FIDE Trainers Commission
Advanced Chess School
Volume 6
The Art of Exchanges
Efstratios Grivas
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 1
First Edition in PDF  2015
English Copyright FIDE 2015 (office@fide.com  www.fide.com)
Copyright Efstratios Grivas 2014 (GrivasEfs@yahoo.co.uk  www.GrivasChess.com)
The rights of Efstratios Grivas to be identified as the author of this work have been asserted in
accordance with the International Copyright, Designs and Patents Act.
All rights reserved. This book is distributed for free to the FIDE certified and licenced trainers,
subject to the condition that it shall not, by way of trade or otherwise, be lent, sold, hired out or
otherwise circulated in any form of binding or cover other than that in which it is published and
without a similar condition including this condition being imposed on the subsequent owner.
Limit of Liability and Disclaimer of Warranty: FIDE makes no representation or warranties with
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liable for any loss of profit or any other commercial damage, including but not limited to special,
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ISBN13: 9786188120082
ISSN13: 9786188120020
Cover and drawings by Nicolas Sphicas
Nicolas Sphicas, Symmetric Opening, 2009, oil on canvas, 35x50 cm.
(sphicasnicolas@gmail.comwww.chess.gr/sphicaswww.logicalchess.com/info/graphics/sphicas)
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Commissioning Editor: Efstratios Grivas (www.GrivasChess.com)
Assistant Editors: Nicolas Sphicas and Vasilis Vrettos
Cover: Nicolas Sphicas
English Proofer: Kevin OConnell (www.kochess.com)
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 2
Contents
TitleDescription 1
Colophon .... 2
Contents ................ 3
Bibliography .. 3
Foreword  Kirsan Ilyumzhinov ..... 4
Symbols ................. 4
The Art of Exchanges ... 5
Emptying the Queenside (Kingside) .. 6
Exchanges to Attack .. 13
Exchanges to Defend 23
Wrong Exchanges . 37
Blocked Positions .. 42
Exchanges in the Endgame . 45
Model Games of Exchanging . 56
Quality over Quantity ... 70
Index of Games .. 79
CV  Efstratios Grivas .. 80
Bibliography
A Chess Odyssey; Efstratios Grivas; Chesscafe.com 2007
British Chess Magazine; Various Contributors; BCM 19872010
Chess College 1: Strategy; Efstratios Grivas; Gambit 2006
Chess College 2: Pawn Play; Efstratios Grivas; Gambit 2006
Chess Today (Internet Newspaper); Alexander Baburin; 20062014
ChessBase Mega Database; Various Contributors; ChessBase 2014
Informator; Various Contributors; Informator 19662014
Modern Chess Planning; Efstratios Grivas; Gambit 2007
New In Chess (Magazine & Yearbook); Various Contributors; Interchess BV 19842014
Wikipedia
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 3
Foreword
FIDE President Kirsan Ilyumzhinov
Chess has existed as a sport played at a competitive level for centuries. The common code
governing the Laws of Chess is relatively recent, and the foundation of Fdration Internationale
des checs (FIDE), in Paris in 1924, is even more modern. FIDE currently has 181 member
federations spread across all continents. Titles for players were introduced by FIDE in 1950, and
titles for Arbiters and Organizers followed. From 2005 we are moving to a new phase, with titles
for Trainers.
Chess is on the increase in schools across the world. It is part of the mainstream curriculum in
many countries. It is a goal of FIDE to make chess an educational tool, and generate worldwide
popularity for the game. Examples of the many educational advantages of chess are: shows the
need to make people realize the importance of advance planning; develops analytic and accurate
thinking; shows the necessity for a combative spirit; teaches fair play and emphasizes the need for
preparation and hard work for success. However, with the increasing population of chess players,
comes the need for trainers to assist with their development.
This is a new concept of the everactive FIDE Trainers Commission. This series is dedicated to
advanced subjects, consisting of 80page books. We do hope that we will be able to deliver 34
such books annually, increasing the level and the education of our trainers worldwide. This series
will provide excellent manuals for trainers and fulfils a considerable need in modern chess
literature, concentrating on the technical side of the game, but also covering various other topics
and providing information. The best trainers will contribute to this series, which will be an
essential tool in the preparation of trainers at all levels for the future. It will ensure that the next
generation of players will be at a great advantage over those that have gone before.
Symbols
+ check = equal position
++ double check unclear position
# checkmate with compensation
!! brilliant move Black is slightly better
! good move Black has a large advantage
!? interesting move + Black is winning
?! dubious move 10 the game ends in a win for White
? bad move  the game ends in a draw
?? blunder 01 the game ends in a win for Black
+ White is winning (D) see next diagram
Whitehas a large advantage White to play
White is slightly better Black to play
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 4
The Art of Exchanges
Concept 2. What stays on the board is more
The problem of when to or when not to important than what comes off the board.
exchange pieces is at the heart of the game 3. Generally speaking, when you have an
of chess. Many points are won or lost based advantage in space, it is recommended to avoid
on this decision. making unforced exchanges.
But lets see how Wikipedia describes the 4. When exchanging into a pawn endgame,
idea of exchanges: you should be absolutely sure about the
In the tactics and strategy in the board result, because even the slightest advantage
game of chess, an exchange (exchanging) or may prove decisive, e.g. a slightly more
trade (trading) of chess pieces is series of active king.
closely related moves, typically sequential,
in which the two players capture each
other's pieces.
Any types of pieces except the kings may
possibly be exchanged, i.e. captured in an
exchange, although a king can capture an
opponent's piece.
Either the player of the white or the black But why is the concept of exchanges so
pieces may make the first capture of the valuable; what can it really offer us? Lets
other player's piece in an exchange, try to form a guide:
followed by the other player capturing a 1. Exchanges can allow us to successfully
piece of the first player, often referred to as launch an attack or initiative on certain parts
a recapture. of the board.
Commonly, the word exchange is used 2. Exchanges can allow us to successfully
when the pieces exchanged are of the same defend against the attack or the initiative of
type or of about equal value, which is an our opponent.
even exchange. According to chess tactics, a 3. Exchanges can help to win or defend a
bishop and a knight are usually of about better or a worse endgame.
equal value. Exchanges happen in every game and like
If the values of the pieces exchanged are it or not, you will face them! So, if you cant
not equal, then the player who captures the avoid them, try to enjoy them!
higher value of piece(s) can be said to be up But even when exchanges (or other
the exchange or wins the exchange, while aspects) are not of a help and we fall into a
the opponent who captures the lower value bad position, I really love to remember
of piece(s) is down the exchange or loses the Yasser Seirawans quote:
exchange. One of the truest tests of a grandmaster's
Exchanges occur very frequently in chess, strength  in fact the strength of all players 
in almost every game and usually multiple is this: When you're material down and you
times per game. Exchanges are often related know your opponent is going to grind away,
to the tactics or strategy in a chess game, what do you do? There is no predetermined
but often simply occur over the course of a answer.
game. My advice is to distance yourself from the
Well, thats a good start, but we will try to position. That is, stop looking at concrete
explain the concept in a somewhat more variations. Instead, answer some basic
sophisticated way. The following guidelines questions: Where are my pieces? Where are
may play a role: my opponent's pieces? Should I search for
1. One side usually gains more from every chances on the kingside? queenside?
exchange. Make sure it is you! centre?
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 5
Emptying the Queenside (Kingside)
Concept normally no problem to hold the draw.
A queenside or kingside that is empty of 2. If he comes under pressure, he should
pawns (along with the central pawns) is always think to exchange some pieces, even
rarely met with. Of course this is a result of at the cost of a pawn. Then by opting for an
exchanges (mostly pawns) which took place ending with 3:4 or 2:3 pawns on the same
earlier. flank, he gets fair chances to hold the draw.
In my opinion this happens because chess But then there comes a question: Which
players tend to think (in their vast majority) ending is the most acceptable for the
that there are not enough satisfactory defending side? Here comes the value table
chances to earn anything more than a draw, (one piece for each side):
as the limited presence of pawns can most 1. Bishops.
often help the weaker side. 2. Rooks.
Well, this is a completely wrong attitude 3. Queens.
for a chess players thinking process. 4. Knights.
Although nobody can argue that there is a In our first example things went easy for
fair amount of truth behind this thinking, we both sides, offering a natural result.
must keep in mind that every position is
unique and there do exist not only pawns on Timman Jan
a chess board but also other, stronger pieces! Spassky Boris
C91 Montreal 1979
XABCDEFGHY 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Lb5 a6 4.La4 Nf6
8++++( 5.00 Le7 6.Re1 b5 7.Lb3 d6 8.c3 00
9.d4 Lg4 10.d5 Na5 11.Lc2 c6 12.h3
7++zppzpp' Lc8 13.dxc6 Qc7 14.Nbd2 Qxc6 15.Nf1
Nc4 16.Ng3 Re8 17.a4 Lb7 18.Ld3
6++++& Lf8 19.Qe2 d5 20.axb5 axb5 21.Rxa8
5++++% Lxa8 22.exd5 Nxd5 23.Nf5 (D)
4++++$ XABCDEFGHY
3++++# 8l++rvlk+(
2++PzPPzP" 7+++pzpp'
1++++! 6+q+++&
xabcdefghy 5+p+nzpN+%
Actually a board without central and 4+n+++$
queenside (or central and kingside) pawns,
but full of other pieces is a hard nut to 3+zPL+N+P#
handle. But the psychological frontier is 2zP+QzPP+"
strong and can wrongly guide us
There exist many more open files and 1+vLtRmK!
diagonals, giving both the light and heavy
pieces more ground to act and eventually
xabcdefghy
there might be a battle full of tactics on the 23...e4!
cards. With this neat combination, Black succeeds
The weaker side should opt for the in exchanging most of the pieces plus the
following: queenside pawns, getting nearer to the draw.
1. Exchange some pieces. Then there is 24.Lxe4 Nxc3 25.bxc3
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 6
25.Lxc6 Rxe2 26.Lxa8 Rxe1+ 27.Nxe1 XABCDEFGHY
Ne2+ 28.Kf1 Nxc1 is preferable for Black.
25...Rxe4 26.Qxe4 Qxe4 27.Rxe4 Lxe4 8+wq+k+(
28.N5d4 b4 7trl+vlpzpp'
28...Nd6 29.La3.
29.Nd2! 6++p+n+&
Securing the draw.
29...Nxd2 30.Lxd2 bxc3 31.Lxc3 (D) 5+L+++%
XABCDEFGHY 4n+NsNP+Q+$
8++vlk+( 3++++#
7+++pzpp' 2vL+zPPzP"
6++++& 1+tR+mK!
5++++% xabcdefghy
There are no queenside pawns, but, with
4+sNl++$ only a pair of rooks exchanged, this is not an
3+vL++P# important factor.
26.Lxa4?
2++zPP+" Wrong! White could and should have played
1+++mK! 26.Nxe6! Black had to go on: 26...Qc8!
(26...fxe6? 27.Ne5! Nxe5 [27...Qd6
xabcdefghy 28.Nxg6 hxg6 29.Lxa4 Rxa4 30.Qxg6
The central and queenside pawns are gone. Lf8 31.Lxg7 Lxg7 32.Qe8+ ] 28.Lxe5
What is also important is that most of the Lf6 29.Rc7 Kh8 30.Rd7 Qxd7
pieces are exchanged and the remaining light [30...Qg8 31.Lxf6 gxf6 32.Qf4 Qf8
pieces cannot create any threat. So, a draw is 33.Qc7 +] 31.Lxd7 Nc5 32.Qh5 Ra8
the natural outcome. 33.Lb5 ) 27.Nb6! (27.Lxa4? Rxa4
 28.Nb6 Qxc1+ 29.Lxc1 Ra1 30.g3
Rxc1+ 31.Kg2 Rc6 ) 27...Qxe6
(27...Nxb6? 28.Rxc8+ Lxc8 29.Qd1!
Our second example is quite instructive. In Lxe6 30.Qd4 +) 28.Qxe6 fxe6 29.Nxa4
such positions a good tactical eye is a must. Lxe4 (D)
The ex FIDE World Champion was famous XABCDEFGHY
for his tactical abilities and obviously he was
able to find his way 8+++k+(
Kramnik Vladimir 7tr+vlzpp'
Kasparov Garry
D27 Moscow 2001
6++p+n+&
(Based on notes by Garry Kasparov) 5+L+++%
1.d4 d5 2.c4 dxc4 3.Nf3 e6 4.e3 a6 5.Lxc4
c5 6.00 Nf6 7.Ld3 b6 8.dxc5 Lxc5 9.a3 4N++l++$
Lb7 10.Qe2 00 11.Nbd2 Nbd7 12.b4
Le7 13.Lb2 a5 14.bxa5 Rxa5 15.Lb5
3++++#
Qb8 16.a4 Rc8 17.Rfc1 Ra7 18.Rxc8+ 2vL+zPPzP"
Qxc8 19.Rc1 Qa8 20.Nd4 Nc5 21.Nc4
Nd5 22.e4 Nf4 23.Qg4 Ng6 24.Nxb6
1+tR+mK!
Qd8 25.Nc4 Nxa4 (D) xabcdefghy
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 7
Achieving a drawn endgame. Two pieces v. rook with four pawns for each
26...Rxa4 27.Qd1 side on the same flank and a healthy pawn
Options were no better: 27.Qf3 Rxc4! structure is nearly always a win for the
28.Rxc4 Ne5 29.Qb3 Nxc4 30.Qxc4 pieces. The first step for Black is to activate
Lxe4 and 27.Qe2 Lg5 28.Rd1 Qc7 . all his pieces.
27...Rb4! (D) 34...g6 35.g3 Kg7 36.Kg2
XABCDEFGHY 36.Rc8 Qa1+! 37.Kg2 Ld4 38.Rc7 Qe1
39.Rb7 e5 + as the black knight comes to
8+wq+k+( the excellent e6square.
36...e5 37.Ra4 Qd6 38.Qc4 Ne6 39.Qd5
7+l+vlpzpp' Qb8! 40.Ra8 Qb2 41.Ra2 Qc3 42.Qd2
6++p+n+& Qb3 43.Qd5 Qb8 44.Ra8 Qc7!
After repeating some moves, testing White,
5++++% Black returns to the right path.
4trNsNP++$ 45.Ra6 Ld4 46.Qc6 Qe7 47.Ra8
47.Qc2 Qg5 +.
3++++# 47...Qf6 48.Qc2 Ng5 49.Ra3
2vL+zPPzP" 49.Qe2 Qc6 +.
49...Qe6 50.h4 Qh3+ 51.Kg1 Ne6
1+tRQ+mK! Black is attacking the white king with three
pieces; White is defending with two.
xabcdefghy Obviously, Black must be on the way to
28.La3? victory. The rest of the game was not that
Although not nice, White was forced to enter difficult:
a worse position minus a pawn: 28.Qc2 52.Rb3
Lg5 29.Rb1 Lxe4 30.Qxe4 Rxc4. Then Or 52.Qe2 Nf4 53.Qf3 Nh5 54.Rb3 Nf6
he should aim to transpose to a drawing 55.Rb7 Qe6 56.Rc7 Qa2 57.Kg2 Ng4!
ending with 3:4 pawns on the same wing. +.
28...Rxc4! 52...Qg4 53.Qd3?!
Black wins material (two pieces for a rook). This loses quickly, but even with the best
29.Rxc4 Lxa3 30.Qb3 La6! 31.Ra4 53.Kh2 Black wins, as after 53...Nc5 54.f3
Lc5 32.Rxa6 Qh5 (54...Qd7 55.Ra3 Qb7 +) 55.Ra3
What else? 32.Nxe6 Qd2! wins on the spot. g5 56.Qg2 g4 + the e4pawn is lost.
32...Qxd4 33.Ra8+ Nf8 34.Qc2 (D) 53...Nc5 54.Qf3 Qxf3 55.Rxf3 Nxe4
XABCDEFGHY 01
8R++snk+( Garry Kasparov again uses his
imagination and excellent tactical
7+++pzpp' education in a near twin in the next game.
6++p++& Timman Jan
Kasparov Garry
5+vl++% C93 Hilversum 1985
4+wqP++$ 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Lb5 a6 4.La4 Nf6
5.00 Le7 6.Re1 b5 7.Lb3 d6 8.c3 00
3++++# 9.h3 Lb7 10.d4 Re8 11.Nbd2 Lf8 12.a3
2+Q+zPPzP" h6 13.Lc2 Nb8 14.b4 Nbd7 15.Lb2 g6
16.c4 exd4 17.cxb5 axb5 18.Nxd4 c6 19.a4
1+++mK! bxa4 20.Lxa4 Qb6 21.b5 cxb5 22.Lxb5
d5 23.Rxa8 Lxa8 24.Qa4 Nc5 25.Qc2
xabcdefghy Rb8 26.exd5 Nxd5 (D)
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 8
XABCDEFGHY 29.Nec6?!
White has lost his way. Also wrong would
8ltr+vlk+( be 29.Lc6? Lxe5 30.Qxc5 (30.Lxa8 Nb4
31.Qe2 Nbd3 +) 30...Rxb2 31.Qxd5
7+++p+' Lxd4 32.Re8+ Kh7 33.Qxd4 Rb1+ +
6wq++pzp& but White had to accept suffering a difficult
position with 29.Nef3 Nf4 30.La3 Nxg2
5+Lsnn++% 31.Re8+ Rxe8 32.Lxe8 Ne6 .
4+sN++$ 29...Lxc6 30.Lxc6 (D)
30.Nxc6 Rxb5 31.Lxg7 Kxg7 +.
3++++P#
XABCDEFGHY
2vLQsNzPP+"
8tr++k+(
1++tRmK!
7+wq+pvl'
xabcdefghy
The only difference from the last example is
6+L++pzp&
the absence of the epawns. This means that 5+snn++%
even if one side loses a pawn, he can draw
by exchanging all the pieces (but one!). 4+sN++$
27.Nc4?! 3++++P#
Too ambitious. White should focus on the
defence with 27.La1 Nf4 28.Lf1 =. 2vLQ+zPP+"
27...Qc7 28.Ne5?! 1++tRmK!
Another inaccuracy. White should have
played 28.Re8! Rxe8 29.Lxe8 Qe7 xabcdefghy
(29...Nb4? 30.Qc3! Lg7 31.Qxb4 Nd3 30...Nf4! 31.Lb5
32.Qa3 Nxb2 33.Lxf7+ Kxf7 34.Nd6+ Also not encouraging was 31.Re8+? Rxe8
Kg8 35.Qxa8+ Kh7 36.Qc6 ; 29...Lg7?
32.Lxe8 Nce6 33.Qxc7 Nxc7 34.Lc6
30.Nb5! Qe7 31.Nbd6 ; 29...Nf4 Lxd4 35.Lxd4 Ne2+ + or 31.Qxc5
30.Ne3 Le4 31.Qc4 Qe7 32.La3 =) Rxb2 32.Nb5 Ne2+! 33.Kh1 (33.Rxe2
30.Qe2 Qxe2 31.Nxe2 Nc7 32.Nb6 Lb7 Rb1+) 33...Qa5 34.Rf1 Nd4 +.
33.Ld7 and he will be able to hold on.
28...Lg7 (D)
XABCDEFGHY
XABCDEFGHY 8tr++k+(
8ltr++k+( 7+wq+pvl'
7+wq+pvl' 6+++pzp&
6+++pzp& 5+Lsn++%
5+LsnnsN+% 4+sNsn+$
4+sN++$ 3++++P#
3++++P# 2vLQ+zPP+"
2vLQ+zPP+" 1++tRmK!
1++tRmK! xabcdefghy
31...Rxb5?
xabcdefghy Black's position is so good that he can even
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 9
afford mistakes! With 31...Nce6! 32.Qxc7 Kramnik Vladimir
(32.Qe4 Lxd4 33.Lxd4 Rxb5) 32...Nxc7 Karpov Anatoly
he could win on the spot. E32 Dos Hermanas 1997
32.Nxb5 Qc6 33.f3 Qxb5 34.Lxg7 Kxg7 1.Nf3 Nf6 2.c4 e6 3.Nc3 Lb4 4.Qc2 00
(D) 5.a3 Lxc3 6.Qxc3 b6 7.b4 Lb7 8.Lb2 d6
XABCDEFGHY 9.e3 Nbd7 10.d4 Ne4 11.Qb3 a5 12.Le2
axb4 13.axb4 Rxa1+ 14.Lxa1 Ndf6 15.0
8++++( 0 Qd7 16.Lb2 Ra8 17.b5 c6 18.bxc6
Qxc6 19.Rc1 Nd7 20.Ne1 Qa4 21.Qxa4
7+++pmk' Rxa4 22.f3 Nef6 23.Ld1 Ra2 24.Nd3
6+++pzp& Kf8 25.Lb3 Ra8 26.e4 Nb8 27.c5 bxc5
28.dxc5 dxc5 29.Nxc5 Lc8 (D)
5+qsn++% XABCDEFGHY
4++sn+$
8rsnl+mk+(
3+++P+P# 7+++pzpp'
2+Q++P+" 6++psn+&
1++tRmK! 5+sN++%
xabcdefghy 4++P++$
Black has again won two pieces for a rook,
but he still must work for his bacon! As in 3+L++P+#
the previous example, he should create an
attack against the white king, as any 2vL++PzP"
potential queen exchange would only serve 1+tR+mK!
to increase White's chances for survival.
35.Qc3+ Kg8 36.Qe5 Nfe6 37.Ra1 Qb7 xabcdefghy
38.Qd6 h5 39.Kh1 Kh7 40.Rc1 Qa7 It seems that Black would be able to hold his
41.Rb1 Ng7 42.Rb8 Nce6 43.Qe5 Nd4 slightly inferior position. But, easier said
44.Rb1 h4! than done! His pieces are placed passively,
The black knights are ready to occupy while White's pieces are active and
excellent positions and in harmony with threatening. One must also note the presence
their queen to deliver the final blow to the of the advantage of the bishop pair.
white king. 30.e5!
45.Qb8 Qe7 46.Qb4 Qf6 47.Qf8 Ne2 Gaining more space.
48.Rd1 Nf5 49.Qb8 Ne3 50.Qd8 Qf4 30...Ne8?
51.Re1 Nf1 A fatal mistake. Black should have opted for
51...Nf5 was leading to a forced mate: the variation 30...Nd5! 31.Lxd5 (31.Ne4
52.Rxe2 Ng3+ 53.Kg1 Qc1+ but the text Ld7 32.Rd1 Lc6 ; 31.Rd1 Na6!
move is also good, forcing White to resign 32.Lxd5 exd5 33.Rxd5 Nxc5 34.Rxc5
as after 52.Rxf1 Ng3+ 53.Kg1 Qe3+ the Le6 =) 31...exd5 32.Nd3 Lf5!? (32...Nd7
end is clearly in sight. 33.Nb4 ; 32...Na6 33.Nf4 Lb7 34.La3+
01 Kg8 35.Ld6 ) 33.Nf4 Ra5 34.Lc3 Rb5
Passivity is never welcomed by any 35.Ld4 Ke8 36.Nh5 Kf8 37.Rc7 Na6
serious chess player. Even when things seem 38.Ra7 when White stands better but Black
virtually to have reached the desired has fair chances of fighting for his half
objective, accidents might still be waiting point.
to happen! Take a good look at the next 31.La4!
game: Threatening La3 or Rd1.
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 10
31...Nc7 Ovetchkin Roman
Alternatives such as 31...Ke7 32.La3 Kd8 Lintchevski Daniil
33.Rd1+ Kc7 34.Lxe8 Rxa3 35.Lxf7 or D27 Olginka 2011
31...f6 32.Lxe8 Kxe8 33.exf6 gxf6 34.Lxf6 1.d4 d5 2.Nf3 Nf6 3.c4 dxc4 4.e3 e6
do not seem to help much either. 5.Lxc4 c5 6.00 a6 7.dxc5 Lxc5 8.Qxd8+
32.La3 Kg8 (D) Kxd8 9.b3 Ke7 10.Lb2 Nbd7 11.Nbd2
XABCDEFGHY b5 12.Le2 Lb7 13.a4 Rhb8 14.Nd4 Lb4
15.Rfd1 bxa4 16.Rxa4 a5 17.Nc4 Nd5
8rsnl++k+( 18.Lf3 Nc5 19.Raa1 f6 20.La3 Lxa3
21.Rxa3 a4 22.bxa4 Nxa4 23.Rb1 Nc5
7+sn+pzpp' (D)
6++p++& XABCDEFGHY
5+sNzP+% 8rtr+++(
4L++++$ 7+l+mkzpp'
3vL++P+# 6++pzp+&
2+++PzP" 5+snn++%
1+tR+mK! 4+NsN++$
xabcdefghy 3tR+zPL+#
33.Ne4! Rxa4
There is nothing positive for Black anymore:
2++zPPzP"
33...Nba6 34.Ld6 Lb7 (34...Nd5 35.Lc6 1+R++mK!
+; 34...Ra7 35.Lb5! f5 36.exf6 Nxb5
37.Rxc8+ Kf7 38.Rf8+ Kg6 39.Le5 +) xabcdefghy
35.Lxc7 Lxe4 (35...Rc8 36.Nd6) 36.fxe4 The queenside and (partly) the centre are
Rc8 37.Lb5 Rxc7 (37...Nxc7 38.Ld7) empty of pawns, so it is natural to think that
38.Rd1. with some piece exchanges which can soon
34.Rxc7 La6 follow, the draw is in hand. And that's a
'Unfortunately' nothing works for Black logical thought but here White, on the move,
anymore: 34...Ld7 35.Ld6 (threatening can cause Black some nasty problems...
Rb7 or Nc5) 35...Ra1+ 36.Kf2 Rb1 24.Ra5!!
37.Nc5 +. Such quiet moves are usually hard to find 
35.Nc5! Black is near to being lost...
Black resigned due to the variation 24...Nd7?
35...Rxa3 (35...Rc4 36.Nxa6) 36.Nxa6. A more stubborn try was 24...Rc8 25.Rxc5
Rxc5 26.Rxb7+ Nc7 27.Nd2 Ra1+
So, do you still feel safe by exchanging the
queenside? 28.Nf1 Rcc1 29.Le2 , when White will
10 have to work at converting his 'material'
advantage. Note that 24...Rxa5? was bad as
By now it has been made clear that there is
well after 25.Nxa5 Kd7 26.Rb5! +.
no easy time with so much space available
for tactics! 25.Rxb7! Rxb7 26.Nc6+!
The players who think about these Black had probably calculated only
positions as being easy draws, they are the 26.Rxa8? when 26...Rb1+ mates.
ones who will tend to lose the majority of 26...Kf7
them! 26...Ke8 allows 27.Rxa8+.
We will conclude the chapter with two 27.Nd6+
more recent examples: 10
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 11
Ld7! and Black protects all his pieces.
XABCDEFGHY
8tr++k+(
Zvjaginsev Vadim 7++trpzpp'
Lysyj Igor
C00 Kazan 2014 6+vl++&
1.g3 Nf6 2.Lg2 d5 3.Nf3 e6 4.00 Le7
5.d3 00 6.Nbd2 c5 7.e4 Nc6 8.Re1 b5
5++++%
9.exd5 exd5 10.Nb3 Re8 11.h3 Qb6 12.c3
Lb7 13.Le3 Rad8 14.d4 c4 15.Nc5 Lc8
4++++$
16.b4 cxb3 17.axb3 b4 18.cxb4 Qxb4 3+l+vLzPP#
19.Rc1 Ne4 20.Nxe4 dxe4 21.Ld2 Qb6 2++zPL+"
22.Rxe4 Lf5 23.Re1 Nxd4 24.Le3 Nxf3+
25.Qxf3 Qb5 26.Lxa7 Le6 27.Qb7 1tR+tRmK!
Qxb7 28.Lxb7 La3 29.Ra1 Re7 30.
Lb6 Rb8 31.Lg2 Lxb3 (D)
xabcdefghy
33.Ra6! Lc7
XABCDEFGHY 33...Le5 34.Rb1 g5! (34...g6 35.Ra3 Le6
8tr++k+( 36.Rxb8+ Lxb8 37.Ra8 Re8 38.Lf4 +)
was the least evil, but still Black was
7++trpzpp' losing: 35.Ra3 Le6 36.Rxb8+ Lxb8
6vL+++& 37.Ra8 Re8 38.La7 Lxa7 39.Rxe8+.
34.Rb1
5++++% Black has no good way to prevent Ra3 then
a trade on b8 and a pin on the 8th rank!
4++++$ 34...Le5
3vll++zPP# 34...Ree8 35.La7 forces the rook to a
square where it is not defended: 35...Rb4
2++zPL+" 36.Ra3 and Black cannot attack the bishop
1tR+tRmK! on a7 because of the bishop on g2.
35.Ra3 Lc4 36.Rxb8+ Lxb8 37.Ra8 (D)
xabcdefghy XABCDEFGHY
32.Le3!
A very unusual precision in this position. 8Rvl++k+(
Despite the symmetrical pawn structure,
Black has to be very, very careful because of
7++trpzpp'
the unique positioning of the pieces. That 6++++&
unique positioning represents some dangers
due to pins. 5++++%
32...Ld6? (D) 4+l+++$
A quite bad move! 32...Lb2! was forced:
33.Rab1 La4! (33...La2? 34.La7! Lxb1 3++vLzPP#
35.Rxe7 Rd8 36.Rb7! [note that the king 2++zPL+"
is also in danger!] 36...Rd1+ 37.Kh2 Le5
38.f4! Ld6 39.Rd7, and Black loses due to 1+++mK!
the pin down the dfile. He has no time for
39...Lc2: 40.Rd8+ Lf8 41.Ld5! and Lc5 is
xabcdefghy
coming. Black loses the exchange and the ga A studylike position!
me] 34.Re2 Le5 35.Rxb8+ Lxb8 36.Ra2 10
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 12
Exchanges to Attack
Concept 26.axb5 d3) 24...Ld5 (after 24...Rxe6
When on the attack it is of course useful to 25.Qxe6 Qf6? loses a bishop: 26.Qd7+)
exchange important defensive pieces that 25.Re7+ Kg8!? (not 25...Lf7? 26.Qe5!
our opponent has based his defence on. + and after 25...Kf8 26.Re8+ Qxe8
As usual, we are obliged to evaluate 27.Lxe8 Rxe8 28.Qb4+ followed by Qc5
correctly and identify what is important, White eliminates the d4 pawn, gaining
what should be exchanged and what should winning chances) 26.axb5! (26.Re8+?!
remain on the board. Qxe8 27.Lxe8 Re6! is good for Black)
Anand Viswanathan 26...Qd6 and Black's position is obviously
Leko Peter dangerous, though it is not easy to show a
D43 Moscow 2009 convincing advantage for White.
1.d4 d5 2.c4 c6 3.Nf3 Nf6 4.Nc3 e6 24.Rg6+ Kh7 25.axb5 Rf6 26.Rxf6
5.Lg5 h6 6.Lh4 dxc4 7.e4 g5 8.Lg3 b5 After 26.Qe2 Lf5!? (26...Rxg6? 27.Qe4!
9.Le2 Lb7 10.00 Nbd7 11.Ne5 Lg7 or 26...Lb7 27.Rxf6 Qxf6 28.Qxc4 )
12.Nxd7 Nxd7 13.Ld6 a6 14.a4 e5 27.Rxf6 Qxf6 28.Qxc4!? transposes to the
15.Lg4 exd4 16.e5 c5 17.Re1 Nxe5 game but 28.Qf3 can lead to a draw in the
18.Lxe5 00 19.Lxg7 Kxg7 20.Ne2 f5 line 28...Ra7 29.Rxa6 Rxa6 30.Qb7+
21.Lh5 f4 (D) Qg7 31.bxa6 c3 32.bxc3 dxc3 33.Ld1 c2
34.Lxc2 Lxc2 35.f3 Lb3! 36.Qxb3 Qa1+
XABCDEFGHY 37.Kf2 Qxa6 38.Qf7+ Kh8 =.
