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FRAIS MACHINE

ACHMAD AFFANDI
XII TPM 1
05

SEKOLAH MENENGAH KEJURUAN NEGERI 3


SURABAYA
JL. ACHMAD YANI, SURABAYA
Preface

First of all, I would like to praise Allah, The almighty, who gives me
bless and healt so that I am able to accomplished my report. Secondly, my
gratitude goes to my parent who give me endless love and support to get
goog education.
Lastly, my gratitude is also for my teachers who give me knowledge and
skills for my future life and all parties that help me to finish my report.

I hope that the report is beneficial for the reader and constructive
suggestions are welcome to make the report better
Table of Content

Title Page ..i


Preface ..ii
Table of Content ...iii
Chapter 1: Introduction .1
Chapter 2: Discussion (Presentation).
2.1 Milling Machine
2.2 Milling Machine Tooling ..
2.3 Milling Cutter
2.4 Types of Milling Cutter
2.5 Using and Selecting a Milling Cutter
2.6 Safety Rules for Milling Machines
Chapter 3: Conclusion
References .
Chapter 1

Introduction

Milling machines are very versatile. They are usually used to machine flat surfaces, but
can also produce irregular surfaces. They can also be used to drill, bore, cut gears, and
produce slots. The type of milling machine most commonly found in student shops is a
vertical spindle machine with a swiveling head. Although there are several other types of
milling machines, this document will focus only on the vertical milling machine.

Milling is the process of machining flat, curved, or irregular surfaces by feeding the
workpiece against a rotating cutter containing a number of cutting edges. The usual Mill
consists basically of a motor driven spindle, which mounts and revolves the milling
cutter, and a reciprocating adjustable worktable, which mounts and feeds the workpiece.

Milling machines are basically classified as vertical or horizontal. These machines are
also classified as knee-type, ram-type, manufacturing or bed type, and planer-type. Most
milling machines have self-contained electric drive motors, coolant systems, variable
spindle speeds, and power-operated table feeds

This report is presented as follows: Chapter 1 describes the background of the study, the
purpose of the study and reports organization. Discussion and data presentation is on the
chapter 2 with some sections. The reports is closed by presenting conclusion and
suggestion in chapter 3
Chapter 2
Discussion

2.1 Milling machine

A milling machine is a machine tool used to machine solid materials. Milling machines
exist in two basic forms: horizontal and vertical, which terms refer to the orientation of
the cutting tool spindle. Unlike a drill press, in which the workpiece is held stationary and
the drill is moved vertically to penetrate the material, milling also involves movement of
the workpiece against the rotating cutter, the latter of which is able to cut on its flanks as
well as its tip. Workpiece and cutter movement are precisely controlled to less than
0.001 in (0.025 mm), usually by means of precision ground slides and leadscrews or
analogous technology. Milling machines may be manually operated, mechanically
automated, or digitally automated via computer numerical control (CNC).

Milling machines can perform a vast number of operations, some very complex, such as
slot and keyway cutting, planing, drilling, diesinking, rebating, routing, etc. Cutting fluid
is often pumped to the cutting site to cool and lubricate the cut, and to sluice away the
resulting swarf.

In the vertical mill the spindle axis is vertically oriented. Milling cutters are held in the
spindle and rotate on its axis. The spindle can generally be extended (or the table can be
raised/lowered, giving the same effect), allowing plunge cuts and drilling. There are two
subcategories of vertical mills: the bedmill and the turret mill. Turret mills, like the
ubiquitous Bridgeport, are generally smaller than bedmills, and are considered by some to
be more versatile. In a turret mill the spindle remains stationary during cutting operations
and the table is moved both perpendicular to and parallel to the spindle axis to
accomplish cutting. In the bedmill, however, the table moves only perpendicular to the
spindle's axis, while the spindle itself moves parallel to its own axis. Also of note is a
lighter machine, called a mill-drill. It is quite popular with hobbyists, due to its small size
and lower price. These are frequently of lower quality than other types of machines,
however.

A horizontal mill has the same sort of xy table, but the cutters are mounted on a
horizontal arbor (see Arbor milling) across the table. A majority of horizontal mills also
feature a +15/-15 degree rotary table that allows milling at shallow angles. While
endmills and the other types of tools available to a vertical mill may be used in a
horizontal mill, their real advantage lies in arbor-mounted cutters, called side and face
mills, which have a cross section rather like a circular saw, but are generally wider and
smaller in diameter. Because the cutters have good support from the arbor, quite heavy
cuts can be taken, enabling rapid material removal rates. These are used to mill grooves
and slots. Plain mills are used to shape flat surfaces. Several cutters may be ganged
together on the arbor to mill a complex shape of slots and planes. Special cutters can also
cut grooves, bevels, radii, or indeed any section desired. These specialty cutters tend to be
expensive. Simplex mills have one spindle, and duplex mills have two. It is also easier to
cut gears on a horizontal mill.

