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European Pupils

Magazine
Elena Lacatus
Politehnica University of Bucharest, Romania
cristylacatus@gmail.com

GREEN ENERGY: GREEN ENERGY:


A MUST! O NECESITATE!
The Energy Concept Conceptul Green Energy
Writing nowadays about Energy on a Green A scrie astazi despre conceptul green energy
manner for a wide category of readers, aging be- pentru cititori cu varste cuprinse intre 16 si 24 de ani
tween 16 and 24 years, means first of all to find a presupune ca mai inainte sa fi identificat in acest
core interest issue. Fortu- domeniu un subiect capa-
nately this inexpugnably bil sa trezeasca interesul
topic lies on the history of acestora. Din fericire insa-
Energy itself. Regardless si Energia este un astfel
the awareness of humans de subiect incitant, deore-
the very essence of the Uni- ce indiferent de nivelul de
verse is the Energy. intelegere al oamenilor
Amazingly the very first misterioasa esenta a Uni-
approaches to this complex versului este Energia.
topic are also the philoso- In mod surprinzator
phical basis of all known primele abordari ale ace-
cultures ever existing on stui fascinant subiect sunt
the Earth. All of them elemente ale bazelor filo-
were dealing either with zofice ale tuturor culturi-
Energy, or with its effects, lor si civilizatiilor care s-
the only differences con- au succedat pe Pamant.
sisting in names and alloca- Fiecare dintre ele s-a ocu-
tion algorithms: Gods or pat explicit fie cu formele
Goddess, Entities or Uni- de manifestare ale ener-
versal Laws. giei fie cu efectele acesto-
After all it is a matter of ra, diferentele constand in
evolution, and even more, it alocarea numelor si in al-
is strictly a matter of Tech- Different cultural models of basic life elements goritmii de atribuire: zei
nological evolution. If we Modelele culturale ale elementelor sau zeite, entitati sau le-
are able today to move mat- fundamentale ale vietii gitati universale.
ter on atom-by-atom, at a nanoscale range, with an In esenta este o problema de evolutie, chiar mai
Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) tip this is due to mult, este o problema de evolutie a Tehnologiei. Da-
the Atomic archetype that has been initially philoso- ca astazi putem modela si manipula materia atom-cu
phically defined few millennia ago and it was con- -atom la scara nanometrica cu ajutorul sistemelor si
tinuously developed enriching our knowledge and dispozitivelor microscopului de forta atomica
understanding ever since. This was determining us (AFM) aceasta se intampla pentru ca in urma cu ca-
to improve our tools and technologies as to be able teva milenii a fost elaborat arhetipul modelului ato-
to describe and characterize nearby or faraway parts mic.
of our Universe and, at last, to proof the accuracy of Actionand ca un vector al cunoasterii acesta a
the philosophical model. After such a long journey oferit suport intelgerii Universului si in cele din ur-
we are still at the beginning of this knowledge gath- ma, dupa suficiente acumulari stiintifice si tehnolo-
ering and integration procedure! gice, si-a demonstrat veridicitatea in egala masura
The accurate description of the key life phe- atat la scara micro cat si a macro universului.
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European Pupils
Magazine
Green energy: A MUST!

