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Presented by:

S.SRAVANI (N090765)

SK.RAJIYA (N090725)

K.VINAY (N090540)

Y.GOPI (N091299)

M.JUPITER (N091140)

RAHEEM (N091547)

P.HANUMA (N091049)
In this project an attempt is being made to study the engineering behavior of mixtures
of stone matrix asphalt with a non-conventional natural fibre, namely sisal fibre. To achieve
this various samples of SMA mixtures with and without fibres with different binder content
were prepared. Marshall Properties were used to determine the optimum binder content
.Thereafter other properties such as the drain down characteristics are determined. The
MORTH specifies the addition of only 0.3% fibre, use of which has shown significant
improvement in the stability, drain down characteristics to meet the design standards.

The technology of asphalt materials and mixtures is discovered and mostly used in
Europe and North America. In this present study comparison of strength of pavement wearing
coat made with SMA Mix with fibre and without fibre was done. This research was done to
evaluate the viability of sisal fibres as stabilizing agent in the mixture by laboratory tests in
which a flow parameter was analyzed, as well as the mechanical properties of the mixture.
For the SMA mix the aggregate gradation was taken as per the MORTH specification and the
binder content was 4%, 4.5%. 5%, 5.5%, 6%, 6.5%, 7% by weight of aggregate and fibre
used was 0.3% by weight of aggregate. Here we used cement as filler and 60/70 grade
bitumen as binder.

1. Introduction:
1.1. Origin and properties of SISAL fibre
1.2. SMA (stone mastic asphalt)
2. Literature review
3. Objectives
4. Materials used and their tests
5. Experimental procedure
6. Marshall Stability test
7. Expected results
8. References



1.1.1 Origin of sisal fibre

Sisal Fibre is one of the most widely used natural fibre and is very easily cultivated.
It is obtain from sisal plant. The plant, known formally as Agave sisalana. These plants
produce rosettes of sword-shaped leaves which start out toothed, and gradually lose their
teeth with maturity. Each leaf contains a number of long, straight fibres which can be
removed in a process known as decortication. During decortication, the leaves are beaten to
remove the pulp and plant material, leaving the tough fibres behind. The fibres can be spun
into thread for twine and textile production, or pulped to make paper products.

The sisal plant has a 710 year life-span and typically produces 200250
commercially usable leaves. Each leaf contains an average of around 1000 fibres. The fibres
account for only about 4% of the plant by weight.

1.1.2 Properties of Sisal Fibre

1. Sisal Fibre is exceptionally durable with a low maintenance with minimal wear and
2. It is Recyclable.
3. Sisal fibres are obtained from the outer leaf skin, removing the inner pulp.
4. It is available as plaid, herringbone and twill.
5. Sisal fibres are anti-static, does not attracts or traps dust particles and do not absorb
moisture or water easily.
6. The fine texture takes dyes easily and offers the largest range of dyed colors of all
natural fibres.
7. It exhibits good sound and impact absorbing properties.
8. Its leaves can be treated with natural borax for fire resistance properties. `

Fig 1 Sisal plant Fig 2 Sisal Fibre


Asphaltic/Bituminous concrete consists of a mixture of aggregates continuously
graded from maximum size , typically less than 25 mm, through the fine filler that is smaller
than 0.075 mm. Sufficient bitumen is added to the mix so that the compacted mix is
effectively impervious and will have acceptable dissipative and elastic properties. The
bituminous mix design aims to determine the proportion of bitumen, filler, fine aggregates,
and coarse aggregates to produce a mix which is workable, strong, durable and economical.
The objective of the mix design is to produce a bituminous mix by proportioning various
components so as to have
Stability: Stability defined as the resistance of the paving mix to deformation under

traffic load.

Durability: Durability is defined as the resistance of the mix against weathering and

abrasive actions.

Flexibility:Flexibility is a measure of the level of bending strength needed to

counteract traffic load and prevent cracking of surface.

Skid resistance:It is the resistance of the finished pavement against skidding which

depends on the surface texture and bitumen content

Workability:Workability is the ease with which the mix can be laid and

compacted, and formed to the required condition and shape.

