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1. Introduction of dynamic analysis.

2. Difference between static and dynamic loads.
3. Why dynamic analysis of piping networks (piping systems)
4. Importance of dynamic analysis of piping systems.
5. Definition of terms Frequency of vibration, Period of vibration, Time duration, etc.
6. Types of dynamic Loads. (Impulse Load, Harmonic Loads and random loads)
7. Variation of loads versus time.
8. Random types of loads (Wind, earthquake)
9. Harmonic types of loads (Equipment Vibration, acoustic vibration and pulsation)
10. Impulse type of loads (Relief Valve, Fluid Hammer, slug flow, etc)
11. System response time versus timing of load change.
12. Movement of dynamically loaded system.
13. Relation of induced system loads to applied loads.
14. Dynamic Load Factor (DLF)
15. Equation for unbalanced force.
16. The dynamic equation of motion.
17. Evaluation of a single-degree-of freedom system.
18. Critical damping of a system.


1. Spectrum analysis of relief valves

2. Code evaluation of calculation of relief valve reaction force. (Evaluation of API RP-520, API
3. Modelling of complex pressure relief valve systems and solving the system responses.
4. Modal analysis of a simple piping system.
5. Concept of cut off frequency.
6. Analysis of lines connected to vibrating equipment such as reciprocating pumps,
reciprocating compressors, and evaluation of natural and system frequency of piping and
comparing the same with vendor requirements.
7. Concept of resonance and system failure due to resonance.
8. Concept of static equivalent method (pseudo-static) of dynamic analysis and solving the
system behaviour by modal dynamic module.
9. Analysis of Transfer Lines (Fire-Heater connected lines).
10. Practical example for modal dynamic analysis.


1. Concept of earthquake analysis.

2. Static equivalent of earthquake analysis.
3. Earthquake analysis by spectrum method of dynamic module.
4. Preparation of spectrum for earthquake analysis.
5. Input method for spectrum into the dynamic module.
6. Load case combination preparation for earthquake analysis.
7. Preparation of simple piping module and analysing the same by dynamic module.
8. Concept of two phase flow.
9. Types of two phase flow (slug flow, plug flow, churney flow, bubbly flow, etc)
10. Calculation of resultant force due to two phase flow.
11. Concept of axial and orthogonal force at an elbow due to two phase flow.
12. Arriving the formula of resultant force and theory behind it.



1. Spectrum analysis of two phase flow (spectrum / slug plug flow)

2. Calculation of slug length, vapour length, slug time duration, slug time periodicity and two
phase force.
3. Preparation of spectrum (time versus load) for spectrum analysis.
4. Calculation method for slug frequency, (Horizontal Lines and Vertical upward Flow Lines)
5. Calculation method for slug force.
6. Dynamic Analysis Procedure and Input Method in CAESAR-II
7. Steps followed for input in dynamic modue.
a. DLF Spectrum preparation for a particular flow regime for each elbow (Force Time
b. Defining force spectrum Name
c. Defining force sets for each elbow.
d. Defining spectrum load cases.
e. Static/Dynamic Combinations.
f. Defining control parameters
8. Output
a. Displacement Report
b. Stress summary
c. Restraints
d. Local forces
e. Global forces
f. Mass participation factors
g. Natural frequencies
h. Modes mass normalised
i. Modes mass unity normalised
j. Included mass data
k. Dynamic Input
l. Mass model
m. Active BCs
n. Input Echo

In addition to the above if time permits will discuss about the surge load in pump discharge lines and
LNG pipelines. This purely non related to the dynamic.