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FALL 2016-2017
Prof. Hamdy Seif
Disinfection is accomplished by both:
- Filtering out harmful microbes
- Adding disinfectant chemicals
Water is disinfected to kill any pathogens in the
water (Viruses, bacteria)
Disinfectant residual in water distribution
Disinfection - Chlorination
The most common method. Increase in dose may cause odor &
taste. Insufficient dose may not kill the micro-organisms.
Chlorine can be easily applied, measured and controlled.
It is relatively cheap.
Chlorine or its compounds: Chloramine, Chlorine dioxide
Chlorine is strong oxidant that rapidly kills micro-organisms
Chlorine is a toxic gas.
Use Sodium Hypochlorite that releases free chlorine when
dissolved in water.
Solid form: Calcium Hypochlorite releases chlorine on contact
with water.
Liquid Sodium hypochlorite is inexpensive and safer than the
use of gas or solid chlorine.
Chlorine reacts with natural organic compounds and form
(THM) & (HAA), Carcinogenic, EPA.
Chlorine is added to the water entering the contact tank.
Water stays in the contact/mixing tank for 6 hrs
20-30 min are required for chlorine to react with water
Disinfection - Chlorination
For Flow Rate= 120000 m3/day ; Chlorine Dose = 1 ppm
Calculate the chlorine storage for 6 months.

Total wt of Cl2 for one day = 120000*1/1000 = 120Kg
Total wt of Cl2 for 6 months = 120*6*30/1000=21.6 ton
Disinfection Ozone (O3)
Unstable molecule
Strong Oxidant
No odor or taste
2-3 ppm after 10 min becomes 0.1 ppm
Production of fewer by-products
Leaves no disinfectant residual in water
Disinfection UV(Sunrays)
Disinfection UV (Light)

Light Radiation.
Very effective as long as water has a low level of color.
Leaves no disinfectant residual in water.
Ground Water Tank for Clear Water
It can be constructed below or above ground for the following purposes:

Provide necessary and unexpected water demand for ex: fire fighting.
Water Balance due to variation of water demand. This is to ensure
balance between the rate of water production and the rate of water
Emergency cases due to out of service of any treatment unit.
Helps in water disinfection by allowing a contact period between the
disinfectant and the substances.
Ground Water Tank Design Criteria

Storage Volume = Average Demand x Storage Duration

Number of Tanks = Storage Volume / Volume of 1 tank
Minimum number of tanks is 2
Tank shape can be rectangular, circular, square
Water Depth in the tank = 2-6 meters
Roof Level is at least 50 cm above high water level
Circular deep tanks can be made of steel
Tanks should be designed with baffle walls
Design of inlet, outlet, overflow and drain
Provide ventilation openings
Minimum floor slope = 0.5%
Ground water tank:
DT=2 to 4 hrs
V= Q*T
A<1000m2 ; H<15m ; Volume = or <5000m3

For flow rate = 120000 design the ground water tanks.

Let T =4 hrs
Q=120000 m3 /d =5000m3/hrs
Circular tank: take 4 units:
Volume of one unit=5000m3 OK
H=8m = A=625m2 = 3.14*D2/4
= D=28 m
Ground (elevated) tank :
This system will be related to the ground water supply system.
Case one Design:
Q of well = 0.01824m3/sec
in 2045 we need 28 wells 6 each
= Q=28*0.01824 = 0.15m3/sec= 1836m3/hr.
DT=4hrs. =V=7344m3
Take 2 circular tanks with depth = 4m
= A1 tank= 918m2=3.14*D2/4
=D1tank= 35m
Case one criteria:
Let T=12 hrs
Q=1836m3/hrs Volume=1836*12=22032m3
Rectangular tank: take 6 units:
V1 unit=22032/6=3672 m3<5000 OK
H=6m => A1 unit t = 612m2 = (3.14D2/4)
D =28m = < 40m . OK
House Filters
Treated Water is the water leaving the WTP after passing
through all treatment stages.
Available chlorine residual decreases gradually as the water
goes into the network.
Chlorine decay, Pipe decay
It is always recommended to install a water filter in the
Types of House Filter
Single stage filter
1. Wool glass
2. Clay
3. Activated carbon

Double stage filter

Can be made of wool glass and clay (1 or 2)
Or Clay with activated carbon.

Triple stage filter

Made of wool glass, clay and activated