Stability to meet traffic demand

Bitumen content to ensure proper binding and water proofing
Voids to accommodate compaction due to traffic
Flexibility to meet traffic loads, esp. in cold season
Sufficient workability for construction
Economical mix

Here our bitumen mix is Stone Matrix Asphalt (SMA). It is a gap-graded mixture,
have a better stone to stone contact which gives better strength to the mixture .In this research
work aggregate used as per the MORTH specification which was taken from a same lot. The
samples are made with aggregate with different gradation, filler (cement) and binder
(bitumen 60/70). Fibres are used as stabilizer. Fibres are used to decrease the drain down and
to increase the strength and stability of the SMA mix. The test of the SMA mix samples are
done in Marshall apparatus. Here the comparison of SMA mix with and without fibres was
done. All the research work done before by using cellulose fibre, synthetic fibre,
polypropylene fibre and polyester fibres. Cellulose fibres are extensively used in SMA in
Europe and USA. These fibres are patented. The fibres improve the service properties of the
mix by forming micromesh in the asphalt mix to prevent the drain down of the asphalt so as
to increase the stability and durability of the mix. Here we have tried to use sisal fibre which
is more economic than cellulose fibres, doing same work as cellulose fibre.

SMA uses a structural basis of stone to stone contact in the mix by utilizing high
concentration of coarse aggregates and thus provides an efficient network for load
distribution. The rich mortar binder provides durability. Cellulose fibres, mineral fibres or
polymers, sisal fibres are added to SMA mixtures as stabilizing agent to prevent drain down
of the mix. These structural characteristics makes SMA to maximize deformation resistance
or rutting, provides durability and longevity in the service life of the pavements. Typical
composition consists of 70-80% coarse aggregate, 8-12% filler, 6-7% binder, 0.3% fibre.

Fig 3 Gap graded mix structure Fig 4 Stone matrix asphalt Fig 5 SMA lab sample

Table 1 Properties of SMA

Properties SMA

Definition SMA is a gap graded mix which consists of

high amount of coarse aggregate firmly
bonded together by a strong asphalt matrix
Consisting of fine aggregate, filler, bitumen
and stabilizing additives
Sample fig.

Mass of Coarse Aggregate Content, % 70-80%

Mass of Fine Aggregate % 20-25

Mass of Filler content,( % ) 8-12

Binder Type 60/70

Minimum binder content by weight of mix,

(%) 0-7 % by weight of aggregate

Stabilizing Additives by weight of mix, (%) 0.3-0.5

Air voids (%) 3-5

LayerThickness, mm 25-75


In the 1980s federal and state highway officials in the United States recognized the
need to design stiffer, more rut resistant pavements. As a result, American professionals
participated in the European Asphalt Study Tour in 1990, where SMA pavements were
investigated. This was the first concerted effort to figure out how to use SMA.

Bradely et.al. (2004) studied Utilization of waste fibres in stone matrix asphalt mixtures.
They used carpet, tire and polyester fibres to improve the strength and stability of mixture
compared to cellulose fibre. They found no difference in moisture susceptibility and
permanent deformation in SMA mix containing waste fibres as compared to SMA mix
containing cellulose or mineral fibre.

Kamaraj C., G. Kumar, G. Sharma, P.K. Jain and K.V. Babu (2004) carried laboratory
study using natural rubber powder with 80/100 bitumen in SMA by wet process as well as
dense graded bituminous mix with cellulose fibre and stone dust and lime stone as filler and
found its suitability as SMA mix through various tests.

Punith V.S., Sridhar R., Bose Sunil, Kumar K.K., Veeraragavan A (2004) did a
comparative study of SMA with asphalt concrete mix utilizing reclaimed polythene in the
form of LDPE carry bags as stabilizing agent (3 mm size and 0.4%) .The test results indicated
that the mix properties of both SMA and AC mixture are getting enhanced by the addition of
reclaimed polythene as stabilizer showing better rut resistance, resistance to moisture
damage, rutting, creep and aging.


The main objective of this project is use of non-conventional natural fibre as sisal
fibre instead of other conventional fibre and to study how they affect the various
properties of SMA.
Preparation of Marshall Specimens and getting optimum mix content with the help of
Marshall Test data.
To find suitability of Sisal fibre for use in SMA.
To compare the engineering properties of SMA samples with other similar type test


1. Coarse and Fine aggregate

2. Bitumen as binder (60/70)
3. Fibre as stabilizer (Sisal fibre)
4. Cement as filler


The aggregates are crushed by using jaw crusher to get different size of aggregates
varying from 16mm to 75micron. Qualities of aggregates were check through various tests as
per MORTH specification given below.

