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14/10/2017

14/10/2017 Unconfined Compression Test Unconfined Compression Test TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION 2 PURPOSE

Unconfined Compression Test

TABLE

OF

CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

2

PURPOSE

2

EQUIPMENT

2

SPECIMENT PREPARATION

¨ Undisturbed Samples

3

¨ Remoulded Samples

4

¨ Compacted Samples

4

PROCEDURE

5

RESULT

5

CALCULATIONS

11

12

DISCUSSION Discussion Question

12

CONCLUSION

13

APPENDIX/REFERENCES

14

INTRODUCTION

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P

A

G

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14/10/2017

14/10/2017 Unconfined Compression Test The unconfined compression test is usually used for measurement of an undrained

Unconfined Compression Test

The unconfined compression test is usually

used for measurement of an undrained strength

of cohesive soil because of the simplicity of the

test technique.

This test, however, is inapplicable for such

apecimens as crack clay, very solid clay, and

clayey soil which contains extra fraction of

sand.

In these cases, an other strength test method

such as the triaxial compression test, must be

applied.

In this paper, result from the unconfined

compression test for some cohesive soils were

compressive test on the same soils for the

purpose of investigating the characteristics of

the unconfined compression test.

PURPOSE

The unconfined compression test provides a measure of the undrained strength and stress- strain characteristics of undisturbed, remoulded, and/or compacted cohesive soil samples.

EQUIPMENT

1. Unconfined compression test machine (Figure 1)

2. Dial gauges, load ring, and/or electronic displacement and load transducers

3. Sample preparation apparatus: soil lathe, trimming saw, and cradle (Figure 2)

4. Moisture content equipment

Figure 1: Unconfined Compression Test Machine

SPECIMEN PREPARATION

Undisturbed Samples

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14/10/2017 Unconfined Compression Test Soils specimens may be prepared from large undisturbed block samples (obtained from

Unconfined Compression Test

Soils specimens may be prepared from large undisturbed block samples (obtained from exploratory shafts, cuts, or tunnels) or from samples obtained from borings using thins- walled tube sampling methods. Specimens must be handled carefully in order to prevent disturbance, changes in cross section, or loss of moisture. To minimize change in water content, trimmed specimens has to be prepared in a room with controlled humidity, wherever possible. Specimen size is determined on the basis that the largest particle size should be smaller than one-sixth of the specimen diameter (ASTM D 2166-85). Common specimen sizes involve a height/diameter ratio between 2 to 3 with diameters of 38mm or

100mm.

Where sample condition permits, a soil lathe (Figure 2) may be used as an aid in trimming the cylindrical specimen. The cradle helps cut ends perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the specimen. Where pebbles or crumbling result in excessive irregularity at the ends, the specimen can be capped with a minimum thickness of plaster of Paris or similar material. The specimen should be protected after trimming and during the test cycle with a rubber membrane or a thin coating of petroleum jelly to prevent moisture loss. The specimen weight and dimensions has to be determined. If the entire test specimen is not to be used for determination of moisture content, secure a representative sample of cuttings for this purpose. Remoulded Samples

Soils sensitivity is the ratio of the undisturbed soil strength to its remould strength, both being for unconfined-undrained conditions. When soil sensitivity is to be determined, soil material can be obtained from either a failed undisturbed specimen or from a disturbed sample. A water content sample is taken before remoulded rapidly with the fingers and repacked with the thumb in about 6 mm layers, in a tube 38 mm in diameter, against the end of a tube core. This core can be moved progressively back down the tube as needed to complete the specimen. After the specimen is formed, trim the ends as for undisturbed samples, remove from the tube, and determine the weight and dimensions of the specimen.

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14/10/2017

14/10/2017 Unconfined Compression Test Compacted Samples For correlation with the standard compaction test and to permit

Unconfined Compression Test

Compacted Samples

For correlation with the standard compaction test and to permit inclusion of a larger range in particles sizes, samples 102 mm in diameter are usually prepared. It is convenient to use a three part split mould 203 mm long, which fits the base and collar for a standard Proctor compaction mould. Use of a split mould avoids any change in density on sample removal. Compaction is accomplished by using six layers to make a sample double the length of the standard mould and trimming back. With equal compactive effort per unit volume, the change in sample height has only a slight influence on density. Particles sizes up to 19 mm can be used, with 9.5 mm the more usual upper limit. Specimen weight and dimensions should be measured after removal from the mould. The more accurate water is determined from measurements made the end of the test.

