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Section 1
RAN Radio Principles Description
Module 5
Antennas Systems
TMO18214_V4.0-SG-Ed 6 Edition

9400 LTE
RAN Radio Principles Description
TMO18214_V4.0-SG Edition 6

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TMO18214_V4.0-SG-Ed 6 Edition
Section 1 Module 5 Page 1
Table of contents

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1 MIMO and Beamforming 7


1.1 Introduction 8
1.2 Single Antenna 9
1.3 Transmit Diversity 10
1.4 Receive Diversity 12
1.5 MIMO 14
1.6 MIMO Single User 17
1.6.1 SU-MIMO Signal Model 20
1.6.2 Precoding Function 21
1.6.3 UE Reporting for CL-MIMO and OL-MIMO 22
1.6.4 Precoding Matrix in MIMO2x2 CL and OL 24
1.6.5 Terminology for MIMO 26
1.7 MIMO Multi Users 29
1.8 MIMO & Physical Channels 30
1.9 Beamforming principles 31
1.10 Transmission Modes 34

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1 MIMO and Beamforming

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Section 1 Module 5 Page 7
1 MIMO and Beamforming
1.1 Introduction

The multiple-antenna technique is not a synonym of MIMO.


The main techniques are:
MIMO
Beamforming
Diversity

The principle is to use several antennas in transmission and/or reception to


improve signal robustness and consequently system capacity or
coverage.

eNodeB

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9400 LTE RAN Radio Principles Description

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1 MIMO and Beamforming
1.2 Single Antenna

SISO = Single Input Single Output

It is the most basic radio channel access mode.


Only one transmit antenna and one receive antenna are used.
This is the form of communications that has been the default one since radio
has begun. SISO is the baseline against which all the multiple antenna
techniques are compared.

eNodeB

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Using the 1 antenna in transmission and 1 antenna in reception is the standard configuration since the
beginning of the telecom.

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Section 1 Module 5 Page 9
1 MIMO and Beamforming
1.3 Transmit Diversity

MISO = Multiple Input Single Output


Principle
More complex than SISO.
2 or more transmitters and one receiver.
MISO is more commonly referred to as transmit diversity.
The same data is sent on both transmitting antennas but coded in such a way that the
receiver can identify each transmitter.
Benefits
Transmit diversity increases the robustness of the signal to fading and can increase
performance in low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) conditions.
It does not increase data rates as such, but rather supports the same data rates using
less power.

eNodeB

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RAN Radio Principles Description Antennas Systems
9400 LTE RAN Radio Principles Description

When the eNodeB uses 2 antennas in DL to transmit twice the same data, it is the diversity in transmission,
also called the TxDiv. It improve the quality and the coverage at the cell edge.

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TMO18214_V4.0-SG-Ed 6 Edition
Section 1 Module 5 Page 10
1 MIMO and Beamforming
1.4 Receive Diversity

SIMO = Single Input Multiple Output


Principle
It uses one transmitter and 2 or more receivers.
It is often referred to as receive diversity.
Benefits
It is particularly well suited for low SNR conditions in which a theoretical gain of 3 dB is
possible when two receivers are used.
No change in the data rate since only one data stream is transmitted, but coverage at
the cell edge is improved due to the lowering of the usable SNR.

eNodeB

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RAN Radio Principles Description Antennas Systems
9400 LTE RAN Radio Principles Description

The UE in UL can transmit only one stream, but with 2 antennas in reception, the eNodeB can receive twice
the signal. So it can combine them to improve the reception quality.

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Section 1 Module 5 Page 12
1 MIMO and Beamforming
1.5 MIMO

MIMO = Multiple Input Multiple Output


2 or more transmitters and 2 or more receivers.
MIMO transmits several streams whereas SIMO or MISO transmits only one
stream.
If there are N streams, there will be at least N antennas (here only 2).
By spatially separating N streams across at least N antennas, N receivers
will be able to fully reconstruct the original data streams

eNodeB

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RAN Radio Principles Description Antennas Systems
9400 LTE RAN Radio Principles Description

MIMO requires N antennas in transmitter and receiver and by this way it can transmit N streams in the
same radio resources on the same time. Currently, N=2 and there are 2 2 antennas on the eNodeB and 2
antennas on the UE.
It allows to transmit 2 TB (Transport Block) on the same subframe for a given UE and by this it boosts the
radio performance.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18214_V4.0-SG-Ed 6 Edition
Section 1 Module 5 Page 14
1 MIMO and Beamforming
1.5 MIMO [cont.]

