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Seminar Report on 400/220KV G.S.

400/200 kV G.S.S
1.1 Introduction
Energy is the basic necessity for the economic development of a country. Energy exists in
different form in nature but the most important for is electrical energy. The conversion of
energy available in different forms of nature into electrical energy is known as generation of
different forms of nature into electrical energy is known as generation of electrical energy.
Various sources of energy available in nature are-
1 Solar Energy
2 Wind Energy
3 Tidal Energy
4 Nuclear energy
A great demand of electrical energy is notable feature of modern civilization. The
abundance of electrical energy completely changes the direction of the tempo of civilization,
living standard, vast development of rural and urban areas. Electricity has become an
essential commodity. The feature of electrical energy not only paralyses industries and
agriculture but also upsets the lives.
The whole electrical system is classified as:
1. Generation
2. Transmission
3. Distribution
4. Utilization
5 Switchgear and protection
Turbines are moved with the help of different sources of energy. The generation is
coupled with turbine to generate 11KV which is further stepped up by step up transformers to
400KV and is then distributed to various sub-stations where the voltage is reduced to 220KV
with the help of step down transformers. From these sub-stations the energy is distributed to
the consumers after reducing it to 33KV.
1.2 Installation
The 400/200KV GSS Muzffupur is one of those stations, which distributes energy to
the consumers. The station was installed in 2003. It is the second largest GSS of the state .

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Seminar Report on 400/220KV G.S.S

1.2.1 The Incoming And Outgoing Feeder

Incoming Power From :

1. Purnea at 400KV

This incoming power is originated at Tata Hydro Project and destination is at New

The power transmission is done via-

Purnea Muzaffarpur Gorakhpur Lucknow Raibareli Delhi

2. Biharshariff at 400KV

This power originated at NTPC (KAHALGAON).

Transmitted power to :

1. Gorakhpur at 400KV
2. Kanti thermal power station at 220KV
3. Nepal (Dhalkarbar) at 132 KV

Fig1.1 400/200 KV GSS

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Seminar Report on 400/220KV G.S.S


2.1 Introduction
Energy may be needed as heat, as light as motive power etc. the present day
advancement in science and technology has made it possible to convert electrical energy into
other desired form. This has given electrical energy place of pride in the modern world. In
fact the advancement of country is measured in terms of per capita consumption of electrical
energy. Electrical energy is superior to all other forms of energy due to the following reasons
2.2 Advantage over other forms:
1.Conventional Forms and Easy Control
Electrical energy is a very convenient form of energy as it can easily converted into any
form of energy like heat, light mechanical etc.
2.Greater Flexibility
One important reason for preferring electrical energy is flexibility that it offers. It can be
easily transported from one place to another.
3. Cheapness
Electrical energy is cheaper than other forms of energy. Thus it is economical to use this
form of energy in domestic commercial and industrial purpose.
4. Cleanliness
Electrical energy is not associated with smoke, fumes or poisonous gases. Therefore its
use ensures cleanliness and health conditions.
5. High Transmission Efficiency
The consumers of electrical energy are generally situated quite away from the centers of
its production. The electrical energy can be transmitted conveniently and efficiently from the
center of generation to the consumers with the help of overhead conductors known as
Transmission lines.

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3.1 Metering & Indicating Instrument
There are several metering & indicating instruments e.g. Ammeters, voltmeters,
energy meters etc installed in a sub-station to keep watch on circuit quantities. The
transformer is invariably used with them for satisfactorily operation.
3.2 Bus Bars
Bus bars are the important components in a substation. There are several bus bar
arrangements the can be used in a substation. The choice of a particular arrangement depends
upon various factors such as system voltage, position of substation, degree of reliability; cost
etc. the following are the important bus bar arrangement used in sub-stations:
a) Single bus bar systems
b) Double bus bars systems
c) Duplicate bus bars systems
In the 400KV GSS Muzz, Double bus bar substation and duplicate bus bar system has
been installed.
3.3 Control Cables
The control cable and the control system are required for officiating automatic
system. The cables employed for this purpose are multi-core cables having 10 or 37 or 61
conductors are run to the required points. The conductors used in the 400 KV GSS are moose
and conductors used in the 220 KV GSS are Muzffupur.
3.4 Power Transformers
A transformer consists essentially of two or more electric circuit in the form of
winding magnetically interlinked by a common magnetic circuit. An alternating voltage
applied to one of the winding produces, by electromagnetic induction, a correspondence emf
in the other windings & energy can be transferred from the ordinary circuit to the other circuit
by means of the common magnetic flux and the principle of mutual induction. A transformer
is basically a static device in which two or more stationary electric circuits are coupled
magnetically, the winding being linked by a common time varying magnetic flux. Even
though the static transformer is not an energy conversion device & involves only the
interchange of electrical energy between two or more electrical systems, it is an extremely
important component in many conversation systems.

