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Electromagnetic Fields

Lecture 1

Dr. Ebtihal H. G. Yousif

Sudan University of Science & Technology


Electronics Engineering

Sem 6, 2017

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Outline

1 Course Info
Contents
Contents
Classroom Etiquette

2 Introduction
Scalars and Vectors
Notations
Rectangular Coordinate System
Vector Algebra

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Course Information

Course Objective
To provide a basic understanding of the basic laws of electrostatic
and magnetostatic fields in the engineering context

Text book:
W. Hayt, Engineering Electro-
magnetics, 8th Edition, McGraw-
Hill, New York, NY, USA, 2008.

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Course Information
Contents

Scalar and Vector Fields (Overview of vector algebra:


addition, subtraction, scalar product and vector product.
Cartesian coordinate system, cylindrical coordinate system,
spherical coordinate system, conversions between coordinate
systems. Integrals of scalar and vector fields).
Vector calculus gradient, curl, divergence operations.
Gausss, Stokes, Hemholtz and Greens integral theorems.
Electrostatisc Theory (Charge and charge density. Coulombs
Law. Concept of fields. Electric flux density and electric field
intensity. Gausss Theorem and applications. Voltage and
electric potential. Conductor, dielectrics. Polarization,
susceptibility, permittivity. Electrostatic boundary condition.
Capacitance calculation and electric energy).

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Course Information
Contents

Magnetostatic Theory (Current and current density.


Magnetic dipoles and current loops. Magnetic flux density
and magnetic field intensity. Biot-Savart Law and Amperes
Law, Faradays Law. Magnetostatic boundary condition. Self
and mutual induction. Inductance calculation and magnetic
energy).
Maxwells Equations Time varying fields: Faradays Law of
Induction, the conservation of charge and the incompleteness
of Amperes Law. Maxwells equations and Lorentz force law.
Magnetic Circuits (B and H, Magnetic materials:
diamagnetic material, paramagnetic material, ferromagnetic
material. Saturation and hysterisis, Hysterisis loss and eddy
current loss, reluctance and permeance, Analysis of linear
magnetic circuits (with air-gap problems)).
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Classroom Etiquette

Arrive to Class on Turn O Your Cell Avoid Side


Time. Phone Conversations

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Todays Lecture

We will define vectors and the necessary mathematical


operations

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Vector Analysis
Introduction

Vector analysis is a mathematical subject more than it is a


an engineering problem.
Vector algebra is the algebra of vectors: a set of
mathematical rules that allows meaningful and useful
operations in the study of electromagnetics

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Vector Analysis
Scalars and Vectors

The term scalar refers to a quantity whose value may be


represented by a single (positive or negative) real number
Examples of scalar quantities : mass, density, pressure,
volume, volume resistivity, and voltage
A vector quantity has both a magnitude and a direction
A field can be a scalar or a vector

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Vector Analysis
Notations

Vectors Notation

Vectors are denoted by a boldface letter such as

A , B , a , g.

Another method is to use a bar or arrow over the letter to


indicate a vector, such as


A, b

A vector is written as a sum of components. The components


are represented based on the assumed coordinate system1

1
The are three common coordinate systems: The Cartesian coordinate, the
cylindrical coordinate and the spherical coordinates.
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Vector Analysis
Notations

Vectors Notation in Graphics

A vector may be represented as a directed line segment or


arrow
The length of the arrow represents the magnitude of the
vector and the arrow head indicates its direction.

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Vector Analysis
Notations

Other Vectors Notation

A vector field is a vector function of a position vector. For


example written as
G(r)
Here G is the vector field and r is the position vector
A scalar field is a scalar function of a position vector. For
example
T (r)
Note that here T is a scalar.

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Vector Analysis
Notations

Other Vectors Notation

A vector from the origin to a point is written using a


lowercase boldface letter (with or without an overline). For
example, the vector from the origin to the point P = (1, 2, 3)

rP = a x + 2a y + 3a z

The vector connecting two points is written with a subscript


stating both points. For example the vector connecting the
points P(1, 2, 3) to Q(2, 2, 1) is written as

RPQ =rQ rP
=(2 1)a x + (2 2)a y + (1 3)a z
=a x 4a y 2a z
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The Rectangular Coordinate System

In the rectangular coordinate system we set up three


coordinate axes mutually at right angles to each other and call
them the x, y , and z axes.

