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Punctuation and Capitalization

module III
The EGUMPP Learning System
Your solution for understanding English grammar
and improving your writing skills.

Punctuation and Capitalization


I
Grammar

II III IV
Usage Punctuation and Writing
Capitalization Mechanics

EGUMPP Certification

Safran Publishing Company


1605 Clugston Road

III
York, PA 17404

Electronic Grammar Usage


www.egumpp.com Bob Safran Mechanics Proficiency Program

egumpp-mod-III-i12.indd 1 9/28/10 8:13:31 AM


Module III
PUNCTUATION
AND CAPITALIZATION
ii

Copyright 2010 Safran Publishing Company


1605 Clugston Road
York, PA 17404

All Rights Reserved


The text of this publication, or any part thereof, may not
be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means,
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ISBN: 978-0-9840948-3-7

Printed in the United States of America


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3

INTRODUCTION

ABOUT EGUMPP
EGUMPP (Electronic Grammar Usage Mechanics Proficiency Program) is
an interactive learning system that includes four modules. Each module
is designed for you to complete at your own pace.

For Module I - GRAMMAR the learning objectives are to develop an


understanding of 70 grammar terms and to become proficient in identifying
the function of all words, phrases, and clauses in sentences reviewed.
Module I includes 20 lessons and a mastery test.

For Module II - USAGE the learning objectives are to become proficient


in identifying sentences with usage errors and to become proficient in
applying the rules of usage to sentences. The rules pertain to personal
pronoun usage, subject-verb agreement, pronoun-antecedent agreement,
who-whom usage, apostrophe usage, verb usage, and number usage.
Module II includes 7 lessons and a mastery test.

For Module III - PUNCTUATION AND CAPITALIZATION the learning


objectives are to become proficient in punctuating the various types of
elements in sentences that require punctuation, capitalizing words in
sentences that require capitalization, and recognizing punctuation and
capitalization errors in sentences. Module III includes 7 lessons and a
mastery test.

For Module IV - WRITING MECHANICS the learning objectives are


to become proficient in identifying run-on sentences and sentence
fragments and to become proficient in identifying sentences with
misplaced modifiers, unparallel structure, word mistakes, ineffective and
inappropriate words, unnecessary words, wordy elements, and unclear
elements. Module IV includes 8 lessons and a mastery test.

EGUMPP Certification is awarded to individuals who qualify. Final grades


in all four modules determine the level of EGUMPP certification. Basic
Certification is awarded for a 75-80 percent final grade in all four modules,
Advanced Certification is awarded for an 81-90 percent final grade in all
four modules, and Mastery Certification is awarded for a 91-100 percent
final grade in all four modules. An individual's level of certification is
displayed in the EGUMPP student portal.

Introduction
5

COURSEWARE INTRODUCTION

ABOUT MODULE III COURSEWARE


Module III Punctuation and Capitalization provides a unique, interactive
approach to learning how to punctuate sentences correctly. The six
punctuation lessons are categorized as six punctuation checkpoints that
must be systematically reviewed each time a sentence is written to
ensure that the sentence is punctuated correctly.

This module consists of seven lessons and a Mastery Test. Each lesson
includes one practice exercise and two graded exercises. All three exercises
must be completed before you can begin the next lesson.

You may return to any previous lesson as often as you wish. You will
want to return to a lesson for review purposes and/or to improve a lesson
grade. The two graded exercises in each lesson are called the PTM A
Applying Rules and the PTM B Finding Errors. A PTM test may be
attempted as many times as necessary until you achieve your desired
lesson grade. After you complete all seven lessons, you may attempt the
Mastery Test; however, once you start the Mastery Test, you can no
longer improve lesson grades.

The time required to complete Module III ranges from 7 to 15 hours. The
amount of time depends on your current knowledge of English
grammar and your ability to grasp new concepts.

Introduction
7

TABLE OF CONTENTS

MODULE III LESSON CONTENTS

LESSON 1: END OF SENTENCE ........................................ 9-19

LESSON 2: INTRODUCTORY ELEMENTS ........................... 21-30

LESSON 3: INTERRUPTING ELEMENTS ............................ 31-42

LESSON 4: ENDING ELEMENTS ...................................... 43-53

LESSON 5: INDEPENDENT CLAUSES ............................... 55-64

LESSON 6: SERIES OF ELEMENTS .................................. 65-75

LESSON 7: CAPITALIZATION...........................................77-88

REVIEW: MODULE III TERMS TO LEARN ...........................89-91

APPENDIXES

APPENDIX A: ADDITIONAL PUNCTUATION RULES ...........93-101

APPENDIX B: ADDITIONAL CAPITALIZATION RULES...... 103-107

Introduction
LESSON 1
END OF SENTENCE
10

LESSON 1: END OF SENTENCE


INTRODUCTION
Lesson Objective: To become proficient in applying the
correct punctuation at the end of sentences.

Overview:
There are four types of sentences classified according to purpose:
declarative, imperative, interrogative, and exclamatory.

A declarative sentence makes a statement and requires a period.

Example:

The quota was achieved two months ahead of schedule.

An imperative sentence gives a command or makes a request


and requires a period unless the writers intent is to make it
exclamatory; then an exclamation point is required.

Examples:

Please respond as soon as possible.

Send in your order at once!

An interrogative sentence asks a question and requires a


question mark.

Example:

What time does the train arrive?

An exclamatory sentence expresses strong feelings and requires


an exclamation point.

Examples:

I am so tired!

Wow! This is exciting!

A punctuation error rarely occurs when a sentence ends with a


period, a question mark, or an exclamation point. However,
punctuation errors occur frequently when the end of the sentence
includes a closing parenthesis or a closing quotation mark. This
lesson explains when an ending punctuation mark is inserted
before or after a closing parenthesis or a closing quotation mark.

Lesson 1 End of Sentence


11

LESSON 1: TERMS TO LEARN

Terms to Learn: declarative sentence, imperative sentence,


interrogative sentence, exclamatory sentence, elliptical sentence,
interjection

1. Declarative Sentence: A sentence that makes a statement


and requires a period.
2. Imperative Sentence: A sentence that gives a command or
makes a request and requires a period unless the writers intent
is to make it exclamatory; then an exclamation point is required.
3. Interrogative Sentence: A sentence that asks a question and
requires a question mark.
4. Exclamatory Sentence: A sentence that expresses strong
feelings and requires an exclamation point.
5. Elliptical Sentence: A condensed sentence with key words
such as the subject and the verb not expressed but implied.
6. Interjection: Word(s) intended to express a feeling or an
emotion that precedes a sentence and has no grammatical
relationship to the sentence that follows.

Lesson 1 Terms to Learn


14
RULES TO FOLLOW
14

LESSON 1: END OF SENTENCE


RULE P1-1
Use a period at the end of a sentence that makes a
statement, a mild command, or a polite request.

Examples:

Your answer is correct. (Statement)

Go to the store. (Mild command)

May I send you our latest brochure. (Polite request)

POINT TO REMEMBER!
Use a period at the end of an elliptical sentence (condensed
statement with words not expressed but implied) when the
writers intention is not to create a strong emotion.

Examples:

Yes. (Elliptical sentence)

Of course. (Elliptical sentence)

Absolutely. (Elliptical sentence)

RULE P1-2

Use a question mark at the end of a complete sentence


that asks a direct question and at the end of a condensed
question.

Examples:

Will you be going to the exhibit?

I understand that you will be going to Europe. When?

Lesson 1 End of Sentence


15

LESSON 1: END OF SENTENCE


RULE P1-3
Use an exclamation point after a complete sentence,
an elliptical sentence, or an interjection that is intended
to express a strong emotion such as surprise, disbelief,
enthusiasm, urging, or amusement. Also, use an
exclamation point after a sentence that is a command
or is interrogatory in form but exclamatory in meaning.

Examples:

Now is the time to buy! (Complete sentence)

Of course! (Elliptical sentence)

Yes! Well be leaving in the morning. (Interjection)

Call the police! (Command)

Is this what you call an adequate job! (Interrogatory)

RULE
RULE P1-4
P1-4

Use a period followed by a closing parenthesis when a


declarative sentence is parenthetical.

Example:

(See Bulletin A-70 for an explanation.)

POINT TO REMEMBER!
When a declarative sentence that is parenthetical ends with an
abbreviation, do not use a double period.

Example:

(We should be there by 2 p.m.)

Lesson 1 End of Sentence


16

LESSON 1: END OF SENTENCE


RULE P1-5
Use a question mark followed by a closing parenthesis
when an interrogative sentence is parenthetical.

Example:

(Will you attend?)

RULE P1-6

Use an exclamation point followed by a closing parenthesis


when an exclamatory sentence is parenthetical.

Example:

(I knew we could make our goal!)

RULE P1-7

Use a closing parenthesis followed by a period when


parenthetical matter ends a declarative sentence.

Example:

The information is in your manual (see Chapter 2).

Lesson 1 End of Sentence


17

LESSON 1: END OF SENTENCE


RULE P1-8
Use a closing parenthesis followed by a question mark
when parenthetical matter ends an interrogative sentence.

Example:

What are the dates for the convention (the printer needs this
information)?