8r+wqtr+( 26...Qxf6 27.Qc2+ Lf5
27...Qf5 is best answered by 28.Qe2!
7+l++mk' rather than 28.Qxf5+ Lxf5 29.Lf3 Rd8
6p+++zp& 30.bxa6 g4! with the idea of 31.a7 gxf3
32.a8Q Rxa8 33.Rxa8 c3 34.bxc3 dxc3 =
5+pzp+zpL% and after 28.Qxc4 axb5 29.Lg6+ is specta
4P+pzpzp+$ cular, but leads only to a draw: 29...Qxg6!
30.Qc7+ Kg8 31.Qd8+ Kh7 =.
3++++# 28.Qxc4 Rc8 29.Qd5 (D)
2zP+NzPPzP" XABCDEFGHY
1tR+QtRmK! 8+r+++(
xabcdefghy 7++++k'
22.Nxd4 6p++wqzp&
A shocking novelty, obviously fully ana
lysed at home beforehand. White sacrifices a 5+P+Q+lzpL%
knight, deviating from 22.b4 cxb3 23.Qxb3 4+zpzp+$
Qd5 24.Qh3 which occurred in the games
Radjabov,TAnand,V Mainz 2006 and 3++++#
Kramnik,VAronian,L Wijk aan Zee 2008.
22...cxd4
2zP+zPPzP"
22...Qxd4? is out of the question because of 1tR++mK!
23.Re7+.
23.Re6! Lc8 xabcdefghy
The alternative was 23...Rf6 24.Qe1!? White has regained both sacrificed pawns
(avoiding 24.Qe2 Ld5 25.Re7+ Kg8! and stands better. Maybe Black is able to
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 13
hold objectively, but he has two problems: the pawn.
the weakened king and White's bpawn 35...d2 36.Lxf5 Qxf5 37.Qd4+ Kh7
(which is more dangerous than Black's d 38.Qxd2
pawn). In practice Black's defence is highly Material has been won and White has only
unpleasant. And Leko also had a third to convert his extra pawn.
problem: he was short of time! 38...Rf7 39.f3 h5?!
29...axb5 30.h3! A decisive weakening.
Avoiding 30.Qxb5 g4!? . 40.Rd5 Qg6 41.Qa5! Rg7 42.h4!
30...Kh8 White obtains a second extra pawn.
It was impossible to defend the pawn by 42...Qb1+ 43.Kh2 Qxb2 44.Rxg5 Rxg5
30...Rb8? because of 31.Ra7+! Kh8 45.Qxg5
32.Rf7 +. The alternative to the text was And Black resigned as he will remain two
30...Rc7!? and, at least, 31.Ra6 Qxa6 pawns down in a queen ending without any
32.Qxf5+ does not win for White: 32... counterplay to show for his material deficit.
Kg8! 33.Qd5+ Kh7! =. 10
31.Qxb5 Rf8 32.Ra6 Qg7 33.Rd6 d3
34.Qb6 Qe5 (D)
A bit better was 34...Kh7, preventing
Direct attacks are easier to handle;
White's next. Still, in this case 35.Lg4 Lg6
experience has proven that it is easier to
36.Le6 puts Black under pressure: 36...Re8
attack than to defend and this is based
and now the most direct (not necessarily
mostly on psychological reasons; humans
best) is 37.Rd7 Re7 38.Lg8+! Kxg8 hate to defend, hate to be the second
39.Qd8+ Re8 40.Rxg7+ Kxg7 41.Qd4+ Exchanging the ideal pieces for the
Kf7 with winning chances for White,
opponents defence usually guarantees
though it is hard to provide the ultimate victory, if the attacker doesnt go too far of
assessment of this endgame. course!
XABCDEFGHY Grivas Efstratios
8++trmk( Bousios Hristos
B14 Corfu 1991
7++++' 1.d4 Nf6 2.Nf3 c5 3.e3 d5 4.c4 cxd4
6wQtR+zp& 5.exd4 g6 6.Nc3 Lg7 7.cxd5
By transposition, a rare variation of the
5++wqlzpL% 'CaroKann Defence' has arisen.
4++zp+$ 7...Nxd5
The continuation 7...00 8.Lc4 Nbd7,
3++p++P# intending ...Nb6xd5, seems safer.
8.Lc4 Nxc3
2zP+zPP+" Black elects to fight against hanging pawns.
1+++mK! Alternatively, he could continue with 8...
Nb6.
xabcdefghy 9.bxc3 00 10.Lb3! Nc6 11.00 Na5?!
35.Lg6! Black's plan, although apparently very
An excellent decision, avoiding 35.Rxh6+ logical, leaves the kingside without fire
Kg7 36.Rd6 Rf6! and it is not clear power. Instead, 11...Lg4!? 12.h3 Lxf3
whether White can win after 37.Rxf6 Qxf6 13.Qxf3 e6 is not bad at all.
38.Qxf6+ Kxf6 39.Kf1 Ke5 40.Ke1 12.Lg5! Qc7 13.Re1! e6 (D)
Kd4. The most important point in this Perhaps Black should have tried 13...Nxb3
position is to weaken the black d3pawn and 14.Qxb3 e6, but certainly not 13...Qxc3?
combine attack against the black king and 14.Rc1! Qb4 15.Lxe7 and White wins.
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 14
XABCDEFGHY the direction of Black's plan is not obvious at
all. White's advantage is nearly decisive.
8r+l+trk+( 17...Rad8 18.Lxg7 Kxg7 19.Ng4!
Black's kingside seems denuded!
7zppwq+pvlp' 19...Kh8 20.Qg5!
6++p+p+& Threatening 21.Qf6+ Kg8 22.Nh6 #!.
20...f6 21.Nxf6 Nxb3 22.axb3 b4 23.Re3!
5sn++vL% Rf7
4+zP++$ Or 23...bxc3? 24.Rh3 Rf7 25.Qxg6!.
24.Rh3 Rg7 25.Qh6
3+LzP+N+# 25.Qxg6? Qc7! would be a mistake!
2P++zPPzP" 25...Qc7 26.c4!
Retaining the solidity of the pawn structure.
1tR+QtRmK! 26...Qe7
As after 26...Rxd4? Black succumbs to a
xabcdefghy pretty mate: 27.Nxh7! Rxh7 28.Qf8 #.
14.Qd2! 27.Qg5 Rd7 28.Qe5
White's superiority is growing; the f3knight 10
is stronger than the c8bishop and his
attacking chances on the kingside are real. Ponomariov Ruslan
Neither the hanging pawns nor the c4square Carlsen Magnus
can be immediately exploited by Black, who D10 Wijk aan Zee 2007
has to deal with his development and 1.d4 d5 2.c4 c6 3.Nc3 Nf6 4.e3 a6 5.Nf3
coordination problems. Now White plans to Lf5 6.Ne5 h6 7.Qb3 Ra7 8.cxd5 cxd5
exchange the g7bishop in order to weaken 9.Ld2 e6 10.Rc1 Nbd7 (D)
the dark squares around the black king. XABCDEFGHY
14...b5?!
Black should have retained the g7bishop 8+wqkvltr(
(his only defensive piece) by 14...Re8
15.Lh6 Lh8. Black plays very optimi
7trp+n+pzp'
stically, ignoring White's threats. 6p++psnzp&
15.Lf4! Qb6 16.Lh6 Lb7 17.Ne5! (D)
XABCDEFGHY 5++psNl+%
8r++trk+( 4+zP++$
7zpl++pvlp' 3+QsNzP+#
6wq+p+pvL& 2PzPvLzPPzP"
5snp+sN+% 1+tRmKL+R!
4+zP++$ xabcdefghy
Black seems to stand a bit worse, but ...Ld6
3+LzP++# and ...00 would improve his position.
11.Lb5!
2P+wQzPPzP" Is there a real reason for Black playing 4...a6
1tR+tRmK! if he cannot keep the white pieces away
from the b5square? The a6pawn is a false
xabcdefghy guard. Previously White has chosen
White has many threats (including Nd7 and 11.Nxd7? leading to an unclear position
Ng4) and a substantial attacking initiative after 11... Nxd7 12.Ne2 Nb8 13.Nf4 Ld6
directly against the black king. In contrast, 14.Lb4 Lxb4+ 15.Qxb4 Nc6 16.Qc5
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 15
Ra8 17. Ld3 g5 18.Lxf5 gxf4 19.Lh3 20.Rc1!
fxe3 20.fxe3 Qe7 21.Ke2 h5 Radjabov,T White wants to exchange Black's only active
Morozevich,A Moscow 2002. piece.
11...Ld6 20...Lc2
Black cannot accept the 'sacrifice': 11... After 20...Rxc1+ 21.Lxc1 Black's pieces
axb5? 12.Nxb5 leads to his immediate on the queenside are doomed. The rest of the
demise. game was easy enough for White:
12.Nxd7 Nxd7 13.Lxd7+ 21.La5 Kg6
By exchanging the two minor pieces White Or 21...Rc6 22.Qd8 Ra8 23.Qd7 +.
not only develops harmoniously but also 22.Qb4 Rc4 23.Qd2 Lf5 24.Rxc4 dxc4
leaves Black with great problems to solve. 25.Lb6 Ra8 26.Qe2 e5
13...Qxd7?! Or 26...Ld3 27.Qf3 +.
Black should have played 13...Kxd7! 27.Qxc4 exd4 28.Qxd4 f6 29.f4
although his position is far from attractive: Or 29.g4 Lb1 30.Qd5.
14.Ne2! (14.Na4 b5 15.Nc5+ Ke7 16.f3 29...Lb1 30.Qd5
[16.a4?! Qb8 17.a5 Rc8 18.Lb4 Kf8 19. 10
Kd2 Kg8 Vaganian,RFrolov,D Togliatti
In complex middlegame attacks, with
2003] 16...Re8 17.e4 dxe4 18.fxe4 Lg6
opposite side castling, the difference could
19.e5 Lxc5 20.Lb4 Kd7 21.Lxc5 Qh4+
be easy to find based on what to and what
22.g3 Qe4+ 23.Kf2 Qf5+ 24.Qf3 
not to exchange.
Nielsen,PHansen,S Malmo 2003) 14...b5
15.00 Qb8 16.Ng3 Lg6 17.Lb4 Rc8 Hou Yifan
18.Lc5 Laurent,BBerthelot,Y Guingamp Ushenina Anna
2004. B84 Taizhou 2013
14.Na4! 00 15.Nb6 Qd8 16.Nc8 1.e4 c5 2.Nf3 d6 3.d4 cxd4 4.Nxd4 Nf6
White has finally exploited the clumsy 5.Nc3 a6 6.Le3 (D)
position of the enemy rook on a7! XABCDEFGHY
16...Qxc8
As the line 16...Ra8 17.Nxd6 Qxd6 8rsnlwqkvltr(
18.Lb4 Qd7 19.Lxf8 is winning for 7+p+zppzpp'
White, Black decided to muddy the waters,
but to no avail. 6p+zpsn+&
17.Rxc8 Rxc8 18.Qb6! Lb8 19.00 Kh7
(D)
5++++%
XABCDEFGHY 4+sNP++$
8vlr+++( 3+sNvL+#
7trp++pzpk' 2PzPP+zPPzP"
6pwQ+p+zp& 1tR+QmKL+R!
5++p+l+% xabcdefghy
6...Nbd7
4+zP++$ In this FIDE Women World Championship
3++zP+# match and after two successful 'Najdorf
Sicilian Defence' with 6...e6, Ushenina
2PzPvLzPPzP" decided that it would be wiser to go for
1+++RmK! something new. After all she had to avoid
her opponents potential preparation and
xabcdefghy fight for something more than a draw...
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 16
7.Le2 e6 8.g4 aggressive 11.fxe6!? fxe6 12.Nf3 Nexg4
A clear preference in Hou's games! She 13.Ld4 Qc7 14.h3 Ne5 15.Nxe5 dxe5
wisely rejected 8.00?! as then Black would 16.Lh5+ Ke7 17.Le3!? .
achieve an excellent position after 8...b5 11...b5 12.a3 Qe7 13.fxe6 fxe6 14.Nf3 (D)
9.a3 and 9...Lb7  a dream setup for any
Sicilian player! 8.f4!? would have been
XABCDEFGHY
chosen by experienced 'Scheveningen' 8r+l+kvltr(
players, because now after 8...b5 9.Lf3
White would try to take advantage of the 7++wq+'
open diagonal. This is a complicated tactical 6p+zppsnzp&
position where Hou could easily go astray.
8...h6 9.f4 (D) 5+p+snzp%
For some players, 9.h4 may look more 4++P+P+$
logical than the text move. However it does
not lead to much after 9...b5 10.Lf3 Ne5 3zPsNvLN+P#
11.g5 Nfd7 .
2zPP+L++"
XABCDEFGHY
1tR+QmK+R!
8r+lwqkvltr(
xabcdefghy
7+p+n+pzp' 14...Nfd7
6p+zppsnzp& This move has not been played before,
though I think it looks quite logical to keep
5++++% control of the square e5. 14...Lb7 15.Nxe5
4+sNPzPP+$ dxe5 16.Ld3 Qc7 17.h4 Lc5 18.Qe2
Lxe3 19.Qxe3 Nxg4 20.Qg3 h5 21.000
3+sNvL+# 000 22.hxg5 Qg7 Ponomariov,R
2PzPP+L+zP" Topalov,V Thessaloniki 2013 is usual.
15.Qd2
1tR+QmK+R! 15.Nxe5 Nxe5 16.Qd2 was more precise.
xabcdefghy 15...Nxf3+ 16.Lxf3 Ne5?!
With this move order, Black had a better
9...g5 choice: 16...Lg7! 17.000 Le5 =.
A move which every 'Najdorf' player should 17.Le2 Lg7 18.000 (D)
know. The idea is very simple: Black fights
for control of the important central square e5 XABCDEFGHY
 the pawn is not that important... 9...b5?! 8r+l+k+tr(
seems way too risky: 10.g5 hxg5 11.fxg5 b4
12.gxf6 bxc3 13.Nxe6 Qxf6 (13...fxe6 7++wqvl'
14.Lh5+ with mate) 14.Nc7+ Kd8 15. 6p+zpp+zp&
Nxa8 Qh4+ 16.Lf2 Qxe4 17.00 .
10.f5 5+p+snzp%
Accepting the sac by 10.fxg5 hxg5 11.Lxg5
gives compensation: 11...b5 12.Lf3 Ne5
4++P+P+$
13.Qe2 Le7 14.000 Lb7 Ponkratov,P 3zPsNvL+P#
Inarkiev,E KhantyMansiysk 2013.
10...Ne5 11.h3!? 2zPPwQL++"
A passive but understandable decision due to 1+mKR++R!
the match situation. With an even score
maybe she would have gone for the more xabcdefghy
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 17
18...Nf7 (D) down the bfile after 24...b4! 25.axb4 Qxb4.
Black could have tried 18...Ng6!?. Of XABCDEFGHY
course psychologically it is hard to sacrifice
a pawn, but still it gives much better chances 8+l+k+tr(
as the queens will be exchanged and Black's
king no longer faces the dilemma of where
7++rwqn+'
and how to castle: 19.Qxd6 Qxd6 20.Rxd6 6p++p+zp&
Le5 21.Rd2 00 22.Lc5 . But of course
the sac of the pawn is not necessary! 5+p+zp+R%
XABCDEFGHY 4++P+P+$
8r+l+k+tr( 3zPsN++#
7++wqnvl' 2zPP+L++"
6p+zpp+zp& 1+mKRwQ+!
5+p++zp% xabcdefghy
4++P+P+$ 24...Rg8?!
Black starts to lose track. 24...Rxd1+
3zPsNvL+P# 25.Qxd1 00 was natural.
25.Kb1 Qc5 26.Rh3
2zPPwQL++" A clever move which poses the indirect
1+mKR++R! threat of Rc3 (Nxb5 & Rc3).
26...Qb6 27.Qh4
xabcdefghy Also strong would have been 27.Rxd7!?
19.Ld4! Lxd7 28.Rf3 Ng5 29.Rf6 .
The exchange of the bishops would be in 27...Rxd1+ 28.Nxd1 Lb7 29.Rc3? (D)
Whites favour; a strong attacking and 29.Nc3 was good, as White's pieces are in
defending piece (the g7bishop) should harmony again.
always be exchanged!
19...Le5?!
XABCDEFGHY
Here 19...Ne5 was essential. White can 8++k+r+(
force a draw with 20.Le3 Nf7, or try for
something more with 20.Rhf1 Rf8 (20... 7+l++n+'
Lb7? 21.Nxb5!) 21.Le3 Rxf1 22.Lxf1
Lf8 .
6pwq+p+zp&
20.Lxe5 dxe5 21.h4! 5+p+zp+%
Of course! Without the darksquared 4++P+PwQ$
bishops, this is an excellent moment to open
the position. 3zPtR++#
21...gxh4 22.Qe1 Ra7 2zPP+L++"
Not such a bad idea, but 22...Lb7!?
23.Rxh4 Rd8 24.Ld3 00 25.Rh5 or 1+K+N++!
22...00!? 23.Rxh4 Lb7 was more in the
spirit of the position.
xabcdefghy
23.Rxh4 Rd7 24.Rh5 (D) 29...Qd8?!
24.Ld3, keeping both rooks on the board in Returning the small favour. Black should
order to concentrate White's power on the have opted for 29...Lxe4 30.Rc8+ Nd8
kingside later on, looks more appealing at 31.Qxh6 Kd7 32.Rc3 Lg6 , where her
first sight. But Black might get counterplay chances of survival would have been much
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 18
better. 38...Nf7
30.Qf2?! Or 38...Qe7 39.Rd8+ Le8 40.Ra8 + and
Hou cannot think of a 'passive' retreat! Black will not survive long.
30.Qh1 Rg6 31.Rd3 Qe7 32.Nc3 was 39.Qxe6 Qg1+ 40.Rd1 (D)
fine for her. XABCDEFGHY
30...Qd4? (D)
The decisive mistake. Black should never 8+++k+(
give up control of the f6square. Here she
missed a good opportunity with 30...Ng5
7+++ntr'
for example 31.Rd3 Qc7 32.Qf6 Lxe4 6p+l+Q++&
33.Rc3 Qg7 34.Qf2 (34.Rc8+? Kd7
would give away the advantage) 34...Qb7 5+p+zp+%
. 4++P+N+$
XABCDEFGHY 3zP+++#
8++k+r+( 2zPP+L++"
7+l++n+' 1+K+R+wq!
6p++p+zp& xabcdefghy
5+p+zp+% And Ushenina returned the title of Womens
World Champion back to Hou Yifan!
4+wqP+P+$ 10
3zPtR++# Ushenina Anna
2zPP+LwQ+" Svidler Peter
D85 Tromso 2013
1+K+N++! 1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 g6 3.Nc3 d5 4.cxd5 Nxd5
xabcdefghy 5.e4 Nxc3 6.bxc3 Lg7 7.Nf3 c5 8.Rb1 0
0 9.Le2 cxd4 10.cxd4 Qa5+ 11.Ld2
31.Qf6! Qxa2 12.00 Lg4 13.Lg5 h6 14.Le3 Nc6
An easy to find move, which is attacking e6 15.d5 Na5 16.Re1 Lxf3 (D)
and threatening Rc7  Black is in dire
straits...
XABCDEFGHY
31...Qd6 8r++trk+(
31...Qd7 32.Nf2 Kf8 33.Nd3 doesn't
much change the assessment of the position. 7zpp+zppvl'
32.Nf2 6+++pzp&
Bringing the last piece into the battle 
Black's future looks miserable, as she is not 5sn+P++%
able to exchange any of the remaining 4++P+l+$
attacking white pieces
32...Kf8 33.Rf3 Rg7 34.Qxh6 3++vLN+#
Game over, as White holds the initiative and
an extra pawn as well! 2q++LzPPzP"
34...Kg8 35.Qf6 Lc6 36.Rd3 Qc5 37.g5! 1+R+QtRmK!
Clearing the square g4 for the knight  the
attack is enforced. xabcdefghy
37...Nxg5 38.Ng4 The exwomen FIDE World Champion is a
38.Rd8+ Kh7 39.Ng4+ was curtains as hard worker and she constantly proves it.
well. Some 'experts' criticised the FIDE system
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 19
when she won the title but very few know activate the bishop! Material is equal and the
her abilities... Here 16...b6 17.Nd4 Ld7 oppositecoloured bishops might help the
18.Ra1 (18.La6! ) 18...Qb2 19.Rb1 draw, but while queens are on the board the
Qa2 20.Ra1 Qb2 21.Rb1 Qa2  black king remains quite weak...
Radjabov,TSvidler,P London 2013, has 25...Rf7
been played quite recently. Obviously I think that Black should opt for 25...a5!
Svidler didn't wish to enter a theoretical 26.Qc6 Lxh2+ 27.Kxh2 Qxe2 28.Qxe6+
discussion... Kg7 29.Qe5+ Kh6 30.Kg1. White retains
17.Lxf3 Nc4 18.Lf4 e5 a small advantage due to the weaker black
18...g5 weakens Black's position: 19.Lg3 king, but Black should be able to hold.
Le5?! (19...b6!? 20.Re2 Qa5 21.Lg4 ) 26.Qc8+ Rf8 27.Qc6 (D)
20.Rxb7 Esserman,MMolner,M Saint XABCDEFGHY
Louis 2012.
19.dxe6 fxe6 20.Rxb7! Rad8 (D) 8++trk+(
20...Rxf4? loses on the spot after 21.Qd7. 7zp+++'
XABCDEFGHY 6+Q+p+p+&
8+trtrk+( 5++vl+p%
7zpR++vl' 4++P++$
6++p+pzp& 3++++#
5++++% 2q++LzPPzP"
4+n+PvL+$ 1+++RmK!
3+++L+# xabcdefghy
2q++zPPzP" 27...Ld4?!
1++QtRmK! Too optimistic! Again Black should opt for
27...Lxh2+ 28.Kxh2 Qxe2 29.Qxe6+
xabcdefghy Kg7 30.Qe5+ Kh6 31.Kg1 .
21.Rd7! 28.Lc4 Rxf2?
An obvious and prepared novelty. A clear blunder. Svidler had to go for 28...
Previously White tried 21.Qc1 but after Lxf2+ 29.Kh1 Qa3!, when after 30.Qd7!
21...Lb2! 22.Rxb2 Nxb2 23.Lg3 Qa5 White has the upper hand but still he would
24.Rf1 Qd2 25.Qc6 Qd7 26.Qc1 Qd2 be very much in the game, but for no more
27.Qc6 Qd7 28.Qc1 Qd2 Black was able than a draw in any case... His king remains
to draw () in Morozevich,A rather weak and, as is well known, the
Nepomniachtchi,I Loo 2013. oppositecoloured bishops always help the
21...Rxd7 22.Qxd7 Ne5 attack!
Probably best. Again 22...Rxf4? is not 29.Qxe6+ Kh7 30.Qd7+
satisfactory: 23.Qxe6+ Kh7 (23...Rf7 24. And as Black loses a piece after 30...Rf7+
Rc1) 24.Rc1 Ld4 25.Qd7+ Lg7 26.Qd5 31.Qxd4, he resigned!
a5 27.Qxc4 (27.Rxc4? Rxe4!! +) 27... 10
Qxc4 28.Rxc4 .
23.Lxe5 Lxe5 24.Rf1!
Everything according to home preparation!
The threat is Lg4.
24...h5! 25.Le2!
But it seems that there is another way to
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 20
Makropoulos Georgios White fails to meet the demands of the
Grivas Efstratios position. He should have continued with
A08 Athens 1989 11.Rb1 and b4, pursuing activity on the
1.e4 c5 2.Nf3 e6 3.d3 d5 4.Nbd2 Nc6 queenside.
5.g3 Ld6 (D) 11...b6 12.Qc2 La6 13.Lf1 Qd7!
XABCDEFGHY Black has completed his development in a
satisfactory way and now prepares to
8r+lwqk+ntr( develop his initiative on the kingside with
the help of ...f5. White is still floundering,
7zpp++pzpp' unable to find a way to meet Black's actions.
6+nvlp++& 14.Nb1 Ng6 15.Na3 (D)
5+zpp++% XABCDEFGHY
4++P++$ 8tr+trk+(
3++P+NzP# 7+vlq+pzpp'
2PzPPsNzPzP" 6lzpn+p+n+&
1tRvLQmKL+R! 5zpzpp++%
xabcdefghy 4P++P++$
This is one of the best ways to meet White's 3sNzPP+NzP#
King's Indian Attack setup, at least in my
opinion.
2zPQ+zPzP"
6.Lg2 Nge7 7.00 00 8.Re1 Lc7 9.c3
Rb8!?
1tRvLtRLmK!
A new move. A satisfactory alternative is xabcdefghy
9...a5 10.a4 b6 11.exd5 exd5 12.d4 with 15...f5!
chances for both sides. The inaccurate 15...Nge5?! 16.Nd2! (but
10.a3 not 16.Nxe5? Nxe5 17.Kg2 c4! with
10.Nb3!? b6 11.exd5 exd5 12.d4 is another advantage) would present White with fewer
possible plan. problems.
10...a5 (D) 16.exf5 exf5
XABCDEFGHY Black could also continue with 16...Rxf5
17.Lh3 Nce5! 18.Nxe5 Nxe5 19.Lxf5
8trlwqtrk+( Nf3+ 20.Kf1 Nxe1 21.Lxh7+ Kxh7
7+pvlsnpzpp' 22.Kxe1 e5!, obtaining excellent compen
sation for his minimal material investment
6+n+p++& (one pawn).
17.Lh3?
5zpzpp++% This is a serious mistake. The same would
4++P++$ apply to 17.Nb5? Lxb5 18.axb5 Nce5
19.Nxe5 Nxe5 20.Lg2 c4! (or 20...f4!?
3zPzPP+NzP# 21.Lxf4 Rxf4! 22.gxf4 Ng6 with an
2zPsNzPLzP" attack) 21.dxc4 dxc4 . White should have
preferred 17.Lg2 f4, although Black retains
1tRvLQtRmK! the initiative.
xabcdefghy 17...Nce5! 18.Nxe5 Nxe5 19.Rd1 d4!
Opening up the h1a8 diagonal. Black's
11.a4?! attack is gaining in strength.
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 21
20.Lg2 Lb7! 21.cxd4 (D) Simplification of the position and transition
It is hard to come up with good advice for to a winning endgame is the approved
White. After 21.f4 Nf3+! 22.Kh1 g5! method in positions with extra material.
23.fxg5 (23.Rf1 g4 intending ...h5h4) 23... XABCDEFGHY
f4 Black also has a strong attack.
XABCDEFGHY 8++r+mk(
8tr+trk+( 7+++zp'
7+lvlq+zpp' 6zp+q+rzp&
6zp+++& 5zp++p+%
5zpzpsnp+% 4P+tR++$
4P+zP++$ 3++vLzPP#
3sN+P+zP# 2zP+zP+"
2zPQ+zPLzP" 1++Q+mK!
1tRvLR+mK! xabcdefghy
39.fxg3 Qxe3+ 40.Kg2 Qe2+! 41.Qxe2
xabcdefghy Nothing would change after 41.Kg1 Qxd1+
21...Nf3+! 22.Kh1 Nxd4 23.Qc4+ Kh8 42.Rxd1 Re3! 43.Kf2 Rb3 44.Rd2 Rb4.
24.Rg1 41...Rxe2+ 42.Kf3 Rxb2 43.Rd6 Rb4!
Forced, due to the threat of 24...Lxg2+ 44.h4 Kh7 45.h5 Rxa4! 46.Rxb6 Rg4
25.Kxg2 Qc6+. 47.Rb5 (D)
24...Nf3! 25.Nb5 XABCDEFGHY
White gives up an exchange, hoping to slow
down Black's attack. Naturally, this sacrifice 8++++(
turns out to be inadequate, but White can
hardly be blamed for his choice. 25.Rd1 f4
7+++zpk'
26.Lxf4 Lxf4 27.gxf4 Ld5 28.Qb5 Qg4 6+++zp&
is disastrous for him.
25...Nxg1 26.Nxc7 Lxg2+ 27.Kxg2 5zpR++p+P%
Qxc7 28.Lf4 Qb7+ 29.Kxg1 Rbe8 4+++r+$
Black has a winning position and the rest is
just a matter of technique. 3+++KzP#
30.d4 cxd4 31.Qxd4 Re4 32.Qd6 Rfe8 2++++"
33.Le3 R4e6 34.Qd1 Qe4 35.Ra3 Rg6
36.Rd3 h6 37.Rd4 Qe6 38.h3 (D) 1++++!
xabcdefghy
47...a4! 48.Ra5
White also loses after 48.Rxf5 Rg5!
49.Rf8 Ra5! 50.Rb8 a3 51.Rb1 Rxh5.
48...Kg8 49.Ra7 Kf8 50.Kf2 f4 51.gxf4
Rxf4+ 52.Kg3 Rb4 53.Kh3 Kg8 54.Kg3
Kh7 55.Kh3 Rb3+ 56.Kg4 Ra3 57.Ra8
Ra1 58.Kg3 a3 59.Kh2 a2 60.Kg2 Rb1
White resigned: 61.Rxa2 Rb5 & 62...Rxh5.
01
38...Rxg3+!
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 22
Exchanges to Defend
Concept 24...Rxd1+!
Here of course the concept is just A very important inbetween move. While
completely different. The defender should defending, you should exchange important
try to minimize his dangers by proceeding to attacking pieces in order to ease the defence.
exchanges which will weaken the attack or 25.Qxd1 fxg6 26.Qd2! Qd5!
the opponents initiative that he is facing. Inviting more exchanges.
He will have to identify the important 27.Qh2
attacking pieces of his opponent and There was no point in 27.Qxd5? exd5
exchange them! 28.Rf1 Re8 29.Re1 Rf8 =.
Space advantage and initiative are assets 27...Rh8 (D)
that can be neutralized by welltimed
exchanges; nothing new under the sun, as
XABCDEFGHY
this has been well known for more than 150 8+++tr(
years and still counts!
7zpzp+mk'
Fier Alexander
Gurevich Mikhail 6zp+p+pzp&
C13 Beijing 2008 5++qzP+%
1.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3.Nc3 Nf6 4.Lg5 dxe4
5.Nxe4 Le7 6.Lxf6 Lxf6 7.Nf3 Nd7 4++zPP+$
8.Qd2 00 9.000 b6 10.Ld3 Lb7 11.h4
Le7 12.Neg5 h6 13.Lh7+ Kh8 14.Le4 3++++#
Lxe4 15.Nxe4 Nf6 16.Nxf6 Lxf6 17.Qe2 2PzPP++wQ"
Qd5 18.Kb1 g6 19.g4 Lg7 20.Ne5 Rad8
21.f4 Lxe5 22.dxe5 Qc5 23.h5 Kg7 (D) 1+K+++R!
XABCDEFGHY xabcdefghy
28.a3?!
8+trtr+( Keep in mind that this was a 15minute
7zpzp+pmk' game with an increment of 10 seconds per
move, so it is understandable that not the
6zp+p+pzp& best moves were played. Here White could
5+wqzP+P% claim a good advantage with the straight
forward 28.f5! b5! (28...gxf5?! 29.gxf5 exf5
4++zPP+$ 30.Rg1+ Kf7 31.e6+ Kxe6 32.Qxc7 +
3++++# or 28...Qe4?! 29.Qh4 g5 30.f6+ Kf7
31.Qh5+ Qg6 32.Qh3 [32.Rd1 Qxh5
2PzPP+Q++" 33.gxh5 Ke8 =] 32...Qe4 33.Rf1 +)
1+K+R++R! 29.Rf1 Rd8 30.f6+ Kh7 31.a3 .