The transmissions from each antenna must be uniquely identifiable so


that each receiver can determine what combination of transmissions has
been received. This identification is usually done with pilot signals, which
use orthogonal patterns for each antenna.

There are several MIMO methods.

The stream are sent on the same time, on the same frequency

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RAN Radio Principles Description Antennas Systems
9400 LTE RAN Radio Principles Description

Each antenna on the receiver receives the 2 TB (the red and the blue one). There are able after to separate
them.
The 2 TB are same on the same time and on the same frequencies (PRB). The receiver can separate them
because it knows the characteristics of transmission for each antennas in real time. There are a lot of RE
use for the reference signal of each antenna to allow the UE to distinguish them.
If the UE is not able to separate the 2 TB (because the 2 transmission paths are not enough different or the
radio condition are bad) the transmitter send the same TB on the 2 antennas.

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TMO18214_V4.0-SG-Ed 6 Edition
Section 1 Module 5 Page 15
1 MIMO and Beamforming
1.6 MIMO Single User

SU-MIMO = Single User MIMO

It is the most common form of MIMO.


Each user is served by only one BS and it occupies the resource exclusively, including
time, frequency.
It can be applied in the uplink or downlink.
But it is generally applied only in DL. The UE can easily have 2 antennas in reception
but only 1 antenna can transmit

eNodeB

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RAN Radio Principles Description Antennas Systems
9400 LTE RAN Radio Principles Description

The Single User MIMO is used in DL and means that the 2 TB send by the 2 antennas using the same radio
resources are for the same UE.
In UL, it is not possible to use this MIMO.

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TMO18214_V4.0-SG-Ed 6 Edition
Section 1 Module 5 Page 17
1 MIMO and Beamforming
1.6 MIMO Single User [cont.]

2 antennas on eNodeB
2 antennas on UE

ePC
eNodeB
RI, PMI

There are two operation modes in SU-MIMO spatial multiplexing:


the closed-loop spatial multiplexing mode
The UE reports the CQI, the RI (Rank Indicator) and the PMI (Precoding Matrix
Indicator)
the open-loop spatial multiplexing mode
The reports only the CQI and the RI

The RI (Rank Indicator, from 1 to 4) indicates the number of spatial layers (data
streams) that can be supported by the current channel experienced at the UE
The PMI (Precoding Matrix Indicator) is the UE feedback to optimize the transmission
(beam + power per transmitted stream)

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RAN Radio Principles Description Antennas Systems
9400 LTE RAN Radio Principles Description

The required UE feedback for the MIMO are:


- CQI (Channel Quality Indicator)
- RI, Rank Indicator. By this one the UE can indicate if how many independent streams it is able to
separate. In case of 2Rx by 2 Tx, if RI=2 the eNodeB can use the MIMO 2 layers (open-loop or closed-
loop 2 layers). If not, it uses the TxDiv or closed-loop MIMO 1 layer
- PMI, Precoding Matrix indicator. It is used only for the Closed Loop MIMO. The UE indicates the eNodeB
how to map the data on the 2 antennas to optimize the reception.
Open-loop MIMO:
. Send multiple data streams simultaneously, one stream per antenna.
. Encode the transmission of each antenna separately based on channel quality feedback from the receiver
(CQI). Each stream has its own MCS (modulation and coding stream).
. No PMI feedback sent by the receiver. The transmitter only knows the channel statistics of H but not its
realization (hence open-loop).
. The transmitter transmits equal power (P/M) from each antenna.
. Capacity grows linearly with the number of antennas.

Closed-loop MIMO:
. Send multiple data streams simultaneously
. Each antenna sends a linear combination of streams
. The transmitter receives the PMI from the UE. Then the channel H is known at both the transmitter and
receiver, the transmitter can coherently weight the signals on each antenna. The transmit power for each
eigen mode is determined using the water filling algorithm, ie. Eigen modes receive power proportional to
their noise power and inefficient eigen modes are not used.