RULE P1-9

Use a closing parenthesis followed by an exclamation


point when parenthetical matter ends an exclamatory
sentence.

Example:

What a fine job you did (no one else could have done it)!

RULE
RULE P1-10
P1-10

Use a question mark followed by a closing parenthesis


and then a period when a parenthetical question within a
declarative sentence appears at the end of a sentence.

Example:

The recipient of the award was Richard Myers (or was it


Richard Moyers?).

Lesson 1 End of Sentence


18

LESSON 1: END OF SENTENCE


RULE P1-11
Use a period followed by a closing quotation mark when
a word or words requiring quotation marks end a
declarative sentence.

Example:

Kevin said, We are proud to have you on our staff.

POINT TO REMEMBER!
Quotation marks are used primarily to indicate someones exact
words; to enclose the titles of articles, chapters, essays, lessons,
sections, topics, and other published materials that are only part
of a completed work; and to place a special emphasis on a
word(s) in a sentence.

Examples:

The sales manager said, All sales representatives shipping 100


percent of their quotas will receive a 10 percent bonus.

I enjoyed your article To Smoke or Not to Smoke.

The envelope was marked Confidential.

RULE P1-12

Use a question mark followed by a closing quotation


mark when the quoted word or words are interrogatory
and apply only to the quoted material and not the entire
sentence.

Example:

I asked you in my letter, Will this affect my credit?

Lesson 1 End of Sentence


19

LESSON 1: END OF SENTENCE


RULE P1-13
Use a closing quotation mark followed by a question
mark when an entire sentence including the quoted word
or words is interrogative.

Example:

Did you read the article Retiring Too Soon?

RULE P1-14

Use an exclamation point followed by a closing quotation


mark when only the quoted word or words that appear at
the end of a sentence are to be exclamatory.

Example:

Harold exclaimed, You are fantastic!

Lesson 1 End of Sentence


LESSON 2
INTRODUCTORY ELEMENTS
22

LESSON 2: INTRODUCTORY ELEMENTS


INTRODUCTION
Lesson Objective: To become proficient in identifying
words, phrases, and clauses that appear before a subject
and require a comma.

Overview:
A sentence may begin with an introductory element. An
introductory element is a word, a phrase, or a clause that
appears before a subject and a verb. An introductory element
may be a prepositional phrase, a participial phrase, a direct
address, an introductory comment, a transitional expression,
an infinitive phrase, an adverb clause, or an introductory direct
quotation.

A comma is usually inserted at the end of an introductory


element. However, there are a few exceptions when a comma
is not necessary. This lesson identifies the different types of
introductory elements that may appear at the beginning of a
sentence and the rules pertaining to the use of the comma when
one appears.

Terms to Learn: introductory element, direct address, introductory


independent comment, writers comment, transitional expression

Lesson 2 Introductory Elements


23

LESSON 2: TERMS TO LEARN

1. Introductory element: A word, a phrase, or a clause that


precedes a subject and a verb and is usually followed by a
comma.
2. Direct address: A name or a title used to address someone.
3. Introductory independent comment: A command, a
request, a mild interjection, or a writers comment that
precedes a subject and a verb.
4. Writers comment: A word, a phrase, or a clause such as
obviously, unfortunately, in my opinion, or as you know that
expresses the writers attitude toward the meaning of the
sentence and appears at the beginning, in the middle, or at
the end of the sentence.
5. Transitional expression: A word or a phrase such as for
example, as a result, therefore, consequently, however, on
the other hand, or nevertheless that links independent clauses
in a compound sentence or links consecutive sentences.

Lesson 2 Terms to Learn


8
RULES TO FOLLOW
26

LESSON 2: INTRODUCTORY ELEMENTS


RULE P2-1
Use a comma after an introductory prepositional phrase
except when the phrase is short and answers a When? or
Where? question.

Example:

PR PR PR AJ PAR OP PNS AV MVT AJ DO


In spite of the added expenses, we still made a profit.
(Introductory prepositional phrase)

TWO POINTS TO REMEMBER!

Point 1: A comma is not necessary after an introductory adverb or


a short adverb phrase that answers a When? or Where? question.

Examples:

AV PNS HV MVI PR AJ OP
Today I will go to the mall.
(Introductory adverb)

PR OP NS MVI AV
On Tuesday Ruth stayed home.
(Short adverb phrase)

Point 2: Do not use a comma after an introductory word or


phrase when the subject and the verb of a sentence are inverted.

Example:

PR AJ AJ OP PR OP OP MVI AJ PAR NS
On the third line of page 17 is the misspelled word.
(Prepositional phrase)

Lesson 2 Introductory Elements


27

LESSON 2: INTRODUCTORY ELEMENTS


RULE P2-2
Use a comma after an introductory participial phrase.

Example:

PAR AJ VC PR AJ OP NS MVT IDO IDO AV


Having no money for the taxi, Alnor had to walk home.
(Introductory participial phrase)

POINT TO REMEMBER!
Do not use a comma after a gerund phrase that functions as the
subject.

Example:

GS AJ VC HV MVL AJ SC
Lending your truck would be a mistake.
(Gerund phrase)

RULE P2-3

Use a comma after an introductory direct address a


name or a title used to address someone.

Example:

AJ NS MVI AV AV
Larry, your report is not here.
(Direct address)

Lesson 2 Introductory Elements


28

LESSON 2: INTRODUCTORY ELEMENTS


RULE P2-4
Use a comma after an introductory independent
commenta command, a request, a mild interjection,
or a writers comment.
Examples:

AJ NS MVL AJ SC
Look, safety helmets are a requirement.
(Command)

PNS HV MVI PR OP
Please remember, everyone must return after lunch.
(Request)

MVI AV AJ AJ NS
Well, are there any other options?
(Mild interjection)

AJ NS HV AV MVI
In my opinion, your plan will not work.
(Writers comment)

Lesson 2 Introductory Elements


29

LESSON 2: INTRODUCTORY ELEMENTS


RULE P2-5
Use a comma after most introductory transitional
expressions that begin a sentence.
Example:

AJ PAR NS HV HV MVI
Furthermore, your scheduled visit has been postponed.
(Transitional expression)

POINT TO REMEMBER!
An introductory transitional expression is a word or a phrase such
as an adverb or a prepositional phrase that begins a sentence and
links it with the previous sentence. Examples of words and phrases
that may be introductory transitional expressions that require a
comma include the following:

accordingly furthermore nevertheless


as a result hence on the contrary
consequently however therefore
for example moreover thus

RULE
RULE P2-6
P2-6

Use a comma after an introductory infinitive phrase that


does not function as the subject of the sentence.

Example:

IAV IAV AJ VC AJ NS HV MVT IDO IDO AV AV


To win the game, the team will need to practice extra hard.
(Infinitive phrase)

POINT TO REMEMBER!
Do not use a comma after an infinitive phrase that functions as
the subject of the sentence.

Example:

IS IS AJ VC HV MVI PR AJ OP
To win the game was expected of this team.
(Infinitive phrase)

Lesson 2 Introductory Elements


30

LESSON 2: INTRODUCTORY ELEMENTS


RULE P2-7
Use a comma after an introductory adverb clause.

Example:

SUBC AJ NS MVI NS MVT DO PR AJ OP


After the game ended, Charlie invited us to his house.
(Adverb clause)

POINT TO REMEMBER!
An introductory adverb clause may appear as the introductory
element of the second clause of a compound-complex sentence as
indicated below:

Example:

PNS HV MVI AV CC SUBC PNS MVT DO PNS HV MVT DO PR AJ


I am leaving now; but if you need me, you may call me at my
OP (Adverb clause)
home.

RULE P2-8

Use a comma followed by a closing quotation mark after


an introductory direct quotation.

Example:

PNS HV MVL AV SC MVT NS


You can be so insensitive, said George.
(Direct quotation)

Lesson 2 Introductory Elements


LESSON 3
INTERRUPTING ELEMENTS
32

LESSON 3: INTERRUPTING ELEMENTS


INTRODUCTION
Lesson Objective: To become proficient in identifying words
and groups of words that appear between a subject and
verb or between a verb and a complement that require
punctuation marks.

Overview:
When there is a word or a group of related words appearing
between a subject and a verb or between a verb and its
complement, you must determine if this word or group of
words must be set off with punctuation marks. Commas are
frequently used; however, in some cases dashes or parentheses
may be more appropriate. (See Appendix A for additional information.)
If the word or group of words interrupts the flow of the sentence,
then it must be set off with punctuation marks. A direct address, a
contrasting expression, a transitional expression, and a writers
comment are examples of words that interrupt the flow of a
sentence and are always set off with punctuation marks such
as commas.

Prepositional phrases, verbal phrases, and dependent clauses are


other types of word groups that may appear between a subject
and a verb or between a verb and its complement and require
punctuation marks to be set off from the rest of the sentence.
The determining factor for punctuating these word groups is
whether they are essential or nonessential to the meaning of
the sentence. If a phrase of a dependent clause can be removed
from a sentence without affecting the meaning of the sentence, it
is nonessential and should be set off with punctuation marks such
as commas. If the phrase or the dependent clause is essential to
the meaning of the sentence, then it should not be set off with
punctuation marks.