28...h5!
xabcdefghy Black grabs his chance to get active.
White is on the attack and his position is 29.f5 h4! 30.Rf1 h3
preferable; Black can only defend  his own The hpawn became too dangerous!
attack simply does not exist. 31.fxg6
24.hxg6! The alternative was 31.Qf4?! exf5! (31...
If 24.Rdf1?! then Black can defend with h2? 32.fxg6 +) 32.gxf5 h2 33.fxg6 Qe6!
24...g5! and although White looks to be 34.Rh1 Qxg6 35.Qf2 Qf7! and Black
better, there is nothing concrete. holds!
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 23
31...Qd4! 32.Qg3! Kxg6 (D) The following games can prove it:
XABCDEFGHY
8+++tr(
7zpzp++' Atalik Suat
6zp+p+k+& Grivas Efstratios
E80 Karditsa 1996
5++zP+% 1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 g6 3.Nc3 Lg7 4.e4 d6 5.f3
a6 6.Lg5 c6 7.Qd2 b5 8.Rc1 Nbd7 9.b3
4+wq+P+$ 00 10.Nh3 bxc4 11.bxc4 e5 12.d5 cxd5
3zP++wQp# 13.cxd5 Nc5 14.Nf2 Ld7 15.Nfd1 Qa5
16.Nb2 (D)
2zPP+++" XABCDEFGHY
1+K++R+! 8r++trk+(
xabcdefghy 7++l+pvlp'
33.Qh2?
White panicked and he returned back. He 6p+zpsnp+&
should play 33.Qf3 Qd8 34.Qf7+ Kg5
35.Qxe6 Rf8 36.Rh1 Rf3 37.Qc4 . This 5wqsnPzpvL%
doesn't mean that Black didn't play well after 4++P++$
his 24th move; just that his position was
really bad and he created the most difficult 3+sN+P+#
problems to be solved by White... 2PsNwQ+PzP"
33...Kg5! 34.Ka2?
A second blunder in a row and now Black is 1+tRmKL+R!
winning! White should have gone for
34.Rf7! Kg6 35.Rf6+ Kg7 36.b3 .
xabcdefghy
34...Qc4+ 35.b3 Qxf1 36.Qd2+ Qf4 White stands slightly better due to his spatial
37.Qd7 Qxe5 advantage and the weak black d6pawn.
01 Black should opt for a few exchanges and
cover the 'sensible' c4square.
16...Lb5! 17.Lc4
17.Nxb5 axb5 should be fine for Black.
17...Rfc8 18.00 Nfd7
Now Black's pieces are harmoniously placed
and the coming ...Nb6 forces exchanges.
19.Nxb5 axb5 20.Qxa5 Rxa5 21.Ld2!
Ra7 22.Lxb5 Rb8!
The tactical defence which has been
designed by Black earlier.
23.a4
Of course White should avoid 23.Lxd7?
Rxb2 24.Lc3 Rbxa2 25.Lc6 Lh6 .
Initiative is at the heart of modern chess; 23...Nxa4! 24.Lxd7
repulsing it gives points and victories  just Black stands OK even after 24.Lxa4 Rxb2
remember how Tigran Petrosian became 25.Rc8+ Nf8 26.Lc1 Rbb7.
World Champion! 24...Nxb2 25.Lb5 (D)
Or, if this not enough, try to think about Black is very near to full equality; he only
the great Swedish player Ulf Andersson! needs to exchange the worst piece he has
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 24
and regroup his knight. 5.a4 Lf5 6.Ne5 e6 7.f3 c5 8.e4 Lg6
XABCDEFGHY 9.Le3 cxd4 10.Qxd4 Qxd4 11.Lxd4
Nfd7 (D)
8tr++k+( XABCDEFGHY
7tr++pvlp' 8rsn+kvltr(
6+zp+p+& 7zpp+n+pzpp'
5+L+Pzp+% 6++p+l+&
4++P++$ 5++sN+%
3+++P+# 4P+pvLP++$
2snvL+PzP" 3+sN+P+#
1+tR+RmK! 2zP++PzP"
xabcdefghy 1tR+mKL+R!
25...Lf6!
A criminal decision would be 25...Rxb5? xabcdefghy
26.Rc8+ Lf8 27.Lh6 and mate follows. 12.Nxd7!
But now Black plans ...Ld8b6c5 and his 12.Nxg6 hxg6 13.Lxc4 at first sight looks
exworst piece comes to life, while also like giving the bishop pair to White, but it
protecting his weak d6pawn. really offers him nothing, as after 13...Nc6
26.Le2 Ld8 27.Rc6 Lb6+ 28.Kh1 Lc5 14.Lf2 Lc5, Black has just solved his main
29.Lh6 Na4 problem in this position, his inactive light
And now it's the knights turn to return! squared bishop.
30.h4 Nc3 31.Ld3 Na2! 32.Ra6 12...Nxd7 13.Lxc4 a6 14.Rc1 Rg8 15.h4
Forced due to the threat ...Nb4. h6 16.Ke2 Ld6
32...Rxa6 33.Lxa6 Nb4 34.Le2 Nc2! Anand is aiming to activate his g8rook by
Another good move which prepares ...Le3, first playing ...Ke7 and then exchanging the
securing the draw. opponents d4bishop by ...Lc5. Another
35.Rc1 Rb2 36.Ld3 option is 16...Lc5 17.Lxc5 Nxc5 18.h5
White has nothing better than to agree. Lh7 19.Rhd1 Rc8 20.a5 Ke7 21.b4 Nd7
36...Le3! 37.Rxc2 Rxc2 38.Lxc2 Lxh6 22.Na4 .
39.g4 17.h5 Lh7 18.a5!
The oppositecoloured bishops ending with The 'gaining space' policy continues, as
even pawns offers no chance to nobody! White now plans to use the a4square for his
 knight. Still Black has to solve his light
squared bishop problem and complete his
development. In the meantime White will
have at his disposal a tempo or two to prove
an advantage.
18...Ke7!
And what about the 'obvious' 18...Lb4? I
think that Topalov was planning to sacrifice
his apawn with 19.Na4!? (19.Ra1 Rc8
Topalov Veselin 20.Lb3 Nc5 21.Lc2 Ke7 = ; 19.Nb5!?
Anand Viswanathan axb5 20.Lxb5 Lxa5 21.Rhd1) 19...Lxa5
D17 Sofia 2010 20.Nc5 (20.b4!? Ld8 (20...Lxb4 21.Rb1
1.d4 d5 2.c4 c6 3.Nf3 Nf6 4.Nc3 dxc4 ) 21.Lb3 ) 20...Nxc5 21.Lxc5 as it
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 25
will be hard for Black to complete his game in a draw by threefold repetition.
development. Obviously Anand doesnt feel Although the text is not bad either, it is
it would be right to go for complications White who should be careful from now on.
before he is done with his development and Anand passed the opening exam with
piece coordination  this is a common success!
attitude in the thinking process of great 23...Rd8
players. 23...Nxb6 24.cxb6 Rc5 25.Lxa6! trans
19.Na4 f6 20.b4!? poses to the notes after Black's 21st move.
20.g4 Rgc8 21.Rhd1 Lg8 doesnt look 24.Nxd7
very impressive here. White tries to be 24.Ld5!? is interesting. Black shouldn't take
creative. His main problem is that he needs a anything now, not d5, not c5 and not b6, but
concrete plan to put pressure on, as his space play 24...Ne5 (24...Nxc5 25.Lxb7! ; 24...
advantage isn't enough on its own. Nxb6 25.axb6 Rcd7 26.Lc4! ; 24...exd5?
20...Rgc8 25.Nxd5+) 25.f4 Nd3! 26.Kxd3 exd5
Accepting the pawn sacrifice with 20... 27.f5! dxe4+ 28.Kxe4 Ke8! =.
Lxb4 could be proven dangerous after 24...Rdxd7! (D)
21.Rb1 Lxa5 22.Rxb7 (or 22.Nc5 b5 It seems that 24...Rcxd7 would give White
23.Lxe6 Nxc5 24.Lxg8 Lxg8 25.Lxc5+ some chances after 25.c6! bxc6 26.Lxa6
and maybe this is what Anand was mostly Ra7 27.Rxc6 Rd6 28.Rxd6 Kxd6
afraid of) 22...Rgb8 23.Rhb1 Rxb7 29.Rd1+ Ke7 30.Lc4 (30.Lc8 Rc7!)
24.Rxb7 with strong pressure along the 7th 30...Rxa5 31.Rb1 as Black's h7bishop still
rank and immediate threats like Nc5. But it remains a bad piece, but the liberating
seems that Black can hold with 24...Kd6! 31...f5! would do the job: 32.Rb7+ Kf6
25.La7 Kc6 26.Lxa6 Lc7 27.Rb2 Kd6! 33.exf5 Lxf5 =. With the text move, Black
(27... Rxa7 28.Lb5+ Kd6 29.Rd2+ ) is perfectly safe and even might try for
28.Rd2+ Ke7 29.Lb5 Ld6 =. something more if White overdoes it.
21.Lc5 XABCDEFGHY
21.Nc5 Lxc5 22.bxc5 Rc7 = is not much.
21...Lxc5 8++++(
The safest, but Black could also go for
21...Nxc5 22.bxc5 Lc7 (22...Lxc5? 23.
7+ptrrmkzpl'
Lxe6! ) 23.Nb6 Lxb6 24.cxb6 Rc5 6p++pzpzp&
25.Lxa6! Rxc1 26.Rxc1 Rxa6 (26...
bxa6? 27.Rc7+ +) 27.Rc7+ Kd6 28.Rxg7
5zPzP++P%
Lxe4 29.fxe4 Rxa5 30.g4!? (30.Rxb7 4+L+P++$
Rxh5 =) 30...Rg5! and he will be able to
draw: 31.Rg6!? Rxg6 32.hxg6 Ke7 3+++P+#
33.Kd3 Kf8 34.Kd4 Kg7 35.Kc5 Kxg6 2++K+P+"
36.Kd6 Kf7 37.Kc7 f5 38.gxf5 exf5 39.e5
f4 40.Kd7 f3 41.e6+ Kg7 42.e7 f2 43.e8Q 1+tR++R!
f1Q =. xabcdefghy
22.bxc5 Rc7
Simple and nice, preparing ...Rac8. Black 25.Ld3 Lg8
Black thought about being immediately
should avoid both 22...Nxc5? 23.Nb6 +
active by 25...f5 but after 26.c6!? (26.Rc4
and 22...Rc6?! 23.Rhd1 Rac8 24. Rxd7+
Kxd7 25.Nb6+ Rxb6 26.cxb6 Lg8 27.e5! fxe4 27.fxe4 [27.Lxe4?! Lxe4 28.fxe4
Kf6 ] 27...e5 = ; 26.e5!? Rd5 27.f4
. Rdxc5 28. Rxc5 Rxc5 29.Rb1 Rc7
23.Nb6
30.g4!? [30.Kd2 Lg8 31.Le2 Lf7
The alternative 23.Rhd1 Nxc5 24.Ld3
Rac8 25.Nb6 Rd8 26.Na4 would end the 32.Lf3 Rc5! =]) 26...bxc6 27.Lxa6 fxe4
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 26
28.Lc4 exf3+ 29.gxf3 White's XABCDEFGHY
compensation (in view of the passed a
pawn) is not bad albeit probably no more 8++++(
than keeping the balance. 25...Rd4 seems to 7+r+lmkzp'
force a draw, but White has a resource:
26.c6! Ra4 27.Rb1! Ra2+ 28.Ke3 bxc6 6p+trzpzp&
29.Ra1! Rxg2 (29...Rxa1 30.Rxa1 Ra7
31.Rb1 ) 30.Lxa6 .
5zP+zp+P%
26.c6 4++P+P+$
Sooner or later White has to get rid of his
weak cpawn. 3+tRLmKP+#
26...Rd6 2++++"
Black could also go for 26...bxc6 27.Rc2
Rd4! (27...e5 28.Rhc1 ) 28.Ra1 e5 1+tR++!
29.Lxa6 c5 30.Lb5 Rb4 31.a6 Ra7 xabcdefghy
32.Ra5 Kd6 =. 26...Rxc6 27.Rxc6 bxc6
28.Rb1 looks a bit more pleasant for White 32.Rc5 Lb5
What an excellent post for the previously
due to his active pieces  take a look at the
g8bishop. 'bad' bishop! Now Black will not have to
worry about his apawn, as, with bishops off
27.cxb7 Rxb7 28.Rc3 Lf7!
the board, the balance can't be ruined
Anand doesn't care to check Topalov's ideas
anymore. It is funny that Anand equalized
and rightly so! After the 'active' 28...
Rb2+?! 29.Ke3 Rxg2 30.Rc7+ Rd7 (30... without any of his pieces being on the
Kf8? 31.Rc8+ Kf7 32.Rb1 +) 31.Rxd7+ opponent's half of the board.
Kxd7 32.Rd1! (32.Ra1 e5 33.Lxa6 Ra2 33.Lxb5 axb5
33...Rxb5? 34.Rxb5 axb5 35.Rb1 would
= ; 32.Lxa6 Ra2 33.Lb5+ Kd6 34.a6
Lf7 =) 32...Kc6 33.Rc1+ Kd6 34.e5+! just lose a pawn for nothing!
Kxe5 35.Lg6 Black will end up losing his 34.Rb1
After 34.Rc7+ Rd7! (34...Rxc7? 35.Rxc7+
unfortunate g8bishop, but still might have Rd7 36.Rc5! [36.Rxd7+? Kxd7 37.Kd3
some survival chances due to his pawns. Kc6 38.Kc3 Kb7! =] 36...Rb7 37.Kd3
After all, he doesn't have to go for it. Kd6 38.Rd5+ Kc6 39.Kc3 ) Black
29.Ke3
would be OK.
The immediate 29.Rhc1 makes sense and
34...b4 35.Rb3 Ra6 36.Kd3 Rba7 (D)
was probably a better try, since it is risky to
take the pawn: 29...Lxh5 (29...Le8! XABCDEFGHY
30.Rc7+ Rd7 31.R7c5 Rd6 32.g4 Ld7 8++++(
33.Ke3 =) 30.Rc7+ Rxc7 31.Rxc7+ Rd7
32.Rc8 . 7tr+mkzp'
29...Le8 30.g4 e5 31.Rhc1 Ld7 (D)
It is true that it took Black much time to
6r++zpzp&
fully activate his bishop (...Lf5g6h7g8 5zPtRzp+P%
f7e8d7) but in the meantime White wasnt
able to do much. Full equality and the 4zp+P+P+$
players could easily shake hands, but not in
this match... Playing until the very end is a
3+R+K+P+#
'must' for both players  Topalov made it 2++++"
completely clear before the match and
Anand would love to follow!
1++++!
xabcdefghy
Now, after some further forced exchanges,
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 27
the game will end in a draw. continue with the simple 20.f3 =.
37.Rxb4 Rxa5 38.Rxa5 Rxa5 39.Rb7+ 20.Nf4 exd5 21.Nxd5 f5 (D)
Kf8 40.Ke2 Ra2+ Exchanging more central pawns, Black eases
As noone really wishes to offer a draw, the his position and proves its validity! Of
coming threefold repetition will 'solve' the course 21...Nc6? would just be a blunder:
problem. 22.Lxc6 Lxc6 23.Qxc6! + while 21...
41.Ke3 Ra3+ 42.Kf2 Ra2+ 43.Ke3 Ra3+ Lxd5?! gives White the advantage after
44.Kf2 Ra2+ 45.Ke3 Ra3+ 46.Kf2 22.exd5 Qxd5 23.Qc8+ Lf8 24.Lh6 Qd1+
 25.Lf1 Qd6 26.Qa8 . In general, now
Topalov Veselin Black should feel quite happy
Anand Viswanathan XABCDEFGHY
D87 Sofia 2010
1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 g6 3.Nc3 d5 4.cxd5 Nxd5
8+++k+(
5.e4 Nxc3 6.bxc3 Lg7 7.Lc4 c5 8.Ne2 7zpl++vlp'
Nc6 9.Le3 00 10.00 b6 11.Qd2 Lb7
12.Rac1 Rc8 13.Rfd1 cxd4 6zpwq+p+&
This is a prelude to Black's plan  exchanges
down the cfile...
5snL+N+p+%
14.cxd4 Qd6 15.d5 Na5 16.Lb5 (D) 4++P++$
XABCDEFGHY 3++vL+P#
8+r+trk+( 2P++zPP+"
7zpl+zppvlp' 1+wQ+mK!
6zpwq+p+& xabcdefghy
5snL+P++% 22.f3
White is still trying to prove something
4++P++$ (probably due to the knight on the rim) but
3++vL+# probably he should accept his opening
'failure' by conceding a draw: 22.Lf4 Le5
2P+wQNzPPzP" (22...Qc5 23.Qxc5 bxc5 24.Ld2 fxe4
25.Nc7! (25.Ne7+? Kf7 26.Nxg6 hxg6
1+tRR+mK! 27.Lxa5 Ld5! ) 25...Nc6 26.Lc4+ Kh8
xabcdefghy 27.Ne6 Ne5 28.Lb5 Nd3 29.Le3 Ld5
16...Rxc1! 30.Nxc5 Nxc5 (30...Lxa2?! 31.Nxe4
Nb4 32.Lxa7 ) 31.Lxc5 Lxa2 32.Lxa7
Black's first step to ease his position is to
exchange rooks. Then the power of the white =) 23.Lxe5 Qxe5 24.Qg5! Kg7 25.Qd8
centre will be reduced, as there will be no fxe4 26.Qd7+ Kh8 27.Qd8+ =.
'force' behind it. 22...fxe4 23.fxe4 Qe5
17.Rxc1 Rc8 18.h3?! Black should not be greedy! Bad would be
I don't think that White can afford such 23...Lxd5? 24.exd5 Qxd5 25.Qc8+ Kf7
moves. More or less he had to try 18.Rxc8+ (25...Lf8? 26.Ld7! Qd6 27.Le6+ Kh8
Lxc8 19.Nd4 and hope to get some 28.Qe8! +) 26.Qe8+ Kf6 27.h4! and
initiative in the centre, due to his strong White's initiative is more than dangerous.
central pawns. 24.Ld3 Nc6
18...Rxc1+ 19.Qxc1 e6 Black is happy with his position and he tries
The second step  exchanging the central for something more. A draw should occur
pawns! 19...f5 also looks fine and I would after 24...Lxd5 25.exd5 Qxd5 26.Qc8+
have preferred it. I think that White would Lf8 27.Lf1 Nc6 28.Lh6 Qc5+ 29.Kh1
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 28
Ne5 30.Lc4+! Nxc4 31.Qe6+ =. There is no need for that; the black knight
25.La6!? belongs on d6... Blacks plan only helps
25.Qc4 Kh8 is again equal, so White tries White to benefit from his bishop pair.
to complicate 33.Lc1
25...Nd4 33.Ke4 Lg7 (33...Ld6 34.Lc8 Nc7)
25...Lxa6 is equal: 26.Qxc6 Qa1+ 27.Kh2 34.a4 Nd6+ =.
Le5+ 28.Lf4 Lxf4+ 29.Nxf4 Qe5 33...Nc7 34.Ld3 Ld6 35.Ke4 b5 36.Kd4
30.Qa8+ Kg7 31.Qxa7+ Kh6 32.Qxa6 a6 37.Le2!
Qxf4+ 33.Kh1 Qc1+ =. Now Black will face some trouble, as
26.Qc4 Lxd5 White's plan to expand on the kingside (g5
A forced exchange: 26...Lxa6? 27.Nf6+ and h4h5) and/or to go for Lg4c8 and
Kf8 28.Qg8+ +. Ld2a5 is dangerous. Black has to defend
27.Qxd5+ Qxd5 28.exd5 Le5 (D) accurately.
37...Ke7 38.Lg5+ Ke7 39.Ld2
XABCDEFGHY With the darksquared bishops off the board,
8+++k+( Black's advantage would be great; I would
suggest to the readers to take a look at the
7zp+++p' game Zhu ChenKorchnoi,V Marbella 1999
6Lzp++p+& (which has been fully analysed in the
Volume that contains Good Knight v. Bad
5++Pvl+% Bishop theme).
4+sn++$ 39...Lg3 40.g5 Lf2+ 41.Ke5 Lg3+
42.Ke4 Ne8!
3++vL+P# The knight quickly gets back to its 'ideal'
square.
2P+++P+" 43.Lg4+ Ke7 44.Le6 Nd6+ 45.Kf3
1+++mK! Nc4!
Black is now again OK, but nothing more.
xabcdefghy 46.Lc1 Ld6 47.Ke4 a5 48.Lg4 La3
In this ending chances are equal with mutual 49.Lxa3+
possibilities to gain the point, although the 49.Lf4 Ld6 50.Lc1 is an immediate draw.
most expected result would be a draw. White As only Black has some tiny chances now,
has the bishop pair but his dpawn would be Tpalov should have gone for that line.
weaker than passed, so his pawn structure is 49...Nxa3 50.Ke5
a bit worse. Black will try to blockade the d Or 50.Le2 Kd6 51.Ld3 Nc4 (51...b4
pawn with his knight and then try to take 52.Kd4 a4 53.h4 b3 54.axb3 axb3 55.Kc3
advantage of his mobile pawn majority on Nc2 56.Lxc2 bxc2 57.Kxc2 Kxd5
the queenside. If White feels too much 58.Kd3 =) 52.Lxc4 bxc4 53.Kd4 c3
'pressure' then he should exchange his dark 54.Kxc3 Kxd5 =.
squared bishop for the black knight, 50...Nc4+ 51.Kd4 Kd6 52.Le2 Na3
achieving an immediate draw thanks to the 52...Ne5!? was still interesting and surely
oppositecoloured bishops. more 'problematic' for White than Black:
29.Kf2 Kf7 30.Lg5 Nf5 31.g4 Nd6 53.h4 (53.Lxb5?! Nf3+ 54.Ke3 Nxg5
32.Kf3 55.h4 Nf7 ) 53...b4 54.Ld1 Nd7 55.Kc4
As I do not believe that Black could have =.
any real winning chances at all (the bishop 53.h4
pair is nearly always strong!), it would be 53.Ld3 b4 54.h4 transposes to the draw
preferable to have taken a draw out of his given above.
many possibilities earlier. 53...Nc2+ 54.Kc3 Nb4
32...Ne8?! Black could 'torture' White by 54...Ne3 but
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 29
it should still be a draw after 55.Lxb5 Ng2 Nakamura finds a way to take the sting out
56.Kd4 Nxh4 57.Ke4 Nf5 58.Ld3. of his opponents attack by trading down
55.Lxb5 Nxa2+ 56.Kb3 Nb4 57.Le2 into a won rook ending.
White could also draw with 57.Ka4 Nxd5 37.Rf2!!
58.Kxa5 Ke5 59.Lc4 Ne7 60.Kb6 Kf4 The right way to stop the attack. The
61.Kc5 Kg4 62.Kd6 Nf5+ 63.Ke5 Nxh4 obvious 37.Qxb4+? Qb6+ 38.Qxb6+
64.Lg8 Nf3+ 65.Kf6 Nxg5 66.Lxh7 =. Kxb6 39.Rf2 dxc4 40.Rxd8 wins the
57...Nxd5 58.h5 Nf4 59.hxg6 hxg6 exchange, but not the game: 40...Rc1+
60.Lc4 41.Rf1 Rxf1+ 42.Kxf1 cxb3 43.Ke2
And the players agreed to draw, as after (43.Rb8+ Lb7 =) 43...b2 44.Rd1 Lc2
60...Kc5 61.Lf7 Kb5 62.Le8+ Kb6 (44...b1Q? 45.Rxb1+ Lxb1 46.h4 +)
63.Ka4 Ka6 64.Lf7 there is nothing left to 45.Rg1 Kc5 46.h4 Kd4 47.h5 Ke5 48.a5
fight for. An excellent result for Black, not b1Q 49.Rxb1 Lxb1 50.h6 Kf6 =. Of
so much because he made a rather easy draw course not 37.Qxd8? Rg2+ 38.Kh1
with the black pieces, but because he did so Rxg3+ 39.Rf3 Lxf3 #.
by only exchanging the right pieces 37...Rxf2 38.Qxd8 Rg2+
 38...Rb2 cant help Back either: 39.Lxd5+
Lxd5 40.Qxd5+ Qxd5 41.Rxd5 Rxb3
Nakamura Hikaru
Kamsky Gata 42.Rxf5 Kc6 43.Rb5 +.
B43 Saint Louis 2013 39.Kf1 (D)
1.e4 c5 2.Nf3 e6 3.d4 cxd4 4.Nxd4 a6 XABCDEFGHY
5.Nc3 b5 6.Ld3 Lb7 7.00 Nc6 8.Nxc6
Lxc6 9.Re1 Qb8 10.a4 b4 11.Nd5 Ld6 8+wQ++(
12.Qh5 Ne7 13.Nxe7 Lxe7 14.b3 a5 7+k+++'
15.Lb2 Lf6 16.Lxf6 gxf6 17.e5 Rg8
18.g3 Rg5 19.Qh6 Rxe5 20.Qxf6 Rh5 6++q++&
21.Le4 Qd8 22.Qf3 Rc5 23.Qe3 Qe7 5++p+p+%
24.Lxh7 f5 25.Lg6+ Kd8 26.Rac1 Kc7
27.Lh5 e5 28.f4 Qd6 29.Rf1 exf4 4PzpL+l++$
30.Qxf4 Le4 31.Qf2 Rc3 32.Le2 Kb7 3+P++zP#
33.Rcd1 Qe6 34.Lc4 d5 35.Qc5 Rd8
36.Qxa5 Rxc2 (D) 2+++rzP"
XABCDEFGHY 1++R+K+!
8+tr++( xabcdefghy
7+k+++' Black now has many ways to simplify into
rook endings, but all of them are lost as
6++q++& White manages to get two extra pawns.
5wQ+p+p+% 39...Rb2
The main alternative was 39...Rxh2
4PzpL+l++$ 40.Lxd5+ Lxd5 41.Qxd5+ Qxd5
3+P++zP# 42.Rxd5 Rb2 43.Rb5+ Ka6 44.Rxb4 +.
After 39...dxc4 there will be no rook
2+r++zP" endgame, but White's queen will win, e.g.
40.Rd7+ Qxd7 41.Qxd7+ Kb6 42.Qb5+
1++R+RmK! +. 39...Ld3+!? is met by 40.Lxd3 Rxh2
xabcdefghy 41.Le4!!, when White goes into a rook
Here Black seems to have good endgame anyway: 41...Qxe4 42.Qxd5+
compensation for his material deficit, but Qxd5 43.Rxd5 Kc6 44.Rb5 +.
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 30
40.Lxd5+ Lxd5 41.Qxd5+ Qxd5 Rxe3 25.Qxe3 and now 25...e5 (as well as
42.Rxd5 25...Rd8 26.Qe5) seems to give White an
And Black resigned: 42...Rxb3 (42...Rxh2 advantage after 26.f4. Blacks text is logical:
43.Rxf5 Rb2 44.Rb5+ +) 43.Rxf5 Kc6 exchange the opponents strong piece!
44.Rb5 +. 20.Rad1 c5! 21.Qa4?!
10 21.Qe3 was safer, keeping c5 under attack.
21...Nxd6 22.Rxd6 (D)
To become a World Champion you need to
build certain qualities over the endless XABCDEFGHY
training years. Attacking qualities are of 8r++trk+(
course important, but defending qualities can
make the difference in the end. The ex 7zp+wqpzpp'
FIDE World Champion Vishy Anand is no
exception
6+tRp+l+&
Shirov Alexei 5+zpzP+%
Anand Viswanathan 4Q+++P+$
B12 Leon 2011
1.e4 c6 2.d4 d5 3.e5 Lf5 4.Nf3 e6 5.Le2 3+zP+N+P#
Ne7 6.00 c5 7.dxc5 Nec6 8.Lg5 Le7
9.Lxe7 Qxe7 10.c4 dxc4 11.Na3 c3
2P++zP+"
12.bxc3 Nd7 13.Nb5 00 14.Nd6 Nxc5 1+++RmK!
15.Lb5 Lg4 16.Lxc6 bxc6 (D)
xabcdefghy
XABCDEFGHY Not 22.exd6 Qf6 23.Kg2 Qxc3 and White
8r++trk+( would have to deal with both his material
deficit and kingside weaknesses.
7zp+wqpzpp' 22...f5!?
6+psNp++& Highlighting the weakened kingside, though
also giving White full control of the dfile.
5+snzP+% 23.Rd7 Qe8
23...Le8 was less convincing due to
4+++l+$ 24.Rxe7 Lxa4 25.Rb1 fxg4 26.Ng5 Lc6
3+zP+N+# 27.hxg4 even though the position doesn't
give White anything clear cut.
2P++zPPzP" 24.Rfd1 fxg4 25.Qxg4 Rf7!
1tR+Q+RmK! Exchanges! Anand neutralizes White's rook
activity.
xabcdefghy 26.Rxf7 Qxf7 27.Ng5 Qf5! 28.f4
We should now take stock of the opening: After a long think, Shirov decides to forgo
Anand seems to be about equal but Whites 28.Nxe6 Qxe5 29.Rd7 Qe1+ 30.Kg2
strong knight on d6 may give Black a Le4+ 31.Kg3 Qxc3+ (not 31...Qg1+?
serious headache in the future. 32.Kf4 winning) 32.Kh2 Qe5+ and Black
17.h3 holds.
Not 17.Qd4?! since after 17...Lxf3 28...Re8 29.Qxf5 Lxf5 30.Rd7 Rf8!
18.Qxc5 Qg5! 19.g3 Qh5, White is Capturing the h3 pawn with 30...h6?!
starting to get into trouble. 31.Nf7 Lxh3 would be less precise since
17...Lh5 18.g4!? Lg6 19.Qd4 Nb7! White can play 32.Nd6! (not the superficial
Another option was to play against the e5 32.Rxa7? Rf8 33.Kh2 Rxf7 34.Rxf7
pawn with 19...Nd7 20.Rad1 f6 21.Rfe1 Kxf7 35.Kxh3 g6! which leads to a won
fxe5 22.Nxe5 Nxe5 23.Qxe5 Rf3 24.Re3 pawn endgame for Black) 32...Ra8 33.Rc7
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 31
and White gets the advantage. XABCDEFGHY
31.Re7
As a result of Black's perfect defence, Shirov 8rsn+kvltr(
liquidates into an equal rook endgame, in
which White is the one who must play with
7+p+q+pzp'
care. 6p+n+p+zp&
31...h6 32.Nxe6 Lxe6 33.Rxe6 Rxf4
34.Ra6 (D) 5++pzP+%
XABCDEFGHY 4+PsNl+vL$
8r++trk+( 3+++N+#
7zp+wqpzpp' 2PzP+LzPPzP"
6+tRp+l+& 1+tRQ+RmK!
5+zpzP+% xabcdefghy
4Q+++P+$ White seems to be on the right track, but
Black has his ways too
3+zP+N+P# 13...Le7!
13...g5 14.Lg3 Lg7 was briefly considered
2P++zP+" by Anand but he didn't think Black's position
1+++RmK! was so good that it could stand this. It
doesn't look that bad an option. But on the
xabcdefghy other hand, the text is more logical 
34...Rf3! develop and exchange simultaneously; what
Anand chooses the continuation that gives else could you ask from such a little move?
him the most practical chances: if the h3 14.Lxe7 Nxe7
pawn is eliminated, the position could 14...Qxe7 seems playable even though
become perilous for White. Anand said it wasn't. 15.cxd5 exd5 (15...