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Fig3.1 Power transformer

3.4.1 Classification Of Power Transformer:
1. According to usages
2. Step-up transformer
3. Step down transformer
4. According to type of construction used:
5. Core type
6. Shell type
7. According to number of winding
8. Two winding transformer
9. Three winding transformer
10. Multi winding transformer
3.4.2 Terms Related To Transformer
1. Primary Winding:
The winding that is excited or energized by connecting it to an input source is usually
referred to as the primary winding.
2. Secondary Winding:
The winding to which the electrical load is connected and forms, which the output energy
is taken, are known as the secondary winding.
3. HV Winding:
The winding which s operated at the high voltage level is known as the HV (high voltage)

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4. LV Winding:
The winding which is operated at lower voltage level is known as the LV (low voltage)
5. Regulating Winding:
It is winding, which is used to regulate the voltage at different levels y connecting tap
changers across the winding. It consists of discrete numbers of small windings with 2 or 3
terms in each ad they being connected in series.
6.Tertiary Winding:
In addition to the tradition primary and secondary windings, a transformer can also have
tertiary winding.
3.4.3 Main Parts Of Transformer Are As Follows
1. Core:
It consist terminated silicon steel in which quantity of silicon 13up to 4% thickness of
lamination is 0.35 to 0.50m. Normally the shape of core in rectangular and it has three legs.
2. Windings: Windings of power transformer are an important part. It consists of super
enameled copper wires. The size of wire (diameter) depends on the capacity of transformer
connection of winding is r/r.
3. Tap changer:
Tap changer is switching device by which the transformation ratio can be changed by the
changing the position of tap changing the switch. Tap changing system on GSS of power
transformer on-load tap changer (OLTC): On load tap changers are employed to change turn
ratio of transformer to regulate system voltage while the transformer is delivering normal
load with the introduction of on-load tap changing the operating efficiency of electrical
system has considerably improved. Now a day, almost all the large power transformers are
fitted with on load tap changer. All forms of on load tap changing circuit posses impedance.
This is introduced to prevent short-circuiting of tapping section during tap changer operation.
The impedance can be either a resist of or a centre-tapped reactor.
4. Tanks:
It is metallic tank, which is filled of insulating oil the transformer core and winding
assembly are surrounding by the oil in this tank. It protects that the winding and core from the
external mechanical damages. Rectangular tanks are similar in fabrication. However for large
rating power transformer, shaping of tanks becomes necessary to conform to transportable
profile shaping is provided by rounded corners at the ends, truncation of law portion of walls
from considerable, of loading in well wagon grider and on the covers to reduce the height to

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minimize the tank oil, the tank profile may closely follows the electrical clearances along the
coils. As is evident, shaping gives saving in tank material and oil but increases complexity
and fabrication costs.
Transformer tank may be classified as
Plain tanks.
Shaped tanks.
Belt shaped tanks.
Corrugated tanks.
Stub and type tank
The transformer tank used in GSS power transformer is rectangular box (plain tank) type in
5. Cooling System:
In Power transformer, the oil serves a dual purpose as an insulating medium as well as a
cooling medium. The heat generated in the transformer is removed by the transformer oil
surrounding the source and is transmitted either to atmospheric air or water. This transforms
of heat is essential to control the temperature within permissible limits for the class of
insulation, thereby ensuring longer life due to less thermal degradation.
Types of cooling used in GSS power transformer:
ONAN type cooling: The generated heat can be dissipated in many ways. In case of smaller
rating of transformers, its tanks may be able to dissipate the heat directly to the atmospheric
dry while bigger ratings may require additional dissipating surface in form of tubes/ radiators
connected to tank or in the term of radiator tank. In these cases, the heat dissipation is form
transformer oil at atmospheric air by natural means. This form of cooling is known as ONAN
(Oil Natural, Air Natural) types of cooling.
ONAF type of cooling: For further augmenting the rate of dissipating of heat, other means
such as fans blowing air on the cooling surfaces are employed. The forced air takes away the
heat at a faster rate, thereby giving better cooling rate than natural air. This type of cooling
called ONAF (Oil Natural Air Forced) type of cooling. In this cooling arrangement,
additional raring under ONAN condition viz. after shutting off fans, is available, which is of
the order of 70-75%.
5.1 Cooling Arrangements
Depending upon the typed of cooling and rating of the transformer, the cooling
equipment can be arranged in various ways.