nomena made by our ancestors to surpass their lack Si totusi, dupa o calatorie atat de indelungata pe
of technological advancements through an out- calea cunoasterii, intelegerii si integrarii suntem
standing Synergetic Model of Life and Creation abia la inceputul acestui drum!
toward which the present Global Science and Tech- Descrierea fenomenelor de baza ale vietii, facute
nology must rush to comprehend it in order to keep de inaintasi, a depasit limitarile tehnologice ale mo-
the Earth surviving. Strangely, regardless our pre- mentului printr-un uimitor Sinergism al Modelului
sent age, all of us firstly come on touch with few Vietii si Creatiei catre care actuala Stiinta si Te-
basic models of Energy that emerged from fairy hnologie globala trebuie sa se indrepte neintarziat
tales, legends, and cartoons, no matter where or pentru a pastra planeta vie. Fiecare dintre noi, indi-
when we grow up. Does gathering the power of Fire ferent de varsta pe care o are in prezent sau de locul
-Earth-Water-Wind look familiar to you from in care a crescut, a intrat in contact cu primele mo-
Japanese cartoons of the 80’s? If you will search dele conceptuale ale energiei la varste foarte fragede
better the different Cultural models of Life you will prin intermediul basmelor, legendelor, desenelor a-
find that actually all known philosophies attempt to nimate sau al jocurilor pentru calculator. Colectarea
describe the basic elements of Life and their animat- puterii din Foc-Pamant-Apa si Vant le pare fami-
ing power (Energy) in almost the same terms, re- liara multora din desenele animate japoneze ale
gardless space, time or language barriers. anilor 80-90? La o analiza mai atenta a istoricului
Even if the model of Aristotle pointing five ele- definirii elementelor vietii se observa ca practic toa-
ments (Air, Water, Fire, Earth and Aether) te filozofiile cunoscute pana in prezent descriu ele-
roughly correspond to the presently known four mentele vietii si puterea ce le anima in aproape acee-
states of matter (Solid, Liquid, Gas and Plasma) asi termeni, indiferent de timp, zona geografica, cul-
we must admit that despite the huge advances on tura sau limba. Chiar daca modelul lumii lui Aristo-
Science and Technology we are anywhere but near tel, continand cinci elemente (Aer, Apa, Foc, Pa-
the End of Physics – the Theory of Everything mant si Eter), cu greu se identifica cu starile mate-
(William Tilles). riei cunoscute astazi (Solid, Lichid, Gaz si Plasma)
trebuie sa recunoastem ca in ciuda progresului atins
de Stiinta si Tehnologie suntem departe de Sfarsitul
Fizicii chiar daca speram sa gasim solutia unei te-
orii Unificatoare a tuturor fortelor (Willam Tilles).

De ce Energie Regenerabila?
Ce concept ar trebui sa alegem: green sau Rege-
nerabil? De fapt, Energia Sustenabila a fost prima
sintagma sub care a fost abordata problema creata de
criza petroliera a anilor `70.
La scurt timp a devenit evident ca energia suste-
nabila trebuie sa fie in egala masura o energie curata
Sustainable Energy Economy care sa nu dauneze mediului, astfel incat urmatorul
Economia bazata pe energie sustenabila termen menit sa defineasca acest nou concept ener-
getic a fost green (verde, in lb.engleza- pornind de
Why Renewable Energy? la ideea integrarii in natura), chiar daca unele dintre
What will we choose: Green or Renewable? sursele energiei green sunt albastre sau incolore.
Actually Sustainable Energy was the first approach Ultimii ani au consacrat un nou termen menit sa
to the Oil Energy Crisis of the 70’s. Shortly after- reuneasca toate aceste concepte si caracteristici
ward it appears obvious that sustainable energy (sustenabil, curat, nepoluant, inepuizabil, etc)
means as well a clean and environmentally friendly printr-o singura sintagma: Energie Regenerabila.
energy, so the next pointing term was green even Ce determina cercetatorii intregii lumi sa-si in-
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European Pupils
Magazine
Green energy: A MUST!