35.Rxa7 Rxh3 36.e6 Re3 37.Re7 Lxd5 16.Nf5! was the reason Anand gave
The alternative was 37.a4 Rxe6 38.a5 Re2 for not playing 14...Qxe7) 16.e6 00
39.Rc7 Ra2 40.Rxc5 g5 41.c4 Kg7 17.exf7+ Qxf7 and Black stands fine.
42.Rb5 Kg6 43.c5, when White would 15.Nd2 Nbc6 16.N4b3 Qc7 17.Nxe4
have no trouble holding the draw. dxe4 18.Qd6 Qb6 19.Rfd1 00 20.Qc5
37...Kf8 Qc7 21.Qd6 Qb6 22.Qc5 Qc7 23.Qd6
The alternative was 37...g5 38.Kf2 Rxc3 Both players thought that repetition was
39.Re8+ Kg7, when White would have to White's only serious option here given that
find 40.Rh8!!  a studylike move that the following forcing variation looks good
forces the draw. 37...Rxc3 leads to a draw for Black: 23.Nd2 Nf5 24.Nxe4 b6
as well: 38.Re8+! Kh7 39.Kf2! Rc4 25.Qa3 Qxe5 and then something lands on
40.Kf3 Rc1 41.Kf2. d4 and it looks very nice for Black  Anand.
38.Rf7+ Kg8 39.Re7 Kf8 

Svidler Peter
Anand Viswanathan
B12 Moscow 2011 Nakamura Hikaru
1.e4 c6 2.d4 d5 3.e5 Lf5 4.Nf3 e6 5.Le2 Aronian Levon
Ne7 6.00 c5 7.Na3 Nec6 8.c4 cxd4 C88 Saint Louis 2013
9.Nb5 a6 10.Lg5 Qd7 11.Nbxd4 Le4 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Lb5 a6 4.La4 Nf6
12.Rc1 h6 13.Lh4 (D) 5.00 Le7 6.Re1 b5 7.Lb3 00 8.a4
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 32
A line which is usually played to avoid the (12...h6 13.Lc4 Ld6 14.Nb3 Lb7 15.Ld3
notorious 'Marshall Gambit' after 8.c3 d5, Lc8 16.Lc4 Lb7 17.h3 Kf8 Carlsen,M
where nearly everything has been analysed Aronian,L Nice 2009) 13.a5 h6 14.Lc4 Kf8
and novelties start well after the 15th move 15.b3 Ke7 16.Ld5 Nxd5 17.exd5 Na7
nowadays! 18.Nxe5 Kf8 19.Ndc4 Lxe5 20.Rxe5
8...b4 (D) Nc6 21.Lg5 hxg5 22.dxc6 f6 23.Rc5 Le6
Aronian usually goes for this. Other 24.Nb6 Rab8 25.Nd7+ Lxd7 26.cxd7
respected lines are 8...Lb7 and 8...Rb8. Rxd7 27.Rc6 Rb5 28.Rxa6 Rd2
XABCDEFGHY 29.Ra8+ Kf7 30.g4 Rc5 31.a6 Rcxc2
32.Rc8 c6 33.a7 Rxf2 34.Rh8 10
8r+lwqtrk+( Karjakin,SAronian,L Nalchik 2009.
7+zppvlpzpp' 11.Nbd2 (D)
6p+n+sn+& XABCDEFGHY
5++zp+% 8r+lwqtrk+(
4Pzp+P++$ 7+zpvlpzpp'
3+L++N+# 6p+zpsn+&
2zPPzPzPPzP" 5++sn+%
1tRNvLQtRmK! 4Pzp+P++$
xabcdefghy 3+L++N+#
9.d4 2zPPsNzPPzP"
9.d3 is the mostly played continuation, but 1tRvLQtRmK!
Aronian is quite experienced and had got
nice positions after it. xabcdefghy
9...d6 10.dxe5 It seems that 11.Nxe5 is playable as well:
10.h3 was tried in the first ever game in this 11...dxe5 12.Qf3 (12.Qe2 Qd4 13.Nd2
variation: 10...Nxd4 (10...exd4 11.Nxd4 Lb7 14.Kh1 a5 15.f3 Rfd8 16.Nc4 La6
Na5 12.c3 Rb8 13.Lc2 c5 14.cxb4 Rxb4 Palac,MAronian,L Lausanne 2003) 12...
15.Nf3 Le6 16.Nbd2 Qb8  Gashi Lb7 13.Nd2 Lc5 14.Nf1 Qc8 15.h3
mov,VGrischuk,A Heraklio 2007) 11.Nxd4 Ivanchuk,VAronian,L Sochi 2006. Another
exd4 12.Qxd4 c5 13.Qd3 Lb7 14.Nd2 try is 11.Lf4 Ng6 12.Lg3 Lb7 13.Nbd2
Re8 15.Nf3 Lf8 16.Lg5 h6 17.Lh4 g5 Nh5 14.Nc4 Nxg3 15.hxg3 a5 16.e5 Lxf3
18.e5 d5 19.Nxg5 hxg5 20.Lxg5 c4 17.Qxf3 d5 18.Ne3 c6 Alekseev,E 
21.Qf3 Ne4 22.Lxd8 Raxd8 23.Rxe4 Jakovenko,D Dagomys 2009.
dxe4 24.Qg3+ Lg7 25.Lxc4 Rxe5 11...Nfd7?!
26.Re1 Rd2 27.Lxf7+ Kf8 28.Qf4 e3 A novelty, but probably not a good one.
29.Rxe3 Rxe3 30.fxe3 Ke7 31.Qxb4+ 10 Known is 11...Nxf3+ 12.Nxf3 Lb7 13.e5
Romanovsky,PTorre Repetto,C Moscow Nd7 14.e6 fxe6 15.Lxe6+ Kh8 16.Ld5 c6
1925. 17.La2 c5 18.Ld5 Lxd5 19.Qxd5 Nb6
10...Nxe5 20.Qe6 Lf6 21.a5 Nd7 22.Qd5 Ne5
Black can even play 10...dxe5 11.Qxd8 23.Nd2 Ng4 24.Nf3 Ne5 25.Nd2 Ng4
Rxd8 12.Nbd2 (12.Lg5 Kf8 13.Lxf6  Anand,VNaiditsch,A Dortmund 2004
gxf6 14.Ld5 Lb7 15.Nbd2 Na5 16.Lxb7 or 11...Lb7 12.Nxe5 dxe5 13.Qe2 Lc5
Nxb7 17.b3 Nd6 18.Kf1 Rab8 19.Re3 Pirs,MPauwels,C ICCF email 2010, in both
Rb6 20.Rd3 Rc6  Svidler,P cases with unclear play.
Aronian,L ICC Internet 2004) 12...Ld6 12.Nd4! c5
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 33
Black could try 12...Nc5, although after it's very hard to see how exactly he will
13.Ld5 Rb8 14.N2b3 White would retain untangle. It is more pleasant to be Black, but
a slight advantage. maybe Aronian was worried that White
13.Nf5 (D) would be able to develop and utilize his
XABCDEFGHY material advantage. It was a difficult
decision, but that's bread and butter for the
8r+lwqtrk+( top players; or at least it should be!
16.Ndc4! d5
7++nvlpzpp' Black had no choice but to go for this central
6p+zp++& exchange, which opens up the game in
Whites favour. If instead he went for the
5+zpsnN+% more solid 16...a5 then 17.Nf5 was quite
4Pzp+P++$ good for White: 17...d5 (what else to play?)
18.exd5 Lxd5 19.Nxe7+ Nxe7 20.Lg5 .
3+L+++# 17.exd5 Nxd5 (D)
2zPPsNzPPzP" XABCDEFGHY
1tRvLQtRmK! 8r+wqtrk+(
xabcdefghy 7+l+vlpzpp'
Nakamura had nothing to complain about 6p+++n+&
out of the opening. His powerful control of
the light squares and the dangerous knight 5+zpn++%
on f5 should give him the better position. 4PzpN+++$
13...Nf6 14.Ne3?!
A bit slow. 14.Nf3!? was maybe a better 3+L+sNP+#
move, trying to mobilize all of White's
pieces, but Black can try to create
2zPP++PzP"
counterplay with 14...Lxf5 (15...c4? 1tRvLQtRmK!
16.Nxe5 cxb3 17.Nc6 leads to a deadly
fork) 15.exf5 Qc7 preparing c4. But with xabcdefghy
14.Nxe7+! Qxe7 15.Nc4 Nxc4 16.Lxc4 18.Nf5! Qc7
Le6 17.Lf1 a5 18.Qf3, White's advantage 18...Lf6? 19.Ncd6 was killing.
should be quite pleasant: bishop pair and 19.Nxe7+ Ngxe7 20.Lg5
better centre! White's bishop pair and the weak black
14...Lb7 pawn structure on the queenside have
14...Le6 seems to solve nearly all of Black's secured him a slight but stable advantage.
problems: 15.f4 Ng6 16.Qf3 Lxb3 20...Nf5 21.c3
17.Nxb3 Qd7 18.g3 Rfe8, as White's e4 Strategy is great but it needs shades of
pawn looks a bit weak. tactics as well to work out! Here 21.Na5!
15.f3 Ng6?! would have been quite strong: 21...Qxa5
White retains strong pressure after this. 22.Lxd5 Lxd5 23.Qxd5 Nd4 24.Re4
Breaking in the centre with 15...d5! was the Ne6 25.Lh4, when White's pieces would
only reason to put the bishop on b7: 16.exd5 clearly dominate the board the c5pawn is
Nxd5 17.Nxd5 Lxd5 18.Rxe5 Lxb3 a target and a potential attack on the black
19.Rxe7! (19.cxb3? Qd4+ 20.Kh1 Qxe5 king would come... Of course it is difficult
and Black wins) 19...Qxe7 20.Nxb3 Rad8 to give up some 'permanent' advantages
21.Qf1 c4! 22.Nd2 (22.Qxc4? Rd1+ (bishop pair) but great players know when
23.Kf2 Qe1#) 22...Qc5+! 23.Qf2 Qe5 they can exchange one advantage for another
where, despite White's material advantage, one...
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 34
21...bxc3 22.bxc3 h6 (D) 26...Qxf4
22...Nxc3? 23.Qd3 would be a typical And finally Black equalized!
example of a double attack! 27.Rad1 Ld5!
XABCDEFGHY Further exchanges were welcomed!
28.Nd2 Lxb3 29.Nxb3 Qxa4
8r++trk+( 29...Rxd1 30.Rxd1 Qxa4 31.Nxc5 Qb5
with maybe a draw, would be more accurate.
7+lwq+pzp' 30.Nxc5 (D)
6p+++zp& XABCDEFGHY
5+zpn+nvL% 8+trtrk+(
4P+N+++$ 7+++p+'
3+LzP+P+# 6p+++pzp&
2+++PzP" 5+sN+n+%
1tR+QtRmK! 4q++++$
xabcdefghy 3+zP+P+#
23.Qd3
Maybe again not the best. 23.Qc2?! would 2++Q+PzP"
fail to 23...Nd4! 24.cxd4 hxg5 25.dxc5
Qxc5+ with equality, but the simple retreat
1++RtRmK!
23.Ld2 would retain a slight advantage. xabcdefghy
23...g6! 24.Ld2 Rad8 25.Qe2?! (D) 30...Qb5?
White had to admit his slight inaccuracy and A stunning blunder, just as Aronian thought
continue with the modest 25.Qc2, retaining the worst was over. Probably he relaxed too
something due to his bishop pair. Note that much! 30...Qc6 31.Ne4 would have led to
25...Nf4 here would fail to 26.Ne5!. an easy draw. Nakamura mentioned after the
XABCDEFGHY game that he was ready to offer a draw to
Aronian had he played 30...Qc6 instead of
8+trtrk+( 30...Qb5?. He also admitted that he didn't
realize that 30...Qb5? was immediately
7+lwq+p+' losing, but was able to see the winning
6p+++pzp& combination seconds after his opponents
move.
5+zpn+n+% 31.Qxb5 axb5 32.Nd7
4P+N+++$ Nakamura played this instantly, after which
Aronian was visibly shaken. The Armenian
3+LzP+P+# was very fidgety before he decided his best
chance was to take immediately on d7.
2+vLQ+PzP" Aronian was in very high spirits before the
1tR+tRmK! game, but his mood changed considerably
when Nakamura uncorked this killer!
xabcdefghy 32...Rxd7
25...Nf4! 32...Rfe8 33.Nf6+ doesn't change much...
After this exchange, Black should be OK. 33.Rxd7 Ra8
26.Lxf4 Even without the queenside pawns, Black
White had no choice, as the alternative would have no hope of holding the draw.
26.Qe5 Qxe5 27.Rxe5 Nd3 28.Re2 Ld5 34.Kf2 Ra6 35.g4 Nh4 36.f4 Rc6
would even be slightly better for Black!
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 35
37.Ree7 Rf6 38.Kg3 g5 39.f5 Kg7 (D) A novelty, planning to place the knight on
XABCDEFGHY b4 (...Nc7a6b4). Previously 16...Lc6 has
been played: 17.Rfc1 h6 18.Ne2 Re8
8++++( 19.Nf4 Lf8 20.h4  Potapov,P
Isajevsky,A Moscow 2010.
7++RtRpmk' 17.Ne2
6++trzp& White enjoys more space and he can try to
create an initiative on both flanks.
5+p++Pzp% 17...Nc7 18.La5
4+++Psn$ Trying to provoke ...b6, stopping the
....Nc7a6b4 redeployment.
3+zP+mK# 18...Qe8 19.Rfc1 Na6 20.Nf4 Nb4? (D)
2+++zP" A blunder. 20...Rxc1+ 21.Rxc1 Qb8
22.Nh5 Rc8 was plain equal.
1++++! XABCDEFGHY
xabcdefghy 8+r+qtrk+(
40.Re6!
Black is in zugzwang, losing the house, so... 7zpp+lvlpzpp'
10 6n++p++&
Potapov Pavel 5vL+pzP+%
Rublevsky Sergei
B22 KhantyMansiysk 2013 4P+zPsN+$
1.e4 c5 2.c3 Nf6 3.e5 Nd5 4.Nf3 e6 5.d4
cxd4 6.cxd4 d6 7.Lc4 Nb6 8.Ld3 Nc6
3+P+Q+N+#
9.00 Nb4 10.Le4 2++zPPzP"
10.Lg5 Le7 11.Lxe7 Qxe7 12.Nc3
Nxd3 13.Qxd3 00 14.Ne4 dxe5 15.dxe5 1tRtR+mK!
Ld7 16.Nd4 Nd5 17.Rad1 as in xabcdefghy
Godena,MMastrovasilis,D Porto Carras
21.Lxb4! Lxb4 22.Ng5!
2011, is playable.
Black's kingside has no guard.
10...d5 11.Ld3 Nxd3 12.Qxd3 Le7 13.b3
22...g6 23.Qh3 h5 24.Nxh5!
00 14.a4 Ld7 15.Nc3 Rc8 16.Ld2 (D)
Black resigned as mate is unavoidable:
XABCDEFGHY 24...gxh5 25.Qxh5.
8+rwqtrk+( 10
7zpp+lvlpzpp'
6sn+p++&
5++pzP+%
4P+zP++$
3+PsNQ+N+#
2+vLzPPzP"
1tR++RmK!
xabcdefghy
16...Na8!?
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 36
Wrong Exchanges
Concept Too passive. White should continue with
As already mentioned, there is no such 11.Rb1 intending b4 and c5 to gain space.
thing as neutral exchanges  one side 11...Re8 12.La3?! Lf8! 13.Lxf8 Nxf8
usually gains more from every exchange. The exchange of the darksquared bishops is
Make sure it is you! in Black's favour as now the d4square is
In the following games we will examine even weaker.
how you shouldnt hand the advantage to 14.Qd2?!
your opponent, by adopting the policy of It becomes clear that White is playing
wrong exchanges. without a plan. His only aim is to exchange
as many pieces as possible; something he
Bras Emanouel
believes will bring the game to a drawn
Grivas Efstratios
conclusion. In what follows, Black makes
E94 Khania 2000
full use of this mistaken strategy. White
1.d4 Nf6 2.Nf3 g6 3.c4 Lg7 4.Nc3 00
should in any case have played 14.h3! to
5.e4 d6 6.Le2 Nbd7 7.00 e5 (D)
prevent Black's next move, which is an
XABCDEFGHY essential link in his plan.
8r+lwqtrk+( 14...Lg4!
The f3knight controls d4, so it must be
7zppzpn+pvlp' exchanged.
15.Qd6 Qxd6 16.Rxd6 Kg7!
6+zpsnp+& The careless exchange 16...Lxf3? 17.Rxf6!
5++zp+% would ruin all of Black's efforts.
17.Kf1
4+PzPP++$ White cannot play 17.Nd2? Rad8!
3+sN+N+# 18.Rxd8 Rxd8 19.Lxg4 Rxd2! as then
Black retains all his former advantages,
2PzP+LzPPzP" having also obtained possession of the dfile
and the 2nd rank.
1tRvLQ+RmK! 17...Lxf3! 18.Lxf3 Ne6 19.Rdd1 Nd4
xabcdefghy (D)
8.dxe5 XABCDEFGHY
This exchange offers more or less nothing to
White. Actually, White exchanges his d4 8r++r++(
pawn for the black one on d6 and that cannot 7zpp++pmkp'
be to his benefit. There are some lines in the
'KID' in which White successfully proceeds 6+p+snp+&
to such an exchange but there must always 5++zp+%
be a good reason for it.
8...dxe5 9.Qc2 c6 10.Rd1 Qc7! 4+PsnP++$
White has voluntarily accepted a weak
square in his camp (d4) which, conse 3+PsN+L+#
quently, represents a potential outpost for 2P++zPPzP"
the black pieces. Black now plans to transfer
a knight to d4 via e6. Naturally, things are 1tR+R+K+!
not that simple yet but at least Black has a xabcdefghy
clear plan and White does not.
11.b3?! Black has completed his plan and occupied
the outpost on d4. Moreover, he preserves
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 37
the better minor pieces: White's bishop is where and whether to exchange.
bad. However, in order to improve his 32.fxg4 hxg4 33.hxg4 Rh8 34.Rg1 Rh4
position further, Black has to initiate play on 35.g5 Rg4 36.Ld3? Nf3+ 37.gxf3 Rxg1
at least one of the flanks, aiming eventually 38.a4 Kg6 39.Le2 Kxg5 40.Kc3 c5
to invade the white ranks through there. 01
20.Le2 Nd7 21.Rac1 Nc5
This was a common adoption of low
21...a5?! would be pointless due to 22.Na4!,
rated players, wrongly assuming that they
allowing White decent counterplay for no
will get the desired draw in the end! Well,
reason whatsoever.
the good players welcome favourable ex
22.f3
changes!
After 22.b4 Nce6 Black will continue with
In the following two examples, the players
23...a5!. This will either open the afile for
who finally lost their games didnt have the
the black rooks or force the surrender of the
right feeling for the right exchanges and
c5square to the mercy of the black knights
in the end they were brutally punished by
(after 24.b5).
those who had the feeling!
22...a5! 23.Kf2 f5!
Since for the moment it proves impossible to Galliamova Alisa
open a file on the queenside, Black changes Xu Yuhua
tack and switches his attention to the other C10 Ekaterinburg 2006
flank. The plan is to gain space with ...f4 and 1.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3.Nc3 Nf6 4.Lg5 dxe4
then advance the remaining kingside pawns. 5.Nxe4 Nbd7 6.Nxf6+ Nxf6 7.Nf3 h6
The end result of this operation will be to 8.Le3 Nd5 9.Qd2 Ld6 10.000 Qe7
open one of the g and hfiles. 11.Ne5 Ld7 12.f4 Lxe5 13.dxe5 Nxe3
L
24. d3?! 14.Qxe3 Lc6 15.Le2 00 (D)
White's last mistake. Instead, he had to XABCDEFGHY
counter Black's abovementioned plan and
seek counterplay in an unbalanced pawn 8r++trk+(
structure. Thus, the indicated choice was
24.exf5! gxf5 25.f4!? Nxe2 (transforming
7zppzpwqpzp'
one strategic element, the outpost, into 6+l+p+zp&
another  a passed pawn) 26.Nxe2 e4.
Black's advantage remains but White retains 5++zP+%
much better saving chances, especially if he 4++zP+$
can engineer the g4 advance under favour
able circumstances. 3++wQ+#
24...f4! 25.Ne2 Red8 26.Nxd4 Rxd4
27.Ke2 g5 28.Lb1 Ne6!
2PzPP+L+PzP"
The exchange of one pair of rooks is 1+mKR++R!
favourable for Black. When a flank file is
finally opened and the black rook invades, xabcdefghy
White will be unable to protect all his White stands slightly better due to her
weaknesses due to the reduced material. spatial advantage and her better attacking
R N K
29. xd4 xd4+ 30. d2 h5! 31.h3 g4! prospects. If there were some more minor
Black is ready to open a file at the pieces on the board, then White's advantage
appropriate moment. Then he will invade would be great, as then her attack would be
White's camp and exercise unbearable supported by a lot of 'fuel'.
pressure. The position is lost for White, who 16.Lf3?!
behaved very unambitiously: always and Better would be 16.Rhg1 Rad8 17.g4
only seeking exchanges, of which Black Rxd1+ 18.Rxd1, and Black is still under
accepted only the ones in his favour. pressure on the kingside. The exchange of
Actually Black won because he knew what, pieces favoured Black.
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 38
16...Lxf3 17.Qxf3 b6 18.Rd3 control anymore her spatial advantage.
White could think about 18.g4 Rad8 19.h4 27.Qc4
Rxd1+ 20.Rxd1 Rd8 (20...Qxh4 21.Rh1 Or 27.Qe4 c5 28.a4 h5 .
Qe7 22.g5 ) 21.Rxd8+ Qxd8 22.h5 =. 27...c5 28.Qe4 b5! 29.a4 b4 30.Qc4 h5?!
18...Rad8 19.Rhd1 Rxd3 20.Rxd3 Better was 30...Qe3! 31.h4 (31.Qb5 Qxh3
It was not easy to decide on 20.Qxd3 as 32.Qxa5 Qc3+ 33.Kb1 c4 ) 31...g5 .
20...Qh4 21.g3 (21.Qg3 Qe7 =) 21...Qxh2 31.Qb5 Qd4+
22.Qf3 Qh3 gives Black enough counter 31...Qxf4 32.Qxc5 hxg4 33.hxg4 Qxg4
play (and a pawn of course!). 34.Qxa5 Qd4+ 35.Ka2 Qc3! transposes.
20...Rd8 32.Kb1 Qxf4 33.Qxc5 hxg4 34.hxg4
Black exchanges pieces like there is no Qxg4 35.Qxa5 Qd1+ 36.Kb2 Qd4+
tomorrow, but this is the correct policy when 37.Ka2 Qc3!
you lack space... 37...g5 38.Qb5 g4 39.a5 g3 40.Qe2 Kh6
21.g3 a5 22.b3 g6 41.a6 Kg5 42.Qf3 Qxe5 43.a7 Qa5+
Here Black offered a draw but White not 44.Kb1 Qxa7 45.Qxg3+ offers nothing.
only rejected it, she felt obliged to prove her 38.Kb1 g5 39.Qd8
decision. This is purely a clear psychological White could not hold with 39.Qb5? g4
mistake; in chess you must be objective and 40.a5 (40.Qe2?! Qf3 +) 40...Qe1+
sober. 41.Ka2 g3 42.Qc4 Qxe5 43.Qg4+ Kf6
23.g4 44.a6 Qa5+ .
This weakens White's pawn structure. 39...Qxe5 40.a5 g4 41.a6 g3 42.Qd2?!
Preferable was 23.Qd1 Rxd3 24.Qxd3 White could have probably saved the half
Qc5 25.Kb2 Qd5 26.Kc3 c5 =. point by accurate defence: 42.Qh4! Kg6
23...Rxd3 24.Qxd3 Qh4 25.h3?! 43.Qh3 (43.Qg4+ Qg5 44.Qe4+ Qf5
Why not 25.Qg3 with equality? 45.Qg2 Qf2 46.Qe4+ Kg5 47.Qe5+ f5
25...Kg7 48.Qg7+ Kf4 49.a7 Qe1+ 50.Kb2 [50.
25...Qf2! 26.Qd8+ Kg7 27.Qxc7 Qxf4+ Ka2 Qe4] 50...Qc3+ 51.Qxc3 bxc3+
28.Kb2 Qd4+ was probably more accurate, 52.Kxc3 g2 53.a8Q g1Q =) 43...Qe1+
but still around equal. 44.Kb2 Qc3+ 45.Kb1 Qf3 46.a7 e5
26.Kb2?! 47.Kb2 =.
A typical timepressure move. After 26.Qc3 42...Kg6?!
Qd8 27.a3 = White is OK. Queen endings are difficult to handle! Here
26...Qf2 (D) Black could ensure an advantage: 42...Qd5!
XABCDEFGHY 43.Qxb4 (43.Qxd5 exd5 44.a7 g2 45.a8Q
g1Q+ ) 43...g2 44.Qg4+ Kf8 45.Kb2 f5
8++++( 46.Qb4+ Kf7 47.Qb7+ Qxb7 48.axb7
7+zp+pmk' g1Q 49.b8Q Qd4+ 50.Kb1 f4 .
43.a7?
6zp+p+pzp& 43.Qg2! Qe1+ 44.Kb2 Qf2 45.Qe4+
Kg5 46.Qe5+ Kg4 47.Qe4+ looks like its
5zp+zP+% equal.
4++zPP+$ 43...Qe4 44.Qd8 g2 45.Qg8+ Kf6
3+P+Q++P# 46.a8Q
The alternative was 46.Qd8+ Kf5 47.Qg8
2PmKP+wq+" Kf4 48.Qxf7+ Ke3 49.Qg8 e5 50.a8Q
Qxa8 51.Qxa8 g1Q+ 52.Kb2 Kd2 when
1++++! Black wins as the ending after 53.Qd5+
xabcdefghy Qd4+ 54.Qxd4+ exd4 55.Kb1 d3 is lost.
Now White is in trouble as she cannot fully 46...Qxa8 47.Qxa8 g1Q+ 48.Ka2 Qg4
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 39
49.Qd8+ Kg7 50.Qd3 e5 51.c4 and to find counterplay with 27...Ng6!
There is nothing left to fight for as can be 28.g3 Nf8 29.Nb1 Nd7 30.Nc3 Nc5
seen from: 51.c3 Qg2+ 52.Kb1 Qg1+ 31.Nxb5 Nd3+ 32.Kc3 Nxf2 33.Nxd6
53.Kc2 Qf2+ 54.Kd1 bxc3 55.Qxc3 Kc5 34.Nb7+ Kb6 = securing the draw.
Qf1+ 56.Kd2 Qf4+ 57.Ke2 f5 +. 21.Rxc6 Ng8 (D)
51...Qg2+ 52.Ka1 Qg1+ 53.Ka2 Qf2+ XABCDEFGHY
54.Kb1 Qe1+ 55.Ka2 e4 56.Qd4+ Kg6
57.c5 Qe2+ 58.Kb1 e3 59.Qd6+ f6 60.c6 8r+++n+(
Qe1+ 61.Kc2 Qf2+ 62.Kc1 e2 63.Qd3+
f5 64.Qd6+ Kh5
7++k+pzpp'
Finally White had to resign! 6p+Rzp++&
01
5+p+Pzp+%
Muzychuk Anna
Giri Anish 4++P++$
B51 Wijk aan Zee 2010 3++++P#
1.e4 c5 2.Nf3 d6 3.Lb5+ Nd7 4.d4 cxd4
5.Qxd4 a6 6.Lxd7+ Lxd7 7.c4 Lg4 2PzPsNKzPP+"
8.Nc3 e6 9.Le3 Nf6 10.Nd2 Le7 11.h3 1++++!
e5 12.Qb6 Qxb6 13.Lxb6 Le6 14.Nd5
Lxd5 15.cxd5 Ld8 16.Lxd8 Kxd8 xabcdefghy
17.Rc1 (D) 22.a4!
XABCDEFGHY Now Black is in trouble.
22...Ne7
8r+mk+tr( 22...bxa4?! 23.Nc4 +.
7+p++pzpp' 23.Rb6 Kc7 24.a5 Ra7 25.Nf3 f6
26.Ne1!
6p+zpsn+& That's what Black missed  the knight heads
5++Pzp+% for b4, winning material. Just compare the
rooks (that Black did not exchange)...
4++P++$ 26...Nc8 27.Rc6+ Kd7 28.Nd3 Ne7
29.Rc3 f5
3++++P# If 29...Rc7 then 30.Nb4 Ra7 31.g4 and
2PzPsNzPP+" White will create a second front on the
kingside (the concept of 'two weaknesses').
1+tRmK+R! 30.f3 f4 31.Kf2 Ra8 32.h4 g6 33.g3
xabcdefghy Black is frozen on the queenside and White
can win on the other side, as usual!
Black is on the back foot but he just needs 1
33...fxg3+ 34.Kxg3 g5
2 accurate moves to solve his problems.
A desperate attempt to activate some pieces,
17...b5!
which obviously doesn't work...
Black is obliged to cover c4, while c6 would
35.hxg5 Rg8 36.Kh4 h6 37.gxh6 Rg1
be covered by the knight on e7 (via g8).
38.Rc1 Rg6 39.f4 Rxh6+ 40.Kg3 exf4+
18.Ke2 Kd7 19.Rc6 Rhc8 20.Rhc1
Rxc6? 41.Nxf4 Ng6 42.Ne6 Ke7 43.Nd4 Kf6
44.Nf5 Rh5 45.Rc8 Rg5+ 46.Kf3 Rg1
This premature exchange nearly loses the
47.Nxd6 Rb1 48.Re8 Rxb2 49.Re6+
game, as Black will not be able to swap the Kg5 50.Nf7+ Kh5 51.Ke3 Rb3+
second rook as well. He had to opt for
20...Ng8! 21.a4 Ne7 22.Rxc8 Rxc8 52.Kd4 Rb4+ 53.Kc5 Rc4+ 54.Kb6 b4
23.Rxc8 Kxc8 24.axb5 axb5 25.Kd3 Kc7 55.Rxg6
10
26.Kc3 Kb6 27.Kb4 (planning Nb1c3)
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 40
Adams Michael passed pawn. Black will never push ...d5.
Van Wely Loek 25...Rb6 26.Rd3 Rf8 27.Rc1 f5
B80 Hoogeveen 2013 An attempt to alleviate the blockade. Adams
1.e4 c5 2.Nf3 d6 3.d4 cxd4 4.Nxd4 Nf6 has to decide whether to let go a bit of his
5.Nc3 a6 6.Le3 e6 7.Qf3 Nbd7 8.000 hold on d5 or give Van Wely the ffile.
Qc7 9.Qg3 Nc5 10.f3 Ld7 11.Nb3! Na4 28.Ld5 Kd7 29.exf5!
11...Nxb3+ 12.axb3 makes White's position A correct exchange. The rooks and bishop
a little easier to defend. 12.cxb3!? might be will be enough to consolidate the blockade.
even better, with Kb1 and Rc1 to follow. 29...Rxf5 30.Le4 Rf4 31.g3 Rf6 32.h4 a5
12.Nxa4 Lxa4 13.Kb1 Rc8 14.Ld3 h5 33.Rc5 Rf8 34.a3
15.Rhe1 It's suicide for Black's pawn ever to advance
Adams has played very simple chess and he to a4, so Adams can play this to prepare b4.
has a slightly more comfortable position. 34...Ke6 35.Rc8 Le7 36.Rc7 Rb5
15...e5 37.Lc6 (D)
15...Le7 seems a little better. Black needs 37.a4 Rc5 38.Rxc5 dxc5 39.Rb3! was
to castle. 16.Qxg7 Rg8 17.Qh6 Rg6 maybe better; Black has difficulty holding
18.Qf4 e5 19.Qh4 Ng4 20.Qxh5 Nxe3 on to all his pawns.