Test conducted for aggregates

1. Impact Value Test (IS 2386 Part4)

The ratio of the weight of fines formed to the total sample weight in each test shall he
expressed as a percentage, the result being recorded to the first decimal place, to know the
resistance against the impact.

Aggregate impact value = (B/A) x 100

Where B=weight of fraction passing 2.36-mm IS Sieve, and

A =weight of oven-dried sample.

According to MORTH the aggregate impact value should be < 18%

If it is more than 18 % then the toughness value is less, and if we use the aggregate they dont
have sufficient impact resistance, it the aggregate get the impact they will easily breakdown.

2. Crushing Value (IS 2386 Part4)
The standard aggregate crushing test shall be made on aggregate passing a 12.5-mm
IS Sieve and retained on a 10-mm IS Sieve.

Ratio of the weight of fines formed to the total sample weight in each test shall be expressed
as a percentage, the result being recorded to the first decimal place:

Aggregate crushing value = (B/A) x 100

Where B = weight of fraction passing the appropriate sieve, and

A = weight of surface-dry sample.

3. Los Angels Abrasion Value (IS 2386 Part4)

The test sample and the abrasive charge shall be placed in the Los Angeles abrasion
testing machine and the machine rotated at a speed of 20 to 33 rev/min. The machine shall be
rotated for 500 revolutions.

Difference between the original weight and the final weight of the test sample shall be
expressed as a percentage of the original weight of the test sample. This value shall be
reported as the percentage of wear/abrasion value.

According to MORTH the Los Angles Abrasion value should be < 25%

If it is more than 25 % then the aggregate doesnt have sufficient capacity to resist the
abrasion. If abrasion happens between aggregate to aggregate then the aggregate will crush
down and the strength of aggregate will be lowered.

4. Flakiness and Elongation Index (IS 2386 -Part1)

The elongation index is the total weight of the material retained on the various length gauges,
expressed as a percentage of the total weight of the sample gauged.

The flakiness index is the total weight of the material passing the various thickness gauges or
sieves, expressed as a percentage of the total weight of the sample gauged.

According to MORTH the Flakiness and elongation index value should be <30%

If it is more than 30%, better shape aggregate wont come, then the aggregate to aggregate
contact will be less, the load transferring nature will be affected, strength of aggregate
combination will decrease.



Aggregate Impact Value (%)

IS 2386 PART-4

Aggregate Crushing Value (%)

IS 2386 PART-4

Los Angels Abrasion Value (%) IS 2386 PART-4

Flakiness Index (%) IS 2386 PART -1

Elongation Index (%) IS 2386 PART -1

Water Absorption (%) IS 2386 PART -3


Table 3. Gradation of Aggregates

Total weight of sample= 1200gm

% passing amonut of binder taken in this binder content in gm

% 4% 4.50% 5% 5.50% 6% 6.50% 7%
Sieve size in mm Intermediate adopted adopted 1152 1146 1140 1134 1128 1122 1116
16 100 100
13.2 90-100 94 6 69.12 68.76 68.4 68.04 67.68 67.32 66.96
9.5 54-70 62 32 368.6 366.72 365 362.9 361 359 357.1
4.75 26-39 34 28 322.6 320.88 319 317.5 315.8 314.2 312.5
2.36 21-28 24 10 115.2 114.6 114 113.4 112.8 112.2 111.6
1.18 17-25 21 3 34.56 34.38 34.2 34.02 33.84 33.66 33.48
0.6 15-22 18 3 34.56 34.38 34.2 34.02 33.84 33.66 33.48
0.3 13-19 16 2 23.04 22.92 22.8 22.68 22.56 22.44 22.32
0.15 09-15 12 4 46.08 45.84 45.6 45.36 45.12 44.88 44.64
0.075 08-13 10 2 23.04 22.92 22.8 22.68 22.56 22.44 22.32
Filler 0 0 10 115.2 114.6 114 113.4 112.8 112.2 111.6

Here the sieve sizes are as per MoRTH specification. Intermediate means the adopted
percentage passing must be between these values. Adopted means which is the percentage we

are adopting for the Marshall test. This gradation of aggregate is for gap graded mix, for
uniform mixing.