if some of the green are blue or colourless. In the drepte in acelasi timp studiile multidisciplinare asu-
last couples of years the acknowledged term mean- pra acestui subiect si aproape toate guvernele re-
ing all together: sustainable, clean and environ- sponsabile ale lumii sa sustina acest colosal efort
mental friendly is Renewable. stiintific si economic?
Why worldwide scientists focus their multidisci- Situatia stranie in care ne gasim la ora actuala
plinary researches on these issues and almost all din punct de vedere energetic: incercam sa facem
governments support this tremendous scientific and fata efectelor economice generate de spectrul crizei
economic effort? resurselor energetice neregenerabile, dar in acelasi
Because nowadays we are facing a very strange timp utilizam un procent nesemnificativ din resurse-
situation coping with the economic effects of the le energetice regenerabile disponibile care pot susti-
Non-Renewable Energy sources crisis spectrum ne necesitatile unei economii globale aflate in e-
but at the same time hardly using a huge amount of xpansiune pentru inca cel putin 5 milioane de ani.
available energy having to last for a 5 billion year Schimbarile climatice care fac imperativa reducerea
lifetime. Also because the Climate is changing and impactului asupra mediului al tehnologiilor utilizate
we must substantially decrease our potential impact
on the environment using drastically cleaner ener-
gies than non-renewable ones. And definitely for the
reason that at last these sources – Renewable - are
widely distributed around the planet and many tech-
nologies available to exploit them are also afford-
able.
Obviously, a huge global effort of innovation,
research and development continues to provide even
more options but all of these efforts are focused to-
ward scientific as well as social outputs. Decentral-
ized and affordable technology means more jobs, Off-Shore wind farm
more energy, social stability and security. There is Ferme eoliene de coasta
no alternative to these Green solutions because non-
renewable energy sources are rapidly depleting, and in diversele ramuri economice (toate energofage),
are destroying the planet. On the matter of fact pres- ceea ce conduce in mod firesc la necesitatea inlocui-
ently and from now on Renewable Energy has to rii resurselor neregenerabile poluante si in curs de
solve the problems created by Non-Renewable En- epuizare accelerata cu resursele regenerabile perfect
ergy. ecologice si practic inepuizabile.
The International Energy Agency states that Disponibilitatea noului tip de resurse energetice
theoretically there are three generations of renew- regenerabile: sunt raspandite peste tot pe suprafata si
able technologies, reaching back more than 100 in interiorul planetei, iar unele dintre tehnologiile de
years. exploatare au costuri relativ scazute. Evident, efortu-
First-generation technologies appeared with the rile de inovare, cercetare si dezvoltare depuse la sca-
Industrial Revolution and include hydropower, bio- ra globala vor continua sa furnizeze solutii tehnolo-
mass, geothermal and heat power. All these tech- gice noi si tot mai accesibile, dar trebuie remarcat ca
nologies are still in widespread use and continuously toate aceste eforturi sunt focalizate in egala masura
improving. atat asupra implicatiilor stiintifice cat si a celor so-
Second-generation technologies include solar ciale. Tehnologii accesibile si descentralizate inse-
heating and cooling, solar photovoltaics, modern amna mai multe locuri de munca, mai multa energie,
forms of bioenergy, and wind power. These are stabilitate sociala si securitate. Nu exista alternative
only now entering markets even the research, devel- la aceasta abordare green pentru ca resursele regene-
opment and demonstration investments runs since rabile sunt in curs de epuizare si distrug planeta;
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European Pupils
Magazine
Green energy: A MUST!

the ‘80s, initiated for energy security concerns re- de fapt, atat in prezent cat si de acum inainte energia
lated to the oil crises of the ‘70s. The continuing ap- regenerabila trebuie sa rezolve problemele create in
peal of these technologies is echoing the significant mare masura prin exploatarea resurselor neregenera-
advancements in materials science of the last dec- bile. Agentia Internationala a Energiei a stabilit ca
ades. teoretic pot fi identificate trei generatii de tehnologii
Third-generation technologies are still under de- de exploatare a resurselor regenerabile, incepand de
velopment and include advanced biomass gasifica- acum mai bine de 100 de ani:
tion, biorefinery technologies, concentrating solar Prima generatie de tehnologii a aparut odata cu
thermal power, hot dry rock geothermal energy, Revolutia Industriala si a cuprins sursele hidroe-
ocean energy and osmotic power generation. Ad- nergetice, biomasa, sursele geotermale si efectele
vances on nanotechnology are also expected to play incalzirii diferentiate. Toate aceste tehnologii cu-
a major role. nosc si in prezent o larga raspandire si continua sa
se perfectioneze.
A doua generatie de tehnologii cuprinde schim-
batoarele termice solare, puterea eoliana, formele
moderne de bioenergie si instalatiile cu panouri
solare fotovoltaice. Acestea se afla in plina imple-
mentare in prezent, chiar daca investitiile in cerceta-
re, dezvoltare si prototipare au inceput inca din anii
`80. Continua dezvoltare a acestor tehnologii a avut
efecte spectaculoase in diverse ramuri stiintifice, in
special in stiinta materialelor.
A treia generatie de tehnologii se gaseste inca
in dezvoltare si include rezultatele cercetarilor din
diverse domenii: gazeificare, biomasa, biorafina-
re, concentratoare termice solare, energie geoter-
mica si energia oceanelor. Se asteapta ca progrese-
le pe care le inregistreaza continuu nanotehnologia
sa aiba un impact deosebit asupra multora dintre
Solar-thermal Concentrator tehnologiile acestei generatii si a celor urmatoare.
Concentrator termic-solar
Sustainable Energy Economy Economie bazata pe energie sustenabila
Achieving a Sustainable Energy Economy Atingerea unei astfel de tinte presupune adopta-
through a harmonized manner means to cope with rea unor masuri politic cu efect economic si social
regional energy challenges having deep impact in all capabile sa armonizeze reglementarile energetice
areas of Social, Economic and Political life. regionale.
The Coordinated Leading attributes have to Atributele conducerii coordonate sunt acelea de a
make effective the research and development (R&D) facilita punerea in practica a rezultatelor activitatilor
activities getting the best use of the demonstration de cercetare si dezvoltare facand uz de cele mai re-
phase of the lab research as through Education and zultate obtinute in cercetarea de laborator si in eta-
Deployment to attract Investments. Actually proper pele de demonstrare, astfel incat prin educare si e-
Investments are boosting the above state-of-the-art xemplificare sa atraga investitii. De fapt, investitiile
R&D and are speeding up the Construction phase, eficiente se focalizeaza la un nivel al cercetarii mai
based on adequately detailed studies on the essential ridicat decat stadiul actual cunoscut in domeniul re-
policies and market conditions. spectiv la momentul investitiei, accelerand etapa de
Having such a deep impact upon all areas of hu- constructie pe baza unor analize adecvate ale tendin-
man activities the public awareness is envisaged telor pietei si ale politicilor de promovare. Energi-
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European Pupils
Magazine
Green energy: A MUST!