PROCEDURE

1) The specimen is placed in the compression test machine (Figure 1) so that it is centred on the lower plate. 2) The machine is adjusted carefully so that the upper plate just makes contact with the specimen. Zero the deformation indicator. 3) Apply the load so as to produce axial strain at a rate of ½ % to 2% per min and record load and deformation values as needed to provided a complete curve (every 30 sec is normally adequate). 4) The rate of strain is regulated, so that the approximate time to failure does not exceed 10 minutes. Note that softer materials, which exhibit large deformations at failure, will require higher strain rates during the test. 5) The test is continued until load values decrease with the increasing strain or until 20% axial strain is reached. 6) After removing the specimen from the test machine, the sample moisture content is determined using the entire test specimen unless representative cuttings are obtained for this purpose. 7) A sketch of the test specimen at failure is made including the slope angle for the

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14/10/2017

Unconfined Compression Test

failure surface if measurable.

Lab experiments learn and find easily the civil e

search

learn and find easily the civil e … search RESULTS Water Content Unconfined Test Results Sample

RESULTS

Water Content

Unconfined Test Results

Sample 1

   

Correcte

Load

Axial

 

Strain Dial

Axial Strain

d

Dial

Load

Unit

(0.02mm)

(∆L/Lo) %

Area

(0.01mm)

(N)

Pressure

(cm²)

(kN/m²)

0.4

0.5

10.55

0.5

4.38

4.15

0.8

1.0

10.61

2.0

17.50

16.50

1.2

1.5

10.66

3.5

30.63

28.74

1.6

2.0

10.71

5.5

48.13

44.93

2.0

2.5

10.76

7.0

61.25

56.91

2.4

3.0

10.82

9.0

78.75

72.82

2.8

3.5

10.87

11.5

100.63

92.59

3.2

4.0

10.92

13.0

113.75

104.17

3.6

4.5

10.97

14.5

126.88

115.63

4.0

5.0

11.03

16.5

144.38

130.95

4.4

5.5

11.08

17.5

153.13

138.23

4.8

6.0

11.13

18.5

161.88

145.44

5.2

6.5

11.18

19.0

166.25

148.67

5.6

7.0

11.24

19.5

170.63

151.87

6.0

7.5

11.29

20.0

175.00

155.04

6.4

8.0

11.34

20.2

176.75

155.86

6.8

8.5

11.39

20.5

179.38

157.45

7.2

9.0

11.45

20.7

181.13

158.26

7.6

9.5

11.50

21.2

185.50

161.34

8.0

10.0

11.55

21.5

188.13

162.88

8.4

10.5

11.60

21.7

189.88

163.65

8.8

11.0

11.66

22.0

192.50

165.17

9.2

11.5

11.71

22.0

192.50

164.42

9.6

12.0

11.76

21.5

188.13

159.97

10.0

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12.5

11.81

21.0

183.75

155.56

14/10/2017

14/10/2017 Unconfined Compression Test     10.4 13.0 11.87 20.5 179.38 151.18   10.8

Unconfined Compression Test

   

10.4

13.0

11.87

20.5

179.38

151.18

 

10.8

13.5

11.92

20.0

175.00

146.84

 

11.2

14.0

11.97

19.7

172.38

144.01

 

Sample B

 
     

Correcte

Load

Axial

 

Time

Strain Dial

Axial Strain

d

Dial

Load

Unit

(sec)

(0.02mm)

(∆L/Lo) %

Area

(0.01mm)

(N)

Pressure

 

(cm²)

(kN/m²)