Example of calculation:
Sieve size = 13.2
Intermediate range = 90-100
Adopted percentage = 94
% retained adopted means adopted % passing of above value- % passing of Present
value. Here the percentage adopted for 13.2 is 94; percentage adopted for above value 16 is
100. Now % retained adopted value for 13.2 mm is 100-94 = 6.
Here if we are taking % bitumen is 4 % that means, in the total weight of sample 1200
g, the weight of bitumen content is 4 % of 1200 g.
(4/100)1200=48 g.
Remaining is 1200-48 = 1152 g
% retained weight of 13.2 mm sieve when 4 % bitumen is added is 69.12 g. It is
actual weight of aggregate which is retained on 13.2 mm. The retained weight will
approximately equal to the % retained adopted value of that sieve.
Here % retained adopted for 13.2 mm = 6 %
The weight of aggregate retained on 13.2 mm sieve is 69.12 g.
6 % of 1200 g = (6/100)*1200=72 g. approximately equal to 69.12 g


Bitumen is act as a binder in SMA mix. Different grade of bitumen are used in
different mix like hot-mix or gap-graded mix or dense-graded mix. For preparation of SMA
mix, we can use any grade of bitumen. Here we will use 60/70 bitumen in this research work.

Here we are increasing the bitumen content only by 0.5% as per MoRTH
specifications and ASTM standards. If the bitumen content is below 4% then there wont be
sufficient bonding and cracks may propagate. And if the bitumen content is more than 7%
then the bitumen will act as lubricant and gaps between aggregate will be increase and
strength will be decrease. So, the range is between 4 to 7% in in the increment of 0.5%.

Penetration test: To know the grade of the bitumen. To determine the hardness or softness of

Flash and Fire point test: To know the specified temperature to heat the bitumen up-to
bitumen has to be liquefied.

Ductility test: To know the deformation value of the bitumen.

Softening point: To know the softening temperature of the bitumen.


Penetration at 25 C IS 1203 - 1978


Softening Point (0C) IS 1203 1978

Specific gravity IS 1203 1978

Ductility Test IS 1208-1978

Flash Point Test IS 1209 -1978

Fire Point Test IS 1209 -1978

Fibres are used as stabilizer in SMA mix. Fibres help to increase the strength and
stability and decrease the drain down in SMA mix. There are different types of fibres are
used in SMA mix like cellulose fibre, polymer fibre, mineral fibre, natural fibres. Here we
used SISAL fibre (natural fibre) as stabilizer in SMA mix which act the same role as other
fibre. But it will give the better results when compared with all other fibres.
Natural fibre:-Natural fibre classified into 3 category depending upon the part of plant
from where it is extracted

- Stem fibre (jute, banana etc.)

- Leaf fibre (sisal, pineapple)
- Fruit fibre (cotton, coir, oil palm)

We can use the fibre from 0.3 to 0.5 % of total sample weight as per MORTH
specification. Because below 0.3 or above 0.5 % wont give the better results. In this study,
0.3% fibre by weight of aggregate was used, why because at 0.3% fibre the results are better.
The sisal fibres are usually creamy white, average from 80 to 120 cm in length and 0.2 to 0.4
mm in diameter. Sisal fibre is fairly coarse and inflexible. It is valued for cordage use because
of its strength, durability, ability to stretch, affinity for certain dyestuffs, and resistance to
deterioration in saltwater.
Brazil, Mexico, China are the main source of producing sisal fibres, available in
Guntur. Generally sisal fibres are used in rope making, paper industry etc. Very few research
are done by using sisal fibres in SMA mix. So here we attempt a research with sisal fibre
which is more economical than other fibres.

Fig 6Fibre (Stabilizer)
Table 5. Physical properties of sisal fibre Table 6. Chemical properties of sisal


Cellulose% 66-78
Density g/cm3 1.5
Hemi-cellulose % 10-14

Elongation % 2-2.5 Lignin % 10-14

Pectin % 10
Tensile Strength Mpa 511-635
Moisture Content % 10-22
Youngs Modulus 2-9.4
PH 5.7-6.2


Filler is used in SMA mix for better binding of materials. Rock dust, slag dust,
hydrated lime, hydraulic cement, fly ash, mineral filler and cement are used as filler in SMA
mix, also we can use the fine aggregate below 75micron as filler, but here we use cement as
filler which makes a better bond with aggregate, bitumen and fibre.