through specific promoting actions on medium and a regenerabila are un impact profund asupra tuturor
long term with the proper support of the Education domeniilor activitatii umane, astfel incat nivelul de
and Work Force Development. informare al utilizatorilor este deosebit de important,
The last decades speed up the Industry Learning fiind abordat atat prin masuri imediate cat si prin
Curve however it takes 5 to 10 years at least to turn strategii pe termen lung, toate fiind sustinute de e-
conceptual devices (lab scale demonstrators) into ducarea si pregatirea fortei de munca.
commercial applications. Ultimele decenii au accelerat ritmul procesului
Although achieving the potential of Renewable de asimilare a rezultatelor cercetarii in industrie, dar
Energy requires a balanced portfolio among Revo- transformarea produsului de la faza de concept
lutionary, Accelerated and Disruptive develop- (demonstrator la scara laboratorului) intr-o aplicatie
ment supported through adequate economic and so- comerciala (la nivel industrial) tot mai dureaza cel
cial politics. putin 5-10 ani. Prin urmare, atingerea potentialului
si exploatarea eficienta a energiilor regenerabile pre-
Renewables Efficiency supune stabilirea echilibrului intre etapele de de-
Being mostly on an early stage of development zvoltare revolutionara, accelerata si cea posibil per-
the Renewable Energy is publicly perceived as hav- turbatoare prin strategii si politici economice ade-
ing poor efficiency. The efficiency refers to the tech- cvate.
nological measures meant to improve the efficiency
of conversion.
The most commonly misrelated compare refers
to gas/diesel for cars fuelling (reported as above
85% efficiency).
Actually from oil extraction to automotive mo-
bility the overall efficiency is ~12 - 14%.
In the case of electricity (incandescent lighten-
ing) from coal (non-renewable resource) the overall
efficiency is even poorer ~1%. Both examples
clearly demonstrate that vast amounts of energy
wastes in the conversion process and largely unfair Renewables Perspective
comparing terms are presented to the public opinion Perspectiva energiilor regenerabile
talking about Renewables efficiencies.
Being largely emergent technologies the Eficienta energiei regenerabile
Renewables are worldwide ranked on a top position Aflandu-se in cele mai multe cazuri in stadiile de
of the investments, regardless the actual Economic inceput ale dezvoltarii, energia regenerabila este
Crisis. perceputa de publicul larg ca o alternativa energetica
To point the key challenges of the Renewables cu eficienta scazuta. Eficienta se refera la masurile
means to stimulate their implementation at Giga tehnologice adoptate pentru a spori randamentul
Watts scale (speed and scale). At the same time a conversiei energetice.
main paradigm shift should occur on people attitude Cel mai adesea termenii comparatiei sunt
toward Energy, valuing efficiency, cost, prezentati eronat facandu-se referire la carburantii
coordinated implementation, performance and auto (benzina /motorina) raportati cu η>85%.
reliability. De fapt, de la stadiul extragerii titeiului si pana la
Educated and properly trained customers would deplasarea automobilului ciclul transformarilor este
properly value, achieve and exploit green buildings, mult mai amplu, iar eficienta medie se situeaza intre
vehicles and industrial applications and on the 12-14%.
forefront of them are the teenagers and students of In cazul electricitatii (iluminatului electric prin
today. incandescenta) obtinute din arderea carbunelui
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European Pupils
Magazine
Green energy: A MUST!