21.Rxe3 Rxg2 is the kind of counterplay XABCDEFGHY
Black, down a pawn, should be happy with.
16.Qf2 Le7 17.Lb6 Qb8 18.Na5 Nd7 8++tr+(
19.Nc4 Lxc2+!? 7+tRvlzp'
Starting a series of exchanges that changes
the character of the position, but Adams is 6+Lzpk++&
ready for this. 19...00 20.b3 Lc6 21.g4
looks worse than it actually is. Black is a 5zpr+zp+p%
little bit worse probably, but he has chances. 4+++zP$
20.Kxc2 Nxb6 21.Qxb6 Ld8 22.Qb3 b5
23.Kb1 bxc4 24.Qxb8 Rxb8 25.Lxc4 (D) 3zP+R+PzP#
XABCDEFGHY 2zP+++"
8trvlk+tr( 1+K+++!
7+++pzp' xabcdefghy
6p+zp++& 37...Rb6?
37...Rc5! was the only way to play for
5++zp+p% Black: 38.Ka2 Rb8!, halting b4, and White
still has to prove his advantage.
4+L+P++$ 38.Ld5+ Kf6 39.g4!
3+++P+# Now it's winning. Black's rook on b6 is
nowhere near as important as White's on c7,
2PzP++PzP" which fuels a strong attack against the king.
1+K+RtR+! 39...hxg4 40.fxg4 e4 41.Lxe4
41.g5+! was stronger 41...Kf5 42.Re3 and
xabcdefghy White wins a pawn but Black's king is still
A forced sequence has led to this endgame. not feeling comfortable.
Black has two permanent disadvantages. The 41...Ld8 42.Rc2 g5 43.Rf3+ Kg7
first is that his bishop will simply never be 44.Rxf8 Kxf8 45.Rc8 Ke7 46.h5 d5
as useful as White's. The second is that 47.Lxd5 Kd7 48.Ra8 Rf6 49.Le4 Rf1+
Adams has a mobile majority on the 50.Ka2 Rf2 51.Lf5+ Ke7 52.h6 Lb6
queenside, letting him create a potential 53.h7 Ld4 54.h8Q 10
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 41
Blocked Positions
Concept White.
Many chess players do not know what to 14...f5 15.exf5 Rxf5 16.Qd3! Rg5
do in nor generally how to handle blocked 17.Qxg6 Rxg6 18.Rfe1 Rb8 19.Ne4 (D)
positions. XABCDEFGHY
One basic fact to keep in mind is that in
blocked positions, knights are usually more 8tr++k+(
important than bishops. Two games can be
helpful in that direction:
7++nvlzpp'
Grivas Efstratios 6pzpzp+r+&
Vidarsson Jon 5+zpPzp+%
A46 Reykjavik 1994
1.d4 Nf6 2.Nf3 e6 3.Lg5 c5 4.e3 b6 5.d5 4P+N+N++$
d6 6.Nc3 e5 7.Lb5+ Ld7 8.a4 a6 (D) 3++++#
XABCDEFGHY 2zPP+zPPzP"
8rsnwqkvltr( 1tR+tRmK!
7++l+pzpp' xabcdefghy
6pzpzpsn+& The white knights dominate the board,
5+LzpPzpvL% forestalling any active ideas Black may
have.
4P++++$ 19...Lf8 20.b3 Nf6?!
3+sNzPN+# It is hard to suggest anything better. Black
tries to involve himself in the game, even at
2zPP+zPPzP" the cost of the deterioration of his pawn
structure. The exchange of the dpawns is
1tR+QmK+R! simply not in Blacks favour.
xabcdefghy 21.Ncxd6 Nxd5
Unfortunately for Black, he cannot get rid of
White should be slightly better due to his
his bad bishop with 21...Lxd6 22.Nxd6
spatial advantage, but now he has to make Nxd5 as he loses a pawn after 23.Nc4.
an important decision: If and what to
exchange! 22.Nc4 Re8 23.Rad1
9.Lxf6! White's superiority is undeniable and is
As the centre is blocked, knights are more mainly based on his superior minor piece. A
important than bishops, so White fixes the significant role is played by Black's ugly
ideal environment for his knights. pawn structure and passivity of his pieces.
9...Qxf6 10.Lxd7+ Nxd7 11.00 Le7 23...Nf4 24.g3 b5 25.axb5 axb5 26.Ne3
12.Nd2 Qg6 13.e4 00 14.Nc4 The careless 26.Na3? would lose all of
After a few 'ideal' exchanges, White has the White's advantage after 26...c4! 27.Nxb5
advantage in view of his greater spatial cxb3 28.cxb3 Rb8.
control and superior minor piece. Black has 26...Ne6 27.Rd7 Nd4 28.Ra1!
difficulty finding a satisfactory plan, as the White will increase his advantage as his
standard advance ...b5 will allow the rooks will occupy the 7th rank.
manoeuvre Na5c6. In the end, he decides 28...Rb6 29.Raa7 b4 30.h4!
on developing play with the ...f5 advance, Intending the further advance h5h6,
which however surrenders the e4square to destroying Black's defence. The balance is
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 42
now tipping decisively in White's favour as g6 6.Nc3 Lh6 7.Nf3 Lxc1 8.Qxc1 Kf8
he is constantly improving his position while 9.00 Kg7 10.Nd2 Nh6 (D)
the black pieces have fallen into passivity. XABCDEFGHY
30...Nb5 31.Ra5! Reb8 32.h5 h6 33.Nc4
Re6 34.Rd5 Nd4 35.Ne3 Rc8 36.Ra7! 8r+lwq+tr(
A small material gain with 36.Nxc5 does
not figure in White's plans. His position is so
7zpp+n+pmkp'
good, that to give up one of his knights, he 6+zp+psn&
must obtain something really big in return!
36...Nb5 37.Rb7 Nd4 38.Kg2 Ree8 5+LzpPzp+%
39.Ng4 Re6 40.Ne3 Ree8 41.Rdd7
Red8 42.Ng4!
4P++P++$
White wins material without surrendering 3+sN++#
any of his advantages. 2zPPsNzPPzP"
42...Rxd7
42...Re8 43.Nef6+ gxf6 (or 43...Kh8 1tRwQ+RmK!
44.Nxh6!) 44.Nxf6+ Kh8 45.Rh7 #.
43.Rxd7 Kh8 44.Nxe5 Kg8 45.Ng4 Rc6
xabcdefghy
46.Rd8 Ne6 47.Rb8 Ra6 48.Ne5 Ra2 Again here we have a position with a
49.Nd6! (D) blocked centre, where knights are more
valuable than bishops.
XABCDEFGHY 11.Lxd7!?
8tR+vlk+( As in the previous example, White gives up
bishop for knight. Here Black has a better
7+++zp' version as he will possess the lightsquared
6+sNn+zp& bishop and not the poorly darksquared one.
11...Lxd7 12.Nc4
5+zpsN+P% The outpost on c4 is one of the most
important facts for this position and it will
4zp+++$ be used by White in nearly the entire game.
3+P++zP# 12...Qe7 13.Qd2
13.Nb5?! loses all the advantage after 13...
2r+P+zPK+" a6! (13...Lxb5? 14.axb5 f5 15.f4! )
1++++! 14.Nbxd6 b5 15.Nxe5 f6 (15...Qxe5?
16.Qxh6+ Kg8 17.axb5 Qxd6 18.c4 a5
xabcdefghy 19.f4 ) 16.Nxd7 Qxd6 17.Nxf6 Qxf6 .
The start of a nice combination, highlighting 13...f6
the ineffectiveness of the black pieces. Black should stay put as the opening of the
49...Rxc2 50.Nf5! Re2 51.Ne7+ Kh7 centre is not to his benefit: 13...f5? 14.f4! .
52.N7g6! Rxe5 14.Ra3!?
Pure desperation, but 52...Kg8 53.Nd7! or A serious alternative could be 14.f4!? exf4
52...Ld6 53.Rh8# is certainly no better! 15.Qxf4 Nf7 16.Nb5 Lxb5 17.axb5 .
53.Nxe5 Ld6 54.Rb6 Lxe5 55.Rxe6 14...Rab8
Ld4 56.Rc6 Kg8 57.f4 Kf7 58.Kf3 Ke7 A correct reaction. Black should refrain
59.Ke4 Kd7 60.Kd5 Ke7 61.Rxc5 from playing ...a6, as that would allow
10 White to enter b6 with a rook and continue
Grivas Efstratios with b4, achieving a very good advantage.
Singh Rishipal 15.Rfa1 Nf7 16.Rb3
A44 Kallithea 2006 A friend of mine passed by during the game
1.d4 c5 2.d5 e5 3.e4 d6 4.Lb5+ Nd7 5.a4 and asked me how I got my f1rook to b3.
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 43
He was really puzzled when I informed him he will just lose material after 30.fxe5 Nxe5
that the b3rook was the one from a1! 31.Rf4 Qb5 (31...Nxc4 32.Qxc4 Rxe4
16...h5 17.a5 h4 18.h3 Ng5 33.Rxe4 fxe4 34.Qc3+! Kh7 35.Qf6 Qd8
18...f5? is plain bad: 19.exf5 Lxf5 36.Qf7+ Kh6 37.Rf6 Rg8 38.Re6 )
(19...gxf5 20.f4 e4 21.Nd1 ) 20.Nb5! a6 32.exf5 Nxc4 33.Qxc4 Qxc4 34.Rxc4 .
21.Nc3 . 29.Rxf4 Ne5!
19.Qe3 Nf7 This invitation to the exchange ensures that
Again Black should avoid 19...f5? 20.exf5 Black will get rid of the 'monster' on c4 and
Lxf5 21.Qe2 . his weak f6pawn.
20.Nb5 30.Nxe5 fxe5
With no other way to make progress, White Not 30...dxe5? 31.Rf1 Qd6 32.c4 when
decided to exchange knight for bishop. White gets a strong protected passed pawn.
20...Lxb5 31.Rf2!? (D)
A forced exchange. After 20...a6?! 21.Nc3 Setting a small (last?) trap...
Rhf8 22.Rb6 f5 23.Rb1 f4 24.Qd3 Ng5
XABCDEFGHY
25.f3 Nf7 26.b4 White would be in the
driver's seat. 8tr++tr(
21.Rxb5 Rhc8 22.Qf3 Qd7 23.Rb3 Rc7 7zpp+q+mk'
24.Qe3 Rcc8 25.Qe1 Rh8 26.Qe2 Rhc8
(D) 6+zp+p+&
XABCDEFGHY 5zPzpPzp+%
8trr+++( 4++P+zp$
7zpp+q+nmk' 3+R+++P#
6+zpzpp+& 2zPP+QtRP+"
5zPzpPzp+% 1+++mK!
4+N+P+zp$ xabcdefghy
3+R+++P# 31...Rbf8?
Until this moment, Black had played rather
2zPP+QzPP+" accurately and well, keeping at bay White's
1tR++mK! opening advantage. But now he made a
critical mistake. He should have chosen the
xabcdefghy other rook to oppose on the ffile: 31...
27.Rf1! Rhf8! 32.Rxf8 (32.Qb5 Qxb5 33.Rxb5
As there is nothing more to expect on the Rf4 = or 32.Rbf3 Qe7 33.b4 cxb4 34.Qb5
queenside (Black defended with accuracy) Rxf3 35.Rxf3 Rf8 36.Rxf8 Kxf8
White tries his chances on the kingside by an 37.Qxb4 Kg7 =) 32...Rxf8 33.Qg4 Qe7
eventual f4. (33...Qxg4? 34.Rxb7+) 34.Qe6 Rf7 =.
27...Rh8 32.Qg4! Rf7
27...g5? stops f4 but would have created There is no salvation anymore: 32...Qe7
weaknesses on the light squares, from which 33.Qe6! Re8 (33...Qxe6 34.dxe6 Rxf2
White could benefit: 28.Ne3 Nh6 29.Ra1! [34...Rb8 35.Rf7+] 35.Rxb7+ Kf6 36.
Rh8 30.c4 Rhc8 31.Rb5 Rf8 32.b4 cxb4 xKxf2 +) 34.Rf6!! Qxe6 (34...Qxf6
33.Rxb4 Qc7 34.Qd3 . 35.Rxb7+) 35.Rxe6 Rxe6 36.Rxb7+ Kf6
28.f4 exf4 37.dxe6 a6 38.e7 Re8 39.Ra7 +.
If Black tries to exchange all the pawns in 33.Rbf3! Re7 34.Qg5!
the centre with 28...Rbe8? 29.Rbf3 f5, then 10
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 44
Exchanges in the Endgame
Concept Or 42...Kxh6 43.Nc3 Lc6 44.Ra7 Kg5
As the game proceeds, exchanges become 45.Ra5 Kf4 46.a3 +.
even more important, just as they become 43.Nc3 a3 44.Rh4!
less and less in number! 10
When we are getting into the endgame, an
exchange can easily determine the result of Single rook endgames have a very large
the game  remember that you cannot take drawish tendency. Remember Dr. Tarraschs
back or recall an exchange! aphorism: All rook endgames are drawn.
The side playing against a rook usually
Grivas Efstratios wants to retain one rook to coordinate with
Banikas Hristos the minor pieces; for example, with one or
E69 Korinthos 1997 two minor pieces against a rook.
1.d4 Nf6 2.Nf3 g6 3.g3 Lg7 4.Lg2 00
5.00 d6 6.c4 Nbd7 7.Nc3 e5 8.h3 c6 9.e4 Larsen Bent
Re8 10.Rb1 a5 11.b3 exd4 12.Nxd4 Nc5 Marjanovic Slavoljub
B52 Bled 1979
13.Re1 a4 14.b4 Ne6 15.Nde2 h6 16.f4
1.e4 c5 2.Nf3 d6 3.Lb5+ Ld7 4.Lxd7+
g5 17.Le3 gxf4 18.gxf4 Nf8 19.Qd2 Ng6 Qxd7 5.00 Nc6 6.d3 g6 7.c3 Nf6 8.Re1
20.f5 Ne5 21.Lxh6 Lxh6 22.Qxh6 Nh7 Lg7 9.d4 00 10.d5 Na5 11.Nbd2 b5
23.Red1 Nxc4 24.Rd4 b5 25.e5 Nxe5
12.a4 a6 13.b4 cxb4 14.cxb4 Nxd5
26.Rf1 f6 27.Lxc6 Ra7 28.Lxe8 Qxe8
15.exd5 Lxa1 16.bxa5 Rfc8 17.axb5
29.Nd5 Rg7+ 30.Kf2 Lxf5 (D) Qxb5 18.Nf1 Lc3 19.Rxe7 Qb1
XABCDEFGHY 20.N3d2 Qd3 21.Qb3 Qb5 22.Qxb5
8++q+k+( axb5 23.Ne4 Lxa5 24.Lf4 b4 25.Lxd6
b3 26.Rb7 Rc4 27.Ng5 b2 28.Rxb2 Rd8
7+++trn' 29.Le7 Rxd5 30.Rb8+ Kg7 31.Lf8+
Kg8 32.Le7+ Kg7 33.g3 Rd7 34.Re8
6+zpzpwQ& Lb4 35.Lxb4 Rxb4 36.Ne3 Rbb7
5+p+Nsnl+% 37.Re4 Re7 (D)
4pzPtR++$ XABCDEFGHY
3++++P# 8++++(
2P++NmK+" 7+r+trpmkp'
1+++R+! 6+++p+&
xabcdefghy 5+++sN%
31.Qxh7+!! 4++R++$
The white queen 'sacrifice' is simple and
obvious, but still gives much pleasure, as 3++sNzP#
Black can accept it with three different 2++zPzP"
pieces, but none of them guarantees his
survival. 1+++mK!
31...Rxh7 32.Nxf6+ Kf7 33.Nxe8 Kxe8 xabcdefghy
34.Rxd6 Lxh3 35.Rh1 Rf7+ 36.Ke1
Lg2 37.Rh8+ Ke7 38.Ra6 Nd3+ White has won two pieces for a rook and of
39.Kd2 Nxb4 40.Ra7+ Kf6 41.Rh6+ course he is now in the driver's seat. But the
Kg7 42.Rxf7+ Kxf7 question is: should he exchange the rooks or
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 45
not? king to leave his shelter.
38.Rh4! 65...Ke7
Of course, he'd better avoid the exchange of If 65...Kg7 then 66.Ne8+ Kh7 67.Nd5
rooks and instead provoke a weakening of Rc6 68.Nef6+ Rxf6 (68...Kg7? 69.Rg8
Black's structure. It would be easier for the #) 69.Nxf6+ +.
defender to defend with a pair of rooks off, 66.Rg8 Rc6 67.Ncd5+
as then he would have fewer threats to look 67.hxg6! is even quicker: 67...Rcxc7 (67...
after. fxg6 68.Rg7+ +) 68.Nd5+ Ke6 69.g7
38...h6 39.Nf3 Rb1+ 40.Kg2 Rb2 +.
41.Nc4 Rbe2 42.Ncd2 Rd7 43.Nb3 67...Kd6 68.hxg6 fxg6 69.Nb4 Rb6
Rde7 44.Ra4 Rb2 45.Nbd2 Reb7 46.h3 70.Nfd5 Rbb7 71.Rxg6+ Kc5 72.Rxh6
R2b4 47.Ra5 R7b5 48.Ra3 Rf7 73.Rc6+ Kb5 74.Rc2 Rad7 75.g4
Again White avoids the exchange. Black in 10
his turn correctly asked for it...
Heinemann Thies
48...Rd5 49.Ra7 Rdb5 50.h4 Rb7
Skripchenko Almira
51.Ra6 R7b6 52.Ra3 R6b5 53.Rd3
Kh7 54.Ng1 Kg7 55.Ne2 Ra5 56.Nf4 B33 Germany 2006
Rba4 57.Nb3 Ra7 58.Rd5 R4a6?! 1.e4 c5 2.Nf3 e6 3.d4 cxd4 4.Nxd4 Nf6
5.Nc3 Nc6 6.Ndb5 d6 7.Lf4 e5 8.Lg5
Allowing the undermining h5 eases White's
a6 9.Na3 b5 10.Lxf6 gxf6 11.Nd5 Lg7
task. 58...h5 was more tenacious.
12.Ld3 Ne7 13.Nxe7 Qxe7 14.c3 f5 15.0
59.h5 Kh7 60.Nd4 Kg7 61.Nb5 Rb7
0 00 16.Nc2 Lb7 17.exf5 Qg5 18.Ne3
62.Nd6 Rbb6?!
d5 19.f4 exf4 20.Qg4 Qxg4 21.Nxg4
62...Re7 was called for, although Black Rfe8 22.Rxf4 h5 23.f6 Lf8 24.Raf1 Lc8
cannot save the game: 63.Nc4 Rc7 64.Ne5
Rca7 65.hxg6 fxg6 66.Kh3 Rf6 67.Rd8 25.Nf2 Re5 26.Rd1 Ld7 27.Lc2 Lh6
Rfa6 68.Nd5 Rb7 69.f4 Re6 70.Kg4 28.Rf3 Rae8 29.h3 Re1+ 30.Kh2 Rxd1
Ra7 71.Nc3 Rea6 72.Nb5 Rb7 73.Nd6 31.Lxd1 Re1 32.Kg3 Lg5 33.h4 Lc1
Rba7 74.Ne8+ Kh7 75.Nd7 Ra5 34.Rd3 Re5 35.b3 Le6 36.Lf3 Kh7
37.Rd1 Le3 38.Nd3 Rf5 39.Nb4 Rxf6
76.Nef6+ Kg7 77.Rf8 h5+ (77...Rb5?
40.Nxd5 Rg6+ 41.Kh2 Lf2 42.Ne7
78.Ne8+ Kh7 79.Ndf6 #) 78.Kh4 +. Lg3+ 43.Kg1 Rf6 44.Nd5 Lxd5 45.
63.Ne8+ Kf8 64.Nc7 Ra7 (D) Rxd5 Lxh4 46.Rxh5+ Rh6 47.Rd5 Re6
XABCDEFGHY 48.Kh2 Lf2 49.Kh3 Kg6 50.Kg4 f6
8++mk+( 51.Kf4 Le3+ 52.Kg3 (D)
7trsN+p+' XABCDEFGHY
6tr++pzp& 8++++(
5++R++P% 7++++'
4++sN+$ 6p++rzpk+&
3+++zP# 5+p+R++%
2++zPK+" 4++++$
1++++! 3+PzPvlLmK#
xabcdefghy 2P+++P+"
65.Rd8+! 1++++!
The white pieces are coordinating quite well, xabcdefghy
creating a mating net, so forcing the enemy
With rooks and oppositecoloured bishops,
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 46
the defender usually wants to exchange spoil it by violating the principle do not
rooks. But in chess we should not be hurry: 69.g7? Kxg7 70.Ke6 Lb6 71.Kd6
dogmatic; here it is just a bad choice... Kf6 =.
52...Re5? 69...Lg3 70.Kc5 Lc7 71.Kb5
An inappropriate moment for the exchange, 10
as White can centralize his king with tempo
Akopian Vladimir
and then create two passed pawns. With
Potkin Vladimir
rooks on board, Black should be able to
B48 KhantyMansiysk 2013
hold: 52...f5 53.Rd3 (53.Rd8 Lb6 54.Rc8
Kg5 55.Rc6 [55.Rg8+ Rg6] 55...f4+ = or 1.e4 c5 2.Nf3 e6 3.d4 cxd4 4.Nxd4 Nc6
5.Nc3 Qc7 6.Le3 a6 7.Qd2 Nf6 8.000
53.Le2 Kg5 54.c4 [54.Ld3 Re5! =] 54... Le7 9.f3 b5 10.g4 Nxd4 11.Lxd4 Lb7
bxc4 55.bxc4 Lg1 =) 53...Lc5 54.Lb7
Kg5 55.Kf3 a5 56.b4 (56.a4 bxa4 57.bxa4 12.g5 Nh5 13.Kb1 00 14.Ld3 e5 15.Lf2
Re5 =) 56...axb4 57.cxb4 Rd6! =. g6 16.Nd5 Lxd5 17.exd5 Lc5 18.d6 Qb6
19.Lxc5 Qxc5 20.Le4 Rab8 21.Qa5
53.Rxe5! fxe5 54.Lb7 a5 55.Kf3 Ld2 Qb6 22.Qc3 Rfe8 23.Qc7 Nf4 24.Qxd7
55...Lc5 is of no help anyway: 56.Ke4 Qd8 25.Qa7 Qb6 26.Qd7 Qd8 27.Qc6
Kf6 (56...b4 57.c4 Kf6 58.Kd5 +)
Qb6 28.Qc3 Rbd8 (D)
57.Kd5 Lf2 58.b4 axb4 (58...e4 59.Lc6
+) 59.cxb4 Le1 60.Kc5 +. XABCDEFGHY
56.c4 bxc4 57.bxc4 Kf6 8+trr+k+(
The alternative 57...Kf5 58.Lc8+ Kf6
59.Ke4 Lf4 60.g4 Ke7 61.c5 Kd8 62.Lf5 7+++p+p'
Kc7 63.Kd5 a4 64.Le4 Kd7 65.c6+ Kc7
66.Ke6 + loses as well.
6pwqzP+p+&
58.Ke4 Ke6 5+p+zpzP%
Or 58...a4 59.c5 a3 60.Kd5 La5 61.g4
Ld8 62.g5+ Kxg5 63.Kxe5 +. 4++Lsn+$
59.g4 a4 60.c5 a3 61.Ld5+ Kf6 62.Lb3 3+wQ+P+#
62.c6! La5 63.g5+ Kxg5 64.Kxe5 + is
even easier.
2PzPP++zP"
62...Lb4 63.Kd5 e4 64.c6 e3 65.Ld1 Ke7 1+K+R++R!
66.g5 La5 67.Le2 Lc7 68.g6 Kf6 (D)
XABCDEFGHY xabcdefghy
A passed pawn is nearly always a huge
8++++( power. Here we have no exception!
29.Qc7!
7+vl++' Exchanges! Then the pawn will queen!
6+P+mkP+& 29...Qxc7 30.dxc7 Rc8 31.Rd7 Ne6
32.Ld5!
5++K++% Obviously White had foreseen this tactical
4++++$ blow, otherwise his 29th move should be
considered a blunder.
3zp+zp+# 32...Nxg5
Black cannot capture the devilish pawn:
2P++L++" 32...Rxc7 33.Lxe6 or 32...Nxc7
1++++! 33.Lxf7+.
33.h4 Ne6 34.Lxe6!
xabcdefghy More exchanges and the pawn gets stronger.
69.Ld3! 34...fxe6
The decisive zugzwang. White could still 34...Rxe6 loses to 35.Rd8+ Re8 36.
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 47
Rxe8+ Rxe8 37.Rd1 and 38.Rd8 queens. Black's piece activity has been considered
35.Rhd1 Rf8 36.Re7! Rxf3 37.Rd8+ for some time to give him a perfectly good
Rf8 38.Rxc8 Rxc8 (D) game.
XABCDEFGHY 11...00 12.Nfxe5 Le2 13.Re3 Lxc4
14.Nxc4 Ng4!
8+r++k+( More accurate than the alternatives, as at
least here White has some chances of going
7+zPtR+p' wrong. 14...Lc5 is a known draw: 15.Re1
6p++p+p+& Rae8 16.Le3 Lxe3 17.Rxe3 Rxe4
18.Rxe4 Nxe4 19.f3 Nd6 (Karjakin,S
5+p+zp+% Caruana,F Wijk aan Zee 2010) and although
4+++zP$ White should be minimally better because of
the pawn structure, no one has been able to
3++++# win this position.
2PzPP+++" 15.Re2 Lxh2+ (D)
1+K+++! XABCDEFGHY
xabcdefghy 8r++trk+(
39.Rd7 7+pzp+zpp'
And as the coming 40.Rd8+ decides, Black 6p+p+++&
resigned.
10 5++++%
4+N+P+n+$
3++++#
Kamsky Gata
Carlsen Magnus 2PzPP+RzPPvl"
C69 Saint Louis 2013 1tRvL+mK!
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Lb5 a6 4.Lxc6 dxc6
5.00 f6 6.d4 Lg4 7.dxe5 Qxd1 8.Rxd1 xabcdefghy
fxe5 9.Rd3 Ld6 10.Nbd2 Nf6 (D) 16.Kf1?!
XABCDEFGHY An inaccuracy. Better is 16.Kh1 Lg3!
(16...Ld6?! 17.f3 Ne5 18.Nxd6 cxd6
8r++k+tr( 19.b3 Zhelnin,VMukhin,V Kaluga 2011)
7+pzp+zpp' 17.f3 Rae8 18.Ld2 Ne5 19.Ne3 Ng6
20.Lc3 Ld6 with an unclear position as in
6p+pvlsn+& Comp Fritz 4Beliavsky,A Bled 1996.
5++zp+% 16...Rae8
A 'common' but quite good novelty.
4++P+l+$ Beforehand 16...Lg3 has been played: 17.f3
Rad8 18.Lg5 Rd4 19.b3 b5 20.Nb2 Ne5
3++R+N+# 21.Rd1 Rxd1+ 22.Nxd1 h6 23.Le3 Rd8
2PzPPsNzPPzP" with equal chances as in Rovid,KIvan,A
Hungary 2010.
1tRvL+mK! 17.Nd2?!
xabcdefghy Now White will find it difficult to complete
his development, because of the selfpin.
11.Nc4
17.c3 was much better.
White's play revolves around the isolated e5
17...Rd8! (D)
pawn. He would love to grab it, however
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 48
XABCDEFGHY 22...Lxc3 23.Lb2 Nf4 24.Rc2 La5
24...Lxb2 25.Rxb2 Rd3 was good as well
8+trtrk+( but Black wanted to preserve more pieces on
the board.
7+pzp+zpp' 25.Ng3 g6 26.Rf1 Rd3 27.Kh2 Lb4
6p+p+++& 28.Ne2 Ne6 29.Nc1 Rd7 30.g3 Rfd8
31.Kg2 Kf7 32.f4 h5 33.Kh3 a5 34.Kg2
5++++% Nc5 35.Kf3 (D)
4++P+n+$ XABCDEFGHY
3++++# 8+tr++(
2PzPPsNRzPPvl" 7+pzpr+k+'
1tRvL+K+! 6+p++p+&
xabcdefghy 5zpsn++p%
Quite nice! With the rook going back and
forth, Black secured a pin on the dfile that
4vl+PzP+$
causes White's development to stall almost 3+P++KzP#
completely.
18.f3 Lg3 19.Kg1 Ne5 20.b3 Ng6! 2PvLR+++"
Black is in the driver's seat and with each 1+sN+R+!
move he tries to create threats. Obviously
White's endgame would be much better but xabcdefghy
how to clinch one? Black 'prepared' his position, as White had
21.Nf1 Le5 (D) no threat to show for his minus pawn and he
XABCDEFGHY is now ready (with some exchanges) to
convert the point.
8+trtrk+( 35...Nd3! 36.Re2
7+pzp+zpp' White didn't like 36.Nxd3 Rxd3+ 37.Kg2
Re3, although after 38.f5! Black should be
6p+p++n+& careful: 38...Le7! (38...Rxe4 39.fxg6+
Kxg6 40.Rf6+ Kg5 41.Rcf2 Rd5 42.Rf7
5++vl+% with compensation) 39.fxg6+ Kxg6 40.Le5
4++P++$ Rd7 .
36...Le7?
3+P++P+# Returning the favour. 36...Nxb2 37.Rxb2
2P+P+R+P+" La3 38.Rc2 Rd2 and it will be very hard
for White to hold this position as a2 will
1tRvL+NmK! soon fall.
xabcdefghy 37.Nxd3 Rxd3+ 38.Kg2 Lc5
The extra pawn still gives Black excellent
22.c3? chances to win but the advantage is slipping
And finally a blunder! White had to opt for move by move.
22.Rb1 Rd1 23.Rd2 Ld4+ 24.Kh2 Rxf1 39.Rc1?!
25.Rxd4 Nf4 26.Rd7 Rf6 27.Lxf4! 39.Le5! would have at least forced Black to
(27.Rd8+ Kf7 28.Rf8+ Kg6! 29.Rxf6+ find an active idea to defend c7. After
gxf6 ) 27...Rxb1 28.Le5 Rh6+ 29.Kg3 39...Ld6 40.Lb2 any move by the black
Rg6+ when Black is an exchange up, but
bishop will be met with Le5 again. Not
White's activity is unpleasant and he might easy to say if Black can really win...
be able to hold.
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 49
39...Rd2! 40.Rce1 Rxe2+?! 45...Rxd2+?
40...Lb4! was also more accurate: 41.Kf2 A wrong exchange. The bishop endgame
Rxb2 42.Rxb2 Lxe1+ 43.Kxe1 Rd3 looks less promising than the rook endgame,
44.Kf2 c5 . so Black should opt for 45...Lc5+! 46.Kg2
41.Rxe2 (D) Rc3 47.Lb2 Re3 48.Ld4 Lxd4 49.Rxd4
XABCDEFGHY a3! with excellent winning chances.
46.Lxd2 axb3 47.axb3 c5
8+tr++( Blacks chances are now extremely slim but
White found some ways to be helpful!
7+pzp+k+' 48.g4?
6+p++p+& A blunder  there was no need to create a
passed pawn for Black. White had to simply
5zpvl++p% wait, playing Ke2d3.
4++PzP+$ 48...b5 49.gxh5 gxh5 (D)
3+P++zP# XABCDEFGHY
2PvL+R+K+" 8++++(
1++++! 7+zpvlk+'
xabcdefghy 6++++&
The time control has been reached and Black 5+pzp++p%
is still a pawn up but he will have a tough
technical job ahead of him...