Experiment was performed in following steps

5.1Sieve analysis
Sieve analysis was done and aggregates of appropriate sizes were collected and stored
in place with sizes as per MoRTH gradation. Weight of one sample is 1200 gms. As
per table 1

Sample preparation
For sample preparation some steps given below are taken

5.2. Weighing of sample

Here 6 samples with binder content 4%, 4.5%, 5%, 5.5%, 6%, 6.5% and 7% of each were
prepared. So first of all weight of sample was taken as per table 1. 0.3% of fibre was taken in
each of 6 samples. Here we are increasing 0.5 % bitumen as per ASTM D 1559, 2004. If we
take below 4 % bitumen content then the binder content will be lowered and there wont be
sufficient bonding and it will crack easily. If we use more than 7 % then the bitumen will act
as lubricant and the gap between aggregates will be more then the strength will be lowered,
plastic nature of bitumen increases.

5.3 . Heating of aggregates

After weighing of aggregates, aggregates with of all gradation are mixed with each other
to make one sample of weight 1200gms. All samples were heated in oven at a temperature of
160-190 degree centigrade, so that fibre is not burnt. Overheating of sample was avoided.
The temperature must be less than bitumen heating temperature+ 28 0C.

Fig 7 Heating of aggregate and filler

5.4 . Heating of bitumen

60/70 bitumen will be heated with specified temperature to liquefy. So that it will mix
with all aggregates and fibre easily. Generally the bitumen is heated up-to 150-160 oC,
depending on the results of fire point and flash point. While heating of bitumen precautions
should be taken.

Fig 8 Heating of bitumen

5.5. Mixing of components

All components (aggregate, cement, bitumen and fibre) are mixed to make a
homogeneous SMA mix sample at a specified temperature for a good mixing.

Fig 9 Mixing of components

5.6. Putting in a mould

For preparation of samples the mixture prepared was put in moulds. A standard mould
is a cylindrical mould made of iron having a diameter of 100 mm, 63.5 mm height. Mould
was also heated before use so that before hammering mixture may be cool down because the
specimen may absorb the coolness of mould and it wont have the better compaction.

Fig 10 Mould specimen

5.7. Compaction

After putting SMA sample in mould hammering was performed. For hammering a
standard hammer was used. Usually hammering was done by giving 50 or 75 blows to each
side of specimen. In this research each sample was given 50 blows each on both faces,
because here 50 blows are enough to gap graded mix. 75 blows will be used dense graded
mix. For hammering first of all mould was attached to a fixed arrangement to make sure that
mould is not staggered during hammering. A piece of paper of size of mould was put in
mould over fitting so that mix is not glued to fitting. For the same purpose oiling was done in
inner faces of mould and bottom of hammer.

Fig 11 Hammer

5.8. Finalizing the sample

After hammering, the sample will be taken out of mould. Name sticks representing
samples binder content and sample number are glued to sample to recognize it later on. Then
the sample will be cool down to room temperature. Why because we have to the test at 60 0C
but the specimen may have higher temperature, so we will cool it down and after that we will
place in the water-bath to get the temperature 60 0C.

Fig 12 Finalized SMA sample


When the sample is prepared it was supposed to go under Marshall Test. The test was
performed as per ASTM D 6927 06. This test gives the results of flow and stability number.
To get that first of all dry weight of samples is taken and recorded. Weight of sample in water
is also desirable. Because sample has voids so water may enter in voids. To prevent that wax
was coated around the sample. Wax was heated up-to liquification then the sample is
immersed in wax by holding it through a thread holding the sample. Once the sample was
dipped fully in wax it is allowed to cool so that wax is glued to sample properly. Here we are
adding wax to avoid absorption of water from the water bath.

Fig 13Wax coated sample

After wax coating the weight of waxed sample is taken. Now weight of sample in
water is also recorded. After weighing the sample is put in water bath before testing up-to a
maximum of 30+ 5 minutes, in water bath the temperature of 600 C is maintained. Because,
the Marshall test should be performed at 600 C. If sample is heated more than that
temperature the wax may come out. So overheating is avoided. Only 6 samples may be put in
Water-bath. Here we can maintain the 60 0 c in the oven also but if we use the oven then SMA
sample may get cracks.

Fig 14 Moulds in water-bath

Marshall Test: The method of testing of Marshall Test is given in ASTM D 6927-06.
Marshall Apparatus which is used for testing has following parts:

6.1.1 Breaking Head:

The testing head consists of upper and lower cylindrical segments of cast gray or
ductile iron, cast steel, or annealed steel tubing. The lower segment was mounted on a base
having two perpendicular guide rods or posts (12.5 mm in diameter) extending upwards.
Guide sleeves in the upper segment direct the two segments together without appreciable
binding or loose motion on the guide rods.