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5.2 Arrangement with Radiators

Radiators are commonly used for ONAN and ONAF types cooling. Radiator consists
of element joined to and bottom headers, elements are made by welding two previously rolled
and pressed thin steel sheets to forms a number of channels of flutes through which oil flow.
These radiators can be either mounted directly on the transformer tank or in a form of a bank
or connected to the tank through the piper. The surface area available for dissipation of heat
is a multiple manifold by using various elements in parallel. As oil passes downwards either
due to natural circulation or force of a pump in the cooling circuits, the surrounding
atmosphere air carries heat away.
5.3 Arrangements with Fans
These fans deliver large air volume at moderate speed with minimum sound and low
power consumption. Ring mounted fans are designed to give maximum volume under free
airflow condition and resistance up to approximately 6mm WC. These fans generally
conform to IS2312 and are used for radiator cooling. Fan consists of a totally enclosed
continuously rated specially designed motor with class B insulation and IP-55 class of
protection to meet fan duty, impeller constructed with four broad faced. Steel sheet blades
assembly on robust aluminum hub, four arms, pressed sheet mounting ring and four rubber

Fig 3.2. Cooling fan

6. Temperature Meters
There are two temperatures indicating metering power transformer, which indicate the
oil temperature and winding temperature. Temperature measured in degree Celsius. A

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complete assembly of a transformer with details of core, wingding, tank connections and
major accessories.
7. Conservator and Air Cell
As the temperature of oil increases or decreases during operation there is a corresponding
rise or falling volume to account for this an expansion vessel (conservator) is connected to
the transformer tank. The conservator has got a capacity between the minimum to maximum
oil level equal to 7.5 & of the oil in transformer. The atmoseal types conservator, it is filled
with oil to level appropriate to filling temperature and in remaining portion is air cell, which
is connected to atmosphere through a breather. As the breather is through air cell no moisture
come in contact with oil, this protect the oil from deterioration or contamination.Air cell is a
flexible separator filled inside the conservator. Oil being out of the air cell, the separator is in
direct contact with the atmosphere. The advantage of air deterioration or contamination.
1. An efficient barrier between oil and air.
2. A protection against water vapors.
3. The suppression of any gas bubbles formation in the oil.
Air cell is made from coated fabric with external coating resistance to transformer oil and
inner to coating to ozone and weather

Fig. 3.3 Conservator

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8. Buchholzs Relay
The transformer is fitted with a bubble float buchholz rely. It is fitted in the feed pipe
from conservator to tank. Any internal fault in transformer is detected by buchholz relay the
gas liberated in the transformer is divided to the buchholz relay without being trapped
9. Dehydration Breather
The conservator is connected outside through dehydration (Silicage filled) breather to
make sure that the air in conservation is dry.

Fig. 3.4 Silica gel

10. Oil Temperature Indicator

Oil temperature indicator operates on the principal of liquid expansion. The OTI provided
with a maximum pointer and two mercury switches are adjustable to make contact between
500 to 1200 with the fixed differential of 100. the temperature for alarm and trip contact
setting shall be as under:- alarm 800 to 900.
11. Winding Temperature Indicator
The indicator is fitted with four mercury switches, one is used for alarm, 2nd is for tripe
and 3rd is for fans on and 4th pumps control. All the switches are adjustable.

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12. Earthing
Connecting leads from core and end frame are being terminated at the top at the top of
cover. By connecting them to tank cover, core and end frames being earthed. For Bank
earthing two number studs have been provided on tank.
13. Terminal Bushings
It is used to isolate the leads that are coming from transformer. The size of the
bushing is justified according to operation voltage of particular winding. The active part of
the bushing consists of an Oil Impregnated Paper (O.I.P.) condenser core manufactured from
superior grade craft paper would on aluminum tube. This bushing is voltage graded by
suitably interposed aluminum foils forming condenser layers. Thus the electrical stress are
controlled throughout the thickness and along the surface avoiding any highly stress
concentrations. The bushing is supplied fully assembled in a wooden packing case with the
busing supported at an angle of 10 degree to the horizontal. The bushing should never be
placed horizontally.
14. Insulating Oil
The insulating oil has three functions:
1 Provides additional insulation
2 Protects the paper from dirt and moisture
3 Carries away the heat generated in the core and coils.
The Insulating oil should have the following properties :
i) High Dielectric Strength.
ii) Free from inorganic acid, alkali and corrosive sulphur to prevent injury to
the conductor or insulation.
iii) Low viscosity to provide good heat transfer
iv) Free from sludge under normal operating conditions.
v) Free from sludge under normal operating conditions.
vi) Good resistance to emulsion so that the oil may throw away any moisture that enters the
3.5 Lighting Arresters
They are used to protect the sub-station & transmission lines arrests is earthed
. Gap is adjusted in such a way that 50% over voltage is operators. We will use
value type lighting arresters this types is called non-linear diverter. In this spark gap
& resistance disc are used . when there is less change in line voltage than is not
flashover in gap but when there is over voltage & rapid change in voltage then

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even grounding of voltage will not possible the value of flash over voltage depends
on surge currents. Operation will start when voltage will increase 10% of rated
1. Rod gap arresters
2. Horn gap arresters
3. Multigap arresters
4. Expulsion type arresters
5. Value type arresters
3.6 Circuit Breakers
Classification of circuit breakers
1) Are quenching (Medium Wise)
a) Air Blast CB
b) Oil CB
c) Air Blast CB
d) Vacuum CB
e) SF CB
2) Application wise :
a) Generator CB
b) Transformer Line CB
c) Industrial CB
d) Distribution CB
3) Voltage Level Wise:
b) MV CB
c) LV CB
4) Base on Construction:
a) Dead Tank Breaker
b) Live Tank Breaker
G.S.S has SF Circuit Breakers which have the following mechanism.
3.6.1 SF Circuit Breaker: In this CB, the SF gas is used as an quenching agent. The
process of extinction by the gas is shown the below block diagram
At the time of fault:
Contracts of CB open

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The Valve mechanism permits high pressure SF gas from the

reservoir to flow towards the are interruption chamber from the
Trip Valve, which is now NO-normally open.