Figure: A point in the Cartesian system of coordinates


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Vector Components and Unit Vectors

Each vector is written in terms of its components

For example, let us consider the following vector in the 3D


Cartesian coordinates

A = Ax a x + Ay a y + Az a z

In this case
Ax is the x component
Ay is the y component
Az is the z component
a x is the unit vector in the direction of x
a y is the unit vector in the direction of y
a z is the unit vector in the direction of z

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Magnitude of a Vector

The magnitude of the vector A is ,



|A| = A2x + A2y + A2z

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Unit Vector

If we divide a vector B by its magnitude |B|, we obtain a vector b


of unit length pointing in the direction of B. This is the unit vector
in the direction of B.
B
ab =
|B|

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Unit Vector
Example

Example: Given the vector G = 2a x 2a y a z find the unit


vector in the direction of G.
Solution:
G 2a x 2a y a z 2 2 1
aG = = = a x a y a z
|G| 22 + (2)2 + (1)2 3 3 3

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Vector Algebra

Vector algebra is a set of rules that apply to vector quantities.


Four basic operations are required for vectors:
1 Vector Addition and Subtraction
2 Vector Scaling A vector can be scaled by multiplying its
magnitude by a scalar value. Scaling is defined as changing the
magnitude of the vector
3 Product
The Dot Product (Scalar Product)
The Cross Product (Vector Product)

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Vector Algebra
Vector Addition and Subtraction

The sum of A = Ax a x + Ay a y + Az a z and


B = Bx a x + By a y + Bz a z is

A + B = (Ax + Bx )a x + (Ay + By )a y + (Az + Bz )a z

To subtract B from A, we add the negative of B to A


The sum A + B is the arrow from the tail of A to the head of
B

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Vector Algebra
Vector Addition and Subtraction

Vector addition is commutative

A+B=B+A

Vector addition is associative

(A + B) + C = A + (B + C)

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Vector Algebra
Vector Scaling

Vector Scaling

If a vector is multiplied by a scalar, s, its magnitude is


multiplied by the magnitude of s.
The direction of the vector is unchanged if the scalar is
positive and real.

Properties of Vector Scaling


Scalar multiplication is distributive
s (A + B) = sA + sB
Scalar division by s corresponds to multiplication by the
inverse of s ( )
B 1
= B
s s
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Vector Algebra
Example

Example(Hayt 2008)
Given the points M(-1,2,1), N(3,-3,0) and P(-2,-3,-4) find:
1 RMN
2 RMN + RMP
3 |2rp 3rN |
Solution
1 RMN = 4a x 5a y a z
2 RMP = a x 5a y 5a z .
RMN + RMP = 3a x 10a y 6a z
3 2rp 3rN = 2 (2a x 3a y 4a z ) 3 (3a x 3a y )
= 13a
x + 3a y 8a z
|2rp 3rN | = (13)2 + 32 + (8)2 = 15.56

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Vector Algebra
Dot Product

Dot Product
The dot product of two vectors is a scalar and it is defined as

A B = |A| |B| cos AB

where AB is the angle between A and B

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Vector Algebra
Dot Product

|B| cos AB represents the projection of B on A


The dot product is commutative

AB=BA

The dot product is distributive

A (B + C) = A B + A C

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Vector Algebra
Cross Product

Cross Product
The cross product of two vectors is a vector and it is defined as
follows
a x a y a z

A B = det Ax Ay Az
Bx By Bz

A B is perpendicular to both A and B

Figure: Direction of A B using the right-hand rule


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Vector Algebra
Cross Product

The cross product is distributive

A (B + C) = A B + A C

The cross product is not commutative

A B = B A

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Vector Algebra
Cross Product: Vector Interpretation

The cross product can be written as

A B = an |A||B| sin AB , (0 AB )

The elements of the cross product can be interpreted as follows


The magnitude of A B is the area (base times height) of
the parallelogram formed by A and B
The direction of A B is the direction of the unit vector an

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Example

Given that A = 2a x 3a y + a z and B = 4a x 2a y + 5a z . Find


A B.
Solution

a x a y a z
A B = det 2 3 1
4 2 5
[ ] [ ]
= (3)(5) 1(2) a x (2)(5) (1)(4) a y
[ ]
+ (2)(2) (3)(4) a z
= 13a x 14a y 16a z

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