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TMO18214_V4.0-SG-Ed 6 Edition
Section 1 Module 5 Page 18
1.6 MIMO Single User
1.6.1 SU-MIMO Signal Model
We have M transmit antennas and N receive antennas
Matrix H (MxN) denotes the propagation effects. H is known by the receiver from the
Reference Signal
Example: x1=h11*s1 + h21*s2 +n1 and x2=h12*s1 + h22*s2 + n2. This is a 2 equations
2 unknows (s1, s2) to be solved.

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RAN Radio Principles Description Antennas Systems
9400 LTE RAN Radio Principles Description

Each receive antenna may receive the data streams from all transmit antennas. The channel (for a
specific delay) can thus be described by the channel matrix H. H is a MxN matrix modelling the
propagation effects from each of the M transmit antennas to any one of the N receive antennas over
an arbitrary subcarrier. H must be known (computed) by the receiver: Example x1=h11*s1 + h21*s2
+n1 and x2=h12*s1 + h22*s2 + n2. We only solve 2 equations 2 unknows.

The number of data streams that can be transmitted in parallel over the MIMO channel is given by min
{M,N} and is limited by the rank of the matrix H. The transmission quality degrades significantly in case
the singular values of matrix H are not sufficiently strong. This can happen in case the two antennas
are not sufficiently de-correlated, for example in an environment with little scattering or when antennas
are too closely spaced. The rank of the channel matrix H is therefore an important criterion to
determine whether spatial multiplexing can be done with good performance.

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TMO18214_V4.0-SG-Ed 6 Edition
Section 1 Module 5 Page 20
1.6 MIMO Single User
1.6.2 Precoding Function
The max nb of parallel signals that can be spatially multiplexed is: NL= min (M, N). NL is
the number of layers
The precoding matrix V is used to map NL layers on M physical antennas and to
orthogonalize the parallel transmissions. Precoding V uses the PMI received from the UE in
case of closed-loop MIMO.
The UE knows the H matrix and is able to determine the best V matrix from a set of 3GPP
predefined values (precoder codebook)
A fixed Precoding Matrix is used in eNodeB for OL-MIMO with no UE report
A UE report (Precoding Matrix Indication) is required for CL-MIMO (1 or 2 layers)

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RAN Radio Principles Description Antennas Systems
9400 LTE RAN Radio Principles Description

Multiple-antenna configuration consists in M transmit antennas and N receive antennas. The number of
parallel signals that can be spatially multiplexed is upper limited by NL = min (M , N) (no more than M
different signals can be transmitted and no more than N spatially multiplexed signals can be
separated). NL is the number of layers available.
Precoding in case of spatial multiplexing implies that linear processing by means of a size MxN precoding
matrix is applied at the transmitter side where NL signals are spatially multiplexed and transmitted
using M transmit antennas.
The precoding is used to orthogonalize (isolate) the parallel transmissions (channels), and the precoding
matrix V is determined based on the size M x N channel matrix H . In practice, the channel matrix
cannot be perfectly estimated because the mobile terminal can only select a precoding matrix from a
set of available precoding matrices (the precoder codebook). As a consequence, there will always be
some residual interference between the spatially multiplexed signals, and consequently, the achieved
rate is improved by a factor less than the order of the multiplexing (NL).
It is clear that to determine the matrices V, knowledge about the channel matrix H is needed. A common
approach is to have the receiver estimate the channel and decide on a suitable precoding matrix from
the precoder codebook. In the case of closed-loop spatial multiplexing, a UE feeds back to the eNodeB
the most desirable entry from a predefined codebook. The preferred precoder is the matrix which
would maximize the capacity based on the receiver capabilities. In a single-cell, interference-free
environment the UE will typically indicate the precoder that would result in a transmission with an
effective SNR following most closely the largest singular values of its estimated channel matrix. The
receiver then reports this information to the transmitter (PMI). This procedure is used in LTE.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18214_V4.0-SG-Ed 6 Edition
Section 1 Module 5 Page 21
1.6.2 Precoding Function
1.6.3 UE Reporting for CL-MIMO and OL-MIMO
CQI, PMI and RI are reported to the eNB in periodic or aperiodic mode
Aperiodic CQI reports feedback per subband to select the highest SINR PRB