15

0.4

0.5

10.55

0.2

1.75

1.66

30

0.8

1.0

10.61

0.4

3.50

3.30

45

1.2

1.5

10.66

0.6

5.25

4.93

60

1.6

2.0

10.71

0.8

7.00

6.54

75

2.0

2.5

10.76

1.0

8.75

8.13

90

2.4

3.0

10.82

1.0

8.75

8.09

105

2.8

3.5

10.87

1.2

10.50

9.66

120

3.2

4.0

10.92

1.4

12.25

11.22

135

3.6

4.5

10.97

1.4

12.25

11.16

150

4.0

5.0

11.03

1.6

14.00

12.70

165

4.4

5.5

11.08

1.6

14.00

12.64

180

4.8

6.0

11.13

1.8

15.75

14.15

195

5.2

6.5

11.18

1.8

15.75

14.08

210

5.6

7.0

11.24

2.0

17.50

15.58

225

6.0

7.5

11.29

2.0

17.50

15.50

240

6.4

8.0

11.34

2.2

19.25

16.98

255

6.8

8.5

11.39

2.2

19.25

16.90

270

7.2

9.0

11.45

2.4

21.00

18.35

285

7.6

9.5

11.50

2.6

22.75

19.79

300

8.0

10.0

11.55

2.8

24.50

21.21

315

8.4

10.5

11.60

3.0

26.25

22.62

330

8.8

11.0

11.66

3.2

28.00

24.02

345

9.2

11.5

11.71

3.4

29.75

25.41

360

9.6

12.0

11.76

3.4

29.75

25.30

375

10.0

12.5

11.81

3.6

31.50

26.67

390

10.4

13.0

11.87

3.6

31.50

26.55

405

10.8

13.5

11.92

3.6

31.50

26.43

420

11.2

14.0

11.97

3.5

30.63

25.58

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14/10/2017 Unconfined Compression Test Sample C       Correcte Load Axial   Time Strain

Unconfined Compression Test

Sample C

     

Correcte

Load

Axial

 

Time

Strain Dial

Axial Strain

d

Dial

Load

Unit

(sec)

(0.02mm)

(∆L/Lo) %

Area

(0.01mm)

(N)

Pressure

 

(cm²)

(kN/m²)

15

1.0

1.3

10.63

0.0

0.00

0.00

30

2.0

2.5

10.76

0.2

1.75

1.63

45

3.0

3.8

10.89

0.2

1.75

1.61

60

4.0

5.0

11.03

0.4

3.50

3.17

75

5.0

6.3

11.16

0.4

3.50

3.14

90

6.0

7.5

11.29

0.4

3.50

3.10

105

7.0

8.8

11.42

0.5

4.38

3.83

120

8.0

10.0

11.55

0.5

4.375

3.79

135

9.0

11.3

11.68

0.6

5.25

4.49

150

10.0

12.5

11.81

0.6

5.25

4.44

165

11.0

13.8

11.94

0.6

5.25

4.40

180

12.0

15.0

12.08

0.7

6.13

5.07

195

13.0

16.3

12.21

0.7

6.125

5.02

210

14.0

17.5

12.34

0.8

7.00

5.67

225

15.0

18.8

12.47

0.8

7.00

5.61

240

16.0

20.0

12.60

0.8

7.00

5.56

255

17.0

21.3

12.73

0.9

7.88

6.19

270

18.0

22.5

12.86

0.9

7.88

6.12

285

19.0

23.8

12.99

1.0

8.75

6.73

300

20.0

25.0

13.13

1.0

8.75

6.67

315

21.0

26.3

13.26

1.1

9.63

7.26

330

22.0

27.5

13.39

1.1

9.63

7.19

345

23.0

28.8

13.52

1.1

9.63

7.12

360

24.0

30.0

13.65

1.1

9.63

7.05

Sample A

Sample B

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14/10/2017

14/10/2017 Unconfined Compression Test Sample C CALCULATIONS Computations the axial strain ε 1 for the given

Unconfined Compression Test

Sample C

CALCULATIONS

Computations the axial strain ε 1 for the given

applied load, where the ΔL is the change in specimen length and L o is the initial specimen

length.

ε 1 = ΔL/L o

The average specimen cross-sectional area A, for a given applied load, is

A o

A =

1 - ε 1 Where A o is the initial average specimen cross-

sectional area and the ε 1 is the axial strain for

the given load.

