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MOS 6301, Advanced Industrial Hygiene UNIT IV

ESSAY 2 Ammonia Explain


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MOS 6301, Advanced Industrial Hygiene UNIT IV ESSAY 2


Ammonia Explain whether the substance is a chemical or biological
hazard, and explain how you determined that. Ammonia would be
considered a chemical hazard with a chemical formula of NH3.
Anhydrous
ammonia, which is the pure form of this chemical, is a highly
hazardous chemical with
flammability, corrosive, and human health risks. Explain the key
chemical properties (vapor pressure, vapor density, molecular weight,
relative size) as applicable, and describe how these properties affect
the different routes
of exposure. Based on the chemical properties, how would you
identify which exposure
route is the most important? Vapor Pressure: 114.1 psig or 6,658 mm
Hg
Vapor Density: 0.59 (Air = 1)
Molecular weight: 17.03 g/mol
Relative Size: ionic = 175 pm
Routes of exposure:
Inhalation
This gas can cause death. It can cause severe irritation of the nose and
throat and cause lifethreatening accumulation of fluid in the lungs
(pulmonary edema. The relative size and vapor
pressure/density makes this the most common route of exposure.
Skin Contact
The gas irritates or burns the skin. Permanent scarring can result.
Direct contact with the liquefied gas can chill or freeze the skin
(frostbite). Symptoms of more severe frostbite include a burning
sensation and stiffness. The skin may become waxy white or yellow.
Blistering, tissue
death and infection may develop in severe cases.
Mucus Membranes UNIT IV ESSAY 3 The gas irritates or burns the
eyes. Permanent damage including blindness can result. This route
of exposure is still highly common as the vapor pressure and density
will allow for easy movement in air. Describe the region of the
respiratory system where deposition would be expected (only
for the aerosol hazard). Crystalline silica dust (quartz, cristobalite)
Explain whether the substance is a chemical or biological hazard, and
explain how you
determined that. Crystalline silica would be considered a chemical
hazard with a chemical formula of SiO2. Also
known as silicone dioxide, this chemical has hazards that can causes
damage to lungs, kidneys,
through prolonged or repeated exposure. It may also cause cancer by
prolonged or repeated
inhalation. Explain the key chemical properties (vapor pressure, vapor
density, molecular weight,
relative size) as applicable, and describe how these properties affect
the different routes
of exposure. Based on the chemical properties, how would you
identify which exposure
route is the most important? Vapor Pressure: 0 mmHg (approx)
Vapor Density: 2.33 g/cm
Molecular weight: 60.083 g/mol
Relative Size: 55 nanometers
Routes of exposure:
Inhalation
This is the primary route of exposure to crystalline silica dust.
Nanoparticles of this compound are which is of critical concern for its
health effects, since these can penetrate deep into the lung. UNIT IV
ESSAY 4 Describe the region of the respiratory system where
deposition would be expected (only for the aerosol hazard).
Crystalline silica dust (quartz, cristobalite) aerosol nanoparticles
embed themselves into the
alveolar sacs in the lungs. This is the location where oxygen and
carbon dioxide gases are exchanged. Nitric Acid Explain whether the
substance is a chemical or biological hazard, and explain how you
determined that. Nitric acid would be considered both a chemical and
biological hazard. One of the most common results of exposure to
nitric acid would be bronchitis. Bronchitis would be a biological
hazard since it is a biological (viral) living organism. Explain the key
chemical properties (vapor pressure, vapor density, molecular weight,
relative size) as applicable, and describe how these properties affect
the different routes of exposure. Based on the chemical properties,
how would you identify which exposure route is the most important?
Vapor Pressure: 48 mmHg (20 C) Vapor Density: 1 Molecular
weight: 63.01 g/mol Relative Size: 40-100 nanometers Analyze how
the substance could enter the body through the dermal route, and
discuss why the dermal route would or would not be important.
Routes of exposure Inhalation UNIT IV ESSAY 5 Exposure to nitric
acid is a common occupational hazard as it readily forms a vapor at
room temperature. Exposure to nitric acid can cause effects that
include dry nose and throat, cough, chest pain, shortness of breath,
headache and difficulty breathing.
Ingestion
Exposure of nitric acid can cause burns to the lips, tongue, mouth,
throat and stomach.