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Professional Development

Appearance and Performance Enhancing

Drugs and Substances
Notes by Coach JB

Justin Matthew Brandt

NFHS: Appearance & Performance Enhancing Drugs & Substances
Define APEDS and their components
Review the major categories of APEDS and identify common examples in each
Outline the effects and side effects of APEDS
Describe common characteristics of APEDS users and the prevalence of APEDS
Develop APEDS detections and prevention strategies
Identify resources for APEDS education and prevention

Unit 1 Defining APEDS

Formally known as PEDs
1993 the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) was formed to create a doping free
sports environment.
U.S. Anti-Doping Agency (USADA) is the national anti-doping agency the
enforces the policies assigned by WADA.
Any drug or substance other than essential vitamins or minerals taken with the
intent to:
o Improve strength
o Increase exercise endurance or capacity
o Induce weight loss
o Improve physical appearance
APEDS span a wide variety of products, including dietary supplements, such as
protein powders, creatine, pre-workout drinks, energy drinks (which typically
contain large amounts of caffeine), anabolic-androgenic steroids, such as
testosterone, and stimulant medications, like Ritalin and Adderall.
While many substances are considered dangerous, not all are considered so when
used properly.

Justin Matthew Brandt

Unit 1 Defining APEDS
Two broad categories
o Legal, not banned for competition, and may have some positive effects
upon athletic performance:
Caffeine (limit set by NCAA)
Protein powders and amino acids
o Legal only when prescribed by a physician, illegal to possess without
prescription, can have a positive effect upon athletic performance, banned
for competition by NCAA, USADA, and WADA.
Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS)
AAS prohormones
Human Growth Hormone (hGH)
Stimulants (examples: Ritalin, Adderal)
APEDS are not regulated or even tested by US Food and Drug Administration
Studies indicate 8-20% of off-the-shelf protein, herbal and anabolic supplements
analyzed were found to contain SIGNIFICANT amounts of heavy metals such as
lead and mercury
One study found 25% were contaminated with anabolic-androgenic steroids and
11% were contaminated with stimulants
How do you know if the dietary supplement is safe?
1) The best way is by using independent, accredited organizations that test and
certify products.
2) Check for the NSF Internationals Certified for Sport label
1) Side effects from the use of stimulants range from the relatively mild to the
dangerous, including:
inability to sleep
panic attacks
tachycardia, or a feeling that your heart is racing
high blood pressure
heart attack and stroke.
2) Some side effects can also predispose an athlete to heat illness or death
3) Caffeine is banned above a specified level by the NCAA but is not banned
Caffeine has been shown to improve performance in athletes in
endurance events
NCAA restricts use at a level equivalent to 6 cups of coffee
Justin Matthew Brandt
Unit 1 Defining APEDS (continued)
In 2011, nearly 1,500 children aged 12-17 went to the emergency room because of
caffeine toxicity
1) A naturally occurring substance stored in fast twitch muscle fibers, and
serves as an energy source for muscle contraction.
2) It works to increase strength, peak force and peak power when performing
multiple sets of maximal-effort muscle contractions.
3) There is no known benefit to taking doses that are higher than
recommended, but there are negative consequences- dehydration, muscle
cramps and blood clots have been associated with overuse.
Beta-Hydroxy-Beta-Methylbutyrate or HMB
1) A modified amino acid that is a precursor to cholesterol.
2) Thought to slow-down the breakdown of muscle after a workout. Several
studies have shown that it seems to improve muscle growth, strength and
3) The use of HMB appears to be safe, and it is currently not banned by any
sporting organizations.
Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS)
1) Over 100 types that are all artificial/synthetic testosterone
2) Anabolic effect is what causes an increase in muscle tissue
3) Androgenic effect is what causes masculinization
4) Prohormones are also included in this category
5) Work by enhancing protein synthesis and decreasing the breakdown of
muscle tissues
6) Illegal to posses and use without a prescription
Can also be considered a felony in some jurisdictions
7) Side effects
Cardiovascular disease
Blood clots
Heart attack (12x more likely to have a heart attack)
Increased risk of suicide
1) 7% of all high school aged students have used AAS
2) 11% admit to using HGH

Justin Matthew Brandt

Unit 1 Defining APEDS (continued)
Strategies for Helping
o Talk to students about the short and long-term effects of performance-
enhancing substances and until they are known to be safe, communicate
that you expect them to avoid these substances.
o Discuss alternatives to performance enhancers, including strength and
performance training techniques and proper nutrition.
o Set rules and enforce them. For example, if a student uses performance-
enhancing substances, he or she will be removed from the team. Discuss the
school districts policy concerning anabolic steroids and other performance
enhancing drugs with all student-athletes.
o Teach students how short-term gains can lead to long-term problems.
o Discuss ethics and proper training. Athletes should compete fairly.
o Remind them that using a performance-enhancing substance is cheating,
and could possibly lead to serious health problems or even death.
o Encourage the student-athlete to feel good about his or her sports
Helpful Resources
o Mayo Clinic Healthy Lifestyle
o National Institute for Drug Abuse (NIDA)

Justin Matthew Brandt