Bibliography (resursa neregenerabila) eficienta medie a conversiei


Elena Lacatus, European Agencies and Technology este si mai scazuta, ~1%.
Platforms, EDA as a Defence Industry Catalyst, Ambele exemple demonstreaza clar ca imense
NATO Science for Peace and Security Series, cantitati de energie se pierd pe parcursul procesului
2009, ISBN 978-606-521-269-5 de conversie si ca in general sunt prezentate
Elena Lacatus, Power and Energy, USA Regulations consumatorilor date cu termeni de comparatie
and Practices on R&D Policy, NATO Science
for Peace and Security Series, 2008, ISBN 978-
606-521-010-3
www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/
article/2009/02/pv-efficiency-record-of-41-1-
reached-54694
www.semiconductor-today.com/news_items/2009/
aug/concentrix_170809.htm
www.ftexploring.com/energy/enrg-types.htm
www.observatorynano.eu/project/document/2010/

Photovoltaic Panels
Iconography Energie-fotovoltaica
Old dam, http://
farm4.static.flickr.com/3240/2599342357_038e1 diferiti in ceea ce priveste energia regenerabila.
68811.jpg Fiind in cea mai mare parte sustinute de
Biomass, www.civilianism.com/futurism/wp- tehnologii aflate in dezvoltare, energiile regenerabile
content/uploads/2009/10/Biomass.jpg ocupa pozitii de varf in clasamentele investitiilor din
Geothermal, intreaga lume, indiferent de perioada de criza
www.oceanlight.com/lr/ economica pe care o traversam.
full/3b3cb828f3d93850661f18c95180b1bd.jpg Daca ar fi sa evidentiem problema cu care se
Solar Heat Heating, www.mtl-ltd.co.uk/userimages/ confrunta in prezent energiile regenerabile, ar
solar(1).jpg trebui sa urmarim cum este stimulata de la caz la caz
Solar Photovoltaics, www.www- implementarea acestora la nivelul exploatarii
alternativeenergy.com/images/float/solar-energy- industriale (GW) atat ca rapiditate cat si ca
advantages.jpg infrastructura. In acelasi timp, pe langa
Bioenergy, www.treehugger.com/algae-solazyme- implementare o importanta transformare trebuie sa
h02.jpg se produca in mentalitatea potentialilor utilizatori,
Wind Power, www.instablogsimages.com/ astfel incat sa se nuanteze atitudinea acestora fata de
images/2009/09/19/wind-power- energia regenerabila evaluandu-i corect eficienta,
2_otk6l_18722_b4C8Q_24429.jpg costurile, conditiile de implementare, performantele,
Solar Thermal, www.solarcentral.org/drupal/files/ fiabilitatea si disponibilitatea.
icons/photo_08728.jpg Consumatorii educati si instruiti coresunzator
Hot Dry Rock-Geothermal, http:// vor putea aprecia, achizitiona si exploata diverse
montaraventures.com/energy/wp-content/ produse realizate in conformitate cu premizele
uploads/2008/04/geodynamics-egs.jpg conceptului green - case, masini si aplicatii
Omosis power plant, www.statkraft.com/ industriale, etc- printre primele randuri ale acestui
presscentre/news/the-worlds-first-osmotic-power nou tip de consumatori gasindu-se elevii si studentii
-plant-opened.aspx de astazi.

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