2.2 Milling machine tooling


There is some degree of standardization of the tooling used with CNC Milling Machines
and to a much lesser degree with manual milling machines.

Milling cutters for specific applications are held in various tooling configurations.

CNC Milling machines will nearly always use SK (or ISO), CAT, BT or HSK tooling. SK
tooling is the most common in Europe, while CAT tooling, sometimes called V-Flange
Tooling, is the oldest variation and is probably still the most common in the USA. CAT
tooling was invented by Caterpillar Inc. of Peoria, Illinois in order to standardize the
tooling used on their machinery. CAT tooling comes in a range of sizes designated as
CAT-30, CAT-40, CAT-50, etc. The number refers to the Association for Manufacturing
Technology (formerly the National Machine Tool Builders Association (NMTB)) Taper
size of the tool.

An improvement on CAT Tooling is BT Tooling, which looks very similar and can easily
be confused with CAT tooling. Like CAT Tooling, BT Tooling comes in a range of sizes
and uses the same NMTB body taper. However, BT tooling is symmetrical about the
spindle axis, which CAT tooling is not. This gives BT tooling greater stability and
balance at high speeds. One other subtle difference between these two toolholders is the
thread used to hold the pull stud. CAT Tooling is all Imperial thread and BT Tooling is all
Metric thread. Note that this affects the pull stud only, it does not affect the tool that they
can hold, both types of tooling are sold to accept both Imperial and metric sized tools.

SK and HSK tooling, sometimes called "Hollow Shank Tooling", is much more common
in Europe where it was invented than it is in the United States. It is claimed that HSK
tooling is even better than BT Tooling at high speeds. The holding mechanism for HSK
tooling is placed within the (hollow) body of the tool and, as spindle speed increases, it
expands, gripping the tool more tightly with increasing spindle speed. There is no pull
stud with this type of tooling.

The situation is quite different for manual milling machines there is little
standardization. Newer and larger manual machines usually use NMTB tooling. This
tooling is somewhat similar to CAT tooling but requires a drawbar within the milling
machine. Furthermore, there are a number of variations with NMTB tooling that make
interchangeability troublesome.

Two other tool holding systems for manual machines are worthy of note: They are the R8
collet and the Morse Taper #2 collet. Bridgeport Machines of Bridgeport, Connecticut so
dominated the milling machine market for such a long time that their machine "The
Bridgeport" is virtually synonymous with "Manual milling machine." The bulk of the
machines that Bridgeport made from about 1965 onward used an R8 collet system. Prior
to that, the bulk of the machines used a Morse Taper #2 collet system.

2.3 Milling cutter


Milling cutters are cutting tools used in milling machines or machining centres. They
remove material by their movement within the machine (eg: a ball nose mill) or directly
from the cutters shape (a form tool such as a Hobbing cutter).

2.4 Types of milling cutter


Features of a milling cutter

An End Mill cutter with two flutes

Milling cutters come in several shapes and many sizes. There is also a choice of coatings,
as well as rake angle and number of cutting surfaces.

Shape: Several standard shapes of milling cutter are used in industry today, which are
explained in more detail below.

Flutes / teeth: The flutes of the milling bit are the deep helical grooves running up the
cutter, while the sharp blade along the edge of the flute is known as the tooth. The tooth
cuts the material, and chips of this material are pulled up the flute by the rotation of the
cutter. There is almost always one tooth per flute, but some cutters have two teeth per
flute.[1] Often, the words flute and tooth are used interchangeably. Milling cutters may
have from one to many teeth, with 2, 3 and 4 being most common. Typically, the more
teeth a cutter has, the more rapidly it can remove material. So, a 4-tooth cutter can
remove material at twice the rate of a 2-tooth cutter.

Helix angle: The flutes of a milling cutter are almost always helical. If the flutes were
straight, the whole tooth would impact the material at once, causing vibration and
reducing accuracy and surface quality. Setting the flutes at an angle allows the tooth to
enter the material gradually, reducing vibration. Typically, finishing cutters have a higher
rake angle (tighter helix) to give a better finish.