The high pressure flow of the SF gas rapidly absorbs the free
electrons in the are path to form immobile negative ions, which
are ineffective are charge carriers.

As a result, the medium between the contacts quickly builds up

high Dielectric Strength & causes the extinction of the arc.

Fig. 3.5 Circuit Breaker Electrical properties of SF
Electron affinity: The excellent insulation properties of sulphur hexafluoride are attributable
to the strong electron affinity of the SF molecule. This is based mainly on two mechanisms,
resonance capture and dissociative attachment of electrons in accordance with the equations:
1) SF +e SF
2) SF + e SF + F

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The process represented by equations (1) applies to electron energies of 0.1 eV with
an energy range of 0.05eV and that represented by equations (2) applies to an energy range of
0.1 eV.
1. Are-quenching capacity: On account of its thermal properties and low ionization
temperature, sulphur hexafluoride exhibits outstanding characteristics for the extinguishing of
electric arcs. The quenching time using SF is about 100 times less than that using air.
2. Dielectric Strength: The strong interaction of hi-energy electrons with the polyatomic SF
reaches that of transformer oil at pressure of only 3 bars. The breakdown strength of SF is
independent of frequency. It is inert gas. Chemical inertness of this gas is advantageous in
switchgear. The components do not get oxidized or deteriorated. The life of metallic part,
Contacts is longer in SF gas. Hence the maintenance requirements are reduced. Operating Principals Of Sf Circuits Breaker:
The SF6 breaker operates on what is usually referred as the puffer principle. In puffer type
SF6 circuit breaker , the entire breaker is filled with SF6 gas at single pressure of 5 Kg/cm 2 or
about 7 bar. The breaker is a sealed unit . during the opening stroke the SF6 gas is compressed
released through the nozzle of insulating material. The compressed gas flow through the
nozzle at a high velocity and takes away the heat produced by the arc the arc is quenched at a
current zero. The high dielectric strength of gas is useful in giving good with stand voltage
SF6 circuit breaker are explosion free , can quench capacitive currents , short circuit current
etc. Early and are used for high voltage circuit breakers for voltage above 3.3 KV During
manufacture of the breaker pole it is dried internally through pumping, the breaker pole is
then to pressurized and also tested against leaks inside the pile there is a absorption medium
for the decomposition products of the gas. The breakers pole should only be opened by
trained person at the manufacturing factory.

3.7 Isolators
Then carrying out inspection or repair in a substation installation. It is essential to
disconnect reliably the unit or the section, on which the work is to be done, from all other live
parts of the installation in order to ensure complete safety of the working staff. To guard
against mistakes it is desirable that an apparatus, which makes a visible break in the circuit,
should do this apparatus is the isolating switch. It may be defined as a device used to pen ( or
close ) a circuit in the voltage across the terminal e.g. each pole of the isolator will result
from the operation.

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Isolators are classified as:

1. Off load isolator-It is an isolator which is operated when the isolator is already
disconnected from all sources of supply or when the isolator is already disconnected from the
supply and current may be due to capacitance current of bushings bus bar connections and
very short length of cable.
2. On load isolator -It is isolator, which is operated in a circuit where there is a parallel path
of low impedance so that no significant change in the voltage across the terminals of each
pole occurs when it is operated .

Fig.3.6 Isolator
3.8 Instrument Transformer
Is defined as a transformer intended to feed the measuring instruments, meters,
relays etc. Generally protective system are relays are connected to the secondary of a
current transformer as they cannot withstand high currents. These ITs help in
reducing these voltages & currents to acceptable level for operation of voltmeters &
3.8.1 Current Transformer
A CT is an instrument transformer in which the secondary current is substantially
reduced proportional to the primary current & differs from it by the angle which is
approx. direction of current . These transformers are different from general power

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Fig. 3.7 Current Transformer

Shown below are the major differences that are noticeable:

Conventional Transformer Current Transformer

Driving Function: voltage. Driving Function : Current

Secondary load impedance determines the CT primary current is the determining
secondary current. and predominated factor.

Corresponding to the secondary current the Secondary current follows the primary
primary current flows. current. Function / Application of a CT

1. For Metering function : It transforms the high value Primary Current substantially low
value secondary current which can be fed directly to measuring instruments for measuring the
current & power in the main circuit.
2. For Protection Purpose: The secondary current can also feed Protective Relays which
operate the protective system in the main circuit in case of any abnormality in the system.
Definition of the different terms related with current transformers :
a) Rated Primary Current: The value of primary current on which the primary
performance of the current transformers is specified.
b) Rated Short Time Current: Its defined as r.m.s value of a.c component which the CT
can carry without damage.
c) Rated Secondary Current: The value of secondary current marked on the rating plate.

