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Chapter 2


This part gives literature and studies that have direct bearings for the present

study to make it enriching and substantial.


Differential teacher expectations for different children were associated with a

variety of interaction measures, although many of these relationships are attributable to

objective differences. However, other differential teacher behavior was observed which

is not attributable to objective differences among the children, and it is consistent with

the hypothesis that differential teacher expectations function as self-fulfilling prophecies.

Teacher demanded better performance from those children with whom they had higher

expectations, and the latter is praised because of how they perform. In contrast, they

were more likely to accept poor performance from students with whom they have low

expectations, and even if these students perform better at times, they were less likely

praised. Rosenthal and Jacobson believed that teacher-expectation effects served as in

indicator of the behavioral mechanisms involved when teacher expectations function as

self-fulfilling prophecies.

This descriptive study examined classroom activity settings in relation to

childrens observed behavior during classroom interactions and basic teacher behavior

within the preschool classroom, as well as gender differences. Findings indicated that

on average, childrens interactions with teachers were higher in teacher-structured

setting, such as large group. On average, childrens interactions with peers and tasks

were more positive in child-directed settings, such as free choice. Children experienced
more conflict during recess and routines/transitions. Finally, gender differences were

observed within small group and meals.

The implications of these findings might encourage teachers to be thoughtful and

intentional about what types of support and resources are provided so children can

successfully navigate the demands of particular settings. These findings are not meant

to discourage certain teacher behaviors or imply value of certain classroom setting;

instead, by providing an evidence-based pictures of the condition under which children

display the most positive interactions, teachers can be more aware of choices within

these settings and they can have a powerful way to assist in professional development

and interventions.

Recent report have suggested that young childrens attendance in classroom

based preschool program has dramatically increased, with nearly 1.1million children

attending public school program during 2007-2008 school year (Noel, Sable, & Chen,

2009 ). Preschool is viewed as an important way to prepare young children for

elementary school (Reynolds, Temple, Robertson, & Mann, 2001). Previous studies

have emphasized the importance of childrens early competencies for later school

success, including social relationship, self-regulation (e.g., attention) during interaction

with materials, and language development (Blair, 2002; Burchinal, Peisner-Feinberg,

Pianta, & Howes, 2002; Duncanetal., 2007; Hamre & Pianta, 2001; Ladd, 2005;

Wasik, Bond,& Hindman, 2006). It is now well-established that these important early

childhood skills and abilities develop within interactions between the child and the

context (Ladd, 2005; Pianta & Walsh, 1996), including interactions with adults, peers,
and learning activities/materials within early education classroom (Doner, Booren,

Lima, Luckner, & Pianta 2010).

According to Graves & Sunstein, (1992), the qualitative research also

emphasizes three additional classroom practices: individualization, collaboration, and

authentic assessment. Individualization means that teachers instruct each student by

drawing upon the knowledge and experience that particular student already possesses.

Collaboration learning means that assessment occurs as an artifact of learning

activities. This can be accomplished, for instance, through individual and group projects

that occur on an ongoing basis rather than at a single point in time (Shade, B. J., Kelly,

C. A., & Oberg, M. (1997). This action guide is about understanding individual

differences from an environmental and contextual perspective and will hopefully lead to

an understanding that it is best to engage students in the learning process so they can

increase their academic period.

We have established 5 goals for this guide: 1) provide a knowledge base about

cultural orientations of the communities from which students come; 2) provide

suggestions on promoting culturally attuned motivational strategies; 3) examine the

impact of culture on ways of learning; 4) provide suggestions on ways to structure

culturally responsive classrooms; and 5) provide examples of the theory and ideas in

practice that the reader can translate to the classroom.

This guide is designed to be used primarily as a school staff-development project

or as an independent study project. It can also be helpful as a text in a graduate or

undergraduate teacher-education course.

This paper reviews the relationships between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

(ADHD) and academic performance. First, the relationship at different developmental

stages is examined, focusing on preschoolers, children, adolescents and adults.

Second, the review examines the factors underpinning the relationship between ADHD

and academic underperformance: the literature suggests that it is the symptoms of

ADHD and underlying cognitive deficits not co-morbid conduct with an overview of the

literature examining strategies that are directed towards remediating the academic

impairment of individuals with ADHD.

As t