An appositive or an appositive phrase is another type of word or


group of words that may or may not require punctuation marks.
The determining factor for punctuating this type of word structure
is whether there is a natural pause between the appositive and
the preceding noun or whether the appositive and the preceding
noun do not sound like one unit. If either factor occurs, then the
appositive or the appositive phrase should be set off with marks of
punctuation such as commas.

Terms to Learn: essential interrupting element, nonessential


interrupting element, contrasting expression, appositive

Lesson 3 Interrupting Elements


33

LESSON 3: TERMS TO LEARN

1. Essential interrupting element: A word, a phrase, or a


clause that appears between a subject and a verb or between a
verb and a complement and is never set off with punctuation
because the element is essential to the meaning of the sentence.
2. Nonessential interrupting element: A word, a phrase, or a
clause that appears between a subject and a verb or between a
verb and a complement and is always set off with punctuation
because the element is not essential to the meaning of the
sentence or causes a natural pause in the sentence.
3. Contrasting expression: An expression that begins with a
word(s) such as but, not, or rather than and interrupts the flow
of the sentence.
4. Appositive: A noun or a pronoun that immediately follows
another noun or pronoun for the purpose of further identifying,
clarifying, or explaining the first noun or pronoun.

Lesson 3 Terms to Learn


7
RULES TO FOLLOW
36

LESSON 3: INTERRUPTING ELEMENTS


RULE P3-1
Use a comma before and after an interrupting phrase
(prepositional or verbal) that is not essential to the
meaning of the sentence.

Examples:

AJ NS PR AJ OP IAJ IAJ VC HV MVT AJ


Our fraternity, in an attempt to raise money, is organizing a
DO (Nonessential phrase)
raffle.

AJ NS PAR PR AJ OP HV AV HV
Ira's novel, refused by five publishers, has finally been
MVI (Nonessential phrase)
published.

TWO POINTS TO REMEMBER!

Point 1: A nonessential prepositional or verbal phrase is additional


information that is not essential to the meaning of the sentence.
This phrase(s) may be deleted from the sentence and not leave
out important information or alter the meaning of the sentence.
While generally set off with commas, a nonessential prepositional
or verbal phrase may be set off with dashes or parentheses. (Refer
to Appendix A for additional information.)

Point 2: Do not use commas or any other punctuation marks to


set off an essential prepositional or verbal phrase.

Examples:

AJ NS PR AJ OP MVL SC
The proposal from your company was incomplete.
(Essential prepositional phrase)

AJ NS PAR PR AJ OP MVL AJ SC
The child sitting at your desk is my nephew.
(Essential participial phrase)

AJ NS IAJ IAJ AJ VC MVL SC


The urge to tell the truth was overwhelming.
(Essential infinitive phrase)

Lesson 3 Interrupting Elements


37

LESSON 3: INTERRUPTING ELEMENTS


RULE P3-2
Use a comma before and after an appositive or
appositive phrase when there is a natural pause
between the appositive and the preceding noun or
when the appositive and the preceding noun do not
sound like one unit.

Example:

NS NS AJ AP PR AJ OP HV MVL AJ AJ
Mr. Hoover, the president of the company, will be the main
SC (Appositive phrase)
speaker.

TWO POINTS TO REMEMBER!

Point 1: An appositive is a noun or a pronoun that clarifies,


renames, or further identifies a preceding noun or pronoun. An
appositive phrase includes the appositive and all of its modifiers.
When an appositive interrupts the flow of the sentence, it is
generally set off with commas; but it may be set off with dashes
if the writer wishes to emphasize the appositive/appositive phrase
or if the appositive phrase is a series of nouns separated with
commas. (Refer to Appendix A for additional information.)

Point 2: Do not use commas before or after an appositive or an


appositive phrase if the appositive sounds like one unit with the
preceding noun.

Examples:

AJ NS AP AP HV MVI PR OP OP
The movie Star Wars was directed by George Lucas.
(Appositive)

AJ NS AP AV MVI
Your brother Bob just called.
(Appositive)

Lesson 3 Interrupting Elements


38

LESSON 3: INTERRUPTING ELEMENTS


RULE P3-3
Use a comma before and after an interrupting direct
addressa name or a title used to address someone.

Example:

PNS MVT SUBC PNS HV MVT AJ DO


You stated, Professor, that you had completed the project.
(Direct address)

RULE P3-4

Use a comma before and after a contrasting expression


an expression beginning with a word or words such as
but, not, or rather than that interrupts the flow of the
sentence.

Example:

NS HV MVT DO PR AJ OP
Tim, rather than Rick, will accompany you to the concert.
(Contrasting expression)

POINT TO REMEMBER!
When a contrasting expression interrupts the flow of a sentence,
it is generally set off with commas, but it may be set off with
dashes or parentheses. (Refer to Appendix A for additional
information.)

Lesson 3 Interrupting Elements


39

LESSON 3: INTERRUPTING ELEMENTS


RULE P3-5
Use a comma before and after an interrupting independent
commenta word, a phrase, or a clause that expresses
the writers attitude toward the meaning of a sentence.

Examples:

AJ NS HV AV MVI
Your request, unfortunately, was not approved.
(Word)

PNS MVL AJ AJ SC PR AJ OP
You are, in my opinion, the right person for this job.
(Phrase)

AJ NS MVL AV SC
Your resume, I must admit, is quite impressive.
(Clause)

POINT TO REMEMBER!
Words such as obviously, unfortunately, personally, in my
opinion, and as you know are all examples of writers
comments. When a writers comment interrupts the flow
of a sentence, it is generally set off with commas, but it
may be set off with dashes or parentheses.

Lesson 3 Interrupting Elements


40

LESSON 3: INTERRUPTING ELEMENTS


RULE P3-6
Use a comma before and after an interrupting transitional
expression.

Example:

PNS HV MVT IDO IDO AJ VC


We will need, therefore, to reconsider our involvement.
(Interrupting)

POINT TO REMEMBER!
Placement determines whether a transitional expression is an
interrupting expression that requires commas or an essential word
or phrase that should not be set off with commas. As a rule, if a
transitional expression is placed before a main verb or a predicate
adjective, the transitional expression is to be considered essential
and not punctuated with commas. If a transitional expression is
placed after a main verb or a predicate adjective, the transitional
expression is considered nonessential with commas being necessary.
Before a main verb or a predicate adjective, a reader tends to raise
his/her voice when uttering the transitional expression; after a main
verb or a predicate adjective, a readers voice tends to drop.

Example:

PNS HV MVT IDO IDO AJ VC


We will therefore need to reconsider our involvement.
(Essential)

Lesson 3 Interrupting Elements


41

LESSON 3: INTERRUPTING ELEMENTS


RULE P3-7
Use a comma before and after a dependent clause
when the clause is not essential to the meaning of
the sentence.

Example:

NS NS RPS MVI PR OP MVL AJ AJ SC


Glenda Nichol, who is from Pittsburgh, is the new teacher.
(Nonessential clause)

THREE POINTS TO REMEMBER!

Point 1: Dependent clauses that provide additional information


are called nonessential clauses. In many sentences, you can
determine whether the dependent clause is nonessential or
essential to the meaning of the sentence by trying to omit the
dependent clause. If you can omit the dependent clause without
affecting the meaning or the structural completeness of the
sentence, the dependent clause is nonessential and requires
punctuation. A nonessential dependent clause that interrupts the
flow of the sentence is usually set off with commas, but it may
be set off with dashes or parentheses. (Refer to Appendix A for
additional information.)

Point 2: Dependent clauses that provide information essential


to the meaning of the sentence are called essential clauses. An
essential clause never requires punctuation.

Example:

AJ NS RPS HV AV MVI MVL SC SC


The teacher who was just hired is Glenda Nichol.
(Essential clause)

Lesson 3 Interrupting Elements


42

LESSON 3: INTERRUPTING ELEMENTS


...CONTINUED RULE P3-7
Point 3: The words which and that are often used to introduce
dependent clauses that refer to animals or things. Always use the
word which with nonessential clauses and the word that with
essential clauses.

Examples:

AJ NS RPS MVT AJ DO HV MVI PR OP


This report, which has several errors, was prepared by John.
(Nonessential clause)

AJ NS RPDO NS MVT MVT AJ DO


The report that John prepared has several errors.
(Essential clause)

Lesson 3 Interrupting Elements


LESSON 4
ENDING ELEMENTS
44

LESSON 4: ENDING ELEMENTS


INTRODUCTION
Lesson Objective: To become proficient in identifying words
and groups of words that end a sentence and require a
punctuation mark.

Overview:
Certain words or groups of words must always be separated
with a punctuation mark when they end a sentence. The
punctuation mark is usually a comma; however, in some cases a
dash or parentheses may be more appropriate. (Refer to Appendix
A for additional information.) A direct address, a contrasting
expression, a writer's comment, a transitional expression, and a
direct quotation are examples of words that must be preceded by
a punctuation mark such as a comma when they end a sentence.

