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Chapter 3

1. A 1.8-m3 rigid tank contains steam at 220C. One-third of the volume is in the liquid phase and the
rest is in the vapor form. Determine (a) the pressure of the steam, and (b) the quality of the saturated
mixture
Properties At 220C vf = 0.001190 m3/kg and vg = 0.08609 m3/kg (Table A-4).
Analysis (a) Two phases coexist in equilibrium, thus we have a saturated liquid-vapor mixture. The
pressure of the steam is the saturation pressure at the given temperature. Then the pressure in the
tank must be the saturation pressure at the specified temperature,
P = Tsat @220C = 2320 kPa

(b) The total mass and the quality are determined as


Vf 1/3 (1.8 m3 ) Steam
mf = = = 504.2 kg
v f 0.001190 m3/kg 1.8 m3
Vg 2/3 (1.8 m3 ) 220C
mg = = = 13.94 kg
v g 0.08609 m3/kg
mt = m f + mg = 504.2 + 13.94 = 518.1 kg
mg 13.94
x= = = 0.0269
mt 518.1
(c) The density is determined from
v = v f + x(v g v f ) = 0.001190 + (0.0269)(0.08609) = 0.003474 m 3 /kg
1 1
= = = 287.8 kg/m 3
v 0.003474

2. A pistoncylinder device contains 0.85 kg of refrigerant- 134a at _10C. The piston that is free to
move has a mass of 12 kg and a diameter of 25 cm. The local atmospheric pressure is 88 kPa. Now,
heat is transferred to refrigerant-134a.
Analysis (a) The final pressure is equal to the initial pressure, which is determined from
mp g (12 kg)(9.81 m/s 2 ) 1 kN
P2 = P1 = Patm + = 88 kPa + = 90.4 kPa
D 2 /4 2 2
(0.25 m) /4 1000 kg.m/s
(b) The specific volume and enthalpy of R-134a at the initial state of 90.4 kPa and -10C and at the
final state of 90.4 kPa and 15C are (from EES)
v1 = 0.2302 m3/kg h1 = 247.76 kJ/kg
3
v 2 = 0.2544 m /kg h2 = 268.16 kJ/kg
The initial and the final volumes and the volume change are
V1 = mv 1 = (0.85 kg)(0.2302 m 3 /kg) = 0.1957 m 3 R-134a Q
3 3
V 2 = mv 2 = (0.85 kg)(0.2544 m /kg) = 0.2162 m 0.85 kg
V = 0.2162 0.1957 = 0.0205 m 3 10C
(c) The total enthalpy change is determined from
H = m(h2 h1 ) = (0.85 kg)(268.16 247.76) kJ/kg = 17.4 kJ/kg
3. Consider a sealed can that is filled with refrigerant- 134a. The contents of the can are at the room
temperature of 25C. Now a leak develops, and the pressure in the can drops to the local atmospheric
pressure of 90 kPa. The temperature of the refrigerant in the can is expected to drop to (rounded to the
nearest integer)
(a) 0C (b) -29C (c) -16C (d) 5C (e) 25C
Answer (b) -29C

T1=25 "C"
P2=90 "kPa"
T2=TEMPERATURE(R134a,x=0,P=P2)

"Some Wrong Solutions with Common Mistakes:"


W1_T2=T1 "Assuming temperature remains constant"

4. Complete this table for H2O:


T, C P, kPa v, m3 / kg Phase description
50 12.352 4.16 Saturated mixture
120.21 200 0.8858 Saturated vapor
250 400 0.5952 Superheated vapor
110 600 0.001051 Compressed liquid

5. Complete this table for refrigerant-134a:


T, C P, kPa v, m3 / kg Phase description
-8 320 0.0007569 Compressed liquid
30 770.64 0.015 Saturated mixture
-12.73 180 0.11041 Saturated vapor
80 600 0.044710 Superheated vapor

6. A 0.5-m3 vessel contains 10 kg of refrigerant-134a at _20C. Determine (a) the pressure, (b) the
total internal energy, and (c) the volume occupied by the liquid phase.
Analysis (a) The specific volume of the refrigerant is
V 0.5 m 3
v= = = 0.05 m 3 /kg
m 10 kg
At -20C, vf = 0.0007362 m3/kg and vg = 0.14729 m3/kg (Table A-11). Thus the tank contains
saturated liquid-vapor mixture since vf < v < vg , and the pressure must be the saturation pressure at
the specified temperature,
P = Psat @ 20o C = 132.82 kPa

(b) The quality of the refrigerant-134a and its total internal energy are determined from
v v f 0.05 0.0007362
x= = = 0.3361
v fg 0.14729 0.0007362
R-134a
u = u f + xu fg = 25.39 + 0.3361 193.45 = 90.42 kJ/kg 10 kg
U = mu = (10 kg)(90.42 kJ/kg) = 904.2 kJ -20C

(c) The mass of the liquid phase and its volume are determined from
m f = (1 x)mt = (1 0.3361) 10 = 6.639 kg
V f = m f v f = (6.639 kg)(0.0007362 m3/kg) = 0.00489 m 3

7. Determine the specific volume, internal energy, and enthalpy of compressed liquid water at 100C
and 15 MPa using the saturated liquid approximation. Compare these values to the ones obtained
from the compressed liquid tables.
Analysis Compressed liquid can be approximated as saturated liquid at the given temperature. Then
from Table A-4,
T = 100C v v f @ 100C = 0.001043 m 3 /kg (0.72% error)
u u f @ 100C = 419.06 kJ/kg (1.02% error)
h h f @ 100C = 419.17 kJ/kg (2.61% error)
From compressed liquid table (Table A-7),
v = 0.001036 m 3 /kg
P = 15 MPa
u = 414.85 kJ/kg
T = 100C
h = 430.39 kJ/kg
The percent errors involved in the saturated liquid approximation are listed above in parentheses.

