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FACULTY : CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG.

EDITION:
DEPART : WATER & ENVIRONMENTAL
REVISION NO: 02
ENG.
EFFECTIVE 28/12/2015
LAB : ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
DATE:
AMENDMENT 20 Feb 2016
EXPERIMENT : TOTAL SOLID
DATE:

1.0 OBJECTIVE
To provide and strenghten knowledge, skill, understanding in solid determination and enable to
relate theories taught to the practices in laboratory.

2.0 LEARNING OUTCOME


At the end of this course students are able to:
(1) Apply knowledge in solid determination
(2) Analyze the laboratory result and differentiate between suspended solid and dissolve solid
(3) Identify problems and use their generic skill to solve problems
(4) Develop their ability to work in group

3.0 THEORY

Solids refer to matter suspended or dissolved in water or waste water. Solids may affect water or
effluent quality adversely in a number of ways. Waters with high dissolved solids generally are of
inferior palatability and may induce a favorable physiological reaction in the transient consumer.
Solids analyses are important in the control of biological and physical wastewater treatment process
and for assessing compliance with regulatory agency wastewater effluent limitations. Generally, total
solids is the term applied to the material residue left in the dishes after evaporation of a sample at
103C to 105C. Total solids include total suspended solids, and total dissolved solids. Total
suspended solids is the portion of total solids retained by filter, and total dissolved solids is the
portion of solids that passes through a filter of 2.0 m (or smaller) nominal pore size under specified
conditions. Fixed solids is refer to the residue of total, suspended, or dissolved solids after heating to
dryness for a specified time at a specified temperature (500C 50 C for 15 minutes). The weight loss
on ignition is called volatile solids. Determination of fixed and volatile solids does not distinguish
precisely between inorganic and organic matter because it includes losses due to decomposition or
volatilization of some mineral salts. Settleable solids is the term applied to the material settling out
of suspension within a defined period. It may include floating material, depending on the technique.

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FACULTY : CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG. EDITION:
DEPART : WATER & ENVIRONMENTAL
REVISION NO: 02
ENG.
EFFECTIVE 28/12/2015
LAB : ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
DATE:
AMENDMENT 20 Feb 2016
EXPERIMENT : TOTAL SOLID
DATE:

Microwave (at
Settleable solids Imhoff cone Samples 103C - 105C) Total solids
(TS)

Filter paper
Fibre glass filter ( Dissolved Solid
2.0m)

Microwave (at Microwave (at


103C - 105C) 180C 2C)

Suspended solids (SS) Dissolved solids (DS)

Muffle furnace Muffle furnace


(at 500C 50C) (at 500C 50C)

Volatile suspended Fixed suspended solids Volatile dissolved Fixed dissolved solids
solids (VSS) (FSS) solids (VDS) (FDS)

Total fixed solids


Total volatile solids TVS TFS = FSS + FDS
= VSS + VDS

Total solids (TS)

DIAGRAM 1.0

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FACULTY : CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG. EDITION:
DEPART : WATER & ENVIRONMENTAL
REVISION NO: 02
ENG.
EFFECTIVE 28/12/2015
LAB : ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
DATE:
AMENDMENT 20 Feb 2016
EXPERIMENT : TOTAL SOLID
DATE:

4.0 EQUIPMENTS AND MATERIAL

i. Evaporating dishes: Dishes of 100mL capacity made of porcelain,


platinum or high-silica glass.
ii. Muffle furnace for operating at 500C 50C
iii. Steam bath
iv. Desicator
v. Drying oven
vi. Analytical balance
vii. Magnetic stirrer
viii. Graduated cylinder
ix. Wid-bore pipet
x. Low-form beaker

5.0 PROCEDURES

In this experiment, students should run three parallel laboratory tests for:

i. Total Suspended Solids (TSS)


ii. Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)
iii. Total Volatile Solids (TVS)

Generally, students need to prepare samples for those three tests, filter the samples and
separate the samples into three categories.

i. Suspended solids in unfiltered samples.


ii. Suspended solids which remained on the filter paper.
iii. Suspended solids inside the filtered samples which passed the filter paper.

Wieght both samples.