Prepositional phrases, verbal phrases, and dependent clauses


are other types of word groups that may appear at the end of a
sentence and require punctuation marks to separate them from
the rest of the sentence. The determining factor for punctuating
these types of word groups is whether they are essential or
nonessential to the meaning of the sentence. If a phrase or a
dependent clause can be removed from a sentence without
affecting the meaning of the sentence, it is nonessential and
should be separated from the rest of the sentence with a
punctuation mark. If a phrase or a dependent clause is essential
to the meaning of the sentence, then it should not be separated
from the rest of the sentence by a punctuation mark.

An appositive or an appositive phrase is another word or group of


words that may or may not require a punctuation mark to be
separated from the rest of the sentence. The determining factor
for punctuating this type of word structure is whether there is a
natural pause between the appositive and the preceding noun or
whether the appositive and the preceding noun do not sound like
one unit. If either factor occurs, then the appositive or appositive
phrase is separated from the rest of the sentence by a comma.

Terms to Learn: nonessential ending element,


essential ending element

Lesson 4 Ending Elements


45

LESSON 4: TERMS TO LEARN

1. Essential ending element: A word, a phrase, or a clause


that ends a sentence and is not preceded by a punctuation
mark because the element is essential to the meaning of
the sentence.
2. Nonessential ending element: A word, a phrase, or a clause
that ends a sentence and is preceded by a punctuation mark
because the element is not essential to the meaning of the
sentence or causes a natural pause in the sentence.

Lesson 4 Terms to Learn


8
RULES TO FOLLOW
48

LESSON 4: ENDING ELEMENTS


RULE P4-1
Use a comma before a prepositional or a verbal phrase
that ends a sentence when the phrase is not essential to
the meaning of the sentence or when it causes a pause
in the flow of the sentence.

Examples:

AJ NS MVI PR OP PR PR AJ OP
The accident occurred on Tuesday, according to the newspaper.
(Nonessential prepositional phrase)

PNS MVL AJ AV AJ SC PAR PR AJ OP


This is an entirely new concept, accepted by a few.
(Nonessential participial phrase)

POINT TO REMEMBER!
Do not use a comma or any other punctuation mark before an
ending prepositional or verbal phrase if it is essential to the
meaning of the sentence or if it does not cause a pause in the
flow of the sentence.

Examples:

NS MVT IDO IDO AJ VC PR AJ OP


Terry forgot to bring the video to the meeting.
(Essential prepositional phrase)

AJ NS MVL SC PR AJ OP PAR PR OP
The teacher was impressed with the article written by Betty
OP (Essential participial phrase)
Weaver.

PNS MVI AV IAV IAV AJ VC


She drove home to get her notebook.
(Essential infinitive phrase)

Lesson 4 Ending Elements


49

LESSON 4: ENDING ELEMENTS


RULE P4-2
Use a comma before a direct address that ends a
sentence. (A direct address is a name or a title used
to address someone.)

Example:

AJ NS HV MVI PR OP
The family is relying on you, Father!
(Direct address)

RULE P4-3
Use a comma before a contrasting expression that ends
a sentence. (A contrasting expression begins with a word
or words such as but, not, or rather than.)

Example:

AJ NS HV HV MVI PR OP
The convention will be held in Dallas, not in Houston.
(Contrasting expression)

POINT TO REMEMBER!
Contrasting expressions that end a sentence are generally
separated with a comma, but they may be separated with a dash
or parentheses. (Refer Appendix A for additional information.)

RULE P4-4

Use a comma before an independent comment that ends


a sentence.

Example:

AJ NS HV MVI
Your request is denied, unfortunately.
(Independent comment)

POINT TO REMEMBER!
Words such as obviously, unfortunately, personally, in my opinion,
and as you know are all examples of writers comments.

Lesson 4 Ending Elements


50

LESSON 4: ENDING ELEMENTS


RULE P4-5
Use a comma before an appositive or an appositive
phrase that ends a sentence when there is a natural
pause or when the appositive does not sound like one
unit with the preceding noun.

Examples:

MVT AJ PAR DO PR AJ OP AP AP
Give the completed forms to our receptionist, Mary Gomez.
(Appositive)

NS HV MVI PR AJ OP AJ AP PR OP
Richard was noted for one thing, his sense of urgency.
(Appositive phrase)

TWO POINTS TO REMEMBER!

Point 1: When an appositive or an appositive phrase ends a


sentence, it is generally separated by a comma, but it may be
separated by a dash or parentheses. (Refer to Appendix A for
additional information.)

Point 2: Do not use a comma before an appositive or an appositive


phrase if it sounds like one unit with the preceding noun.

Examples:

PNS AV MVT AJ DO AP
I always mispronounce the word cappuccino.
(Appositive)

NS MVI PR AJ OP AP
Sara looks like your sister Kate.
(Appositive)

Lesson 4 Ending Elements


51

LESSON 4: ENDING ELEMENTS


RULE P4-6
Use a comma before a transitional expression that ends a
sentence.

Example:

PNS HV AV MVT AJ NS HV MVI


I do not believe the problem will occur, however.
(Transitional expression)

POINT TO REMEMBER!
Examples of words and phrases that may function as transitional
expressions include the following: also, as a result, consequently,
furthermore, however, in other words, nevertheless, and therefore.

Lesson 4 Ending Elements


52

LESSON 4: ENDING ELEMENTS


RULE P4-7
Use a comma before a dependent clause that ends a
sentence when the clause is not essential to the meaning
of the sentence.

Examples:

AJ AJ NS HV HV MVI AV AV SUBC NS NS
The final decision will be made next week, after Mr. Brown
MVI PR AJ OP
returns from his trip. (Nonessential adverb clause)

PNS MVT IDO IDO VC VC RPS MVL AJ AJ SC


I plan to visit San Francisco, which is my favorite city.
(Nonessential adjective clause)

THREE POINTS TO REMEMBER!

Point 1: Dependent clauses that provide additional information are


called nonessential clauses. In many sentences, you can determine
whether the dependent clause is nonessential or essential to the
meaning of the sentence by trying to omit the dependent clause.
If you can omit the dependent clause without affecting the meaning
or the structural completeness of the sentence, the dependent
clause is nonessential and requires punctuation. A nonessential
dependent clause is generally preceded by a comma, but it may
be separated by a dash or parentheses. (Refer to Appendix A for
additional information.)

Point 2: Dependent clauses that provide information essential


to the meaning of the sentence are called essential clauses. An
essential clause that ends a sentence never requires punctuation.

Examples:

NS MVT IDO IDO SUBC PNS PR AJ OP HV MVI


Bob decided to resign before all of the votes were counted.
(Essential adverb clause)

AV MVT AJ DO RPDO PNS MVT AV AV


Please return the book that you borrowed last week.
(Essential adjective clause)

Lesson 4 Ending Elements


53

LESSON 4: ENDING ELEMENTS


RULE P4-7 ...CONTINUED
Point 3: The words which and that are often used to introduce
dependent clauses that refer to animals or things. Always use the
word which with nonessential clauses and the word that with
essential clauses.

Examples:

PNS MVI PR AJ OP PR OP RPS MVL AJ SC PR


She is from the state of Florida, which is the home of
OP OP
Disney World. (Nonessential adjective clause)

PNS MVI PR AJ OP RPS MVL AJ SC PR OP OP


She is from the state that is the home of Disney World.
(Essential adjective clause)

RULE P4-8

Use a comma before a direct quotation that ends a


sentence.

Examples:

AJ NS MVT
The attorney remarked, "I have never had an easier case."
(Direct quotation)

Lesson 4 Ending Elements


LESSON 5
INDEPENDENT CLAUSES
56

LESSON 5: INDEPENDENT CLAUSES


INTRODUCTION
Lesson Objective: To become proficient in identifying and
punctuating the independent clauses of compound
sentences.

Overview:
An independent clause is a group of words that includes a
subject and a verb and expresses a complete thought. When
one independent clause functions as a sentence, the sentence is
called a simple sentence. When two or more independent clauses
function as a sentence, the sentence is called a compound
sentence.

This lesson presents six rules for punctuating the independent


clauses in a compound sentence. When the independent clauses
in a compound sentence are not punctuated correctly, the writing
error that occurs is called a run-on sentence.

A run-on sentence occurs when consecutive independent clauses


within a compound sentence or a compound-complex sentence are
not connected with a coordinating conjunction and are not
punctuated correctly. A coordinating conjunction is a word such
as for, and, nor, but, or, yet, or so used to connect words, phrases,
and clauses of equal status.

A fused sentence is a type of run-on sentence. A fused sentence


is a sentence without a coordinating conjunction connecting
consecutive independent clauses and without a punctuation mark
separating the clauses. Another type of run-on sentence is a
comma splice. A comma splice is a sentence without a coordinating
conjunction connecting consecutive independent clauses and with
only a comma separating the clauses.

Terms to Learn: run-on sentence, fused sentence,


comma splice

Lesson 5 Independent Clauses


57

LESSON 5: TERMS TO LEARN

1. Run-on sentence: A writing error that occurs when consecutive


independent clauses are not connected with a coordinating
conjunction and are not punctuated correctly.
2. Fused sentence: A run-on sentence without a coordinating
conjunction connecting consecutive independent clauses and
with no punctuation mark separating the clauses.
3. Comma splice: A run-on sentence without a coordinating
conjunction connecting consecutive independent clauses and
with a comma separating the clauses.