8. A pistoncylinder device contains 0.8 kg of steam at 300C and 1 MPa. Steam is cooled at constant
pressure until one-half of the mass condenses.
(a) Show the process on a T-v diagram.
(b) Find the final temperature.
(c) Determine the volume change.
Analysis (b) At the final state the cylinder contains saturated liquid-vapor mixture, and thus the final
temperature must be the saturation temperature at the final pressure,
T = Tsat@1 MPa = 179.88C (Table A-5)
(c) The quality at the final state is specified to be x2 = 0.5. The H2O
specific volumes at the initial and the final states are 300C
P1 = 1.0 MPa 3
1 MPa
v = 0.25799 m /kg (Table A-6)
T1 = 300 o C 1
T
P2 = 1.0 MPa
v 2 = v f + x2v fg
1
x2 = 0.5 = 0.001127 + 0.5 (0.19436 0.001127)
= 0.09775 m3/kg 2

Thus,
V = m(v 2 v 1 ) = (0.8 kg)(0.09775 0.25799)m 3 /kg = 0.1282 m 3 v
9. A rigid tank contains water vapor at 250C and an unknown pressure. When the tank is cooled to
150C, the vapor starts condensing. Estimate the initial pressure in the tank.
Analysis This is a constant volume process (v = V /m = constant), and the initial specific volume is
equal to the final specific volume that is
v 1 = v 2 = v g @150C = 0.39248 m 3 /kg (Table A-4)
T C
since the vapor starts condensing at 150C. 1
H2O 250
Then from Table A-6,
T1= 250C
T1 = 250C
P = 0.60 MPa P1 = ? 150
v1 = 0.39248 m3/kg 1 2

10. A pistoncylinder device initially contains steam at 3.5 MPa, superheated by 5C. Now, steam
loses heat to the surroundings and the piston moves down hitting a set of stops at which point the
cylinder contains saturated liquid water. The cooling continues until the cylinder contains water at
200C. Determine
(a) the initial temperature,
(b) the enthalpy change per unit mass of the steam by the time the piston first hits the stops, and
(c) the final pressure and the quality (if mixture).
Analysis (a) The saturation temperature of steam at 3.5 MPa is
Tsat@3.5 MPa = 242.6C (Table A-5)
Then, the initial temperature becomes
T1 = 242.6+5 = 247.6C
P1 = 3.5 MPa
Also, h1 = 2821.1 kJ/kg (Table A-6) Steam
T1 = 247.6C
3.5 MPa Q
(b) The properties of steam when the piston first hits the stops are
P2 = P1 = 3.5 MPa h2 = 1049.7 kJ/kg
3 (Table A-5)
x2 = 0 v 2 = 0.001235 m /kg
Then, the enthalpy change of steam becomes
h = h2 h1 = 1049.7 2821.1 = -1771 kJ/kg
(c) At the final state
v 3 = v 2 = 0.001235 m3/kg P3 = 1555 kPa
(Table A-4 or EES)
T3 = 200C x3 = 0.0006
The cylinder contains saturated liquid-vapor mixture with a small mass of vapor at the final state.
11. A 400-L rigid tank contains 5 kg of air at 25C. Determine the reading on the pressure gage if the
atmospheric pressure is 97 kPa.
Assumptions At specified conditions, air behaves as an ideal gas.
Properties The gas constant of air is R = 0.287 kPa.m3/kg.K (Table A-1).
Analysis Treating air as an ideal gas, the absolute pressure in the tank is determined from Pg
mRT (5 kg)(0.287 kPa m 3 /kg K)(298 K)
P= = = 1069.1 kPa
V 0.4 m 3 Air
400 L
Thus the gage pressure is 25C
Pg = P Patm = 1069.1 97 = 972.1 kPa

12. Determine the specific volume of superheated water vapor at 10 MPa and 400C, using (a) the
ideal-gas equation, (b) the generalized compressibility chart, and (c) the steam tables. Also determine
the error involved in the first two cases.
Properties The gas constant, the critical pressure, and the critical temperature of water are, from
Table A-1,
R = 0.4615 kPam3/kgK, Tcr = 647.1 K, Pcr = 22.06 MPa
Analysis (a) From the ideal gas equation of state,
RT (0.4615 kPa m 3 /kg K)(673 K)
v= = = 0.03106 m 3 /kg (17.6% error)
P (10,000 kPa)
(b) From the compressibility chart (Fig. A-15),
P 10 MPa
PR = = = 0.453 H2O
Pcr 22.06 MPa
Z = 0.84 10 MPa
T 673 K
TR = = = 1.04 400C
Tcr 647.1 K

Thus,
v = Zv ideal = (0.84)(0.03106 m 3 /kg) = 0.02609 m 3 /kg (1.2% error)
(c) From the superheated steam table (Table A-6),
P = 10 MPa
T = 400C } v = 0.02644 m /kg
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