PUCCH(UL grant)
RRC cnx (Reporting Period)

PUCCH (wideband CQI, RI) PUSCH (wideband +


subbands CQI, PMI, RI)
PUCCH

Periodic report Aperiodic report

Closed-loop MIMO Open-loop MIMO

Wideband + Sub-band CQI


CQI Wideband CQI on codeword0
per codeword (0&1)
No PMI feedback
Single (wideband) or multiple
PMI (fixed precoding at eNB with
(per sub-band) PMI feedback
large CDD for robustness)
Based on SINR
Based on SINR
RI RI=1 corresponds to closed-
RI=1 corresponds to TxDiv
loop MIMO 1 layer or TxDiv

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RAN Radio Principles Description Antennas Systems
9400 LTE RAN Radio Principles Description

Wideband CQI. The CQI represents the effective SINR over the entire channel bandwidth. But the variation
in SINR across the channel (on subbands) is masked out.
Subband CQI. To support the FSS Frequency Selective Scheduling- (i.e. UE is placed on the PRB with the
highest SINR), each UE needs to support subbands CQI report (which is a vector of CQI on several
subbands). A subband is a collection of n PRBs.

DL Spatial Multiplexing Modes for Low and High Speeds:


- UE indicates best combo of CQI/PMI/RI for max throughput (i.e. high-rank/low-MCS vs. low-rank/high
MCS)
- Closed-loop SM is ideally suited for low speed scenarios when the CQI/PMI/RI feedback is accurate
- Open-loop SM provides robustness in high speed scenarios when the feedback is not accurate

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TMO18214_V4.0-SG-Ed 6 Edition
Section 1 Module 5 Page 22
1.6 MIMO Single User
1.6.4 Precoding Matrix in MIMO2x2 CL and OL
The PMI is a codebook index in a precoding matrix to be used by eNB in case of CL-MIMO

In case of OL-MIMO, a fixed codebook is used by the eNodeB (without PMI report)

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RAN Radio Principles Description Antennas Systems
9400 LTE RAN Radio Principles Description

For CL spatial multiplexing (1 or 2 codewords), the UE feeds back the index of the precoder from a
predefined codebook that achieves the best performance and then the eNodeB can get the unitary
precoding matrix from this codebook.
At the UE, the optimal precoder is chosen such that the post-MMSE (receiver based on Minimum Mean
Square Error) SINR across both streams is optimized in order to achieve maximum sum rate throughput
across both antennas.
The UE does not choose a precoder based on instantaneous interference but based on long-term
characteristics of the interferences.

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TMO18214_V4.0-SG-Ed 6 Edition
Section 1 Module 5 Page 24
1.6 MIMO Single User
1.6.5 Terminology for MIMO
A codeword is an independently encoded data block, corresponding to a single transport
block (MAC layer) with one CRC. This is limited to 2 by 3GPP.
#codewords #layers
The rank (provided by UE) is the nb of non-redundant data streams that can be transmitted
if rank = 1, only one codeword can be transmitted - if 2 layers, the same information (TxDiv) is sent on
both antennas
if rank = 2, either one or two codewords can be transmitted while offering a spatial multiplexing
The layer is the number (including redundant) of data streams that can be transmitted. Each
codeword is mapped on one or multiple layers
TxDiv: #layers = #antennas
Spatial Multiplexing: #layers = rank
Example: case closed-loop MIMO 2 layers with one or two codewords

2 codewords conf
2 layers
x2 x1 x2 x1
Rank=2
Layer
s2 s1 Precoder s2 s1
mapping PMI (for CL)

1 codeword conf 2 layers


x2 x1
x4 x3 x2 x1 Rank=2
Layer
Precoder x4 x3
mapping PMI (for CL)

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RAN Radio Principles Description Antennas Systems
9400 LTE RAN Radio Principles Description