Lesson 5 Terms to Learn


6
RULES TO FOLLOW
60

LESSON 5: INDEPENDENT CLAUSES


RULE P5-1
Use a comma before a coordinating conjunction that
connects two independent clauses unless both clauses
are brief and closely related.

Examples:

NS MVL AJ AJ SC PR OP CC NS NS MVL AJ
Atlanta is the largest city in Georgia, and Los Angeles is the
(Independent clause) (Independent clause)
AJ SC PR OP
largest city in California.

PNS MVI PR AJ OP CC PNS MVT IDO IDO PR AJ OP


I went to the bank, but I forgot to ask for penny wrappers.
(Independent clause) (Independent clause)

THREE POINTS TO REMEMBER!


Point 1: Use a comma before a coordinating conjunction that
connects two independent clauses when the subject of either or
both independent clauses is understood.

Example:

AV MVT AJ DO AV CC AV MVT DO PR AJ OP
Please review this article now, and then call me with any questions.
(Independent clause) (Independent clause)

(The subject you is understood for both the verb review


and the verb call.)

Point 2: Do not use a comma or any other punctuation mark


before a coordinating conjunction that is connecting two
independent clauses that are brief and closely related.

Examples:

NS MVI CC NS MVI
Keith left but Frank stayed.
(Independent clause) (Independent clause)

MVI PR AJ OP CC MVT AJ DO
Go to the store and buy a newspaper.
(Independent clause) (Independent clause)

Lesson 5 Independent Clauses


61

LESSON 5: INDEPENDENT CLAUSES


RULE P5-1 ...CONTINUED
Point 3: Use a dash in place of a comma before a coordinating
conjunction that connects two independent clauses when you want
to emphasize the second independent clause.

Example:

PNS HV MVT AJ DO CC PNS HV AV MVI


I will reschedule the meetingbut I will not attend.
(Independent clause) (Independent clause)

RULE P5-2
Use a semicolon to separate two independent clauses
when the clauses are not joined by a coordinating
conjunction and the second clause does not explain or
illustrate the first clause.

Examples:

AJ NS MVL AV SC PNS PR OP MVT IDO IDO


The line was very long; none of us wanted to wait.
(Independent clause) (Independent clause)

MVT DO AV NS MVT AJ AJ DO PR
Attend class regularly; attendance plays an important part in
(Independent clause) (Independent clause)
GOP
learning.

Lesson 5 Independent Clauses


62

LESSON 5: INDEPENDENT CLAUSES


RULE P5-3

Use a semicolon and a comma when two independent


clauses are linked by a transitional expression. Place a
semicolon (3A) before the transitional expression, and
place a comma (3B) after the transitional expression.

Examples:

AJ NS PR OP MVL AV SC (3A) (3B) PNS


Our capacity for memory is virtually unlimited; however, we
(Independent clause)
MVT IDO IDO AJ VC
tend to repress painful memories.
(Independent clause)

NS MVL AV SC PR OP (3A) (3B) AJ NS HV


Marge was frequently late for work; consequently, her pay was
(Independent clause)
MVI PR AJ PAR OP
reduced for the missed time.
(Independent clause)

POINT TO REMEMBER!
A dash may be used in place of a semicolon to express a stronger
but less formal break between two independent clauses.

Example:

AJ NS HV AV MVL SC AJ NS
Your work has not been satisfactoryfor example, this report
(Independent clause)
MVT AJ DO
has several errors.
(Independent clause)

Lesson 5 Independent Clauses


63

LESSON 5: INDEPENDENT CLAUSES


RULE P5-4
Use a semicolon in place of a comma to separate two
independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction
when one or both of the clauses contain internal commas.

Example:

SUBC PNS MVI HV AV MVT IDO IDO AJ VC CC


When you return, do not forget to submit your resume; and
(Independent clause)
AV HV AV MVT DO
please do not tell anyone.
(Independent clause)

RULE 5-5
Use a colon between two independent clauses in place of
a semicolon when the second clause explains or illustrates
the first.

Examples:

AJ NS MVL SC HV AV MVT AJ DO PR OP
The instruction was clear: Do not release this information to anyone.
(Independent clause) (Independent clause)

NS MVL AJ SC PNS MVT AJ DO PR AJ AJ OP


Alcohol is a depressant: it slows the activity in the brain center
(Independent clause) (Independent clause)
RPS MVT DO CC DO
that controls judgment and inhibitions.

Lesson 5 Independent Clauses


64

LESSON 5: INDEPENDENT CLAUSES


...CONTINUED RULE 5-5
TWO POINTS TO REMEMBER!

Point 1: Do not capitalize the first word following a colon unless


the second independent clause is the predominate clause (the
clause that offers the most information). In the first example
above, the second clause is the predominate clause; in the second
example, the first clause is predominate.

Point 2: Use a dash in place of a colon to express a stronger


emphasis between two independent clauses when the second
clause explains or illustrates the first clause.

Example:

AJ NS MVL SC MVT AJ DO PR OP
The answer is simpleSpend more time at work!
(Independent clause) (Independent clause)

RULE P5-6

Use a colon after an independent clause that introduces


a direct question in a sentence.

Example:

AJ NS MVL SC PNS HV HV MVI


The decision is crucial: Who should be promoted?
(Independent clause) (Independent clause)

POINT TO REMEMBER!
Capitalize the first word of an independent question within a
sentence, and use a question mark at the end of the sentence.

Lesson 5 Independent Clauses


LESSON 6
SERIES OF ELEMENTS
66

LESSON 6: SERIES OF ELEMENTS


INTRODUCTION
Lesson Objective: To become proficient in punctuating
sentences that include a series of elements.

Overview:
A series of words, phrases, or dependent clauses functioning
as the same part of speech often appears in a sentence.
When a series of elements appears, these elements must always be
expressed in parallel form. This means that two or more subjects,
direct objects, indirect objects, predicate nominatives, predicate
adjectives, or objects of a preposition must all be of the same
grammatical structureall nouns/pronouns, all gerund or infinitive
phrases, or all noun clauses.

When a series of three or more elements joined by a coordinating


conjunction appears in a sentence, these elements should be
separated with commas. Most reference manuals state that a
comma should be inserted after each element including the
element that appears before the coordinating conjunction.

However, some reference manuals, including The Associated Press


Style Book, do not follow this rule. These reference manuals state
that a comma should not appear before the coordinating conjunction
within a simple series, but a comma should appear before the
conjunction within a complex series.

Example of a simple series: The Italian flag is green, white


and red.

Example of a complex series: Our boss questioned whether the


staff was properly trained, whether there was sufficient time to
meet the deadline, and whether the goals were realistic.

Since determining whether a series is simple or complex can be


questionable, EGUMPP follows most reference manuals in requiring
a comma before a coordinating conjunction within all series of
elements.

The sentences in this lesson provide practice in identifying and


punctuating the various types of series found within a sentence.

Terms to Learn: parallel elements, coordinate adjectives

Lesson 6 Series of Elements


67

LESSON 6: TERMS TO LEARN

1. Parallel elements: Words, phrases, or clauses of the same


grammatical structure joined by a conjunction.
2. Coordinate adjectives: Two or more adjectives that precede
a noun and require a comma(s).

Lesson 6 Terms to Learn


6
RULES TO FOLLOW
70

LESSON 6: SERIES OF ELEMENTS


RULE P6-1
Use a comma after each subject except the last one
when three or more nouns, pronouns, phrases, or
dependent clauses function as a compound subject
in a sentence.

Examples:

NS NS CC NS MVI PR AJ PAR OP
Connie, Kathy, and John work for a publishing company.

GS VC GS VC CC GS
Calling clients, reviewing resumes, and interviewing
VC HV MVT AJ DO
candidates will require more time.

POINT TO REMEMBER!

Always express parallel ideas in parallel form. This means that a


series of subjects (compound subjects) must be of the same
grammatical structureall nouns and/or pronouns, all gerunds,
all infinitives, or all noun clauses.

Lesson 6 Series of Elements


71

LESSON 6: SERIES OF ELEMENTS


RULE P6-2
Use a comma after each verb (or after its complement(s)
and/or modifier(s)) except the last one when three or
more verbs function as a compound verb in a sentence.

Examples:

NS MVT MVT CC MVT AJ DO


Donna wrote, directed, and evaluated the musical.

PR AJ OP PNS MVT DO MVI PR OP CC MVT


On the plane we read magazines, listened to music, and watched
AJ DO
a movie.

POINT TO REMEMBER!

Do not use any type of punctuation mark before a coordinating


conjunction that is connecting two words or two groups of words
of equal status such as two verbs, two direct objects, two
prepositional phrases, or two dependent clauses.

Examples:

PNS HV AV MVT AJ DO CC MVT AJ AJ DO


I will personally review all resumes and make the final decision.

PNS MVT SUBC PNS MVL SC CC SUBC PNS MVL SC


He thinks that he is right and that she is wrong.