Then, dry those samples inside the furnace with temperature of 105 OC to make sure water is
evaporated. Obtain the weight of dried samples.

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FACULTY : CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG. EDITION:
DEPART : WATER & ENVIRONMENTAL
REVISION NO: 02
ENG.
EFFECTIVE 28/12/2015
LAB : ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
DATE:
AMENDMENT 20 Feb 2016
EXPERIMENT : TOTAL SOLID
DATE:

5.1 Total Suspended Solids (TSS)

i. Preparation of the glass fibre filter disc: Insert the filter disc onto the base and clamp on funnel.
While vacuum is applied, wash the disc with three (3) successive 20 mL distilled water. Remove
all traces of water by continuing to apply vacuum after water has passed through. Remove funnel
from base and place filter in the dish and dry in an oven at 103C - 105C for one (1) hour. When
needed, remove dish from the oven, desiccate and weight.
ii. Select a sample volume (max. of 200 mL) that will yield not more than 200 mg of total suspended
solids.
iii. Place the filter on the base and clamp on funnel and apply vacuum. Wet the filter with small
volume of distilled water to seal the filter against the base.
iv. Shake the samples vigorously and quantitatively transfer required volume (mL) of samples to the
filter using a large orifis, volumetric pipette. Remove all traces of water by continuing to apply
vacuum after samples has passed through.
v. Rinse the pipette and funnel onto the filter with small volume of distilled water. Remove all traces
of water by continuing to apply vacuum after samples has passed through.
vi. Carefully remove the disc filter from the base. Dry for at least one (1) hour at 103C - 105C. Cool
in a desiccator and weigh.

5.2 Total Dissolved Solids

i. Preparation of evaporating dish: Ignite cleaned evaporating dish at 500C 50C for one (1) hour
in muffle furnace. Store in desiccator until needed. Weigh immediately before use.
ii. Choose samples volume to yield between 2.5 and 200 mg dried residue. If more than 10
minutes are required to complete filtration, increase filter size or decrease sample volume.
iii. Stir samples with magnetic stirrer and pipet a measures volume onto glass-fibre filter with
applied vacuum. Wash with three (3) successive 10 mL of distilled water, allowing complete
drainage between washings, and continue suction for about 3 min after filteration complete.
iv. Transfer total filtrate (with washings) to a weighed evaporating dish and evaporate to dryness on
a drying oven. Dry evaporated samples for at least 1 h in an oven at 180C 2C, cool in a
desiccator to balance temperature, and weigh. Repeat drying cycle of drying, cooling,
desiccating, and weighing until a constant weigh is obtained. (The filtrate from the total
suspended solids determination may be used for determination of total dissolved solids).

5.3 Total Volatile Solids

i. If volatile solids are to be measured, the residue from method A and B is ignited at 500C 50C
for 15 minutes in a muffle furnace. Cool in desiccator to balance temperature and weigh. Repeat
cycle of drying or igniting, cooling, desiccating, and weighing until a constant weight change less
than 4% of the previos weighing or 0.5 mg, whichever is less. Store in desiccator until needed.

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FACULTY : CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG. EDITION:
DEPART : WATER & ENVIRONMENTAL
REVISION NO: 02
ENG.
EFFECTIVE 28/12/2015
LAB : ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
DATE:
AMENDMENT 20 Feb 2016
EXPERIMENT : TOTAL SOLID
DATE:

6.0 RESULTS AND CALCULATION

Fill in the tables provided in the bench sheet.

(a) Total Solid (mg/L)

mgTotal Solid/L = ( A B ) x 1000


Volume of Sample (mL)

Where;
A = Weight of dried residue + dish, mg
B = Weight of dish, mg

(b) mg Total dissolved solids/L = ( A - B ) x 1000


Sample Volume, (mL)

Where;
A = Weight of dried residue +dish, mg
B = Weight of dish, mg

(c) mg Total Suspended Solid/L = ( A - B ) x 1000


Sample Volume (mL)

Where;
A = Weight of filter + dried residue, mg
B = Weight filter, mg

(d) mg volatile solids/L = (A B) x 1000


Sample Volume (mL)

(e) mg fixed solids/L = (B C) x 1000

Sample Volume (mL)