4++PzP+$
41...Rd3 42.Rc2 Ld6 43.Lc1 Le7 3+P+++#
44.Kf2 a4?! 2+vLmK+"
Too early. Black should play ...a4 at the
right time, so he should start with 44...Lb4. 1++++!
45.Rd2?! (D)
45.bxa4! was called for, as after 45...Rd4 xabcdefghy
46.a5 Rxe4 47.a6 bxa6 48.Rxc6 Ra4 50.Lc3
49.Rxc7 Rxa2+ 50.Kf3 Ke6 51.Le3 Not really a blunder but it made Black's task
White should have enough counterplay to easier. Unfortunately for White, 50.Kf3 was
achieve the draw. losing as well: 50...c4 51.bxc4 b4 52.Le3
XABCDEFGHY b3 53.Lc1 Lc5 54.Lb2 h4 and Black's
plan with ...Lg1, ...h3h2 and ...c5 and
8++++( ...Ld4 cannot be stopped: 55.f5 h3 56.e5
Lg1 57.Kg3 h2 58.e6+ Ke7 59.Kg2 c5
7+pzpvlk+' +.
6+p++p+& 50...b4 51.Lb2 Lh4+
Accurate was 51...Lf6! 52.e5 (52.Lc1 c4
5++++p% 53.bxc4 Ld4+ 54.Kf3 b3 +) 52...Lh4+
4p++PzP+$ 53.Ke2 (53.Kf3 Le1 54.f5 Lc3 +)
53...Ke6 and Black prevails.
3+P+r+zP# 52.Ke2 Lg3
2P+tRmK+" The combined action between the passed
pawn on h4 and the threats of breaking on c4
1+vL++! and exchanging bishops gives Black an easy
win.
xabcdefghy 53.f5
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 50
53.Kf3 Le1! 54.Ke2 Lc3 +. XABCDEFGHY
53...h4 54.e5 h3 55.e6+
55.Kf3 Lh4 56.La1 Le1 +. 8++++(
55...Ke7 56.Kf3 Lf4 57.Lg7 Lg5
7++++p'
58.Le5 (D)
XABCDEFGHY 6+l++p+&
8++++( 5++vlmk%
7+zpmk+' 4p+L+++$
6++P++& 3+sN+P+P#
5+zpvLPvl% 2+mK+P+"
4zp+++$ 1++++!
3+P++K+p# xabcdefghy
The bishop pair dominates but old masters
2++++" used to say that one of the main advantages
1++++! of this asset is the possibility to exchange
one of the bishops under favourable
xabcdefghy circumstances!
58...c4! 59.bxc4 Lf6 48...Lxc3+! 49.Kxc3 Kf4?!
White resigned, as the black outside pawns 49...Kh4 was more accurate, as now White
proved far stronger than his central ones... can create some problems.
01 50.h4! Kg3 51.Lg8 h6 52.Lf7 Kxg2!
52...g5 is of no help, as 53.hxg5 hxg5
54.Lg6 holds, since 54...Kxg2 55.Le4!
A good player should keep an open mind Le8 56.f4+ is drawn.
and try to find out whats the best 53.Lxg6 Kg3 54.h5 Kxf3 55.Kb4 Kf4
continuation. Sometimes it is not that 56.Lc2 Kg5 57.Ld1
obvious; the devil is hidden in the detail This makes it easier, but the alternative
Le Quang Liem 57.Lg6 Lf3 58.Kxa4 Lxh5 wins for
Nepomniachtchi Ian Black anyway  tablebases indicate mate in
A34 KhantyMansiysk 2013 19 moves!
1.Nf3 Nf6 2.c4 c5 3.Nc3 d5 4.cxd5 Nxd5 57...Le8 58.Ka3 Lxh5 59.Lxa4 (D)
5.e3 Nxc3 6.bxc3 g6 7.d4 Qc7 8.Le2
Lg7 9.00 00 10.Lb2 b6 11.e4 Nd7
XABCDEFGHY
12.Qd3 Lb7 13.Rfd1 Rfd8 14.Qe3 Nf6 8++++(
15.d5 e6 16.dxe6 Nxe4 17.Re1 Re8 7++++'
18.exf7+ Qxf7 19.Lb5 Rf8 20.Rad1
Rad8 21.Rxd8 Rxd8 22.Ld3 Nd6 6+++zp&
23.Ng5 Qd5 24.Qe6+ Qxe6 25.Nxe6 5+++mkl%
Re8 26.Re2 Lf6 27.a3 Kf7 28.Nf4 b5
29.Kf1 a5 30.Rd2 Ne4 31.Rc2 c4 4L++++$
32.Le2 Nc5 33.Lc1 Le4 34.Rb2 Nb3
35.f3 Lc6 36.Rc2 Nxc1 37.Rxc1 Re3
3mK+++#
38.a4 Rxc3 39.Rxc3 Lxc3 40.axb5 Lxb5 2++++"
41.Nd5 Ld4 42.Ke1 a4 43.Nc7 Lc6
44.Lxc4+ Ke7 45.Nb5 Le5 46.h3 Kf6 1++++!
47.Kd2 Kg5 48.Nc3 (D) xabcdefghy
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 51
59...Lg6! 27.Kf2 a6 28.Lb3 Na8 29.Le3 Nc7
The only winning move! In this bishop 30.Rc1 Ne6 (D)
endgame the rook pawn is the best, as the XABCDEFGHY
defending bishop has just one diagonal at his
disposal. 8+tr+k+(
60.Ld1 Lf5 61.Kb2 Lg4 62.Kc1 h5
63.Kd2 Kf4 64.La4 h4 65.Ke1 h3
7+p++pzp'
66.Lc6 6p+l+nsnzp&
66.Kf2 Lf3 67.Kg1 Kg3.
66...Lf3 67.Lxf3 Kxf3 5++zp+%
01 4P++P++$
Mamedyarov Shakhriyar 3+LsNvLP+#
Khairullin Ildar
D35 KhantyMansiysk 2013 2zP+mKPzP"
1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 e6 3.Nc3 d5 4.Lf4 dxc4
5.e3 Ld6 6.Lg5 h6 7.Lh4 c5 8.Nf3 cxd4
1+tR++!
9.Nxd4 00 10.Lxc4 Le7 11.00 Ld7 xabcdefghy
12.Qe2 Nc6 13.Rfd1 Ne5 14.Lb3 Ng6 31.Lxe6!
15.Lg3 Qa5 16.Lc2 Qh5 17.Qxh5 Top players know when they have to
Nxh5 (D)
transform their advantages. Here, from the
XABCDEFGHY bishop pair we go to the weak pawns
advantage.
8r++trk+( 31...fxe6 32.b3 Kf7 33.Na2 Rd3 34.Nb4
7zpp+lvlpzp' Rxb3 35.Nxc6 bxc6 36.Rxc6 Rb2+
37.Kf1 Rb1+
6++p+nzp& Maybe Black could have tried 37...Nh5
5++++n% 38.g3 g5 39.Rxa6 Rxh2, although after
40.Lf2 Rh1+ 41.Lg1 , his position
4+sN++$ would also be rather difficult.
3+sNzPvL# 38.Ke2 Rb2+ 39.Ld2 a5 40.Rc7+ Kg6
41.Ra7 Ra2 42.Rxa5
2PzPL+zPPzP" And White finally won some material.
42...Nd7 43.Kd3! Rxa4?
1tR+R+mK! Black was having a difficult time, but this
xabcdefghy blunder ends the game in no time at all.
It seems that Black is doing fine, but the 44.Rxa4 Nc5+ 45.Kc2 Nxa4 46.Le3!
tactics turned against him! The black knight is trapped and will be lost
soon, so Black resigned.
18.Nf5! Lc6
10
The other option was 18...exf5 19.Rxd7
Nxg3 20.hxg3 Lf6 21.Lxf5 . Shirov Alexei
19.Nxe7+ Nxe7 20.Ld6 Rfe8 21.e4! Timman Jan
According to the old rules of restriction C80 Wijk aan Zee 1996
(Steinitz) when you deal with the bishop 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Lb5 a6 4.La4 Nf6
pair. Black's position is rather difficult, 5.00 Nxe4 6.d4 b5 7.Lb3 d5 8.dxe5 Le6
without any counterplay... 9.Nbd2 Nc5 10.c3 d4 11.Ng5 Qxg5
21...Nf6 22.f3 Nc8 23.Lf4 Nb6 24.a4! 12.Qf3 000 13.Lxe6+ fxe6 14.Qxc6
Restriction of the opponents pieces once Qxe5 15.b4 Qd5 16.Qxd5 exd5 17.bxc5
more! dxc3 18.Nb3 d4 19.La3 g6 20.Lb4 Lg7
24...e5 25.Lc1 Rad8 26.Rxd8 Rxd8 21.a4 Kd7 22.axb5 axb5 23.Rad1 Ke6
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 52
24.Rfe1+ Kd5 25.Lxc3 Kc4 26.La5 Black collects the white cpawn, White
Kxb3 27.Rb1+ Kc4 28.Rec1+ Kd5 stages a decisive breakthrough on the
29.c6 Kd6 30.Rxb5 Rb8 31.Lb4+ Ke6 kingside. But this is not exactly the case:
32.Re1+ Kf6 33.Le7+ Kf7 34.Rd5 49...Kd6 50.h4 (the direct 50.f5 is easier:
Rhc8 35.Rd7 Kg8 36.g3 Rb6 37.Rc1 50...gxf5 [50...Kxc6? 51.f6 Kd6 52.Kf3
Rb3 38.Lc5 d3 39.Rd1 Rcb8 40.Kg2 Ke6 53.Ke4 Kd6 54.Kd4 Ke6 55.Kc5
Lf8 41.Lxf8 Rxf8 42.R1xd3 Rxd3 Kd7 56.Kd5 Ke8 57.Kc6 Kd8 and now
43.Rxd3 Rf7 44.f4 Re7 45.g4 Re6 the white hpawn decides: 58.h3 +] 51.h4
46.Rd8+ Kf7 47.Rd7+ (D) Ke5 52.Kf3 f4 53.h5 Kf5 54.g6 hxg6
XABCDEFGHY 55.h6 Kf6 56.Kxf4 g5+! =) 50...Kxc6
51.f5 Kd6! (51...gxf5? 52.h5 Kd6 53.g6
8++++( hxg6 54.h6 +) 52.f6 (D)
7+zpR+k+p' XABCDEFGHY
6+P+r+p+& 8++++(
5++++% 7+zp++p'
4++zPP+$ 6+mkzPp+&
3++++# 5+++zP%
2+++KzP" 4+++zP$
1++++! 3++++#
xabcdefghy 2+++K+"
It seems that its all over, as White is about 1++++!
to win a second pawn in this rook ending
47...Re7! xabcdefghy
But Black rightly understands (or, more This was considered to be won for White
accurately, he realizes he has no option!!) due to his passed and protected fpawn. But
that he cannot lose the pawn ending! White this position is won only without the h
has nothing better than to enter it pawns, as then White will exchange his f
48.Rxe7+ Kxe7 (D) for Black's cpawn and then win the black g
XABCDEFGHY pawn, achieving a wellknown won ending
as his last pawn is on the 4th rank.
8++++( The three critical ideas are:
1. When White pushes his hpawn to h5,
7+zpmk+p' Black should place his king on f7, to
6+P++p+& recapture on g6 with his king.
2. When White goes with his king to c6,
5++++% Black must be ready to play his king to d8
4++zPP+$ and give the move to White. This creates a
mutual zugzwang.
3++++# 3. Black should in general not push his c
pawn.
2+++KzP" 52...Ke6 and now: (52...Kd7 is good as
1++++! well: 53.Kf3 Ke6 54.Kf4 Kf7 55.Ke5
Ke8 56.Kd5 Kd7 57.Kc5 Ke8 = but not
xabcdefghy 52...c5? 53.Kf3 Ke6 54.Ke4 Kd6 55.Kd3
49.g5 Ke6 56.Kc4 Kd6 57.Kb5 +)
Here Black resigned, as it seems that when
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 53
a) 53.Kg3!? is a nice try, when Black 59.Ke6 Ke8 60.Kd5 Kd7 (60...Kf7
should avoid 53...Kd6? 54.h5! Ke6 61.Kc6 Kf8 62.Kxc7 Kf7 63.Kd7 Kf8
(54...gxh5 55.Kh4 c5 56.g6!! hxg6 57.Kg5 64.Ke6 Ke8 65.f7+ Kf8 =) 61.Kc5 Ke8
c4 58.Kxg6 c3 59.f7 c2 60.f8Q+ +) 62.Kc6 Kd8 63.f7 Ke7 64.Kxc7 Kxf7
55.hxg6 hxg6 + but instead go for 53... 65.Kd7 Kf8 66.Kd8 Kf7 67.Kd7 Kf8
Kf7! 54.Kg4 Ke6 55.h5 Kf7 =. 68.Ke6 Ke8 69.Kf6 Kf8 =.
b) 53.Kf3 Kd6 (53...Kf7 =) 54.Kg4 (54. It must be mentioned that White cannot win
Ke4 Ke6 55.Kd4 Kd7 [55...Kd6 56.Kc4 even without 49.g5: 49.Kf3 Kd6 50.Ke4
Ke6 = but not 56...c6? 57.Kd4 Ke6 Kxc6 51.Ke5 Kd7 52.Kf6 c6 (52...c5
58.Ke4! {58.Kc5 Kd7 =} 58...c5 59.Kd3 53.Ke5 Kc6 =) 53.h3 c5 54.Ke5 Kc6
+] 56.Kd5 Ke8! [56...Kd8? 57.Kc6 + 55.h4 c4 56.Kd4 Kb5! 57.f5 gxf5 58.gxf5
zugzwang] 57.Ke6 [57.Kc6 Kd8] 57... (58.g5? f4 59.h5 f3 +) 58...Kc6 59.Kxc4
Kf8! 58.Ke5 [58.Kd7? c5 +] 58...Ke8 =) Kd6 60.Kd4 Ke7 61.Ke5 Kf7 with a
54...Ke6 55.h5 (D) theoretical draw.
10
XABCDEFGHY
Rogozenco Dorian
8++++( Morozevich Alexander
7+zp++p' D07 Istanbul 2000
1.d4 d5 2.c4 Nc6 3.cxd5 Qxd5 4.e3 e5
6++kzPp+& 5.Nc3 Lb4 6.Ld2 Lxc3 7.Lxc3 exd4
5+++zPP% 8.Ne2 Nf6 9.Nxd4 00 10.Nb5 Qg5
11.h4 Qh6! 12.Le2 Rd8 13.Qc2 Nd5
4+++K+$ 14.Rd1 Le6 15.a3 Rd7 16.Nd4 Nxc3
17.Qxc3 Nxd4 18.Rxd4 Rad8 19.Rxd7
3++++# Rxd7 20.Lf3 b6! 21.g3 (D)
2++++" XABCDEFGHY
1++++! 8+++k+(
xabcdefghy 7zpzpr+pzpp'
And now Black should be very careful:
b1) 55...Kd6? 56.hxg6 hxg6 57.Kf4 Ke6 6zp+l+wq&
58.Ke4 Kd6 59.Kd4 c6 60.Kc4 Ke6 5++++%
61.Kc5 Kd7 62.f7 (as mentioned above,
without the hpawns this wins) 62...Ke7 4+++zP$
63.Kxc6 Kxf7 64.Kd7 Kg7 65.Ke7 Kh7 3zPwQzPLzP#
66.Kf6 Kh8 67.Kxg6 Kg8 68.Kf6 (68.
Kh6 +) 68...Kf8 69.g6 Kg8 70.g7 Kh7 2zP+zP+"
71.Kf7 +. 1++mK+R!
b2) 55...gxh5+? 56.Kxh5 c5 57.Kh6!
(57.Kg4? c4 [57...h6? 58.Kh5! hxg5 xabcdefghy
59.Kg6 +] 58.Kf4 c3 59.Ke3 h6 =) 57... White needs to castle to equalize the
K K
c4 58. xh7 (58. g7 c3 59.f7 c2 60.f8 Q position completely.
c1Q 61.Qf6+ Kd5 62.Kxh7 Qc7+ 21...Qf6!
K Q K K
63. g8 c8+ 64. g7 c4 65. f3! b5Q K An excellent exchange, which preserves
K Q K
66.g6 a4 67. e3 +) 58...c3 59. g6 c2 Blacks initiative. Nothing was offered by
60.f7 c1Q 61.f8Q +. 21...c5 22.00 =.
b3) 55...Kf7! 56.h6 (56.hxg6+ Kxg6! = ; 22.Qxf6 gxf6
56.Kh4 c5! 57.hxg6+ Kxg6 58.Kg4 h6 =) The weaknesses of Black's pawn structure
56...Ke6 57.Kf4 Kf7 58.Ke5 Kf8 are not important, because White can attack
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 54
them only with the rook, while Black easily XABCDEFGHY
defends them with the king. More important
is that White has to keep his king on e1 to 8+tr++(
defend the square d2 from Blacks rook.
23.h5 h6
7+++p+'
23...Rd3 24.Ld1 (24.h6 Rb3 25.Rh4 6zpmkzpzp&
Rxb2 26.Rd4 Kf8 ) 24...Lb3 25.Ke2
Lc4 26.Ke1 Lb3 (26...Rd5 27.Rh4 ) 5zpzp++P%
27.Ke2 =. 4++R+P+$
24.Rh4 c5 (D)
24...Rd3 25.Rd4 Rb3 26.Rd2 =. 3zPl+zP+#
XABCDEFGHY 2zP+LzP+"
8+++k+( 1++mK+!
7zp+r+p+' xabcdefghy
6zp+lzpzp& Maybe a bit better was 34.Rf4 Ke5
35.Lc2 b5 .
5+zp++P% 34...f5! 35.gxf5 Lxf5 36.Rf4 Ke5 (D)
4+++tR$ XABCDEFGHY
3zP+zPLzP# 8+tr++(
2zP+zP+" 7+++p+'
1++mK+! 6zp++zp&
xabcdefghy 5zpzpmkl+P%
25.Le2? 4++tR+$
White relaxed too early, thinking that he has
avoided troubles. As is often the case, he 3zP+zP+#
needed to play another accurate move for 2zP+LzP+"
that: 25.b4! after which White is worse.
Note that 25.Lg4?! f5 26.Le2 Kg7 1++mK+!
27.Lc4 Kf6 was not good either.
25...Lb3!
xabcdefghy
Now White has troubles with his king. 37.Rf3?!
26.Rf4 Kg7 27.g4 Rd6 28.Re4 Kf8 The last inaccuracy. The only way for White
29.Rf4 29.Lc4? Rd1+ 30.Ke2 Rb1 +. to continue the fight was 37.Lc4 f6 or
29...a5 30.Re4 Rd8 31.Rf4 Ke7 32.Re4+ 37.a4 Rg8 .
Kd6 (D) 37...b5! 38.e4?
Of course 38.Lxb5? Lg4 + was out of the
(see diagram in the next column) question, but again White could have tried
33.Ld1? 38.Rf4 .
Another bad mistake. White should have 38...Le6 39.Rc3
opted for 33.Rf4 Ke5 34.Rf5+ Ke6 39.Lxb5 Lg4 40.Rd3 Rxd3 41.Lxd3
35.Rf4 and Black still must find a way to Lxh5 +.
break through. 39...c4 40.f3 Kf4 41.Rc2 Rd4 42.Ld1 b4
33...Le6 43.axb4 axb4 44.Le2 Ke3 45.Rc1 Rd2!
Planning ...f5 and ...b5. 46.Lxc4 Rh2 47.Lf1 Rh1 48.Rc2 Lh3
34.Le2 01
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 55
Model Games of Exchanging
Concept 19...h6! 20.exf6
The concept of exchanges is a very broad Or 20.Qh3 Nc5 21.exf6 Rxf6 .
one and it is difficult to cover every possible 20...Rxf6 (D)
idea. But at least it will be possible to cover XABCDEFGHY
some nice, important and instructive
exchanging themes in the games that follow. 8+r++k+(
Karjakin Sergey 7+lwqn+zp'
Carlsen Magnus
C11 Wijk aan Zee 2010 6p++ptrzp&
1.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3.Nc3 Nf6 4.e5 Nfd7 5.f4 5+p+p++%
c5 6.Nf3 Nc6 7.Le3 Le7 8.Qd2 00
9.Le2 a6 10.00 b5 11.Kh1 Qc7 12.a3 4+tRzPwQ$
Lb7 13.Rad1 Rac8 14.Qe1 (D)
3zPsNL++#
XABCDEFGHY 2zPP++PzP"
8+r+trk+( 1+++R+K!
7+lwqnvlpzpp' xabcdefghy
6p+n+p++& Here Black stand fine, mostly due to White's
5+pzppzP+% uncoordinated pieces  a knight should stand
on d4 not a rook!
4+zPzP+$ 21.f5?
3zPsNvLN+# This makes things worse, but anyway it is
already White who has problems. For
2zPP+L+PzP" example, 21.Qg4 Rcf8 22.Rf3 Nb8!
23.Lg6 Nc6 24.Rd2 d4!? 25.Ne4 Ne7
1++RwQR+K! 26.Nxf6+ Rxf6 27.Ld3 Lxf3, winning the
xabcdefghy f4 pawn or 21.Qe1 Rcf8 and it is hard for
A rather typical 'French Defence' position. White to move, while Black always has
Black now seeks exchanges in order to ease ideas such as ...Nb8 or ...Nc5 and to
his position. prepare ...e5 in a profitable edition.
14...cxd4 15.Nxd4 Nxd4 16.Lxd4 Lc5 21...Rcf8
17.Qh4? There were other good options, but this one
An unobvious mistake: White loses control is the simplest.
in the centre. His main problem is that his 22.Rg1
knight does not stand well on c3; it should In the line 22.Re1 Nc5 23.fxe6? Nxd3,
have gone to d4, but that is not possible. with the idea of ...Rf1+, Black wins.
17...Lxd4 18.Rxd4 f6! 22...Nc5
Further shattering White's centre. After the After 22...e5 23.Nxd5 Lxd5 24.Rxd5
Nb6! Black wins exchange for pawn (the d5
exchange on f6, the white queen will be
misplaced. rook is trapped), but 22...Nc5 is even stronger.
19.Ld3 23.fxe6 Nxe6 24.Rg4
19.f5? makes no sense because of 19...fxe5 24.Rxd5? only opens the diagonal for the
20.Rg4 Nf6 + but the immediate 19.exf6 black bishop and quickly loses after
Rxf6 was possible and now 20.Qh3!? but 24...Nf4!. After 24.Nxd5 Lxd5 25.Rxd5
Nf4 26.Rd4 Qc5 White has nothing better
also in this case Black has the initiative.
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 56
than Rxf4, giving away the exchange, White will have too many things to cover.
because after 27.c3 there is 27...Nxd3 37.hxg5+ hxg5 38.Lb3 Ke5 39.Lc2
28.Rxd3 Qxg1+ 29.Kxg1 Rf1 #. Rf8+! 40.Kg2
24...Nf4! 25.Qg3 If White keeps the king in the centre by
As 25.h3? loses to 25...d4 26.Ne4 Lxe4 40.Ke1, then 40...Rh8! followed by ...Rh2.
27.Lxe4 Ne2, White could have tried 40...Ld7 41.Nf3+ Kf6 42.Lb3 g4!
25.Ne2 and if 25...Nxe2 26.Lxe2 Qxc2 43.Nd4 Ke5 44.Lc2 a5 45.Ld1 Ke4
27.Qg3 but also here Black should be 01
winning in the long run. Relange Eloi
25...Qe7! Grivas Efstratios
Black dominates and is about to begin a E62 Cannes 1995
decisive assault by ...d4. It is hard for White 1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 g6 3.g3 Lg7 4.Lg2 00
to find a sensible move. 5.Nc3 d6 6.Nf3 Nc6 7.00 Lf5 8.d5 Na5
26.Rxf4!? 9.Nd4 Ld7 10.b3 c5 11.Nc2 a6 12.Qd3
White has run out of good moves; 26.Re1? Rb8 13.Lb2 b5 14.Rab1 Qc7 15.h3
loses immediately to 26...Nxd3!. Another game in this variation went 15.La1
26...Rxf4 27.Ne2 bxc4 16.bxc4 Rxb1 17.Rxb1 Rb8
Black has a technically winning position, but 18.Rxb8+ Qxb8 19.f4 Le8 Nepom
some precision and patience is required. niachtchi,ISultangareev,M Vladimir 2002.
27...Rf1 28.Nd4 Rxg1+ 29.Kxg1 Re8 15...Rb6 16.La1 (D)
White is unable to avoid the exchange of
queens. XABCDEFGHY
30.h4 Qe1+ 31.Kh2 Qxg3+ 32.Kxg3 Kf7 8++trk+(
Black does not need to go for 32...Re1
33.Kf4 Rb1 34.b3 Ra1 35.Ke5 Rxa3 7+wqlzppvlp'
36.Kd6.
33.Kf2
6ptrzpsnp+&
After 33.Kf4 Kf6 34.g4 Black wins by 5snpzpP++%
34...g5+! 35.hxg5+ hxg5+, followed by
...Re1. So, White covers the e1square. 4+P+++$
33...Kf6 34.g3 Lc8 35.c3 Lg4 36.Lc2 (D) 3+PsNQ+zPP#
XABCDEFGHY 2P+N+PzPL+"
8++r++( 1vLR++RmK!
7+++zp' xabcdefghy
6p++mkzp& White would feel happy if he could play
Rbe1, planning a central pawn advance,
5+p+p++% leaving the black rooks wondering on the b
4+sN+lzP$ file. As White has a spatial advantage, he
should refrain from exchanges in general or,
3zPzP+zP# if you prefer, in principle!
2zPL+mK+" 16...bxc4!
But for Black it is exactly the opposite; he
1++++! should seek exchanges and quickly!
xabcdefghy 17.bxc4 Rxb1 18.Rxb1 Rb8
More exchanges are asked for!
36...g5! 19.Re1
Black exchanges a pair of pawns, opening White decided to retain the rook, as Black
one more line on the kingside. After that has no real entry points on the bfile. After
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 57
19.Rxb8+ Qxb8 planning ...Le8 and strong central control and kingside attacking
...Nd7b6, Black would be fine. chances. The 'old' continuation was 5.00
19...Le8! Ld6 6.c4 c6 7.b3 Qe7 8.Ne5 00 9.Lb2
Preparing a ...Nd7b6a4 manoeuvre. The Ld7 10.Qc1 Le8 11.La3 Nbd7 12.Nd3
other black knight is on the rim but keeps Lf7 13.Lxd6 Qxd6 14.Qa3 Qxa3
the white queen busy. 15.Nxa3 Timman,JShort,N Brussels
20.e3 Nd7 21.f4 Nb6 22.Na3 Ld7 1987, with a tempo less in comparison.
Black could consider 22...Na4!? 23.Nxa4 5...c6
Lxa1 (23...Lxa4 24.Lxg7 Kxg7 25.Qc3+ Another option is 5...Ld6 6.La3 (Black
Kg8 26.e4 Rb4 27.e5 Ld7 ) 24.Nxc5 was 'threatening' 6...Qe7) 6...Lxa3 7.Nxa3
(24.Rxa1 Lxa4 25.Rb1 Rb4 ) 24... c5 8.00 Qa5 9.Nb1! 00 10.c4 dxc4
Qxc5 25.Rxa1 Ld7 . 11.Nbd2! Grivas,EKarapanos,N Nikiti
23.g4 Rb7 24.Lf1 1990 or 5...c5 6.00 Nc6 7.Lb2 cxd4
Black could go on, as his position is more 8.Nxd4 Lc5 9.e3 00 10.Nd2 Qe7 11.
than fine (24...Nc8!?, planning ...Rb4 and N2f3 Ld7 12.Qe2 Halkias,SSkembris,S
...Nb6). Kalamata 2005.
 6.00 Le7 7.La3 00 8.c4 Nbd7 9.Qc2
Lxa3 10.Nxa3 Qe7 11.Qb2!
I am of the opinion that my next four White strengthens his control over e5 even
games are very instructive for what concerns more, supports the loose a3knight and
an opening to middlegame exchange plan  prepares (eventually) the advance b4b5.
it worked perfectly in both: What more can one ask of a queen?
Grivas Efstratios 11...b6 12.Rac1 Lb7 13.Nc2!
Halldorsson Gudmundur Intending Nce1d3, contributing to the
A94 Reykjavik 1994 control of e5. White is slightly better as he
1.d4 f5 2.Nf3 Nf6 3.g3 e6 4.Lg2 d5?! has at his disposal a concrete plan, namely to
5.b3! (D) exploit the outpost on e5.
XABCDEFGHY 13...Ne4 14.Nce1 (D)
8rsnlwqkvltr( XABCDEFGHY
7zppzp+zpp' 8r++trk+(
6++psn+& 7zpl+nwqzpp'
5++p+p+% 6zpp+p++&
4+zP++$ 5++p+p+%
3+P++NzP# 4+PzPn++$
2P+P+PzPLzP" 3+P++NzP#
1tRNvLQmK+R! 2PwQ+PzPLzP"
xabcdefghy 1+tRsNRmK!
In this moveorder, White succeeds in xabcdefghy
enforcing the exchange of darksquared 14...Ng5?!
bishops, which is very relevant to the Exchanges do not help Black's cause,
potential outpost on e5. Black should prefer (especially when it concerns your only and
4...c6 and then 5...d5. In this particular best placed piece!), as his central pawns
system, the 'Stonewall', Black consciously become weaker (not enough nor sufficiently
weakens the e5square in exchange for good pieces to protect them). 14...g5!? is
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 58
preferable, seeking complications. 5.Nf3 00 6.h3 e5 7.d5 a5 8.Lg5 Na6
15.Nxg5 Qxg5 16.Nd3 Qe7 17.b4! Rfc8 9.Nd2 Nc5 10.Le2 Ld7 11.00 h6
18.a4 a5 19.b5! c5 20.Rfd1! (D) 12.Le3 Ne8 (D)
XABCDEFGHY XABCDEFGHY
8r+r++k+( 8r+wqntrk+(
7+l+nwqzpp' 7+pzpl+pvl'
6zp+p++& 6+zp+pzp&
5zpPzpp+p+% 5zpsnPzp+%
4P+PzP++$ 4+P+P++$
3++N+zP# 3+sNvL+P#
2wQ+PzPLzP" 2PzPsNLzPP+"
1+tR+RmK! 1tR+Q+RmK!
xabcdefghy xabcdefghy
White's superiority is obvious. He With his last move, Black shows his
commands more space, his minor pieces are intentions: to play the usual 'KID' ...f5 thrust,
better placed and the outpost on e5 is at his taking the initiative on the kingside. White
mercy. The eventual opening of the position must act.
favours White who, having more space, is 13.Nb3!
better prepared to undertake action and The black c5knight is an active piece;
proceed to favourable exchanges. probably the only one of Black's, so White is
20...Rc7 in a hurry to exchange it.
Black loses at least one pawn after 20...cxd4 13...b6
21.cxd5 Lxd5 (21...e5? 22.d6) 22.Lxd5 Black could play 13...Nxb3 14.Qxb3 b6
exd5 23.Qxd4 Qd6 24.Nf4. 15.Qc2 Ivanov,JMirzoev,A Elgoibar
21.dxc5 Nxc5 2004 or 13...Na4 14.Nxa4 Lxa4 15.c5 f5
21...bxc5? 22.cxd5 exd5 23.Nf4! and 16.f3 .
Black's position collapses: 23...d4 24.Nd5!. 14.Nxc5 dxc5?!
22.Nxc5 Rxc5 23.cxd5 Lxd5 24.Rxc5 Black wants to place his knight on d6, where
Lxg2? it would stand very well, helping ...f5. Still
Black cannot avoid loss of material after 14...bxc5 then 15.a4! f5 16.exf5 (16.f4?!