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d) Rated Exiting Current: The RMS value of current taken by the secondary winding of a.
C.T. When sinusoidal voltage of rated frequency is applied to secondary with primary
winding open.
e) Rated Burden: The burden assigned by the manufacturer at which C.T performs with
specified accuracy.
f) Current Error Ratio Error: The percentage error in the magnitude of secondary current
is defined in the terms of current error. Burden on C.T.

Rated burden of CTS and VTs referring to the maximum load in volt-amperes 9
VAO which may be applied across the secondary terminals without the ratio and phase angle
error-exceeding the permissible limits. The burden depends upon the number of relays and
instruments connected and their individuals burden typical values. Various Types of Construction of CTs
A CT has following essential parts
1. Insulation over the core by taps
2. Secondary winding having several turns would on the insulated core.
3. Bar primary passing through the window of the core and terminals.
4. Support porcelain or epoxy insulator.
5. Synthetic resin or oil insulation. CTs For High Voltage Installations
Separately mounted post type CTs are suitable for outdoor service. The primary
conductor is at high voltage with respect to the earth. Hence it is insulated by means of
insulation column filed with dielectric oil. In high voltage CTs the primary and secondary
windings are situated at the upper end of the unit. The primary wdg. Normally being of bar
type. The top fabricated housing is at line potential and is supported on the porcelain
insulator. Specification Of 400 KV Current Transformers
1. Type Dead tank, single phase out door, oil immersed & Hermetically sealed .
2. Manufacturers Designation 420 kV CT.
3. Rated voltage ( KV ) 420
4. Short time thermal rating for One second ( KA rms ). 40

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5. Rated dynamic current of primary 100 ( Kapeak).

6. Flux density at knee point voltage, 14.5 Wb/cm2
7. NO. of primary turns single
8. No. of secondary turns 200-1000-500
9. Core area , cum2 65.55
10. Core length, (Average magnetic path) cms. 104.46
11. Type of primary winding Hair pin type.
12. 1 Temperature rise (degree C) at rated continuous thermal current over max. ambient
temperature at site for
i) Winding 40
ii) Oil at top 40
iii) Exposed current carrying parts 55
12.2 Temperate rise at normal rating over max. Ambient temperature site for
i) Winding 40
ii) Oil at top 40
iii) Exposed current carrying parts.
13. Total creep age distance, mm 10500
14. Protection creep age distance 5250
15. One minute power frequency with stand test voltage ( kv rms ) 630
16. 250/2500 micro seconds switching impulse withstand voltage (kv peak) 1050
17. 1.2/50 micro second impulse withstand test voltage (kv peak) 1425
18. Power frequency withstand test 4 kv for core IV & V and Voltage on secondary
(kv rms) 3 kv rms for core III
19. Weight of oil per C.T. kegs. 510
20. Governing standard for oil IS 335
21. Whether pressure relief device Yes Provided.
22. Total weight per CT kgs. 2150
23. Overall dimension .mm 1150 x 750 x 5200
24. Current density in primary winding at
i) Normal rating A/cm2 208
ii) Thermal rating for 1 sec., A.cms 249
iii) Dynamic rating, A/cm2 10405
25. Visual corona extinction voltage 320 (k Vrms)

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3.8.2 Potential Transformers

Potential transformers (PT) are mainly instrument transformers that are basically used for
the following purposes :
1. For stepping down the voltage for measurement
2. As line voltmeters
3. Protective relays
4. Tariff meters Construction
The PT is mostly step down and shell type. The secondary voltage is generally 110 V
potential transformers are of two types :

a. Magnetic type
The magnetic type PT work on the principles of power transformers. The design is
particularly for the system voltage of 132 K.V. and above where it becomes increasingly
more economical. Main parts of the PT are stated below :-
1. Core: The core may be shell type in its construction. Shell type core is suitable for low
voltage transformers.
2. Winding: The primary and the secondary winding are coaxial to reduce leakage to
minimum. The primary winding may be single coil but must be subdivided.
3. Insulation: Cotton type and varnished cambric are used or soil construction. Hard fiber
separators are used between coils. At low voltages, the transformers are usually filled without
above 700 volts been developed for use up to 45 K.V.