The load per unit area σ c , for given applied load

P and average specimen cross-sectional area A is

σ c = P/A

The relationship between axial stress and axial strain can be summarized by plotting on linear scales with axial strain as the abscissa. The maximum axial stress or the value at 20% axial strain, whichever occurs first, is reported as the unconfined compressive strength. The undrained shear strength (the f = 0 concept) equals one half of the compressive strength or

S u = σ c / 2

Examples of calculation :

Axial Strain

1 )

= ΔL/L o x 100%

= 0.4/80 x 100%

= 0.5%

Corrected Area

= (ε 1 +100)/100 x A o

= (0.5+100)/100 x 10.5

= 10.55cm 2

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14/10/2017

14/10/2017 Unconfined Compression Test Axial Load = Load Dial x 10 x 0.875 = 0.5 x

Unconfined Compression Test

Axial Load

= Load Dial x 10 x 0.875

= 0.5 x 10 x 0.875

= 4.38N

Unit Pressure Area x 10

= Axial Load / Corrected

= 4.38/10.55 x 10

= 4.15kN/m 2

DISCUSSION

µ In the unconfined test, no radial stress is applied to the sample ( σ3 = 0).

µ The plunger load, P is increased rapidly until the soil sample fail, that is cannot support any additional load. The loading is applied quickly so that the pore water cannot drain from the soil.

µ The effect stress path is unknown since

pore water pressure changes are not normally measured. µ This test is considered as undrained shear test assuming that there is no moisture loss from the specimen during the test. µ The specimen must not certain any fissures, silt seams, varves, or other defects, this mean that the specimen must be intact, homogenous clay. Rarely are over-consolidated clays intact, and often even normally consolidated clays have some fissures.

Discussion Question

1. What are the differences between unconfined compression test and confined compression test? The differences between unconfined compression test and confined compression test are sample used for unconfined compression test is not covered by any mould or casing but sample used for confined compression test is enclosed between rigid end-caps inside a thin rubber membrane to seal it from cell water, rubber O-ring are fitted over the membrane at the cap to provide a seal.

2. What are the advantages of doing unconfined compression test? The advantage of doing unconfined compression test is without any calculation

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14/10/2017 Unconfined Compression Test the confining pressure σ 3 is equal to 0. From the test

Unconfined Compression Test

the confining pressure σ 3 is equal to 0.

From the test result we get the maximum unconfined compression strength (q u ) is

determined, using q u = σ 1 and σ 3 is equal to

0 plot in graph where normal stress versus shear stress to determine the undrained strength C u where C u = q u /2 of the

unconfined

obtained.

we

compression

strength

3. What are the limitations of unconfined compression test? The limitations of the unconfined compression test is applicable to the fully saturated non-fissured clays, and only the undrained strength C u can be measured.

4. Give 4 common laboratory errors for unconfined compression test? The common laboratory errors for unconfined compression test are:

§ Getting wrong reading from dial gauge during the test was running. § The soil sample prepared is too wet. § Insensitivity of measurements at low strains due to high early soil stiffness.

§ The application of the load to the soil sample was not equally either to fast or too slow.

CONCLUSION

From

the

laboratory

testing

investigation

on

, following concluding remarks are drawn. The

unconfined compression test is a type of unconsolidated undrained test that is commonly used for clay specimens. In this test, the confining pressure is 0. An axial load is rapidly applied to the specimen to cause failure. At failure, the total load minor principal stress is

zero. Test specimens with soil did not show significant improvement in unconfined compressive strength after 7 curing days in water. This was largely due to the peat’s high natural moisture content and highly acidic nature of organic matter in the soil, making it difficult to be stabilized by Ordinary Portland cement based binders even with the presence of

unconfined

compressive

strength

of soil

the

APPENDIX/REFERENCES

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14/10/2017

Unconfined Compression Test

1. Holtz, R. D. and Kovacs, W. D. (1981). An

Introduction to Geotechnical Engineering,

W. D. (1981). An Introduction to Geotechnical Engineering, 1st Edition, Prentice Hall. 2. Author, I.N. (YEAR).

1st Edition, Prentice Hall.

2. Author, I.N. (YEAR). Title of Thesis.

Unpublished PhD Thesis. University.

Jones, H. C., Cross, W & Smith, K. M.

(1999). Get your dissertation done.

Baltimore: University of Baltimore Press.

3. Seaman, C.B., Mendonca, M.G. & Kim,

Y.M. 2003, ‘User evaluation andevolution of

a prototype management tool’, IEEE

Transactions on Software Engineering, vol.

29, no. 9, pp. 838-51.

21st Febr uary 2012 by Civil Engineering Laboratories View comments Dynamic Views theme. Powered by Blogger

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