24...Qxc5 25.Qe5! (outpost!), but this was exf4 17.Lxf4 g5 18.Ld2 f4 ) 16...gxf5
surely better than the text move. 17.f4 e4 18.Qd2 would be a better choice.
25.Rcc1 15.Qd2 Kh7 16.Ld3! f5
White wins. Black's chances are limited: 16...Nd6 17.f4
25...Ld5 26.Qe5! Rd8 27.Rc7 Qg5 exf4 18.Lxf4 Qe7 19.Rae1 .
28.e4! 17.f4!
Another piece falls! The central pawn exchange, opening the
28...Qg4 29.f3 Qg5 30.exd5 position, should be good for White, as he is
Black finally called it a day the one with the space advantage.
10 17...exf4 18.Lxf4 fxe4 19.Nxe4
Grivas Efstratios All White's pieces are active and ready...
Kanakaris Georgios 19...Lf5 20.Rae1
E92 Kallithea 2007 The last piece to enter the battle. White is
1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 g6 3.Nc3 Lg7 4.e4 d6 ready for some more exchanges if needed.
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 59
20...Nd6 21.Nxd6! cxd6 22.Lxf5 Rxf5 The point  Black is losing the queen.
23.Lg3! 31...Rf6 32.Re8+ Qxe8 33.Qxe8+ Kg7
23.Re6 Ra7! 24.g3 (24.Rxd6 Qxd6 34.g4!
25.Lxd6 Ld4+ ) 24...Raf7 would give A queen is not enough to win if you do not
Black too much activity. plan correctly. White has to activate his king
23...Rxf1+ 24.Rxf1 Ra7 25.b3 and directly attack his counterpart.
Securing the powerful white queenside pawn 34...Rf1+ 35.Kg2 Rf2+ 36.Kg3 Rf8
structure. White is in no hurry, as the entire 37.Qe4 Lf6 38.Qe6 Ld8 39.Qd7+ Kg8
pawn structure will not change... 40.h4! h5
25...Ld4+ 26.Kh1 Kg7 (D) Black is in zugzwang: 40...Kh8 41.Qd6
Kg7 42.h5 gxh5 43.gxh5 and Qg6+ next.
XABCDEFGHY 41.d6
8+wq++( Or 41.gxh5 gxh5 42.d6 +.
41...Kh8 (D)
7tr++mk'
XABCDEFGHY
6zpzp+pzp&
8+vltrmk(
5zpzpP++%
7++Q++'
4+Pvl++$
6zpzP+p+&
3+P++vLP#
5zpzp++p%
2P+wQ+P+"
4+P++PzP$
1+++R+K!
3+P++mK#
xabcdefghy
White agreed to or even forced exchanges
2P++++"
which favoured him. He kept the pieces he 1++++!
needed on the board; a rook, a bishop which
attacks the dark squares (and especially the xabcdefghy
d6pawn) and a queen which can attack on 42.Qb7!
the light squares. Although it looks like Forcing Black to exchange on g4, so that the
Black can defend, there is no such chance... white king can penetrate.
27.Qe2! 42...hxg4
Taking the light squares and even 42...Kg8 43.gxh5 gxh5 44.Qd5+ +.
threatening Qe6. 43.Kxg4 Kg8 44.Qd7 Kh8 45.h5! gxh5+
27...Re7 28.Qf3! Rd7? 46.Kxh5
A blunder in a difficult position. Black The kingside pawn structure has been
should try to defend with 28...Rb7! 29.Qg4 cleared and the penetration of the white king
(29.Re1? Rf7 30.Qd3 Re7 31.Re6 Rxe6 secures mate or the win of further material.
32.dxe6 Qf6 =) 29...Re7 30.Qh4 Kh7 46...Kg8 47.Qe6+ Kg7 48.Qg6+ Kh8
(30...h5 31.Lf4 ) 31.Qf4! (31.Lf4? Qf8 49.a3!
32.Rf3 Re2 ) 31...Le5 32.Qf3 Lxg3 Another zugzwang!
(32...Qh8 33.Lh4 Rc7 34.Lf6 ) 33.Qxg3 49...a4 50.bxa4
Kg7 34.Qf3 Rb7 35.Kh2 Ra7 36.Qc3+ No move that doesnt lose immediately, so...
Kh7 37.Rf6 . 10
29.Lxd6! Gavrilakis Nikolaos
An easy combination, which is also a Grivas Efstratios
product of White's strategy. B24 Athens 2006
29...Rxd6 30.Qf7+ Kh8 31.Re1! 1.e4 c5 2.Nc3 d6 3.f4 e6 4.Nf3 Nf6 5.d3
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 60
Nc6 6.g3 Le7 7.Lg2 00 8.00 Rb8 9.h3 Rfc8 was also not bad.
d5 10.e5 Nd7 11.Kh2 b5 12.d4 (D) 18.Le3
XABCDEFGHY The alternative was 18.Qxb6 Rxb6!
19.Le3 (19.a3?! bxa3 20.b3 Ra6 ) 19...
8trlwqtrk+( Lc5 20.Lxc5 Nxc5 .
7zp+nvlpzpp' 18...Lc5 19.Qd2 Lxe3 20.Rxe3 Rfc8 (D)
6+n+p++& XABCDEFGHY
5+pzppzP+% 8trr++k+(
4+zPzP+$ 7zp+n+pzpp'
3+sN+NzPP# 6wq+p++&
2PzPP++LmK" 5++pzP+%
1tRvLQ+R+! 4zp+zP+$
xabcdefghy 3++tRzPP#
In this sideline of the 'Sicilian Defence' both 2PzPPwQ+LmK"
sides have declared their intentions: White 1tR+++!
will try to create an initiative on the kingside
and Black on the queenside. With his last xabcdefghy
move, White gave Black the chance to make Time to evaluate the actions that took place
some exchanges and open two semiopen and the result of them. Black seems to be
files on the 'queenside' part of the board. quicker, as he has created an initiative in his
12...b4! sphere of interest, the queenside. He
Black should avoid 12...Nxd4?! 13.Nxd4 proceeded to favourable exchanges and he is
cxd4 14.Ne2! when he would have left with a somewhat better minor piece, a
problems with his c8bishop. knight against White's bishop, which is not
13.Ne2 La6 doing much as the blocked central pawns are
That's the difference! Now Black can get rid not ideal for the ' white officer'!
of his bishop if necessary. 21.f5!
14.Re1 A correct reaction (21.Re2 g6). White is
White could consider 14.Le3!? cxd4 obliged to seek counterplay on the kingside,
15.Nfxd4 Nxd4 16.Lxd4 Lc5 17.Lxc5 his sphere of influence. On the other hand,
Nxc5 18.Re1 . this weakens e5 considerably.
14...Lxe2! 21...Qc7?!
A difficult decision as its not that easy to 21...exf5?! 22.e6! fxe6 23.Rxe6 Qc5
give up a good bishop for a soso knight. But 24.Qxd5 Qxd5 25.Lxd5 Kf8 26.Re2 =
actually that is what the bishop was designed would be fine for White, as his cpawn
for, to be exchanged  there was nothing else would still be weak, but his minor piece
to do on a6! would have considerably improved. But
15.Rxe2 Nxd4 16.Nxd4 cxd4 17.Qxd4 Black should have opted for 21...Rc4!
The cfile is opened after a series of 22.Re2 Rbc8 .
exchanges and he 'must' exchange the dark 22.fxe6?!
squared bishops in order to achieve a An early exchange. White should keep the
favourable ending of a knight v. bishop. tension and the extra possibility of a
17...Qb6 potential f6 alive. For these reasons 22.Re2!
17...Lc5 18.Qd3 Qb6 19.Ld2 (19.Le3 would have been better: 22...exf5
transposes to the game) 19...Ld4 20.Rb1 (22...Nxe5? 23.fxe6 fxe6 24.Rae1 Nc4
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 61
25.Qg5 ) 23.Lxd5 Nf8 24.Rf1 g6 25.g4! 31.Qd3
Re8 26.gxf5 Rxe5 27.Rxe5 Qxe5+ Understandable. If 31.Qxc5 Nxc5 and then
28.Qf4 Qxf4+ 29.Rxf4 Rb5 30.Le4 Re5 32.h4 Black can continue with 32...Kg8!
31.Ld3 a5 =. (this is what we call economical defence 
22...fxe6 the king will protect White's only target; the
Now e5 is stabilized as a weakness and the e6pawn. The alternative is 32...Na4
g2bishop is still not doing much. 33.Lh3 Re8 34.b3 Nc3 35.Rf2 Kg8 )
R
23. e2 33.Lh3 Kf7 .
R R
23. c1?! is pointless: 23... f8 24. d4 Q 31...Qc7
Rf5 . This is better than 31...Rf5 32.Qa6 Nf8
R
23... f8! 33.Qd3 Kg8 .
Even the (prematurely opened) ffile is for 32.Qa6
Black! White has to be active; otherwise he will
24.Rd1?! lose a pawn for nothing (keep the threat
24.Rae1 a5 was a must. ...Rf5 in mind).
24...Kh8?! 32...Nc5 33.Qb5 h6!
Black could have captured the weak e5 Black didnt fall for 33...Rb8?! when after
pawn: 24...Nxe5! 25.Qe3 Rf5 26.Rd4 34.Rf2! Kg8 35.Qe2 he has just lost the f
R R K R
(26. f1 h5! 27. h1 e8 ) 26... b6 R file!
but of course he should have avoided 34.Re3 Nd7 (D)
24...a5? 25.Lxd5!. He just missed both 34...Rf2!? 35.Re2 Rf5 was also not bad.
tactics, but this didn't harm him! XABCDEFGHY
25.Qg5 Qc5!
Black has to cover White's entry point on e7 8++trmk(
and simultaneously avoid something like
25...Nb6 26.Qg4 Qe7 27.Qd4 Nc4 28.b3
7+wqn+zp'
Nb6 29.c3 bxc3 30.Rc1 . 6++p+zp&
26.Qg4 Qe7
26...Rf5? looks attractive but actually it
5zpQ+pzP+%
would just be a plain blunder: 27.Rxd5!
Qc7 28.Rd6 Nxe5 29.Qd4 Nf3+
4zp+++$
30.Lxf3 Rxf3 31.Rg2 . 3++tRzPP#
27.Rd4?! 2PzPP++LmK"
White's plan to exchange a pair of rooks is
not helpful, as then his epawn will be rather 1++++!
weak. White needs all his pieces on the xabcdefghy
board in order to defend his weaknesses (c2
and e5). 27.Rd3 was necessary. 35.Re2?!
27...a5 Time trouble helps Black! White should
27...Rf5! was not bad, as now 28.Rxd5?! fa have tried to defend with 35.Qe2 Rf5
ils to 28...h5! 29.Rxd7 Qxd7 30.Qc4 a5 . 36.Qa6 Qb6 (36...Nb6!? is also OK:
28.Rf4 37.Re1 [37.Re2 Qc4 38.Qxc4 Nxc4 ]
White continues his wrong plan... 37...Rf2 but not 36...Qxc2? 37.Qxe6 d4
28...Rxf4! 29.Qxf4 38.Re1 Rf2 39.Qd5 d3 40.e6 d2 41.exd7
After 29.gxf4 Rf8 30.h4 Nc5 31.Lh3 Qf7 dxe1Q 42.d8Q+ Kh7 43.Q5g8+ Kg6
32.Rf2 Ne4 (32...g6 ) 33.Rf3 Re8 44.Qb6+ Rf6 45.Qb7 Qxg2+ 46.Qxg2
Rf2 47.Qe8+ =) 37.Qe2 Qc5 .
Black would also be on top.
29...Rf8 30.Qe3 Qc5! 35...Nxe5
Exchanging pieces underlines the e5 weak Finally the weak pawn fell!
ness (and that of c2 also!). 36.Qa6 Rf6
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 62
Also good was 36...Nf3+ 37.Lxf3 Rxf3 Grivas Efstratios
38.Rg2 Re3 +. Vragoteris Antonios
37.b3 Nc6 38.Qd3 Qd6?! A25 Kallithea 2008
Black started to relax too much! Why not 1.c4 g6 2.g3 Lg7 3.Lg2 e5 4.Nc3 f5 5.d3
38...Qb6 39.Lxd5 Nd4! 40.Re3 (40.Rd2 Nf6 6.e3 00 7.Nge2 Nc6 8.00 Ne7 9.f4
exd5 41.Qxd4 Qxd4 42.Rxd4 Rf2+ d6 10.b3 h6 11.Lb2 g5 12.Qd2 (D)
43.Kg1 Rxc2 +) 40...Rf2+ 41.Kh1
Rxc2 +.
XABCDEFGHY
39.c4! bxc3 40.Qxc3 e5?! 8r+lwqtrk+(
There was no need to let the bishop get a 7zppzpsnvl'
life! 40...Rf5 41.Qd2 Kg8 was good.
41.Rd2 d4 42.Qc4 (D) 6+zpsnzp&
Alternatively 42.Qxc6?! Qxc6 43.Lxc6 5++zppzp%
Rxc6 44.Kg2 Kh7 + would be plain bad,
but 42.Qd3!? was a worthy try. 4+P+zP+$
XABCDEFGHY 3+PsNPzPzP#
8+++mk( 2PvLwQN+LzP"
7+++zp' 1tR++RmK!
6+nwqtrzp& xabcdefghy
5zp+zp+% A reversed 'Sicilian Defence  Closed
Variation' appeared on the board.
4+Qzp++$ 12...gxf4?!
3+P++zPP# This exchange took place too early. Black
should have opted for the more flexible
2P+tR+LmK" 12...Ng6.
13.exf4!
1++++! In such cases White should recapture with
xabcdefghy the opposite pawn in order to look for
something more. If Black had captured with
42...Ne7!
...exf4, then here White should answer with
Black found a good idea. As his king is now
gxf4. As White has some more space, the
weak due to the control of the light squares
unbalanced pawn structure suits him.
by White, he will transfer his knight to f6.
13...Ng6 14.Rae1
From there the knight will protect its king
Last piece to enter the battle. 14.fxe5?! dxe5
and also assist the central pawns.
15.d4 c5! 16.d5 Ne8 would be
43.Le4 Rf8 44.Rc2 Ng8 45.Qb5?!
White panicked! He had to try 45.Qc5! as premature.
the queen exchange will allow him to seek 14...Kh7 15.Nd5!
counterplay on Black's back rank: 45...Qxc5 This exchange will suit White as it opens his
(45...Qb8 46.Qxa5 Nf6 47.Qe1 ) b2bishop and weakens a potential black
attack on the kingside.
46.Rxc5 Rf2+ 47.Kg1 Re2! (47...Rxa2?
15...Nxd5
48.Rc8) 48.Lf5 (48.Lg6 Ne7 49.Lh5
Re3 50.Kf2 g6 ) 48...e4! (48...Ne7 49. If Black tries to avoid the exchange, then
Lg4) 49.Rxa5 (49.Rc8?! d3 +) 49...d3 after 15...Ng4 16.h3 Nf6 17.Ne3! he
would face many problems.
50.Kf1 g5 . 16.Lxd5 a5
45...Nf6! 46.Qd3 Nxe4 47.Qxe4 d3 Wrong would be 16...e4? 17.Lxg7 Kxg7
48.Rc6 Qd7 18.dxe4 c6 due to 19.exf5 +. Now Black
01
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 63
tries to be active on the queenside, as his If 24...e4 25.dxe4 f4 (25...Lxb2 26.exf5
small activity on the other side is frozen. Lxf5 27.Qxb2 ) 26.Lxg7 Kxg7 27.c5 .
17.Lg2 a4 18.b4! 25.Qe2 Re8
Of course, there is no need to allow Black to Black might have tried 25...Lf7!?. White
gain an open file with the ...axb3 exchange. would have to find 26.Nh4!! (26. Nxe5?!
18...c6 Lxe5 27.Lxe5 Qxe5 28.Qxe5 Nxe5
18...a3 is not helping: 19.Lc3 c6 20.c5! . 29.Rxe5 Rxd3 ) 26...Nxh4 27.gxh4 Le6
19.Kh1 28.Lxe5 Qxe5 29.Qxe5 Lxe5 30.Rxe5
19.c5 now is not that strong, due to Re8 31.Rfe1 Ld7 32.d4 .
19...Le6! 20.a3 dxc5 21.bxc5 Ld5 . 26.Nxe5 Lxc4 27.dxc4
19...Le6 20.a3 Qe7 21.Qc2! 27.Rxf5 was also good: 27...Lxe5
A good move, which not only defends 28.Lxe5 Nxe5 29.Rxe5 Qxe5 30.Qxe5
against an eventual ...e4, but keeps an eye on Rxe5 31.Rxe5 Lxd3 32.Re7+ Kg6
a4 and by xray on f5! 33.Rxb7 .
21...Rfd8 (D) 27...Nxe5?! (D)
XABCDEFGHY Black's last mistake. 27...Lxe5 28.Lxe5
Rxe5 29.Qc2 , not attractive, but a must.
8r+tr++(
XABCDEFGHY
7+p+wqvlk'
8r++r++(
6+pzpl+nzp&
7+pwq+vlk'
5++zpp+%
6+p++zp&
4pzPP+zP+$
5++snp+%
3zP+P+zP#
4pzPP+++$
2vLQ+N+LzP"
3zP++zP#
1++tRR+K!
2vL+Q+LzP"
xabcdefghy
22.Ng1!
1++tRR+K!
This regrouping underlines Blacks main xabcdefghy
weakness; his unstable centre and especially 28.Qc2!
his e5pawn. White focuses on pressing it Now White wins a good pawn and the game!
with all his forces. 28...Ng6 29.Lxg7 Qxg7 30.Qxf5 Rxe1
22...Qf7 31.Rxe1 Rf8 32.Qc2 Kh8 33.c5 Ne5
The main alternative, which should have 34.Qc3 Rd8
been taken into consideration by White, was Or 34...Ng4 35.Qxg7+ Kxg7 36.Kg1!
22...exf4 23.Lxg7 Kxg7 and now 24.Ne2! (36.b5 cxb5 37.Lxb7 Nf2+ 38.Kg2 Nd3
fxg3 (24...Qf6 25.Nxf4 Nxf4 26.Rxf4 )
39.Rb1 Nxc5 40.Rxb5 ) 36...Rf7 37.h3
25.Nxg3 Qf7 26.Lh3 is strong. Nf6 38.Lf3 +.
23.fxe5
35.h3 Ng6 36.Qe3 Rd7 37.Qe8+ Nf8?!
Exchange, then pressure  not a bad strategy!
37...Kh7 38.Le4 Qf7 39.Qxf7+ Rxf7
23...dxe5
40.Lc2 + was not sufficient either.
If 23...Nxe5 then 24.Nf3! Nxf3 (24...
Nxd3 25.Rxe6! Nxb2 26.Ng5+ hxg5 38.Rf1
10
27.Rxf5 +) 25.Rxf3 as the weak f5
pawn will be under heavy pressure.
24.Nf3 Qc7
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 64
Sargissian Gabriel White should have opted for 18.Le4 Rxc3
Al Sayed Mohamad Naser 19.Qd2 Lc6 20.Lxc6+ Rxc6 21.Rfd1
D10 KhantyMansiysk 2013 Rc5 22.Qxd4 Qxd4 23.Rxd4  his activity
1.d4 d5 2.c4 c6 3.cxd5 cxd5 4.Lf4 Nc6 should be enough to preserve the balance.
5.Nc3 Nf6 6.e3 Lg4 7.Qb3 Na5 8.Qa4+ 18...dxc3 19.Rfd1 00?
Ld7 9.Qc2 e6 10.Nf3 Rc8 11.Ld3 Nc4 A bit too naive. Good for an advantage was
12.00 Ld6 (D) 19...Qa5 20.Rd4 Lc6 21.Rad1 00 .
XABCDEFGHY 20.a4 a6 21.Qd3?
Returning the favour. White could have
8+rwqk+tr( chosen 21.Rd6!, preserving the balance.
7zpp+l+pzpp' 21...b5! 22.axb5 axb5 23.Qxd7
23.Lxb5 c2 24.Rdc1 Lxb5 25.Qxb5 Qd4
6+vlpsn+& 26.g3 Rfd8 is a lost cause for White.
23...bxc4 24.b4 c2
5++p++% 24...Qg5 was even stronger.
4+nzPvL+$ 25.Qxd8 Rfxd8 26.Rdc1 (D)
3+sNLzPN+# XABCDEFGHY
2PzPQ+zPPzP" 8+rtr+k+(
1tR++RmK! 7+++pzpp'
xabcdefghy 6++p++&
White got very little from the opening, but 5++zP+%
here he went wrong.
13.Ne5?!
4zPp+++$
Maybe 13.Lxd6 Nxd6 14.Qb3 00 15.Ne5 3++++#
was correct.
13...Lxe5 14.dxe5 Nh5 15.b3?! 2+p+zPPzP"
But this is too much. 15.Rac1 Nxf4 16.exf4 1tRtR+mK!
h6, with equal chances, was preferable.
15...Nxf4 16.exf4 Nxe5! xabcdefghy
A bolt from the blue! 26...Rd2 27.Kf1 Rcd8 28.Ke1 g5 29.b5
17.fxe5 d4 (D) c3 30.b6 R8d5
XABCDEFGHY White resigned; 31.b7 Rxe5+ 32.Kf1 Rb5
33.Rxc2 Rxc2 34.Ra8+ Kg7 35.b8Q
8+rwqk+tr( Rxb8 36.Rxb8 Rb2 and it will soon be
7zpp+l+pzpp' over.
01
6++p++&
5++zP+%
4+zp++$ Morozevich Alexander
3+PsNL++# Nikolic Predrag
C00 Wijk aan Zee 2000
2P+Q+zPPzP" 1.e4 e6 2.d3 d5 3.Qe2 dxe4 4.dxe4 e5
1tR++RmK! 5.Nf3 Nd7 6.Nbd2 c6 7.b3 Qc7 8.Lb2
a5 9.g3 Nh6 10.Lh3 f6 11.a4 Lb4 12.00
xabcdefghy 00 13.Nc4 Nf7 14.Ne1 Re8 15.Nd3
18.Lc4? Lf8 16.Lc3 b6 (D)
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 65
XABCDEFGHY 23.b4! axb4 24.Nxb4!
24.cxb4 was 'logical' but White wishes to
8r+l+rvlk+( get rid of his knight, as the 'bad' black
bishop fulfils important defensive functions.
7+wqn+nzpp' 24...Lxb4
6zpp+zp+& More or less forced. If 24...Rbd8?! 25.Na6
Qb7 26.Rab1 Black would be in trouble.
5zp+zp+% 25.cxb4 c5
4P+N+P++$ Black's only chance is to place his knight on
d4. If 25...Qe7?! 26.Qc4 (26.a5!? Qxb4
3+PvLN+zPL# 27.Lxb6 ) 26...c5 27.bxc5 bxc5 28.a5 .
2+P+QzPzP" 26.Rac1
26.Qb5?! Nd4! 27.Qc4+ Qf7 28.Qxf7+
1tR++RmK! Kxf7 29.bxc5 bxc5 leads to approximate
xabcdefghy equality.
26...Qc6 (D)
There's not very much going on for either Black needs to control some light squares as
side  plans and exchanges from now on are well. 26...Ra8?! 27.Qb5! was weaker.
important and will reveal the winner...
17.Ld2! XABCDEFGHY
Heading for e3, putting pressure on Black's 8tr+r+k+(
queenside.
17...Nd6 7+++zpp'
Black must go for some exchanges. Weaker
was 17...Nc5 18.Lxc8 Raxc8 19.Le3 ,
6zpq+nzp+&
when White's position looks more pleasant. 5+zpzp+%
18.Nxd6 Lxd6 19.Le3 Nf8 20.Lxc8
Raxc8 21.c3 4PzP+P++$
21.Nb2 leads nowhere after 21...Ne6 3++vLzP#
22.Nc4 Lc5 = but 21.f3 Ne6 22.Qf2
was interesting. With the text move White 2++QzPzP"
prepares his queenside expansion with b4. 1+tRR+mK!
21...Ne6 22.Rfd1 Rb8 (D)
Preparing ...Qe7 and ...Nc5. xabcdefghy
XABCDEFGHY 27.Qa2
Stronger than 27.Qc4?! when 27...Qxa4
8tr+r+k+( 28.Rd6 Kf7 was possible.
7+wq+zpp' 27...Kh8!
Getting out of the unpleasant pin is logical.
6zppvlnzp+& The alternatives 27...Qxe4?! 28.bxc5 bxc5
5zp+zp+% 29.Rd6 Qg4 30.Rxc5 and 27...Ra8?!
28.a5 Qxe4 29.Rd6 Qg4 30.a6! were not
4P++P++$ to Black's taste.
3+PzPNvLzP# 28.Rd5 Ra8 29.a5 Nc7 (D)
Black could also think about 29...bxa5!?
2++QzPzP" 30.bxc5 (30.bxa5?! Qa6! =) 30...Nc7
31.Rd6 or of 29...Nd4!? 30.Lxd4 exd4
1tR+R+mK! 31.Rxd4 Rxe4 32.Rxe4 Qxe4 33.bxc5
xabcdefghy bxa5 (33...bxc5? 34.Rxc5 Qe1+ 35.Kg2
Qe4+ 36.f3 +) 34.c6 a4 35.c7 Rc8
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 66
36.Qf7! . But here, even if White seems to XABCDEFGHY
be on top, it is not easy to go on efficiently...
XABCDEFGHY 8r++r+mk(
8r++r+mk( 7+++Qzpp'
7+sn+zpp' 6zP+nzp+&
6zpq+zp+& 5+zpzp+%
5zPzpRzp+% 4wq+++$
4zP+P++$ 3++vLzP#
3++vLzP# 2++zPzP"
2Q++zPzP" 1+R+R+mK!
1+tR+mK! xabcdefghy
33...Qa4?
xabcdefghy Returning the favour. With 33...Qg4! 34.b7
30.Rdd1 Rab8 35.Rd6 h5! (35...Qg6 36.Qxg6
White would love to opt for 30.bxc5 but hxg6 37.Rbb6 Nd4 38.Rd7 ; 35...h6
after 30...Rxa5! (30...bxa5? 31.Rd6! Qxe4 36.Lxh6! [36.Ra6 Kh7! 37.Qxe8? Rxe8
32.c6 ; 30...Nxd5? 31.exd5 Qb5 32.Rb1! 38.Ra8 Qe4! +] 36...Kh7 [36...gxh6?
Qxa5 33.Qxa5 bxa5 34.c6 +) 31.Rd6 37.Qxf6+ Ng7 38.Qf7! +] 37.Le3 )
(31.cxb6? Qxc1+ 32.Lxc1 Rxa2 33.bxc7 36.Ra1 Kh7 Black could have put up
Rc2 34.Rd8 Rxc1+ 35.Kg2 Rg8! +) serious resistance.
31...Qxd6! 32.Qxa5! bxc5 (32...Qd1+ 34.b7 (D)
33.Rxd1 bxa5 34.c6 ) 33.Lxc5 Black can XABCDEFGHY
hold: 33...Qd7! 34.Qa7 Qd8! (34...Ra8?
35.Qb7 Rd8 36.Lb4! [36.Lb6? Ne8 8r++r+mk(
37.Qxd7 Rxd7 38.Rc8 Re7 39.Lc5 Re6
=] 36...Ne6 37.Qxd7 Rxd7 38.Rc6! Nc7
7+P++Qzpp'
39.La5 Ne8 40.Re6 Nd6 41.Lb4 +) 6++nzp+&
35.Lb6 Nb5 36.Qf7 Nd6! =.
30...Qxe4! 31.Qf7! Ne6?
5+zpzp+%
Absolutely wrong! Black should get rid of 4q++++$
his knight by taking some white pawns in
return: 31...bxa5! 32.Qxc7 cxb4, when his 3++vLzP#
chances to survive are very good. 2++zPzP"
32.axb6!
After 32.Rd6?! bxa5!? (32...Nd4?! 33. 1+R+R+mK!
Lxd4! cxd4 34.Rd7 Rg8 35.axb6 ) 33.
Rxe6 Rf8 34.Qd7 Rfd8 35.Qb5 cxb4 ,
xabcdefghy
a similar case to the previous note is again The passed bpawn is very strong but it is
on the board. not easy to queen. White should combine its
32...Qxb4 33.Rb1? (D) power with an attack on the kingside, when
Whites activity is more than enough to Black will not be able to parry all threats.
compensate for the small material deficit. 34...Rab8 35.Rd7 Qc6
But here much better was 33.b7! Rab8 35...Qg4? loses: 36.Qxe8+! Rxe8 37.b8Q.
34.Rd7 Qg4 35.Lxc5 + and Black will 36.Lh6!
not last long. A.Morozevich wrote: 'Due to the remoteness
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 67
of the black queen, it has become very easy The most popular line. One also sees 6.g3!?
for White to make combinations.' e.g., 6...00 7.Lh3 a6 8.Lxc8 Qxc8 9.Qe2
36...Rg8 37.Rbd1! b5 10.cxb5 or 6...a6 7.a4 Nbd7 8.Lh3
The last finesse  White unites all his pieces. Rb8 9.Qc2 b6 10.Nge2 Ftacnik,L
37.Re7 also was winning: 37...Qe4 38.Rc1 Vaisman,V Bucharest 1978.
Qg6 39.Qxe6 Qxh6 40.Rxc5 +. 6...00 7.Nf3 Ne8
37...Rbf8 (D) Black's plans revolve around the breaks ...b5
37...Qa6 38.Re7+; or 37...c4 38.R1d6+ and ...f5. His last move leans towards the
were not real options... latter, which also is the easier to achieve.
XABCDEFGHY 8.00 Nd7 9.Ne1?!
A more accurate treatment is 9.a3 g6
8++trrmk( (9...a6?! 10.b4 b6 11.Rb1 g6 12.Lh6 Ng7
13.Qd2 Nf6 14.Ne1 Ng4 15.Lxg4 Lxg4
7+P+R+Qzpp' 16.Nd3 Qc7 17.Rb2 Ld7 18.f4 with
6+q+nzpvL& advantage for White, Knaak,RPartos,C
Bucharest 1973) 10.Lh6 Ng7 11.Qd2 Nf6
5+zpzp+% 12.b4 b6 13.Ne1 Kh8 14.bxc5 bxc5 15.f4
4++++$ exf4 16.Lxf4 Nd7 17.Nd3 Malich,B
Jansa,V Havana 1966.
3+++zP# 9...Lg5! 10.Nd3 a6 11.a3 g6 12.b4 b6
2++zPzP" 13.Rb1
White prepares to open up and occupy the b
1++R+mK! file, thus obtaining a strong initiative on the
queenside.
xabcdefghy 13...Ng7 14.bxc5 bxc5 15.Lxg5 Qxg5
38.Lxg7+! 16.Qc1! (D)
The time has come for the final blow!
38...Nxg7
XABCDEFGHY
Or 38...Rxg7 39.Qxf8+ Nxf8 40.b8Q +  8r+l+trk+(
yes, the pawn has been promoted finally!
39.Qxf8! Rxf8 40.Rd8! 7++n+psnp'
The main point  mating threats combined 6p+zp+p+&
with the passed bpawn.
40...Ne6 41.Rxf8+ Nxf8 42.b8Q Kg7 5+zpPzpwq%
43.Qa7+ Kh6 4+P+P++$
43...Kg6 44.Qe7 +.
44.Qf7! 3zPsNN++#
Black is losing further material, so he
resigned! A perfect game of welltimed
2++LzPPzP"
exchanges. 1+RwQ+RmK!
10
xabcdefghy
With queens off, Black, on the kingside, will
not be able to balance White's bfile play.
16...Qe7! 17.Rb2!
Grivas Efstratios Preparing a possible doubling of rooks on
Hornung Hans the bfile while, as will become clear, the
A56 Munich 1987 b2rook also does defensive duties.