Fig. 3.7 Potential transformer

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b. Capacitor voltage transformers (CVT)

CVT are used for line voltmeters synchroscropes, protective relays, tariff meter etc. The
supply frequency-switching transients, magnitude of connected burden etc, affect the
performance of CVT. The CVT is more economical then an electromagnetic voltage
transformers when the nominal system voltage increase above 66 KV. The carrier current
equipment can be connected via the capacitor voltage transformers, thereby there is no need
of separated coupling capacitors. The CVT are used for voltage above 66 KV and above. At
such voltage the costs of electromagnetic voltage transformer is too high. The capacitor
connected in series with the CVT acts like a potential divider. The burden provided by the
capacitor is negligible. The construction of CTV depends on the form if the capacitors
voltage divider. Generally HV capacitors are enclosed in porcelain housing. Schedule of
guaranteed data and technical particulars for 4400-pf-400KV capacitor voltage transformers.
3.9 Insulators
The insulators serve two purposes. They support the conductors and confine the current to
the conductors. The most commonly used material for the manufacture of insulator is
porcelain. There are several types of insulators and there use in the substation will depend
upon the service requirement. It is stronger mechanically than glass gives less trouble from
leakage & is less affected by change of temperature.
Type of insulators
i) Pin type Insulator
ii) Suspension type insulator
iii) Strain Insulator
iv) Shackle Insulators
v) Post Insulators.
Their use in the substation will depend upon the service requirement.
3.9.1 Pin type Insulator
Pin type of insulator is not economical beyond 33 KV. For high voltage (>33 kV), it is a
usual practice to use suspension type insulators. They consist of a number of porcelain discs
connected in series by metal links in the form of a starting. The conductor is suspended at
the bottom end of the string while the other end of the string is secured to the cross-arm of
the tower. Each unit or disc is designed for low voltage. If working voltage is 66kv, and then
six discs in series will be provided in the string.
3.9.2 Strain Insulators

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When there is a dead end of the line or there is corner or sharp curve the line is
subjected to greater tension. In order the line of excessive tension are used. For high
voltage transmission lines, strain insulators consists of an assembly of suspension the tension
in lines is exceedingly high, 2 or more strings are used in parallel.

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Seminar Report on 400/220KV G.S.S


4.1 Introduction
For exchange of dates & transfer of message between GSS voice communication is
necessary. High frequency carrying currents audio signals is generated, transmitted &
received with the help of identical carrier current equipment provided on each end.

4.2 Equipments of PLCC

4.2.1 Coupling Capacitor

It acts like a filter. It blocks power frequency (50hz) while offer low reactance to carrier
frequencies as allows them to pats through because. For examples A 2000 pf capacitors offer
1.5-mega ohm to 50hz while if just offer 150 ohms to 500 kHz. Thus coupling capacitor
allows carrier frequency signal to enter the carrier equipment bus does not allow 50hz
power frequency current to enter the carrier equipments.

4.2.2. Wave Trap Unit

It is parallel turned comprising of c & I. It has low impedance to 50hz & high impedance
to carrier frequencies get passed through wave trap & carrier frequencies passes through
coupling capacitor & reaches carrier current Wave traps are mounted in outdoor switchyard.
Wave trap mounted at GSS is under hung.

4.2.3. Transmitter & Receiver Unit

Carrier current unit acts like both transmitter receiver carrier frequencies are generated in
master oscillator can be tuned to a particular frequency selected for the application output
voltage of oscillator is held constant by voltage stabilizers. Output of oscillators is fed to
amplifiers, which increases the strength of signal to be transmitted to overcome the
transmission losses. Line losses vary with length of line frequency type of line losses in
overhead lines. Receiving unit comprises of an alternator. Band pass filter restricts the
acceptance of uncounted signal & matching transformer or matching element matches the
impedance of line & receiving unit block diagram of receiving of receiving unit.

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5.1 Introduction
In order to generate electric power and transmit to customers, millions of rupees must be
spent on power system equipment. This equipment is designed to work under specified
normal conditions.
However a fault may occur causing the system to collapse. This fault occurs because of:
1) Over voltage due to switching.
2) Over voltage due to direct and indirect lighting strokes.
3) Bridging of conductors by birds.
4) Breakdown of insulation due to decrease of its dielectric strength.
5) Mechanical damage of equipment.
These short circuits may cause heavy damage to equipment and would also cause intolerable
interruption of service to customers.
5.2 Protective Relays
Relays are the devices that detect abnormal conditions in electrical circuits by
constantly measuring electrical quantities, which are different under normal and fault
conditions. The basic electrical quantities, which may change under fault conditions, are
voltage, current, phase angle and frequency. Having detected the faults the relays operates to
competent the trip circuit which result in opening of the circuits breaker and therefore in the
disconnection of the faulty circuits.
5.2.1 Basic requirements of protective relaying:
A well designed and protective relaying should have
i) Speed
ii) Selectivity
iii) Sensitivity
iv) Reliability
v) Simplicity
vi) Economy