A spatial layer is the term used in LTE for the different streams generated by spatial multiplexing. A
layer can be described as a mapping of symbols onto the transmit antenna ports. Each layer is
identified by a (precoding) vector of size equal to the number of transmit antenna ports and can be
associated with a radiation pattern.
The rank of the transmission is the number of layers transmitted.
A codeword is an independently encoded data block, corresponding to a single Transport Block (TB)
delivered from the Medium Access Control (MAC) layer in the transmitter to the physical layer, and
protected with a CRC.
For ranks greater than 1, two codewords can be transmitted. Note that the number of codewords is
always less than or equal to the number of layers, which in turn is always less than or equal to the
number of antenna ports.
In principle, a SU-MIMO spatial multiplexing scheme can either use a single codeword mapped to all the
available layers, or multiple codewords each mapped to one or more different layers.
The main benefit of using only one codeword is a reduction in the amount of control signalling required,
both for CQI reporting, where only a single value would be needed for all layers, and for HARQ
ACK/NACK feedback, where only one ACK/NACK would have to be signalled per subframe per UE. In
such a case, the MLD receiver is optimal in terms of minimizing the bit error rate.
At the opposite extreme, a separate codeword could be mapped to each of the layers. The advantage of
this type of scheme is that significant gains are possible by using Successive Interference Cancellation
(SIC), albeit at the expense of more signalling being required.
An MMSE-SIC receiver can be shown to approach the Shannon capacity. Note that an MMSE receiver is
viable for both transmitter structures. For LTE, a middle-way was adopted whereby at most two
codewords are used, even if four layers are transmitted. The codeword-to- layer mapping is static,
since only minimal gains were shown for a dynamic mapping method. Note that in LTE all RBs
belonging to the same codeword use the same MCS, even if a codeword is mapped to multiple layers.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18214_V4.0-SG-Ed 6 Edition
Section 1 Module 5 Page 26
1.6 MIMO Single User
1.6.5 Terminology for MIMO [cont.]
Antenna port: An antenna port is defined by its associated Reference Signal (RS). This is a
logical entity and may not correspond to the physical antenna.
#0-3 are Cell-specific and are used for DL MIMO
#4 is MBSFN specific
#5 is UE specific (which is used for BF to a single UE using all physical antennas)

Case 2 physical antennas

Case 8 physical antennas

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RAN Radio Principles Description Antennas Systems
9400 LTE RAN Radio Principles Description

An antenna port may in practice be implemented either as a single physical transmit antenna, or as a
combination of multiple physical antenna elements. The transmitted RS corresponding to a given
antenna port defines the antenna port from the point of view of the UE, and enables the UE to derive a
channel estimate for that antenna port regardless of whether it represents a single radio channel
from one physical antenna or a composite channel from a multiplicity of physical antenna elements
together comprising the antenna port. (ex: in BF, 8 antennas are seen by the UE as a single antenna
port).
In LTE, up to four cell-specific antenna ports may be used by the eNodeB, thus requiring the UE to derive
up to four separate channel estimates. For each antenna port, a different RS pattern is designed, with
particular attention having been given to the minimization of the intra-cell interference between the
multiple transmit antenna ports. When a resource element is used to transmit an RS on one antenna
port, the corresponding resource element on the other antenna ports is set to zero to limit the
interference.

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TMO18214_V4.0-SG-Ed 6 Edition
Section 1 Module 5 Page 27
1 MIMO and Beamforming
1.7 MIMO Multi Users

MIMO-MU = Multi user


It is used only in Uplink.
MIMO-MU does not increase the individual users data rate but it does offer cell
capacity gains that are similar to, or better than, those provided by MIMO-SU.
The UE does not require the expense and power drain of two transmitters, yet
the cell still benefits from increased capacity.
The UE must be well aligned in time and power as received at the eNB.

eNode-B

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RAN Radio Principles Description Antennas Systems
9400 LTE RAN Radio Principles Description

In UL, the UE can not transmit 2 different signal like it has only 1 amplifier. So to take benefit of the MIMO
capabilities, the eNodeB can allocates the same radio resources to 2 UEs (PRB and sub-frame). By this
way, he eNodeB boosts the capacity in UL.