Center cutting: Some milling cutters can drill straight down (plunge) through the
material, while others cannot. This is because the teeth of some cutters do not go all the
way to the centre of the end face. However, these cutters can cut downwards at an angle
of 45 degrees or so.

Roughing or Finishing: Different types of cutter are available for cutting away large
amounts of material, leaving a poor surface finish (roughing), or removing a smaller
amount of material, but leaving a good surface finish (finishing). A roughing cutter may
have serrated teeth for breaking the chips of material into smaller pieces. These teeth
leave a rough surface behind. A finishing cutter may have a large number (4 or more)
teeth for removing material carefully. However, the large number of flutes leaves little
room for efficient swarf removal, so they are less appropriate for removing large amounts
of material.

Coatings: The right tool coatings can have a great influence on the cutting process by
increasing cutting speed and tool life, and improving the surface finish. Polycrystalline
Diamond (PCD) is an exceptionally hard coating used on cutters which must withstand
high abrasive wear. A PCD coated tool may last up to 100 times longer than an uncoated
tool. However the coating cannot be used at temperatures above 600 degrees C, or on
ferrous metals. Tools for machining aluminium are sometimes given a coating of TiAlN.
Aluminium is a relatively sticky metal, and can weld itself to the teeth of tools, causing
them to appear blunt. However it tends not to stick to TiAlN, allowing the tool to be used
for much longer in aluminium.

Shank: The shank is the cylindrical (non-fluted) part of the tool which is used to hold and
locate it in the tool holder. A shank may be perfectly round, and held by friction, or it may
have a Weldon Flat, where a grub screw makes contact for increased torque without the
tool slipping. The diameter may be different from the diameter of the cutting part of the
tool, so that it can be held by a standard tool holder.

Types

End mill

Slot, end mill, and ballnose cutters

Main article: End millEnd mills (middle row in image) are those tools which have cutting
teeth at one end, as well as on the sides. The words end mill are generally used to refer to
flat bottomed cutters, but also include rounded cutters (referred to as ball nosed) and
radiused cutters (referred to as bull nose, or torus). They are usually made from high
speed steel (HSS) or carbide, and have one or more flutes. They are the most common
tool used in a vertical mill.
Slot drillSlot drills (top row in image) are generally two (occasionally three or four)
fluted cutters that are designed to drill straight down into the material. This is possible
because there is at least one tooth at the centre of the end face. They are so named for
their use in cutting keyway slots. The term slot drill is usually assumed to mean a two
fluted, flat bottomed end mill if no other information is given. Two fluted end mills are
usually slot drills, three fluted sometimes are not, and four fluted usually are not.

Roughing end mills quickly remove large amounts of material. This kind of end mill
utilizes a wavy tooth form cut on the periphery. These wavy teeth form many successive
cutting edges producing many small chips, resulting in a relatively rough surface finish.
During cutting, multiple teeth are in contact with the workpiece reducing chatter and
vibration. Rapid stock removal with heavy milling cuts is sometimes called hogging.
Roughing end mills are also sometimes known as ripping cutters.

Ball nose cutters (lower row in image) are similar to slot drills, but the end of the cutters
are hemispherical. They are ideal for machining 3-dimensional contoured shapes in
machining centres, for example in moulds and dies. They are sometimes called ball mills
in shop-floor slang, despite the fact that that term also has another meaning. They are also
used to add a radius between perpendicular faces to reduce stress concentrations.

Slab mill

HSS Slab mills are used either by themselves or in gang milling operations on manual
horizontal or universal milling machines to machine large broad surfaces quickly. They
have been superseded by the use of carbide-tipped face mills which are then used in
vertical mills or machining centres.

Side-and-face cutter

Side and face cutterThe side-and-face cutter is designed with cutting teeth on its side as
well as its circumference. They are made in varying diameters and widths depending on
the application. The teeth on the side allow the cutter to make unbalanced cuts (cutting on
one side only) without deflecting the cutter as would happen with a slitting saw or slot
cutter (no side teeth).

Involute gear cutter

Involute gear cutter - number 4:


10 diametrical pitch cutter

Cuts gears from 26 through to 34 teeth

14.5 degree pressure angle

There are 8 cutters (excluding the rare half sizes) that will cut gears from 12 teeth through
to a rack (infinite diameter)

Hobbing cutter

Main article: Hob

Aluminium Chromium Titanium Nitride (AlCrTiN) coated Hob using Cathodic arc
deposition techniqueThese cutters are a type of form tool and are used in hobbing
machines to generate gears. A cross section of the cutters tooth will generate the required
shape on the workpiece, once set to the appropriate conditions (blank size). A hobbing
machine is a specialised milling machine.