1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 c5 3.d5 e5 4.Nc3 d6 5.e4 17...f5 18.exf5
Le7 6.Le2 This was compulsory. Black was threatening
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 68
...f4 and ...g5, with good attacking chances. XABCDEFGHY
18...Nxf5!
If 18...gxf5 then 19.f4! e4 20.Nf2, intending 8+ltrwqk+(
Ncd1e3 and later g2g4!.
19.Lg4 Nf6!
7++++p'
19...Nd4?! 20.Ne4 Nf6 21.Nxf6+ Qxf6 6ptRzp+p+&
22.Lxc8 Raxc8 gives an ending favourable
for White. Black must be very careful. 5+zpPzp+%
20.Lxf5 Lxf5 4+P+Ntr+$
20...gxf5?! 21.f4 .
21.Qd2 (D) 3zP++P+#
XABCDEFGHY 2+wQ+PzP"
8r++trk+( 1++tRmK!
7++wq+p' xabcdefghy
6p+zpsnp+& 28.a4! Lf5
Black has no better options. The e4knight is
5+zpPzpl+% excellently placed and must be exchanged.
29.a5!
4+P+++$ White should not hurry with 29.Rxa6?
3zPsNN++# Lxe4 30.Rxe4 Rxe4 31.fxe4 Rb8!, when
he has won a pawn (which was doomed
2tRwQzPPzP" anyway) but Black has good counterplay.
1+++RmK! 29...Lxe4 30.Rxe4
Piece exchanges are in White's favour,
xabcdefghy reducing Black's chances of counterplay,
21...Rf7? while Black's weaknesses become more
Black had made full use of White's opening accessible.
inaccuracy and retained a dynamic position 30...Rxe4 31.fxe4 Ra8 32.Qe3 Rb8
with chances for both sides. Now, however, 33.Qf2!
it was time to contest the bfile: 21...Rab8! Black cannot swap his passive rook; White
22.Rfb1 Qc7, maintaining the balance. increases his superiority by tactical means.
22.f3! Raf8 23.Nf2 33...Qd8 34.Qb2! Ra8
Black's activity has been extinguished, while After 34...Rxb6 35.axb6 White's bpawn
White is planning Re1 and Nfe4, will promote: 35...a5 36.b7 Qb8 37.Qb6 a4
exchanging down to a promising ending 38.Qc6 a3 39.Qc8+.
(due to possession of the open bfile). 35.g3 Qf6 36.Qe2! Qf8 37.Kg2 Qf6
23...Lc8 24.Nfe4 Nxe4 25.Nxe4 Rf4 38.Qf3 Qd8?!
26.Rb6 Black should have tested White's technique
White's rook has invaded the bfile. White's in the ending by exchanging the queens, or
threats force the black pieces to defensive tried 38...Qg5!? 39.Qe2! Qf6 40.Qg4!.
(and consequently passive) positions. 39.Rb7! Qe8 40.Qf6 Rd8?
26...Rd8 27.Re1 Qf8 (D) Black resigned before 41.Qg7# could be
White controls the only open file and has played. However, 40...Qf8 41.Qe6+ Kh8
already started pressurizing Black's weak 42.Rf7 Qd8 43.Re7! Qf8 44.Qxd6 + is
nesses; he has both an initiative and the also easy.
advantage. One standard plan here is the 10
advance of the apawn to a5, to support the
white rook and fix the weak pawn on a6.
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 69
Quality over Quantity
Concept 2. All eight black pawns should surround
Although someone might argue that this the black king. Not a single black pawn can
part of the book has little to do with the be taken.
concept of exchanges, we must accept that 3. Only the white king and knight should
exchanges do happen in almost every game! remain on the board at the end. White has to
We often see in chess that quality prevails get rid of all his other pieces.
over quantity. It is of no real importance
King Tut Theme  Puzzle 1
how huge are the material losses, as long as
they have the desired effect on the outcome XABCDEFGHY
of the game. 8+trR++(
This material imbalance creates beauty and
unforgettable positions, which stick in a 7+snp++R'
chess player's mind for a long time
6mKzp++&
Part 1  King Tut
Let's start with some history lessons from 5+zppsN+%
Wikipedia and more specifically Egyptian! 4sNpmkzp+$
Tutankhamun (alternatively spelled with
Tutenkh, amen, amon) was an Egyptian 3+zppvl+#
pharaoh of the 18th dynasty (ruled ca. 1332
BC  1323 BC in the conventional
2+zP+vL"
chronology), during the period of Egyptian 1++++l!
history known as the New Kingdom.
He is popularly referred to as King Tut. xabcdefghy
His original name, Tutankhaten, means Here, the coffin preconditions are in sight...
'Living Image of Aten', while Tutankhamun White mates in 8 moves:
means 'Living Image of Amun'. 1.Nec6+ dxc6 2.dxe3+ fxe3 3.Rh4+ Le4
The 1922 discovery by Howard Carter and 4.Rhxe4+ dxe4 5.Le5+ dxe5 6.Rxd8+
George Herbert of Tutankhamun's nearly Nd5+ 7.Rxd5+ cxd5 8.Nc6 # (D)
intact tomb received worldwide press XABCDEFGHY
coverage. It sparked a renewed public
interest in ancient Egypt, for which 8++++(
Tutankhamun's burial mask, now in Cairo
Museum, remains the popular symbol.
7++++'
But how is this connected with chess? 6mKN+++&
Well, protecting a king is vital in every
game and pawns are best suited for the job. 5+zppzp+%
When the pawns surround the king in 4+pmkp++$
chess problems and studies, we see some
beautiful and astonishing creations. 3+zppzp+#
Entombing the king became a popular
theme among chess composers, invoking
2++++"
memories of King Tut and his tomb! 1++++!
Here I will present two puzzles on this
theme with the following (mandatory) xabcdefghy
conditions: King Tut is being properly and efficiently
1. White mates in a specified number of buried!
moves. 10
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 70
King Tut Theme  Puzzle 2 King Tut Theme  Puzzle 3
XABCDEFGHY XABCDEFGHY
8++++( 8++++(
7+zpLvLN+' 7zpp+p+p+'
6+p+Q+p+& 6zpzPzP+&
5+zp+zp% 5+k+++%
4sNpzpmkp+$ 4++++$
3+n+++n# 3+p++zpP#
2+zPPzP+" 2zP++P+"
1+tRmKtR! 1+K+++!
xabcdefghy xabcdefghy
Here again the same motif is in motion; White mates in 13 moves:
White mates in 17 moves: 1.h4 a5 2.h5 Ka4 3.h6 b5 4.h7 b4 5.h8N!
1.Qf6+ Ke4 2.f3+ gxf3 3.Qe6+ Kf4 4.e3+ An accurate promotion. The naive 5.h8Q?
dxe3 5.Qf6+ Ke4 6.d3+ cxd3 7.Rc4+ b5 would lead to a stalemate!
Nd4 8.Rxd4+ cxd4 9.Qe6+ Kf4 10. 5...b5 6.Ng6 fxg6 7.f7 g5 8.f8N!
Nd5+ cxd5 11.Ld6+ cxd6 12.Qf6+ Ke4 Again a knight promotion, as 8.f8Q? g4 is
13.Rg4+ Nf4 14.Rxf4+ gxf4 15.Lf5+ also a stalemate.
gxf5 16.Qe5+ dxe5 17.Nd6 # (D) 8...g4 9.Ne6 dxe6 10.d7 e5 (D)
XABCDEFGHY XABCDEFGHY
8++++( 8++++(
7++++' 7++P++'
6+sN++& 6++++&
5++pzpp+% 5zpp+zp+%
4+zpkzp+$ 4kzp++p+$
3++pzpp+# 3+p++zp#
2++++" 2zP++P+"
1++mK+! 1+K+++!
xabcdefghy xabcdefghy
10 11.d8N!
And a third knight promotion!!! While
The German composer Hans Geiger also 11.d8Q? e4 12.Kc1 e3 13.Qd3 (13.Qb6 e2
used the King Tut Theme. His puzzle was 14.Qxa5+ Kxa5 15.Kd2 Kb6 16.Kxe2
published in the 'Deutsche Schachzeitung' in K c5 17.Ke3 Kd5 18.Ke2 Ke4 19.Kd2 =)
1920 and the idea was later tackled by other 13...e2 14.Qxg3 e1Q+ 15.Qxe1 g3 would
composers, including Richard Reti. Here the also give a stalemate; the tomb is being
three above preconditions are not met, but built...
still this puzzle should be considered a 11...e4 12.Nb7
hybrid of the King Tut Theme. Or 12.Ne6.
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 71
12...e3 13.Nc5 # (D) 2.fxg5!
XABCDEFGHY Alternatives such as 2.f5? Kd7 or 2.h4?
Kd7, give Black the win!
8++++( 2...a5 (D)
7++++' XABCDEFGHY
6++++& 8++++(
5zppsN++% 7+mk++'
4kzp++p+$ 6+++p+&
3+p+zpzp# 5zp++zP%
2zP++P+" 4+++P+$
1+K+++! 3++++P#
xabcdefghy 2+++PmK"
10 1++++!
Another (hybrid) King Tut Theme was xabcdefghy
created by the Austrian chess master,
3.Kg3!
theoretician and writer, Johann Nepomuk
The only way to complete the job, as 3.h4?
Berger, which was published in his Kd7 4.h5 Ke7, simply wins for Black.
important work on endgames, 'Theorie und
Praxis der Endspiele', (1890). 3...a4 4.Kh4 a3 5.g3 a2 (D)
King Tut Theme  Puzzle 4
XABCDEFGHY
XABCDEFGHY 8++++(
8mk+++( 7+mk++'
7++++' 6+++p+&
6p+++p+& 5+++zP%
5+++zp% 4+++PmK$
4+++P+$ 3+++zPP#
3+++P+P# 2p++++"
2+++PmK" 1++++!
1++++! xabcdefghy
Stalemate!
xabcdefghy 
White draws in 9 moves:
1.f4! The spectacular (hybrid) study on the King
Tut Theme by the French chess master,
The only way, as after 1.h4? gxh4 2.f4 Kc7
composer and journalist, Frederic Lazard,
3.f5 Kd7! or 1.Kg3? a5, Black wins.
could be called 'doubleentombing' since
1...Kc7!
both kings get buried during the solution.
Black must also be alert, as after 1...gxf4?
The puzzle was first published in the
2.h4 or 1...a5? 2.h4! gxh4 (2...a4 3.h5 gxh5
magazine 'L'Italia Scacchistica' in 1946 and
4.fxg5 +) 3.f5 gxf5 4.g5, it is White who
it is another impressive brick in the wall!
wins!
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 72
King Tut Theme  Puzzle 5 pawns.
XABCDEFGHY 4...d4
Various stalemates arise after 4...gxf2 5.g3+!
8q++++( Kxg3 (or 5...Kh3) or 4...Qxf2 or, finally,
4...c5 5.Lxc5 Qxc5.
7++++' 5.Lxd4 c5 6.Lxc5 Qf1+
6+p+++& 6...Qxc5 stalemate.
7.Lg1 Qf2
5vL+p+zpp% Leaving the queen on the first rank entombs
4++zpp+$ the white king and results in a stalemate.
8.Lxf2 gxf2 9.g3+ Kxg3 (D)
3+sN+mk# XABCDEFGHY
2+++P+" 8++++(
1++++K! 7++++'
xabcdefghy 6++++&
Draw in 9 moves:
1.Ne4+! Kh4 5+++zpp%
Of course not 1...dxe4? 2.Le1 #. 4+++p+$
2.Ng3!!
An incredible sacrifice, threatening 3.Nf5 3+++mk#
mate.
2...Qf8
2++zp+"
Again 2...Kxg3? 3.Le1 # is not recom 1++++K!
mended, while 2...fxg3 3.Lb6! leads to the
main variation. xabcdefghy
3.Le1! Stalemate!
Threatening 4.Nf5 mate again. 
3...fxg3 (D)
XABCDEFGHY Part 2  Astonishing Stalemates
Stalemate is a cornerstone of endgames.
8++wq+( Many half points have been saved by this
theme and an educated player should
7++++' recognize the various patterns and resources.
6+p+++& Again according to Wikipedia, stalemate is
a situation in the game of chess where the
5++p+zpp% player whose turn it is to move is not in
4+++pmk$ check but has no legal move. The rules of
chess provide that when stalemate occurs,
3+++zp# the game ends as a draw.
During the endgame, stalemate is a
2+++P+" resource that can enable the player with the
1++vL+K! inferior position to draw the game rather
than lose.
xabcdefghy In more complicated positions, stalemate
So, finally the black king is entombed... is much rarer, usually taking the form of a
4.Lf2!! swindle that succeeds only if the superior
The second piece sacrifice is marvellous and side is inattentive. Stalemate is also a
leads to stalemates. At the same time, the common theme in endgame studies and
bishop on the diagonal g1a7 stops the black other chess problems.
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 73
Let's start our survey with the quickest Le7 6.Qh2 Le6 7.Ra3 c5 8.Rg3 Qa5+
possible stalemate, with the help of the 9.Nd2 Lh4 10.f3 Lb3 11.d5 e3 12.c4 f4
opponent of course! It was created by the (D)
famous Sam Loyd. Samuel Loyd (January XABCDEFGHY
30, 1841  April 10, 1911), born in Phila
delphia and raised in New York (United 8rsn+k+ntr(
States of America), was an American chess
player, chess composer, puzzle author, and
7zpp++zpp'
recreational mathematician. 6+zp++&
As a chess composer, he authored a
number of chess problems, often with 5wqzpP++%
interesting themes. At his peak, Loyd was 4P+P+zpvl$
one of the best chess players in the US, and
was ranked 15th in the world, according to 3+l+zpPtRP#
chessmetrics.com.
He played in the strong Paris 1867 chess
2zPsNP+PwQ"
tournament (won by Ignatz von Kolisch) 1+vLmKLsNR!
with little success, placing near the bottom
of the field. Following his death, his book xabcdefghy
'Cyclopedia of 5000 Puzzles' was published 
(1914) by his son.
The fastest known game ending in a
Quickest Stalemate Theme  Puzzle 1 double stalemate position was discovered by
1.e3 a5 2.Qh5 Ra6 3.Qxa5 h5 4.Qxc7 Enzo Minerva and published in the Italian
Rah6 5.h4 f6 6.Qxd7+ Kf7 7.Qxb7 Qd3 newspaper 'L'Unita' on 14 August 2007.
8.Qxb8 Qh7 9.Qxc8 Kg6 10.Qe6 (D)
Quickest Stalemate Theme  Puzzle 3
XABCDEFGHY 1.c4 d5 2.Qb3 Lh3 3.gxh3 f5 4.Qxb7
Kf7 5.Qxa7 Kg6 6.f3 c5 7.Qxe7 Rxa2
8++vlntr( 8.Kf2 Rxb2 9.Qxg7+ Kh5 10.Qxg8
7++zpzpq' Rxb1 11.Rxb1 Kh4 12.Qxh8 h5 13.Qh6
Lxh6 14.Rxb8 Le3+ 15.dxe3 Qxb8
6++Qzpktr& 16.Kg2 Qf4 17.exf4 d4 18.Le3 dxe3 (D)
5++++p% XABCDEFGHY
4+++zP$ 8++++(
3++zP+# 7++++'
2PzPPzPzPP+" 6++++&
1tRNvLmKLsNR! 5+zp+p+p%
xabcdefghy 4+P+zPmk$

3++zpP+P#
Loyd also demonstrated that stalemate can
occur with all the pieces on the board. A 2++P+KzP"
variation of this constructed game has even 1+++LsNR!
occurred in a tournament game (probably a
fixed one)! xabcdefghy
Quickest Stalemate Theme  Puzzle 2 
1.d4 d6 2.Qd2 e5 3.a4 e4 4.Qf4 f5 5.h3 But of course these are constructed puzzles
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 74
and have nothing to do with the everyday 
stalemate menus! A very 'typical' one can be
observed in the next blitz game between two And now, some more 'human' stalemates!
amateurs:
Bird Henry Edward
Stalemate  Amateurs
Englisch Berthold
XABCDEFGHY London 1883
8+++k+( XABCDEFGHY
7++R+p+' 8++ntrmk(
6++p+p+& 7tR+++'
5zp+n+wQp% 6++Rzp+&
4+p+q++$ 5+++tr%
3++++# 4+++N+$
2++zPmK" 3+++zP#
1tr+++! 2+++PmK"
xabcdefghy 1++++!
White, who is completely lost, invites Black xabcdefghy
to blunder...
In this position White tried to win quickly...
1.f3!
39.Rxe8?
The only 'hope'. Black sees the chance for
39.Ne3 Ng7 40.Ree7 was correct.
great things on h1, and bites the decoy!
1...Qxf3? 2.Rd8+ 39...Rh5+!
But not 2.Qxg6+? fxg6 3.Rd8+ Qf8. White was hoping for 39...Rxe8? 40.Nxf6
with a win.
2...Kg7 3.Rg8+ Kh7
Or 3...Kxg8 4.Qxg6+ Kf8 5.Qg8+ Ke7 40.Kg1 Rxe8 41.Nxf6
A double attack, but Black surprised White
6.Qd8+ Kxd8 stalemate.
with his next idea...
4.Rg7+ Kxg7 5.Qxg6+ Kf8 6.Qg8+ Ke7
41...Rh1+!
7.Qd8+ Kxd8 (D)
It must be noted that Black could continue
XABCDEFGHY the game with 41...Re1+ 42.Kf2 Rhh1
8+mk++( 43.Rh7+ Rxh7 44.Kxe1 Re7+, with equal
chances.
7+++p+' 42.Kxh1
42.Kf2? would lose to 42...Rf8.
6++p++& 42...Re1+ 43.Kh2 Rh1+
5zp+n++p% Forcing the stalemate. A beautiful and
surprising resource, made possible, as usual,
4+p+++$ by an error (39.Rxe8?) of the attacker.
3+++q+# 44.Kxh1
Stalemate.
2+++mK" 
1tr+++! Post Ehrhardt
xabcdefghy Nimzowitsch Aaron
Stalemate. Barmen 1905
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 75
XABCDEFGHY Finally, after some 'adventures', the white
king found the winning path. Now the
8++++( stalemate will be destroyed.
87...Rb6 88.Rc7 Rb2 89.Rd4 Rb8
7+R+++' 90.Rcc4 Ra8 91.Rb4 Ra6 92.Ke7 Ra7+
6++++& 93.Ke6 Ra6+ 94.Ke5 Ra5+ 95.Ke4
White plans just to place his king in front of
5+++mK% the black pawn and then things will be easy.
4p++P+tr$ Actually, from this position, White can mate
in 17 moves!
3mk++P+# 95...Ra6 96.Kd3 Ra8 97.Kc2 Rc8+ (D)
2+tR++" XABCDEFGHY
1+++r+! 8+r+++(
xabcdefghy 7++++'
Nimzowitsch rightly assessed his position 6++++&
would be lost, but for stalemate possibilities.
He tried to sac both his rooks for stalemate, 5++++%
due to the 'poor' position of his king! 4ptRtR++$
60...Rxf3!? 61.Kxh4 Rf4+ 62.Kg3 Rf3+
Now a king hunt starts for 37 moves! The 3mk+++#
rook will be offered no less than 28 times!
63.Kg4!
2+K+++"
If 63.Kxf3? it's stalemate! 1++++!
63...Rf4+ 64.Kg5 Rf5+ 65.Kg6 Rf6+
66.Kg7 Rg6+ 67.Kh8 Rg8+ 68.Kh7 xabcdefghy
Rh8+ 69.Kg6 Rh6+ 70.Kf5 Rf6+ 98.Kb1?
71.Kg5 Rf5+ 72.Kg6 Rf6+ 73.Kg7 An incredible blunder! 98.Rbc4 mates in 5.
Rg6+ 74.Kh8 Rg8+ 75.Kh7 Rh8+ 98...Rb8!
76.Kg6 Rh6+ 77.Kg5 Rg6+ 78.Kf4 
Rg4+ 79.Kf3 Rf4+ 80.Ke2 Rxe4+
81.Kd1 Re1+ 82.Kc2 Rc1+ 83.Kd3 Shabalov Alexander
Rc3+ 84.Kd4 Rc4+ 85.Kd5 Rc5+ Bartholomew John
86.Kd6 Rc6+ 87.Kd7 (D) Wheeling 2012
XABCDEFGHY XABCDEFGHY
8++++( 8++++(
7+R+K++' 7+R+++'
6+r+++& 6++mkzp&
5++++% 5+++p+P%
4p++++$ 4r++++$
3mk+++# 3+++P+K#
2+tR++" 2+++P+"
1++++! 1++++!
xabcdefghy xabcdefghy
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 76
The position is drawish, but obviously White Let's study some:
intends to torture Black for a long time... Maginot Line Theme  Puzzle 1
60.Rh7 XABCDEFGHY
Allows the following Houdinilike escape.
So 60.g4!? might be a better practical try, 8+vL++(
but Black defends with the active 60...fxg4+
61.fxg4 Ra3+ 62.Kh4 Ra1 63.Rh7 Rh1+
7+r+zp+'
64.Kg3 Rg1+ and White can not win, e. g. 6r+zpzp+&
65.Kh3 (65.Kf3 Kg5 66.Rg7+ Kh4
67.Rg6 Rf1+ 68.Ke4 Rf8 69.Ke5 Rf1 5vlkzpzPzp%
70.Rf6 Rg1 71.Rxh6 Rxg4 =) 65...Kg5 4zpzPzPPzp$
66.Rg7+ Kf4 67.Rf7+ Ke5 68.Rf5+
Ke6 =. 3zpzP++P#
60...Kg5 61.Rg7+ Kxh5! 2PzPmK++"
Black's point and so the game ended with a
beautiful stalemate. 1++L++!
62.g4+ fxg4+ 63.fxg4+ Rxg4 64.Rxg4
Stalemate.
xabcdefghy
 Black's heavy material advantage seems to
carry the day, but White found a 'Maginot
Part 3  The Maginot Line Line' resource!
The Maginot Line (French: Ligne 1.La4+ Kxa4
Maginot) named after the French Minister of 1...Kc4 2.Lb3+ repeats.
War Andre Maginot, was a line of concrete 2.b3+ Kb5 3.c4+ Kc6 4.d5+ Kd7 5.e6+
fortifications, obstacles, and weapons Kxd8 6.f5 (D)
installations that France constructed along XABCDEFGHY
its borders with Germany during the 1930s.
The line was a response to France's 8+mk++(
experience in World War I and was 7+r+zp+'
constructed during the runup to World War
II. A similar line of defences, called the 6r+zpPzp+&
Alpine Line, faced Italy.
The French established the fortification to
5vlzpP+Pzp%
provide time for their army to mobilize in 4zpP++Pzp$
the event of attack, allowing French forces
to move into Belgium for a decisive 3zpP+++P#
confrontation with Germany. 2P+mK++"
The success of static, defensive combat in
World War I was a key influence on French 1++++!
thinking. Military experts extolled the
Maginot Line as a work of genius, believing
xabcdefghy
it would prevent any further invasions from Blacks forces are useless, as they cannot
the east. penetrate into White's camp. A true 'Maginot
While the fortification system did prevent Line' and not a fake one as the French one
a direct attack, it was strategically was!
ineffective, as the Germans invaded through 
Belgium, outflanking the Maginot Line.
In chess we have various forms of
Maginot Lines, where we mean that the
The following study by Vladimir
side with the upper hand cannot break into
Chekhover (1947) is illuminating:
his opponents fortress.
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 77
Maginot Line Theme  Puzzle 2 XABCDEFGHY
XABCDEFGHY 8+k+++(
8+++tr( 7wqzp++'
7zp+mk+' 6+zp++&
6+p+++& 5zpPzpPzpzpp%
5+pzPp++% 4N+P+Pzp+$
4+zP++$ 3zP++PvlP#
3zPP++zP# 2KwQ++P+"
2+zPzPL+" 1++++!
1+mK++! xabcdefghy
xabcdefghy White has a won position; he only needs to
Black is ready to penetrate White's camp via win the black apawn and penetrate with his
h2 and collect some more material... queen and knight via the afile, pushing his
1.Kd1! Rh2 2.Ke1!! Rxg2 3.Kf1 Rh2 extra apawn as well.
4.Kg1 Rh8 5.f3! (D) 45...Qb6!
XABCDEFGHY A nice trick  Black is blundering his
queen...
8+++tr( 46.Nxb6+?
No need for this! King on a4, queen on
7zp+mk+' d2/c3 and knight on b3 would do the job.
6+p+++& 46...cxb6 47.h4
White's play was based on opening the h3c8
5+pzPp++% diagonal for penetration by his queen. If
4+zP++$ 47.Qc1 then 47...h4 would create the
'Maginot Line'.
3zPP++PzP# 47...gxh4 48.Qd2 h3!
Blocking the penetration of the white queen
2+zP++"  Black has created an unbreakable 'Maginot
1+++mK! Line'.
49.gxh3 h4 50.Kb3 Kb7 51.Ka4 Ka7
xabcdefghy 52.Qg2 Kb7 53.Qb2 Ka7 54.Qc2 Kb7
Now, neither the black king nor the black 55.Qc3 Ka7
rook can penetrate into White's camp. The The white queen is useless...
white king and pawns guard all possible 
entrances  a clear 'Maginot Line'!
 Conclusion
In our last example White 'overestimated' When Quality oversteps Quantity we have
his chances... and even more to feel bad a triumph of human spirit; an artistic
about, his oversight cost him 1st place in the implementation of our Royal Game...
tournament! Improve your imagination; try to find
unexpected resources; nothing is over before
Petrosian Arshak the Fat Lady sings
Hazai Laszlo
Schilde 1970
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 78
Index of Games
When a players name appears in bold, that player had White. Otherwise the firstnamed Player
had White. A total of 60 games and examples are analysed in this book.
Adams Michael  Van Wely 41 Kasparov Garry  Kramnik 7
Akopian Vladimir  Potkin 47 Kasparov Garry  Timman 8
Al Sayed Moh. Naser  Sargissian 65 Khairullin Ildar  Mamedyarov 52
Anand Viswanathan  Leko 13 Kramnik Vladimir  Karpov 10
Anand Viswanathan  Shirov 31 Kramnik Vladimir  Kasparov 7
Anand Viswanathan  Svidler 32 Larsen Bent  Marjanovic 45
Anand Viswanathan  Topalov 25 Le Quang Liem  Nepomniachtchi 51
Anand Viswanathan  Topalov 28 Leko Peter  Anand 13
Aronian Levon  Nakamura 32 Lintchevski Daniil  Ovetchkin 11
Atalik Suat  Grivas 24 Lysyj Igor  Zvjanginsev 12
Banikas Hristos  Grivas 45 Makropoulos Georgios  Grivas 21
Bartholomew John  Shabalov 76 Mamedyarov Shakhriyar  Khairullin 52
Bird Henry Edward  Englisch 75 Marjanovic Slavoljub  Larsen 45
Bousios Hristos  Grivas 14 Morozevich Alexander  Nikolic 65
Bras Emanouel  Grivas 37 Morozevich Alexander  Rogozenco 54
Carlsen Magnus  Kamsky 48 Muzychuk Anna  Giri 40
Carlsen Magnus  Karjakin 56 Nakamura Hikaru  Aronian 32
Carlsen Magnus  Ponomariov 15 Nakamura Hikaru  Kamsky 30
Englisch Berthold  Bird 75 Nepomniachtchi Ian  Le Quang 51
Fier Alexander  Gurevich 23 Nikolic Predrag  Morozevich 65
Galliamova Alisa  Xu 38 Nimzowitsch Aaron  Post 75
Gavrilakis Nikolaos  Grivas 60 Ovetchkin Roman  Lintchevski 11
Giri Anish  Muzychuk 40 Petrosian Arshak  Hazai 78
Grivas Efstratios  Atalik 24 Ponomariov Ruslan  Carlsen 15
Grivas Efstratios  Banikas 45 Post Ehrhardt  Nimzowitsch 75
Grivas Efstratios  Bousios 14 Potapov Pavel  Rublevsky 36
Grivas Efstratios  Bras 37 Potkin Vladimir  Akopian 47
Grivas Efstratios  Gavrilakis 60 Quality over Quantity  King Tut 1 70
Grivas Efstratios  Halldorsson 58 Quality over Quantity  King Tut 2 71
Grivas Efstratios  Hornung 68 Quality over Quantity  King Tut 3 71
Grivas Efstratios  Kanakaris 59 Quality over Quantity  King Tut 4 72
Grivas Efstratios  Makropoulos 21 Quality over Quantity  King Tut 5 73
Grivas Efstratios  Relange 57 Quality over Quantity  Maginot Line 2 78
Grivas Efstratios  Singh 43 Quality over Quantity  Maginot Line 77
Grivas Efstratios  Vidarsson 42 Quality over Quantity  Quickest St. 1 74
Grivas Efstratios  Vragoteris 63 Quality over Quantity  Quickest St. 2 74
Gurevich Mikhail  Fier 23 Quality over Quantity  Quickest St. 3 74
Halldorsson Gudmundur  Grivas 58 Quality over Quantity  Stalemate Amat. 75
Hazai Laszlo  Petrosian 78 Relange Eloi  Grivas 57
Heinemann Thies  Skripchenko 46 Rogozenco Dorian  Morozevich 54
Hornung Hans  Grivas 68 Rublevsky Sergei  Potapov 36
Hou Yifan  Ushenina 16 Sargissian Gabriel  Al Sayed 65
Kamsky Gata  Carlsen 48 Shabalov Alexander  Bartholomew 76
Kamsky Gata  Nakamura 30 Shirov Alexei  Anand 31
Kanakaris Georgios  Grivas 59 Shirov Alexei  Timman 52
Karjakin Sergey  Carlsen 56 Singh Rishipal  Grivas 43
Karpov Anatoly  Kramnik 10 Skripchenko Almira  Heinemann 46
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 79
Spassky Boris  Timman 6 Ushenina Anna  Hou 16
Svidler Peter  Anand 32 Ushenina Anna  Svidler 19
Svidler Peter  Ushenina 19 Van Wely Loek  Adams 41
Timman Jan  Kasparov 8 Vidarsson Jon  Grivas 42
Timman Jan  Shirov 52 Vragoteris Antonios  Grivas 63
Timman Jan  Spassky 6 Xu Yuhua  Galliamova 38
Topalov Veselin  Anand 25 Zvjaginsev Vadim  Lysyj 12
Topalov Veselin  Anand 28
Curriculum Vitae of Efstratios Grivas
Efstratios Grivas (30.03.1966)
is a highly experienced chess trainer and chess author
Has been awarded by the
International Chess Federation (FIDE) the titles of:
International Chess Grandmaster
FIDE Senior Trainer
International Chess Arbiter
International Chess Organizer
What he does/did:
Secretary of the FIDE Trainers Commission
Director of the FIDE Grivas International Chess Academy (Athens)
Director of the United Arab Emirates Chess Federation FIDE Academy (Dubai)
Technical Director of the United Arab Emirates Chess Federation
Head Trainer of the Turkish Mens National Team (20062012)
Head Coach of the Greek Mens National Team (2013)
Winner of the FIDE Boleslavsky Medal 2009 (best author)
Winner of the FIDE Euwe Medal 2011 & 2012 (best junior trainer)
Trainer of Various GMs & IMs  In 20092011 alone, he formed 5 GMs!
Trainer of the FIDE World Junior Champion U.20 2012 Alex Ipatov
Worked over 12.000 hours on training!
Official Commentator of the FIDE World Rapid & Blitz Ch 2013
Lecturer at FIDE Seminars for Training & Certifying Trainers
Author of Various Books
Cooperating with the Worlds Most Important Magazines
Advanced Chess School  Volume 6  The Art of Exchanges  Efstratios Grivas 80