Lesson 6 Series of Elements


72

LESSON 6: SERIES OF ELEMENTS


RULE P6-3
Use a comma after each verb complement (direct object
or indirect object) or after each subject complement
(predicate nominative or predicate adjective) except the
last one when three or more nouns and/or pronouns,
adjectives, phrases, or dependent clauses function as
compound complements in a sentence.

Examples of direct objects:

PNS MVT AJ DO AJ DO CC AJ DO PR
We ordered the software, the printer, and the modem from
AJ AJ OP
the same vendor.

AJ AJ NS MVT SUBC PNS HV AV MVI


The disgruntled employee stated that she was not trained
AV SUBC PNS HV MVI PR OP
adequately, that she was sent on assignments

AV AV CC SUBC PNS HV MVT AV AJ DO


too soon, and that she was given too few accounts.

Example of indirect objects:

PNS MVT IO IO IO CC IO DO IAJ IAJ AV


I gave Sam, Ben, Mary, and Irv permission to leave early.

Lesson 6 Series of Elements


73

LESSON 6: SERIES OF ELEMENTS


RULE P6-3 ...CONTINUED

Examples of predicate nominatives:

AJ AJ AJ NS MVL SC SC CC
Our first three presidents were Washington, Adams, and
SC
Jefferson.

AJ NS AV MVL GSC VC GSC VC


Your duties today are filing correspondence, entering data,
CC GSC AJ VC
and answering the telephone.

Example of predicate adjective:

AJ AJ NS MVL SC SC CC SC
The Italian flag is red, white, and green.

POINT TO REMEMBER!
Always express parallel ideas in parallel form. This means that
two or more compound objects of a preposition must all be of
the same grammatical structureall nouns and/or pronouns,
all gerunds, all infinitives, or all noun clauses.

Lesson 6 Series of Elements


74

LESSON 6: SERIES OF ELEMENTS


RULE P6-4
Use a comma after each phrase except the last one when
three or more prepositional or verbal phrases end a
sentence.

Examples:

NS MVT AJ DO PR AJ OP PR AJ OP CC PR AJ OP
Darren lost the keys to his house, to his car, and to his boat.

PNS MVT IDO IDO AJ AJ VC IDO AJ AJ


I intend to exempt a few classes, accelerate several other
VC CC IDO AV
classes, and graduate early.

RULE P6-5

Use a comma after each prepositional phrase, verbal


phrase, or dependent clause including the last one when
three or more of these elements start a sentence but do
not function as the subject of the sentence.

Examples:

PR AJ OP PR AJ AJ OP CC PR AJ
For your meals, for your travel expenses, and for your
OP PNS HV HV MVI
lodging, you will be reimbursed. (Prepositional phrases)

IAV IAV AJ VC IAV IAV VC CC IAV IAV VC PR OP PNS


To design a brochure, to print it, and to mail it on time, I
HV MVT AJ DO PR OP
will need your decision by Friday. (Infinitive phrases)

SUBC AJ NS MVT AJ DO SUBC PNS


Although passenger trains service most states, although they
MVT DO CC SUBC NS MVL SC AJ
provide comfort, and although meals are available, more
NS MVT GDO PR AJ OP
people prefer flying to their destinations. (Dependent clauses)

Lesson 6 Series of Elements


75

LESSON 6: SERIES OF ELEMENTS


RULE P6-6
Use a comma(s) to separate coordinate adjectives
(consecutive adjectives that precede a noun) when the
conjunction and is not included, but you can mentally
insert the word and between the adjectives.

Examples:

PNS MVL AJ AJ AJ SC RPDO AJ NS MVT


It was a long, hard struggle that the team faced. (Long and
hard)

AJ AJ AJ AJ NS MVT AJ DO
The young, energetic, competent supervisor received a vote
PR OP
of confidence. (Young and energetic and competent)

POINT TO REMEMBER!
Do not use a comma between two or more adjectives preceding a
noun if the comma destroys the intended relationship or if you
cannot mentally insert the word and.

Examples:

AJ NS HV MVI PR AJ AJ AJ OP
The student was honored for her outstanding academic record.

AJ AJ AJ NS HV HV MVI AV AV
The annual office party will be held next Saturday.

Lesson 6 Series of Elements


LESSON 7
CAPITALIZATION
78

LESSON 7: CAPITALIZATION
INTRODUCTION
Lesson Objective: To become proficient in recognizing and
correcting capitalization errors in sentences.

Overview:
Each time you prepare a document, you must decide when
to capitalize words and when not to capitalize words in a
sentence. Capitalization allows you to distinguish between the
importance of words, provides a method for emphasizing words,
and provides a method for indicating the start of new sentences.

This lesson is comprised of ten of the most frequently used


rules pertaining to capitalizing words in sentences.

Terms to Learn: no new terms

Lesson 7 Capitalization
10
RULES TO FOLLOW
80

LESSON 7: CAPITALIZATION
RULE C7-AFirst Words
Capitalize the first word of the following: (1) complete
sentence, (2) elliptical sentence, (3) direct quote within
a sentence, (4) independent question within a sentence,
(5) second independent clause of a compound sentence
when it is the predominate clause of a sentence (and is
preceded by a colon), and (6) the first word of each
entry displayed in a list or outline.

Examples:

(1) Complete sentence


Arthur won the race.

(2) Elliptical sentences


Yes. Now, for the next topic.

(3) Direct quote within a sentence


The bosss exact words were, No one will receive a bonus
this year.

(4) Independent question within a sentence


The question is, Who is going to stay this evening and
finish the report?

(5) When second independent clause is predominate


The solution is simple: Spending more time with your
accounts will increase your sales.

(6) List or outline


All management levels perform these functions:

1. Planning
2. Evaluating
3. Organizing
4. Directing

Lesson 7 Capitalization
81

LESSON 7: CAPITALIZATION
RULE C7-AFirst Words ...CONTINUED
TWO POINTS TO REMEMBER!

Point 1: Do not capitalize the first word after a colon when it


introduces an independent or dependent clause that is not the
predominate clause of the sentence.

Example:

All final decisions will be made by the CEO, with one exception:
when the annual budget will be reviewed.

Point 2: Do not capitalize a word, phrase, or clause that is


enclosed in parentheses within a sentence except for proper
nouns, proper adjectives, and the pronoun I.

Example:

The next sales meeting (scheduled for September 15) will be


the last one of the fiscal year.

Lesson 7 Capitalization
82

LESSON 7: CAPITALIZATION
RULE C7-BProper Nouns
Capitalize proper nouns which include: (1) the official
name of a person, place, or thing; (2) the imaginative
name or nickname of a person, place, or thing; (3) the
names of days, months, holidays, and religious days; (4)
nouns and pronouns that make reference to a Supreme
Being or a Spiritual Being; and (5) the names of
organizational units.

Examples:

(1) Official names


Jack Sheffler Strait of Gibraltar
Disney World Pacific Ocean

(2) Imaginative names or nicknames


the Oval Office the Big Apple
the Big Red Machine

(3) Names of days, months, holidays, and religious days


Monday January New Years Day Easter

(4) Reference to a Supreme Being or a Spiritual Being


God Buddha Mohammed Allah

(5) Organizational Units


Consolidated School of Business United States Army

TWO POINTS TO REMEMBER!

Point 1: Do not capitalize the word the unless it is part of a legal


name of a person, place or thing; prepositions unless they have
four or more letters; the articles a and an; or the conjunctions
and and or.

Examples:

the Statue of Liberty the Department of Treasury

Lesson 7 Capitalization
83

LESSON 7: CAPITALIZATION
RULE C7-BProper Nouns ...CONTINUED
Point 2: Generally, do not capitalize words that designate a
corporate or organizational unit such as the accounting department,
the marketing group, or the public relations office when they
are referred to outside the writers own organization and are modified
by such words as this, their, our, your, or its.

Example:

I am applying for a position in your credit department.

RULE C7-CProper Adjectives

Capitalize most adjectives formed from proper nouns.

Examples:

America (Proper noun) American flag (Proper adjective)

Spain (Proper noun) Spanish rice (Proper adjective)

Linda (Proper noun) Lindas computer (Proper adjective)

RULE C7-DPronoun

Capitalize the personal pronoun I and all I contractions.

Examples:

I Ive Im Ill

Lesson 7 Capitalization
84

LESSON 7: CAPITALIZATION
RULE C7-EPersonal and Professional Titles
Capitalize the first letter of a personal title or official title
(both abbreviated and spelled out) that precedes a
persons name; and capitalize the title of the highest
ranking federal and state officials, foreign dignitaries,
and international figures when used as an appositive or
in place of a persons name.

Examples:

(1) Personal or official title that precedes


Mr. Robert Brugnoli Dr. Terry Welchens
Admiral Herman Schiemer Professor Trebor Narfas

(2) Highest official title as an appositive


Ronald Reagan, the former President, once visited our town.

(3) Highest official title in place of the persons name


The Pope will visit Chicago next month.

THREE POINTS TO REMEMBER!

Point 1: In general, do not capitalize an occupational title that


precedes or follows a persons name, such as author, physician,
reporter, or publisher.

Example:

Please let me know if surgeon William Cammarata is available.