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TMO18214_V4.0-SG-Ed 6 Edition
Section 1 Module 5 Page 29
1 MIMO and Beamforming
1.8 MIMO & Physical Channels

The Tx Div can be applied on all the physical channels:

Physical DL Shared Channel (PDSCH)


Physical Broadcast Channel (PBCH)
Physical Control Format Indicator Channel (PCFICH)
Physical Downlink Control Channel (PDCCH)

The other MIMO schemes are only applicable to the PDSCH

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9400 LTE RAN Radio Principles Description

Since MIMO requires a UE-specific feedback (CQI, RI and PMI), it is not possible to use it for all the
channels.
Only the PSDCH supports the MIMO and only for UE specific data.
For example, the SIB2 is transmitted on the PDSCH but it is received by all the UE, so TxDiv. The HO
command is transmitted only to a given UE, so MIMO can be used if criterion are fullfilled.

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TMO18214_V4.0-SG-Ed 6 Edition
Section 1 Module 5 Page 30
1 MIMO and Beamforming
1.9 Beamforming principles
The UE does not feed back any precoding information. The eNB deduces instead the
precoding using i.e. DoA (Direction of Arrival) estimations from the UL SRS
The eNB ensures that the beam is correctly directed to the UE
The signal from the different antenna elements are phase-shifted so that they all add up
(the UE can see just one antenna) and the interfering signals are suppressed
There is a UE specific Reference Signal on antenna port5
Beamforming only applies to PDSCH (control channels are in TxDiv)
Beamforming can be used for UE near the cell edge

Interfering
signal

DL Main signal
d*sin

d
Antennas

eNodeB

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9400 LTE RAN Radio Principles Description

In this mode, the UE does not feed back any precoding-related information. The eNodeB instead tries to deduce this
information, for example using Direction Of Arrival (DOA) estimations from the uplink.
This mode is primarily a mechanism to extend cell coverage by concentrating the eNodeB power in the direction in which
the UE is located. It typically has the following properties:
It can conveniently be implemented by an array of closely-spaced antenna elements for creating directional
transmissions. The signals from the different antenna elements are phased appropriately so that they all add up
constructively at the location where the UE is situated.
The eNodeB is responsible for ensuring that the beam is correctly directed, as the UE does not explicitly indicate a
preference regarding the direction/selection of the beam.
Other than being directed to use the UE-specific RS as the phase reference, a UE would not really be aware that it is
receiving a directional transmission rather than a cellwide transmission. To the UE, the phased array of antenna ports
appears as just one antenna.
One side-effect of using beamforming based on UE-specific RS is that channel quality experienced by the UE will typically
be different (hopefully better) than that of any of the cell-specific RS. However, as the UE-specific RS are only provided
in the specific RBs for which the beamforming transmission mode is applied, the eNodeB cannot rely on the UE being
able to derive Channel Quality Indicator (CQI) feedback from the UE-specific RS. For this reason, it is specified in LTE
that CQI feedback from a UE configured with Uespecific RS is derived using the cell-specific RSs (assuming transmit
diversity if more than one common antenna port exists). This suggests a deployment scenario whereby at least one of
the common antenna ports actually uses one of the elements of the phased array. The eNodeB could then, over time,
establish a suitable offset to apply to the CQI reports received from the UE to adapt them to the actual quality of the
beamformed signal. Such an offset might, for example, be derived from the proportion of transport blocks positively
acknowledged by the UE. An eNodeB antenna configuration of this kind also allows the possibility to use beamforming
for UEs near the edge of the cell, while other antenna ports may be used for SU-MIMO spatial multiplexing to deliver
high data rates to UEs closer to the eNodeB.
Another factor to consider when deploying beamforming in LTE is that it can only be applied to the PDSCH and not to the
control channels. Typically the range of the PDSCH can therefore be extended by beamforming, but the overall cell
range may still be limited by the range of the control channels unless other measures are taken. One approach could
be to reduce the code rate used for the control channels when beamforming is applied to the PDSCH.

