () [], ()
, ,
. .


(DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH)
63

(Punctuation Marks of Direct Speech)
: . , . (.) , , .
: ! ! . (!) , , !
: ? ? . (?) , , ?
(. .) , . .
(! .) ! . .
(? .) ? . .
. , ;
, ;
, ;
, .
64

(Transformation of Direct Speech into Indirect Speech)
j
(Direct Speech is Interrogative Sentence with Interrogative Word)



: ? , .
: ? , .

: ? , .
: ,
? .
: ? , .
k
(Direct Speech is Interrogative Sentence without Interrogative Word)



( )

: ? , .
: ? , .

: ? , .
: ,
? .
: ? , .
l
(Direct Speech is Statement)



: . , .
: . , .
( )
, .
( )
: ,
. .
: ,
. .
: . , .
m
(Direct Speech is Sentence with Imperative)


+ . .
: ! , .
: . , .

: , , ,
! .
: ,
! !
: ! , .

. .
. .
. .
________.11. 6084 1/16. .
Times New Poman. . .-. . ___.
.-. .____ . _______. ________.2011.
______ . .