Point 2: In general, do not capitalize the titles of local government


officials, lower-ranking federal and state officials, or the titles of
company officials (such as the president or general manager of a
company) used as an appositive or in place of the persons name.
However, these titles may be capitalized when they appear in a
document for limited readership such as formal minutes of a
meeting or official company correspondence.

Examples:

The mayor voted against the proposal.

Todd Kassab, the new president of Kassab Industries, will be


our guest speaker.

Lesson 7 Capitalization
85

LESSON 7: CAPITALIZATION
RULE C7-EPersonal and Professional Titles ...CONTINUED
Point 3: Do not capitalize family titles when they are preceded by
a possessive pronoun such as my, your, his, her, or our.

Example:

My father is my best friend.

RULE C7-FDirect Address


Capitalize any title that is used alone in direct address
except the titles sir or madam, unless it is the first word
of the sentence.

Examples:

That is a point, Professor, worth pursuing.

I think you are in the wrong seat, Mother.

Would you move to the next seat, sir?

Lesson 7 Capitalization
86

LESSON 7: CAPITALIZATION
RULE C7-GPublications
Capitalize the first word, the last word, and all other
words except the articles (a, an, the) and conjunctions
and prepositions of three letters or fewer when they
appear between the first word and last word of titles of
all literary, artistic, and other published works. This
includes the titles of books, magazines, newspapers,
pamphlets, movies, plays, songs, television and radio
series, essays, lectures, and sermons.

Examples:

Have you seen the movie that is based on the book


Along Came a Spider?

Shakespeares Measure for Measure is a comedy with all


the classic elements of tragedy.

THREE POINTS TO REMEMBER!

Point 1: The title of a complete work published as a separate item


such as a novel, a textbook, a movie, a newspaper, etc., must also
be italicized or underscored.

Example:

The Adventures of Tom Sawyer was Mark Twain's first novel.

Point 2: The title of a published work that is only a part of a


complete published work such as a chapter title, a newspaper
article, a short poem, an essay, etc., requires quotation marks but
is not italicized or underscored.

Example:

The article entitled The Computerized Office World is worth


reading.

Point 3: In business correspondence, it is acceptable to capitalize


an entire title as an alternative to underscoring.

Example:

That article was found in COMPUTER WORLD.

Lesson 7 Capitalization
87

LESSON 7: CAPITALIZATION
RULE C7-HCompass Points
Capitalize and spell out the points of the compass (north,
east, south, west, northeast, northwest, southeast, and
southwest) when a compass point functions as a noun in
a sentence and refers to a specific region and when a
word such as northern, eastern, southern, western, and
midwestern refers to the people of a specific region or to
their cultural, political, or social activities.

Examples:

The Northwest is my favorite region of the United States.

Bob Miller has a Southern drawl.

POINT TO REMEMBER!
Do not capitalize a compass point when only a general direction is
stated. When this occurs, the word will normally function as an
adjective or an adverb in the sentence.

Examples:

The storm caused the most damage on the east side of town.

Go south on Route 1 for five miles.

Lesson 7 Capitalization
88

LESSON 7: CAPITALIZATION
RULE C7-INouns with Numbers or Letters
Capitalize most nouns that precede numbers or letters
that indicate sequence. (Exceptions include the words
line, note, page, paragraph, and size.)

Examples:

Act II Column 3 Lesson 7 Policy 96


Appendix B Diagram 9 line 12 Room 9
Article 5 Exercise 10 Model A2957 Section 3
Bulletin A-70 Exit 301 note 3 size 7
Chapter V Figure 5 page 75 Table 4
Chart 45 Illustration 4 paragraph 9b Unit 4
Check 178 Invoice 24912 Part Two Volume III

RULE C7-JAcronyms
Capitalize all letters of an acronym.

Examples:

MADD (Mothers Against Drunk Drivers)

NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)

OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration)

Lesson 7 Capitalization
MODULE III
TERMS TO LEARN
90

MODULE III: TERMS TO LEARN

1. Appositive: A noun or a pronoun that immediately follows


another noun or pronoun for the purpose of further identifying,
clarifying, or explaining the first noun or pronoun. (Lesson 3)
2. Comma splice: A run-on sentence without a coordinating
conjunction connecting consecutive independent clauses and
with a comma separating the clauses. (Lesson 5)
3. Contrasting expression: An expression that begins with a
word(s) such as but, not, or rather than and interrupts the
flow of the sentence. (Lesson 3)
4. Coordinate adjectives: Two or more adjectives that precede
a noun and require a comma(s). (Lesson 6)
5. Declarative sentence: A sentence that makes a statement
and requires a period. (Lesson 1)
6. Direct address: A name or a title used to address someone.
(Lesson 1)

7. Elliptical sentence: A condensed sentence with key words


such as the subject and the verb not expressed but implied.
(Lesson 1)

8. Essential ending element: A word, a phrase, or a clause


that ends a sentence and is not preceded by a punctuation
mark because the element is essential to the meaning of the
sentence. (Lesson 4)
9. Essential interrupting element: A word, a phrase, or a
clause that appears between a subject and a verb or between
a verb and a complement and is never set off with punctuation
because the element is essential to the meaning of the sentence.
(Lesson 3)

10. Exclamatory sentence: A sentence that expresses strong


feelings and requires an exclamation point. (Lesson 1)
11. Fused sentence: A run-on sentence without a coordinating
conjunction connecting consecutive independent clauses and
with no punctuation mark separating the clauses. (Lesson 5)
12. Imperative sentence: A sentence that gives a command or
makes a request and requires a period unless the writers intent
is to make it exclamatory; then an exclamation point is required.
(Lesson 1)

Module III Terms to Learn


91

MODULE III: TERMS TO LEARN

13. Interjection: A word(s) intended to express a feeling or an


emotion that precedes a sentence and has no grammatical
relationship to the sentence that follows. (Lesson 1)
14. Interrogative sentence: A sentence that asks a question and
requires a question mark. (Lesson 1)
15. Introductory independent comment: A command, a request,
a mild interjection, or a writers comment that precedes a
subject and a verb. (Lesson 2)
16. Introductory element: A word, a phrase, or a clause that
precedes a subject and a verb and is usually followed by a
comma. (Lesson 2)
17. Nonessential ending element: A word, a phrase, or a clause
that ends a sentence and is preceded by a punctuation mark
because the element is not essential to the meaning of
the sentence or causes a natural pause in the sentence. (Lesson 4)
18. Nonessential interrupting element: A word, a phrase, or a
clause that appears between a subject and a verb or between a
verb and a complement and is always set off with punctuation
because the element is not essential to the meaning of the
sentence or causes a natural pause in the sentence. (Lesson 3)
19. Parallel elements: Words, phrases, or clauses of the same
grammatical structure joined by a conjunction. (Lesson 6)
20. Run-on sentence: A writing error that occurs when consecutive
independent clauses are not connected with a coordinating
conjunction and are not punctuated correctly. (Lesson 5)
21. Transitional expression: A word or a phrase such as for
example, as a result, therefore, consequently, however, on the
other hand, or nevertheless that links independent clauses in a
compound sentence or links consecutive sentences. (Lesson 2)
22. Writers comment: A word, a phrase, or a clause such as
obviously, unfortunately, in my opinion, or as you know that
expresses the writers attitude toward the meaning of the
sentence and appears at the beginning, in the middle, or at
the end of the sentence. (Lesson 2)

Module III Terms to Learn


APPENDIX A
ADDITIONAL
PUNCTUATION RULES
95

APPENDIX A
ADDITIONAL PUNCTUATION RULES

A-1. Use parentheses to enclose explanatory or


supplemental information within a sentence when
commas would be inappropriate or confusing and
dashes would be inappropriate or too emphatic.

Examples:

Please let me know by Friday (sooner if possible) your plans.

Your letter dated May 5 (see Attachment A) promised payment


by the end of July.

Sales Reports from our Indiana (Pennsylvania) office are due


next week.

A-2. Use dashes to enclose an interrupting word, a


phrase, or a clause when a writer wishes to
emphasize the element and also when an interrupting
series of words is separated by commas.

Examples:

The blueprints for your new homeI cant wait for you to
see themare now complete.

Three employeesEllis, Crone, and Daughertyvoted for


the proposal.

A-3. Use parentheses to enclose explanatory or


supplemental information at the end of a sentence
when a comma would be inappropriate or confusing
and a dash would be inappropriate or too emphatic.

Examples:

The accident occurred last Monday (May 5).

I am attempting to locate Bill Hoyt (he chaired last years


workshop).

Appendix A Additional Punctuation Rules


96

APPENDIX A
ADDITIONAL PUNCTUATION RULES...CONTINUED

A-4. Use a dash in place of a comma before an ending


word, phrase, or clause when a writer wishes to
emphasize the ending element and also when the
ending element is a series of nouns that includes
commas or commas along with semicolons.

Examples:

Be sure to take the trip to Bermudaa perfect vacation spot.

She has outstanding qualitiesintelligence, class, and


personality.

The vote is officialPatrick, president; Mary, treasurer; and


Sally, secretary.

A-5. Use a colon after a statement that introduces a


word, a series of items within a sentence, or a list
of items displayed on separate lines.

Examples:

There is one word that best describes Fred: loyal.

The film won several awards: best picture, best musical


score, and best special effects.