6.1.2. Compression Loading Machine

The compression loading machine may consist of a screw jack mounted in a testing
frame and is designed to load at a uniform vertical movement of 50.8 mm/min.

6.1.3. Load Measuring Device

A calibrated 20 KN ring dynamometer with a dial indicator to measure ring deflection

for applied loads is provided. The 20 KN ring have a minimum sensitivity of 50 N. The dial
indicator is graduated in increments of 0.0025 mm or finer. The ring dynamometer is attached
to the testing frame and an adapter is provided to transmit load to the breaking head. Usually
this is called as proving ring.

6.1.4. Flow-meter

For measuring the flow a dial gauge is used. By dial gauge initial and final values
during test is recorded and their difference is taken as flow for the sample.

6.2.Test procedure

The guide rods and inside surfaces of the test head segments prior to conducting the
test are thoroughly cleaned. Guide rods are lubricated so that the upper test head segment
slides freely over them. Excess water from the inside of the testing head segments is wiped A
specimen from the Water-bath is removed and placed in the lower segment of the testing
head. The upper segment of the testing head on the specimen is placed, and the complete
assembly is paced in position in the loading machine. The dial gauge is placed in position
over one of the guide rods. The elapsed time from removal of the test specimens from the
water bath to the final load determination should not exceed 30 s, because if it is more than
30 sec then the sample temperature may decrease than 60 0C.



In the analysis we will calculate the following parameters to get the graphs and to
know the stability and other properties.


Bulk specific gravity (Gsb) of aggregates

Effective specific gravity (Gse) of aggregates in mix

Apparent specific gravity (Ga) of aggregates

Theoretical maximum specific gravity (Gmm) of the mix

Bulk specific gravity (Gmb) of the mix

Voids in mineral aggregates (VMA)

Air voids (VA)

Voids filled with bitumen (VFB)


7.1. Stability vs. bitumen content

From the parameter values and form Marshall test results we will draw the graphs and
we calculate the optimum bitumen content and check the stability number increment.

In this graph values of stability and bitumen content are plotted against bitumen in x-
axis and stability in y-axis.

Stability: Resistance against the deformation.

In the below graph we can observe that, by using the fibre stability values are
increasing, so the fibre used bitumen is used at the high traffic and high loaded areas.Here at
starting the curve is increasing that means the stability values are incresing because by
incresing the bitumen content the binding nature will be developed and proper cohesion will
be there so the strength and stability will increse up-to certain extent. After that if we are
incresing the bitumen content the bitumen content will be more and bitumen will act as
lubricant and tha spaces between aggregate to aggregate will be more, this leads to reduction
of strength and stability. Thats why the curve is decreasing after some extent of
bitumen.From this graph we will come to know that by adding fibre bitumen content is
decresing so, cost will be lowered and adding fibre is cost effetive.

Fig 16 Stability vs. Bitumen Content

7.2. Flow value vs. bitumen content

Values of flow values in mm and bitumen content in bitumen in %ge are plotted
against bitumen in x-axis and Flow in y-axis.

Fig 17. Flow vs. bitumen content

Flow value: The deformation value at which the failure is occurring.

By increasing the bitumen content the deformation nature will be increased thats
even though we are increasing the bitumen content the curve is going upward. If the flow
value is low and stability is high then that is the best result.

7.3. VMA vs. bitumen content

Values of VMA values in percentage and bitumen content in bitumen in percentage

are plotted against bitumen in x-axis and VMA in y-axis.

Fig 18 VMA vs. bitumen content

At starting while increasing the bitumen content the voids between the mineral
aggregate will be filled and binding nature will be developed thats why at starting the curve
is decreasing. But after adding excess bitumen the bitumen will act as lubricant and increase
the space between aggregate and mineral aggregate leads to increment in the voids in the
mineral aggregate, causes the curve increasing.

7.4. VFB vs. bitumen content

Values of VFB values in %ge and bitumen content in bitumen in %ge are plotted
against bitumen in x-axis and VFB in y-axis.

Fig 19. VFB vs. bitumen content

In the above graph the curve is increasing why because while adding the bitumen the
voids filled with bitumen will be increase. The voids will filled by bitumen. Thats why even
though we are increasing the bitumen content the curve is upward.