Where;
A = Weight of residue + dish or filter before ignition, mg
B = Weight fresidue + dish or filter after ignition, mg
C = weight of dish or filter, mg

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FACULTY : CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG. EDITION:
DEPART : WATER & ENVIRONMENTAL
REVISION NO: 02
ENG.
EFFECTIVE 28/12/2015
LAB : ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
DATE:
AMENDMENT 20 Feb 2016
EXPERIMENT : TOTAL SOLID
DATE:

7.0 DATA ANALYSIS


1. Calculate the average of total solid (TS)
2. Calculate the average of suspended solid.
3. Calculate the average of dissolve solid

8.0 DISCUSSION

1. Distinguish between suspended solid and dissolve solid.


2. Suggest some possible causes of high levels of total suspended solids.
3. The suspended solids for a wastewater sample was found to be 175 mg/L. If the
following test results were obtained, what size sample was used in the analysis?

Tare mass of glass fibre filter = 1.5413 g


Residue on glass fibre filter after drying at 1050C = 1.5538 g

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FACULTY : CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG. EDITION:
DEPART : WATER & ENVIRONMENTAL
REVISION NO: 02
ENG.
EFFECTIVE 28/12/2015
LAB : ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
DATE:
AMENDMENT 20 Feb 2016
EXPERIMENT : TOTAL SOLID
DATE:
9.0 BENCH SHEET

9.1 Unfiltered Sample

DATA FOR TOTAL SOLID TEST

Sample A Sample B
1 Volume of sample (ml)
2 Weight of evaporating dish (g)
3 Weight of evaporating dish + sample (g)
4 Weight of sample (g)
Weight of evaporating dish + sample after
5
drying process at 103oC - 105oC
6 Weight of solid (g)
Weight of crucible dish + solid before drying
7
process at 500oC 50oC
Weight of crucible dish + solid after drying
8
process at 500oC 50oC
9 Weight of volatile solid (g)
10 Total Solid (TS) (mg/L)
11 Percentage of solid in sample (%)
12 Total volatile solid (VS) (mg/L)
13 Percentage of volatile solid (%)

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FACULTY : CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG. EDITION:
DEPART : WATER & ENVIRONMENTAL
REVISION NO: 02
ENG.
EFFECTIVE 28/12/2015
LAB : ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
DATE:
AMENDMENT 20 Feb 2016
EXPERIMENT : TOTAL SOLID
DATE:

9.2.1 Filtered Sample

DATA FOR TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLID (SS)

Sample A Sample B
1 Volume of Sample (ml)
2 Weight of filter paper (g)
Weight of filter paper + solid after drying at
3
103oC - 105oC
4 Weight of solid (g)
Weight of crucible dish + solid before drying
5
process at 500oC 50oC
Weight of crucible dish + solid after drying
6
process at 500oC 50oC
7 Weight of volatile solid (g)
8 Total Suspended Solid (SS) (mg/L)
9 Percentage of Volatile Suspended Solid (VSS) %

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FACULTY : CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG. EDITION:
DEPART : WATER & ENVIRONMENTAL
REVISION NO: 02
ENG.
EFFECTIVE 28/12/2015
LAB : ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
DATE:
AMENDMENT 20 Feb 2016
EXPERIMENT : TOTAL SOLID
DATE:

9.2.2 Filtered Sample

DATA FOR TOTAL DISSOLVE SOLID (TDS)

Sample A Sample B
1 Volume of sample (ml)
2 Weight of evaporating dish (g)
3 Weight of evaporating dish + sample (g)
4 Weight of sample (g)
Weight of evaporating dish + sample
5
after drying at 180oC (g)
6 Weight of Solid (g)
7 Total Dissolve Solid (TDS) (mg/L)
Weight of crucible dish + solid before
8
drying process at 500oC 50oC
Weight of crucible dish + solid after drying
9
at 500oC 50oC (g)
10 Weight of dissolved solid (g)
11 Total dissolved Solid (SS) (mg/L)
Percentage of Volatile dissolved Solid
12
(VSS) %

PREPARED BY : MOHD BAHARUDIN RIDZUAN SIGNATURE :

POSITION : SENIOR LECTURER


DATE : 20 Feb 2016

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