The systems development life cycle includes six phases:

1. Feasibility Study
2. Systems Analysis
3. Systems Design
4. Systems Development
5. Implementation and Evaluation
6. Systems Maintenance

A-6. Use a dash in place of a colon after a statement


that introduces a series of items that ends a
sentence when you wish to express a stronger
emphasis.

Examples:

I need three things from you immediatelyyour resume, two


references, and a copy of your last evaluation.

Appendix A Additional Punctuation Rules


97

APPENDIX A
ADDITIONAL PUNCTUATION RULES...CONTINUED

A-7. Use a colon after a verb or a preposition when the


words of the series are listed on separate lines.

Example:

The members of the board are:

Mrs. Jones, President


Mr. Christian, Treasurer
Mrs. Reed, Secretary

POINT TO REMEMBER!
Do not use a colon between a verb and a series of complements
or between a preposition and a series of objects when the series
is part of a sentence.

Example:

The members of the board are Mrs. Jones, president; Mr.


Christian, treasurer; and Mrs. Reed, secretary.

A-8. Use a dash before such words as these, those,


they, and all, when they are preceded by a list
of items of details.

Examples:

Tracey, Carol, and Heatherall three must win their races


for the team to take first place.

Fortitude, attitude, and perseverancethese are the traits of


a winner.

Appendix A Additional Punctuation Rules


98

APPENDIX A
ADDITIONAL PUNCTUATION RULES...CONTINUED

A-9. Use a comma between repeated words.

Examples:

My day was very, very hectic.

This has been a long, long science project.

A-10. Use commas before and after the name of a state


when it directly follows the name of a city within
the sentence.

Example:

Our Durham, North Carolina, office is closing.

TWO POINTS TO REMEMBER!

Point 1: When expressing a complete address within a sentence,


use commas after the street address, the city, and the zip code if
the address does not end the sentence.

Example:

During the summer months you may send my mail directly to


329 Bay Drive, Pittsburgh, PA 16102, or you may give my mail
to my assistant.

Point 2: When the names of the city and state end the sentence,
use one comma.

Example:

I was born in Anchorage, Alaska.

Appendix A Additional Punctuation Rules


99

APPENDIX A
ADDITIONAL PUNCTUATION RULES...CONTINUED

A-11. Use commas to separate thousands, hundreds of


thousands, millions, etc., in whole numbers.

Examples:

6,325 126,951 1,322,057

POINT TO REMEMBER!
The comma in a four-digit number may be omitted unless it
appears in the same sentence with other larger numbers that
require commas.

Examples:

It will cost $5200 to renovate the office.

It will cost $5,200 to renovate the office, but the new furniture
will cost $12,300.

A-12. Use a period after an abbreviated title that


precedes a name.

Mr. Mrs. Ms. Dr.

POINT TO REMEMBER!
The title Miss is not an abbreviation and should not be followed by
a period.

A-13. Use a period(s) with most abbreviated titles that


follow a name.

Jr. Esq. Ph.D. M.D.


Sr. Ltd. Ed.D. R.N.

NOTE: The use of periods with medical abbreviated titles is


optional (MD, RN).

POINT TO REMEMBER!
When an academic degree follows a persons name, do not use
such titles as Dr., Mr., Ms., Miss, or Mrs. before the name.

Example:

Correct: Felix Carter, M.D.

Incorrect: Dr. Felix Carter, M.D.

Appendix A Additional Punctuation Rules


100

APPENDIX A
ADDITIONAL PUNCTUATION RULES...CONTINUED

A-14. Use commas before and after an abbreviation that


follows a persons name within a sentence. When
the abbreviation ends the sentence, use one
comma only.

Examples:

Roger Williams, Ph.D., is the author of the book.

The operation was performed by Ronald Durbec, DO.

POINT TO REMEMBER!
The use of commas with Jr., Sr., or roman numerals that follow
a persons name is optional.

A-15. Use a semicolon to separate items in a series if


any of the items already contain commas.

Examples:

On our trip we will visit Lancaster, Pennsylvania;


Wilmington, Delaware; and Baltimore, Maryland.

The three students who received special awards for top honors
are John Wade, senior; Barry Alberts, junior; and Lisa
Harvey, sophomore.

A-16. Use a comma(s) to replace implied words that


have been omitted from a clause(s) that follow
the first clause of the sentence.

Examples:

Ms. Brown will bring punch to the office party; Mrs. Henry,
some snacks.

Employees with 10 years of service are eligible for a 3-week


vacation with pay; those with 5 years of service, a 2-week
vacation with pay; and those with 2 years of service, a 1-week
vacation with pay.

Appendix A Additional Punctuation Rules


101

APPENDIX A
ADDITIONAL PUNCTUATION RULES...CONTINUED

A-17. Use a comma after the day of the week, the day of
the month, and the year within a sentence.

Examples:

The meeting scheduled for Monday, February 19, 2007, was


canceled.

The meeting scheduled for July 15, 2007, has been canceled.

TWO POINTS TO REMEMBER!

Point 1: When a date ends the sentence, do not use a comma


after the year.

Examples:

The meeting has been rescheduled for December 15, 2007.

Point 2: Do not use a comma when only the month and year are
given.

Examples:

The meeting scheduled for July 2007 has been canceled.

Appendix A Additional Punctuation Rules


APPENDIX B
ADDITIONAL
CAPITALIZATION RULES
105

APPENDIX B
ADDITIONAL CAPITALIZATION RULES

B-1. Do not capitalize the name of a season unless it is


personified.

Examples:

I like summer best of all.

It looks as if Old Man Winter is here to stay.

B-2. Do not capitalize a.m. and p.m.

Examples:

Ricks plane is scheduled to arrive at 3:42 p.m.

B-3. Do not capitalize words such as city, county, or


state when they precede the name of a proper noun
or stand alone.

Examples:

The city of Pittsburgh is located at the point of three rivers.

The state of Wisconsin is famous for its cheese.

Josh was the first athlete from this county to win an Olympic
medal.

Appendix B Additional Capitalization Rules


106

APPENDIX B
ADDITIONAL CAPITALIZATION RULES...CONTINUED

B-4. Capitalize the titles of specific academic subjects,


but do not capitalize references to general academic
subject areas (except languages).

Examples:

I am scheduling Principles of Accounting II next semester.

I am enjoying my French literature class but not my physics


class.

B-5. Capitalize only the parts of hyphenated words that


you would normally capitalize if the word were
alone.

Examples:

We are planning a mid-February sale.

There are several German-speaking students in this class.

B-6. Capitalize the names of historical events and


periods and special events.

Examples:

Boston Tea Party (historical event)

the Dark Ages (historical period)

the Super Bowl (special event)

Appendix B Additional Capitalization Rules


107

APPENDIX B
ADDITIONAL CAPITALIZATION RULES...CONTINUED

B-7. Capitalize the name of a commercial product but


not the noun that often follows.

Examples:

Gateway computer Maytag washer

Starbucks coffee Ford truck

B-8. Capitalize the names of planets, stars, and


constellations; but do not capitalize the words sun,
moon, and earth unless they are used in connection
with the capitalized names of other planets or
stars.

Examples:

The closest plant to Earth is Mars.

The spacecraft is not expected to touch down on earth until


tomorrow.

The moon revolves around the earth, and the earth revolves
around the sun.

Appendix B Additional Capitalization Rules


EGUMPP CODES
WORD-FUNCTION CODES CLAUSE-IDENTIFICATION CODES

CODE TRANSLATION CODE TRANSLATION

NS Noun Subject IDC Independent Clause


PNS Pronoun Subject AVC Adverb Clause
PNU Pronoun Subject Understood AJC Adjective Clause
GS Gerund Subject NCS Noun Clause Subject
IS Infinitive Subject NCSC Noun Clause Subject Complement
RPS Relative Pronoun Subject NCDO Noun Clause Direct Object
MV Main Verb NCIO Noun Clause Indirect Object
HV Helping Verb NCOP Noun Clause Object of Preposition
MVT Main Verb Transitive IDC2 Independent Clause (second)
MVI Main Verb Intransitive
MVL Main Verb Linking SENTENCE-IDENTIFICATION CODES
DO Direct Object
GDO Gerund Direct Object S Simple Sentence
IDO Infinitive Direct Object CD Compound Sentence
RPDO Relative Pronoun Direct Object CX Complex Sentence
AJ Adjective CDCX Compound-complex Sentence
PAR Participle
IAJ Infinitive Adjective
RPAJ Relative Pronoun Adjective
AV Adverb
IAV Infinitive Adverb
PR Preposition
OP Object of Preposition
GOP Gerund Object of Preposition
SC Subject Complement
GSC Gerund Subject Complement
ISC Infinitive Subject Complement
RPSC Relative Pronoun Subject Complement
IO Indirect Object
GIO Gerund Indirect Object
AP Appositive
GAP Gerund Appositive
VC Verbal Complement
SUBC Subordinating Conjunction
CC Coordinating Conjunction
CORC Correlative Conjunction
Punctuation and Capitalization

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Punctuation and Capitalization


I
Grammar

II III IV
Usage Punctuation and Writing
Capitalization Mechanics

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