7.5. VA vs. bitumen content

Values of VA values in percentage and bitumen content in bitumen in percentage are

plotted against bitumen in x-axis and VA in y-axis.

Fig 20. VA vs. bitumen content

In the above graph the curve is decreasing. While we are adding the bitumen it will
fill the voids, so the voids content will be decrease by increase in bitumen content.

7.6. Unit weight vs. bitumen content

Values of unit weight (Gmm) values in kg/m3 and bitumen content in bitumen in %ge
are plotted against bitumen in x-axis and Unit wt. in y-axis.

Fig 21. Unit wt. vs. bitumen content

While increasing the bitumen content voids will be filled and density will be
increased. By adding the bitumen aggregate will be lower, then the volume of aggregate will
be lowered and bitumen volume will be higher. The mass will increase and the aggregate
volume will decrease.


B1 = Percentage of bitumen content at maximum stability
B2 = Percentage of bitumen content at maximum unit weight
B3 = Percentage of bitumen content at specified percent of sir voids in the mix

Here the specified void ratio is 3 to 5 % of air voids, we have to maintain some air
void content because in summer the bitumen may melt, at that time if there is air voids then
bitumen will go to the voids if not crack may propagate. And on service days if heavy
compaction happens on road then the bitumen will settle into the voids, if there is no air voids
the surface will get crack. If the void ratio is high then there is a chance to the bitumen to act
as lubricant, and air entraining will be more, bleeding may also occur. So we should maintain
some values of air voids. Many standards are following 4 % air voids.

7.8. Comparison with other Binders

Table 7:

Type of Optimum Density Stability Flow Air Voids in Mineral

Stabilizers Binder (Kg/m3) (kN) (mm) voids(%) Aggregate(VMA)

Jute fibre 6.2 2301 7.1 3.3 4.5 18.6

Imported 6.1 2313 7.4 3.2 4.5 18.5
CRMB 6.2 2314 10.5 2.9 4.5 18.4

CRMB 6.0 2306 8.9 N.A 4.0 17.06

DBM 5.21 2365 12.8 3 4 16
BC MIX 5.66 2361 13.2 2.6 3.8 17

Sisal 5.7 2424 10 3.55 4 17

Sisal fibre 5.3 2403 13.8 2.47 4 16

From this table we will come to a conclusion that almost all properties are giving
better results when compared with other mixes and other fibre mixes. By adding sisal fibre
the density is increasing, unit weight will increase, void ration will decrease. Voids in mineral
aggregate is also low.

Here the optimum binder content is low for sisal fibre when compare with the other
mixes and fibres, if the optimum binder content is low then cost of bitumen will be low and it
is cost effective.

The stability values are also more to the sisal fibre, we can use the sisal added
bitumen where the traffic is more and also load of traffic is more.

8. References:

Kumar Pawan, Chandra Satish and Bose Sunil, 'Laboratory investigations

on SMA mixes with different additives', International Journal of
Pavement Engineering, Volume 8, Issue1, March 2007, Pages11-18.

H. Behbahani, S. Nowbakht, H. Fazaeli and J. Rahmani ,Effects of Fibre

Type and Content on the Rutting Performance of Stone Matrix Asphalt,
Journal of Applied Science Year: 2009, Volume: 9, Issue 10, Page No.

B.Tech. Project Report by Sudhansu Shukla,Utilisation of Sisal fibre in

Stone matrix asphalt , NIT, Rourkela, 2009, Page No.55.

Bradely J. Putman, Serji N. Amirkhanian, Utilisation of Waste fibres in

stone matrix asphalt mixtures, Resources, Conservation and Recycling,
Volume 42,Issue 3,October 2004.

C. Kamaraj, G. Kumar, G. Sharma, P.K. Jain and K.V. Babu Laboratory

Studies on the Behaviour of Stone Matrix Asphalt Vis-Vis Dense Graded
Bituminous Mixes Using Natural Rubber Powder (Wet Process),
Highway Research Bulletin, No 71, December 2004.

V.S. Punith, R.Sridhar, Dr. Sunil Bose,K.K. Kumar,Dr. A Veeraragavan,

Comparative studies on the behaviour of stone matrix asphalt and asphalt
concrete mixtures utilizing reclaimed polyethylene, Highway Research
Bulletin, No 71, December 2004