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TMO18214_V4.0-SG-Ed 6 Edition
Section 1 Module 5 Page 31
1 MIMO and Beamforming
1.9 Beamforming principles [cont.]
In TM7 we have 2 different transmission schemes:
TxDiv with a broadcast beam (control channels) on antenna ports 0&1
beamforming (PDSCH) on antenna port5

4+4 cross-polarization antenna array

antenna port0 antenna port5

antenna port1

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9400 LTE RAN Radio Principles Description

Antenna pattern is 4+4 cross-polarization antenna array. The HBW(half power of Beam Width) is 65
degree.
For the antenna port0&1, another weight vector maps the signal to the antenna (just like beam forming
for the service channel), which is called broadcast weight vector (namely, broadcastBFPowerFactor).
Due to the existence of this vector, the power will become ||broadcastBFpowerFactor||^2 * power-per-
antenna. (12.74w)

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TMO18214_V4.0-SG-Ed 6 Edition
Section 1 Module 5 Page 32
1 MIMO and Beamforming
1.10 Transmission Modes
There are 7 transmission modes for data transmission on PDSCH:

Possible transmission
TM Definition IO Rank
schemes

TM1 Single antenna port (port 0) SISO 1 1Tx

Single antenna port (port4)


SISO (MBSFN) 1 1Tx
for MBSFN subframes

TM2 Transmit diversity SU-MIMO 1 TxDiv (SFBC)

OL-MIMO
TM3 OL spatial multiplexing SU-MIMO 1 or 2
TxDiv
CL-MIMO2lay
TM4 CL spatial multiplexing SU-MIMO 1 or 2 CL-MIMO1lay
TxDiv
CL-MIMO
TM5 Multi-user MIMO MU-MIMO 1 is used
TxDiv
CL-MIMO1lay
TM6 Closed-loop rank-1 precoding SU-MIMO 1 is used
TxDiv
BF
TM7 Single antenna port (port5) Beamforming 1
TxDiv

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RAN Radio Principles Description Antennas Systems
9400 LTE RAN Radio Principles Description

Within one Transmission Mode, several transmission schemes are allowed, depending on the CQI/RI
reported by the UE and also on the speed of the UE.
In TM1, only SISO is supported (1 codeword), and no switching to 2 codewords is possible. Antenna port 0.
DCI1 is used for granting. Case MBSFN: MBSFN is performed (1 codeword) on specific M subframes on
antenna port4. No DCI.
In TM2, only TxDiv (SFBC) is supported (1 codeword), and no switching to 2 codewords is possible.
Antenna ports 0 and 1. DCI1 is used for granting.
In TM3, 1 or 2 codewords are possible in OL-MIMO and it is also possible to switch to TxDiv inside that
mode through specific grants. Antenna ports 0 and 1. DCI2A is used for granting.
In TM4, 1 or 2 codewords are possible in CL-MIMO 2 layers and it is also possible to switch to CL-MIMO 1
layer or to TxDiv inside that mode through specific grants. Antenna ports 0 and 1. DCI2 is used for
granting.
In TM7, Beamforming is supported (1 codeword), and it is also possible to switch to TxDiv inside that mode
through specific grants. Antenna port 5 for BF and antenna ports 0 and 1 for TxDiv. DCI1 is used for BF
granting and DCI1A for TxDiv granting.

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18214_V4.0-SG-Ed 6 Edition
Section 1 Module 5 Page 34
Module Summary

The TxDiv is the fact to transmit twice the same data stream in DL to
improve the quality of the transmission

The RxDiv is the fact to receive the signal with 2 antennas (in UL) to
improve the quality of the transmission

The MIMO uses multiple antennas on the receiver and on the transmitter
to send several streams at the same time and on the same sub-carrier
In DL, it is the SU-MIMO (Single User)

In UL, it is the MU-MIMO (Multi-User)

In Beamforming, the eNB is able to build itself (no UE feedback) a beam


towards the UE from DoA estimations

1 5 36 COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.


RAN Radio Principles Description Antennas Systems
9400 LTE RAN Radio Principles Description

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18214_V4.0-SG-Ed 6 Edition
Section 1 Module 5 Page 36
End of module
Antennas Systems

1 5 37 COPYRIGHT ALCATEL-LUCENT 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.


RAN Radio Principles Description Antennas Systems
9400 LTE RAN Radio Principles Description

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18214_V4.0-SG-Ed 6 Edition
Section 1 Module 5 Page 37