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5.3 Types of Protection

There are two types of protection known as primary and back up. The primary
protection is the first line to defense and primary relays clear faults in the protected system as
fast as possible. The reliability, not only if the protected scheme but also of the associated
C.T.s, P.T.s and the C.B.s cannot be guaranteed. Therefore some sort of back up protection
must be provided. The backup relay operates if the primary relays fails and covers not only
the local primary relays to operate. Protective relays are classified depending upon their
construction and principles of operation such as:-Ordinary electromagnetic relays consisting
of moving plunger, moving iron, attracted armature hinged and balanced beams types of
relays are various examples, D.C. actuated such replays. Electromagnetic induction or simply
induction relays use the principles of induction motors (whereby torque is developed by
induction in rotor) in their operation. Such relays are actuated by A.C. quantities only. Electro
thermal relays (thermal overload protection using bimetallic strip) Physic-electrical relays:
Bucholys relays are examples of this type. Static relays employing thermionic valves,
transistors or magnetic amplifiers to obtain the operating characteristics. Electro-dynamic
relays operate on the same principles as moving coil instrument.
The various types of relays installed at 400 KV GSS are: -
1) Over current relays
2) Distance relays
3) Differential relays
4) Earth fault relays
5.3.1 Over Current Relays:
Directional type over current relays works on the induction principles and initiates
corrective measures when current in the circuit. Exceed the pre-determined value. The
actuating source is a current in the circuit supplied to the relay from a current transformer.
These relays are used on a.c. circuits and can operate for fault flow in either direction. But
their relays are unsuitable for use as a directional protective relay under short circuit
conditions. When a short circuit occurs, the system value falls to a low value and there may
be insufficient torque developed in the in the relays to cause its operation. This difficulty is
over come in the directional over current relays, which is designed to be almost independent
of system voltage and power factor.

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Fig5.1 relay

Under normal operating conditions, powers flows in the normal direction in the circuit
protected by the relays. Therefore, directional power relays (upper element) does not operate,
thereby keeping the over current element (lower element) energized. However when a short
circuit occurs, there is tendency for the current or power to flow in the reverse direction.
Should this happen, the disc of the upper elements rotates to bridge the fixed contact 1 and 2.
This completes the circuits for over current elements. The disc of this element rotates and the
moving contact attached to it closes and the trip circuit. This operates this circuits breaker
which isolates final tripping of the current by them is not made till the following conditions
are satisfied: -
(a) Current flows in a direction such as to operate the directional element.
(b) Current in the reverse direction exceed the pre-set value.
Grading of the time lags of the relays, which controls a number of switches in a feeder.
These relays automatically adjust their time of operation depending upon their distance from
There are four main elements in any distance protection as follows: -
(i) Operating elements O: The element brings protection into action whenever a fault
occurs within the protected zone.
(ii) Directional elements S: This gives directional features to the operation of the system
and is useful in network having duplicate feeder. As soon as the fault current into the bus bar
from the line this element operates.

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(iii) Distance element Z: This is sensitive to the ratio of the operating voltage to the fault
current i.e. V/ if or upon fictitious impedance when looking into the system from the fault.
The value of Zf is dependent upon the distance of the fault from the relays. The principle
of this element is more or less like ohmmeter.
(iv) Time delay element T: This element creates a time lag, the importance of which has
already been discussed above. This time lag depends upon the distance of the fault point from
the relay.
5.3.2 Distance Relay:
Distance protection is the name given to the protection, whose action depends upon the
distance of the feeding point to the fault. The time of operation of such a protection is a
function of the ratio of voltage and current, i.e. impedance. This impedance between the relay
and the fault is dependent upon the electrical distance between them. An impedance relay has
an operating force proportional to the fault current and restraining force proportional to the
line voltage at the relay. As soon as the ratio of this voltage to the fault current change i.e.
falls below a certain value, the relay operates. This value is dependent upon the distance of
the fault, which is predetermined. Hence for this reason the relay is discriminative and it does
not operate for any fault occurring outside this distance. As it is very important to localize the
fault, a relay of the above type is given a controlled time lag, so that the relay nearest to the
fault operates first. This time lag is made proportional to the distance of the fault by so
designing the relay that it has a time lag characterizes, which is dependent upon the line
voltage at the relay directly. Again, the time lag characteristic is inversely proportional to the
fault current that is passing through the relay. In case of a fault, there is a steady fall of
voltage along the line from the feeding point to the fault. This voltage gradient can be utilized
for longer be in balance. This voltage difference will cause a current to flow through the
operating coil of relay, which closes the trip circuit.
5.3.3 Differential Relays:
A differential relay is one that operates when the difference of two or more electrical
quantities exceeds a predetermined value. Almost any type of relay connected, in a certain
way, can be made to operate as differential relays. There are two fundamental system of
differential protection viz.
1) Current balance protection
2) Voltage balance protection

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A current balance differential relay is one that compares the current entering a section of
the system of the system with the current leaving the section. Under normal operating
condition no longer applies. If this differential current is equal to or greater than the pick-up
value, the relay will operate & open the circuit breaker to isolate the faulty section. Under
healthy condition equal current flows in both primary windings. Therefore the secondary
voltages are balanced against each other & no current will through the relay-operating coil.
5.3.4 Earth Fault Relays:
Directional type over current relays work on the induction principle and initiates the char-
active measures. When current in the circuit exceeds the predetermined values. The actuating
source is a current in the circuit supplied to the relay from a CT. these relays are unsuitable
for use as directional protective relays under short-circuit conditions. When a short circuit
occurs, the system values falls to a low value and there may be insufficient torque developed
in the relay to cause its operation. This difficult is overcome in the directional over current
relay, which is designed to be almost independent of system voltage and power factor.