Face mill

Carbide tipped face mill

A face mill consists of a cutter body (with the appropriate machine taper) that is designed
to hold multiple disposable carbide or ceramic tips or inserts, often golden in color. The
tips are not designed to be resharpened and are selected from a range of types that may be
determined by various criteria, some of which may be: tip shape, cutting action required,
material being cut. When the tips are blunt, they may be removed, rotated (indexed) and
replaced to present a fresh, sharp face to the workpiece, this increases the life of the tip
and thus their economical cutting life.

2.5 Using and selecting a milling cutter


although there are many different types of milling cutter, understanding chip formation is
fundamental to the use of any of them. As the milling cutter rotates, the material to be cut
is fed into it, and each tooth of the cutter cuts away small chip of material. Achieving the
correct size of chip is of critical importance. The size of this chip depends on several
variables.
Surface cutting speed (Vc): This is the speed at which each tooth cuts through the
material as the tool spins. This is measured either in metres per minute in metric
countries, or surface feet per minute (SFM) in America. Typical values for cutting speed
are 10m/min to 60m/min for some steels, and 100m/min and 600m/min for aluminum.
This should not be confused with the feed rate.

Spindle speed (S): This is the rotation speed of the tool, and is measured in revolutions
per minute (rpm). Typical values are from hundreds of rpm, up to tens of thousands of
rpm.

Diameter of the tool (D):

Feed per tooth (Fz): This is the distance the material is fed into the cutter as each tooth
rotates. This value is the size of the deepest cut the tooth will make.

Feed rate (F): This is the speed at which the material is fed into the cutter. Typical values
are from 20mm/min to 5000mm/min.

Depth of cut: This is how deep the tool is under the surface of the material being cut (not
shown on the diagram). This will be the height of the chip produced. Typically, the depth
of cut will be less than or equal to the diameter of the cutting tool.

The machinist needs three values: S, F and Depth when deciding how to cut a new
material with a new tool. However, he will probably be given values of Vc and Fz from
the tool manufacturer. S and F can be calculated from them:
2.6 Safety Rules for Milling Machines
What are some safe work principles to follow when using a milling machine?

Wear appropriate safety glasses.


Ensure that the milling machine has a start/stop button within easy reach of the operator.
Ensure that the work piece and cutter are mounted securely before taking a cut.
Check that work is mounted squarely.
Mount work in a vise that is bolted or held magnetically to the table. Use proper hand
tools to make adjustments. Refer to Hand Tools for more information.
Hold milling cutters with a cloth to avoid being cut when handling them.
Move table as far as possible from cutter while setting up work to avoid injuring your
hands.
Mill the largest surface first.
Keep hands, brushes and rags away from the revolving milling cutter.

S A F E T Y O P E R AT I N G P R O C E D U R E S

Milling Machine

DO NOT use this machine unless a teacher has


instructed
you in its safe use and operation and has given
permission.

Safety glasses must be worn at all Long and loose hair must be
times in work areas. contained.
Appropriate footwear with Close fitting/protective
substantial uppers must be clothing must be worn.
worn.
Rings and jewellery must Gloves must not be worn
not be worn. when using this machine.
Chapter 3
Conclusion

3.1 Conclution
Milling machines are very versatile. They are usually used to machine
flat surfaces, but can also produce irregular surfaces. They can also be used
to drill, bore, cut gears, and produce slots. The type of milling machine most
commonly found in student shops is a vertical spindle machine with a
swiveling head. Although there are several other types of milling machines,
this document will focus only on the vertical milling machine.

3.2 Suggestion

in the current era we are required to have good skills. therefore we


must strive to obtain knowledge and skills so that we can adapt to the
present.
Reference
Books and Edited Books

Lukman, P.K. 2002. step by step 1. English for Vocational High School. Bandung:
Humaniora Utama Press.

Bosticco, Marry. 1990. Personal Letters for Business People. Jakarta: Binarupa Aksara

Websites

www.wikipedia.file://t/Milling%20cutter%20-
%20Wikipedia,%20the%20free%20encyclopedia.mht

www. /OSH%20Answers_%20Milling%20Machines.mht

www.wikipedia./Milling_machine.htm

www. /how_to_use_a_milling_machine.htm