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6.1 Introduction
Connecting of an electrical equipment or apparatus to the earth with the help of a
connecting wire of negligible resistance is called as Earthling or grounding. The
provision of earth electrode for an electrical system is necessity by following reasons.
1. All the parts of an electrical equipments like casings of machines circuit breaker, lead
sheathing & armoring of cables, tanks of transformer etc, which have to be the at earth
potential, must be connected to an earth electrodes. This current operates the proactive device
& thus the faulty circuits is halted in case occur.
2. The electrode ensures that in the event of over voltage of an the system due to lighting
discharge or other system faults which are normally dead as for as voltage are concerned
do not attain dangerously high potentials.
3. In a 3-phase circuit the neutral of the system is earthed in order to stabilize the potentials
of the circuit with respect to earth. In electrical installations the following components
must be earthed: -
a) The flames, tanks & enclosed of electric machines transformers and apparatus, lighting
b) The operating mechanism of the switchboards control boards individual panel boards,
c) The structural steel work of sub-stations, metal cable jointing boxes, the metal sheaths of
the cable s the rigid metal conduct runs & similar metal work.
There are 2 methods of earthing:
1- Pipe earthing.
2- Plate earthing.
6.2 Earthing Arrangements 400 KV GSS
In a GSS or any magnitude various non current carrier equipment to be
earthed namely substation structures , shielding g wires or masts ,equipments tanks
spread over large areas therefore it becomes necessary to lay a grounding bus connect
the various items to be earthed to be ground bus through suitable connection to
heave duplicate earthing is broken the sub - station may remains safe under all
conditions . It generally, therefore becomes desirables to form a ring of the earthing
electrodes. Another way of looking into the sub - station earthing problem is that a very low

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Seminar Report on 400/220KV G.S.S

Earthing problem is that a very low earthing resistance value is required

resistance in a very large low earthing value is required in a large areas occupied but
the sub - station such can only be obtained by using a number of rod & joining
them in parallel .In a sub -station the earthing system invariably takes the shape of
grounding meet with necessary or additional rounding rods accepts in the case of
very small sub stations. Common earth electrodes should be use for both system earths &
equipments earth. Here also it is recommended to have common earth bus for high voltage
system. Where there are manual operating handle to the system .A typical earthing
arrangements for a GSS .
6.2.1 Plate Earthing
In plate earthing plate either of copper of dimensions 600cm * 60cm *3.15mm
or of galvanized iron of dimensions 60cm * 60cm * 6.30cm s burled into the ground
with its face vertical at a depth of not less that 3mt from ground levels .A small
masonry brick wall enclosure with a cast iron cover or top an RCC pipe round the
earth plate is provided to facilitate its identification & for carrying out periodical
inspection & tests. The earth wire GI wire of GI plate earthing is securely. Bolted to an earth
place with the help of a bolt nut & washer made of material & of galvanized iron in case of
GI plate earthing.

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7.1 Introduction:
The Laboratory at 400 KV GSS substation is equipped with various instruments to
test the transformer oil. It is very important to test the oil at regular intervals. It also used to
test the oil in failure conditions to find out the reason of failure.
7.2 Importance of Transformer Oil
1. The Oil serves dual purpose of insulating medium & coolant.
2. Heat generated inside a Transformer is dissipated to the Atmosphere through
Insulating Medium.
3. This ensures Longer Life & Less Thermal Degradation of Insulation.
4. Provide Arc Quenching Medium.
7.3 Deterioration of Transformer Oil
1. Accidental Leakage of Water
2. Chemical Decomposition
3. Contamination by Gases
4. Electrical Stresses
5. Thermal Stresses
6. Effect of Oxidation Products
7. Physical Contamination

Fig 8.1: oil tasting instrument

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Fig. current transformer

Fig. Line reactor

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Seminar Report on 400/220KV G.S.S

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The opportunity of being able to get training at 400/220 KV Muzaffarpur substation was
really a privilege. We came to know about actual working of different equipments in real
world from different faculties over there and it has proved quit fruitful.

The training correlated the theoretical and practical aspects of the subject explaining the
functions, parts and use of devices and equipments used in transmission and distribution of

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Seminar Report on 400/220KV G.S.S


1. Donald G. Fink, H. Wayne Beatty Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineers

Eleventh Edition, McGraw Hill 1978 ISBN 0-07-020974-X
2. Mack, James E.; Shoemaker, Thomas (2006). Chapter 15 - Distribution Transformers
(PDF) (11th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. pp. 151 to 1522. ISBN 0-07-146789-0.

3. Walter A. Elmore. Protective Relaying Theory and Applications. Marcel Dekker Inc.
ISBN 0-8247-9152-5.




1. Senior student report

2. Material of G.S.S Muzafferpur

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