Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 231

# 1

2

## MATHEMATICS AND STATISTICS (40)

PART I
STANDARD XII
(ARTS & SCIENCE)

BY

Prakash D. Wasankar
M. Sc. (Mathematics) B. Ed.

3

## Mathematics and Statistics (40)

Part II

Standard XII
(Arts & science)
Publisher

All rights reserved. This book or any portion thereof may not be reproduced or used in any manner whatsoever
without the express written permission of the publisher except for the use of brief quotations in a book review.

## Dist. Buldhana 444203

Mob 9422925819

E-mail jyotiwasankar@gmail.com

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

4

Contents
Sr.No. Name of Chapter Page No.

1 Matrices 4

2 Mathematical Logic 28

3 Trigonometric Function 41

5 Vectors 131

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

5

3 2 61 0 0
MATRICES 3 3 60 3 0
0 1 0 1 3 0
2 2 50 0 1
Inverse matrix:-

## Let A be a non singular matrix then   2 2 40 2 0

0 0 10 2 1
exist

 =   = 
1 1 2 0 1 0
0 1 0  = 1 3 0
0 0 1 0 2 1
Procedure for finding inverse matrix by using

Apply 1 
elementary operation

## Keep 1 in the place of 

Keep 0 in the place of  
  1 1 2 0 1 0
i.

0 1 0  = 1 3 0
Keep 1 in the place of 
ii.

0 0 1 0 2 1
Keep 0 in the place of 
 
iii.

iv.

## Keep 0 in the place of  


v.

1 0 2 1 2 0
3 2 6
vi.
0 1 0  = 1 3 0
1. Find the inverse of  = 1 1 2 by using
0 0 1 0 2 1
2 2 5
elementary transformation Apply   2

1 0 21 2 0
0 0 20 4 2
Solution:-

3 2 6 1 0 01 2 2
 = 1 1 2
2 2 5 1 0 0 1 2 2
0 1 0  = 1 3

0
3 2 6 0 0 1 0 2 1
|| = 1 1 2
2 2 5 1 2 2
 = 1 3 0
|| = 35 4 25 4 + 62 2 0 2 1

|| = 3 2 + 0 = 1 0 1 2 2
 = 1 3 0
A is nonsingular matrix 0 2 1

 exists 0 1 2
2. Find the inverse of  = 1 2 3 by elementary
 =  3 1 1

3 2 6 1 0 0
operation

1 1 2  = 0 1 0
2 2 5 0 0 1
Solution:-

0 1 2
Apply    = 1 2 3
3 1 1
1 1 2 0 1 0
3 2 6  = 1 0 0 0 1 2
|| = 1 2 3
2 2 5 0 0 1
3 1 1
Apply   3 
2
|| = 0 11 9 + 21 6

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

6

|| = 8 10 = 2 0 0 1 2 1 0 0
0 0 2 5 3 1
A is nonsingular matrix 0 1 0 4 3 1

 exists 1 1 1
' *
1 0 0
&2 2 2)
 =  0 1 0  = &4 3 1)
0 0 1 &5 3 1)
%2
0 1 2 1 0 0 2 2(
1 2 3  = 0 1 0
3 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1
' *
&2 2 2)
Apply    = &4 3 1)
&5 3 1)
1 2 3 0 1 0 % 2 2 2 (
0 1 2  = 1 0 0
3 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1
' *
&2 2 2)
Apply   3  = &4 3 1)
&5 3 1)
3 1 1 0 0 1 % 2 2 2(
3 6 9 0 3 0
0 5 8 0 3 1 2 0 1
3. Find the inverse of the matrix  = 5 1 0  by
1 2 3 0 1 0 0 1 3
0 1 2   = 1 0 0
0 5 8 0 3 1
elementary transformation

Apply   2 
+ 5
Solution:-

2 0 1
1 2 3 0 1 0
 = 5 1 0
0 2 42 0 0
0 1 3
1 0 12 1 0
2 0 1
0 5 80 3 1 || = 5 1 0
0 5 10 5 0 0
0 1 3
0 0 2 5 3 1
1 0 1 2 1 0 || = 23 0 0 15 0
0 1 2   = 1 0 0
|| = 6 5 = 1 0
0 0 2 5 3 1

 A is nonsingular matrix

Apply
 exists
2 1 0
1 0 1
1 0 0  = 
0 1 2   =" 5 3 1#
0 0 1
2 2 2 2 0 1 1 0 0
5 1 0   = 0 1 0

Apply   +  
  2 0 1 3 0 0 1
2 1 0 Apply  3 
1 0 1
1   
\$ 
0 0
6 0 3 3 0 0
1 0 0   
  
5 1 0   = 0 1 0
0 1 3 0 0 1

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

7

Apply    1 0 1
|| = 0 2 3
1 1 3 3 1 0 1 2 1
5 1 0   = 0 1 0


## Apply   5 || = 4 2 = 6 0

5 1 0 0 1 0
5 5 1515 5 0
A is nonsingular matrix

## 0 6 1515 6 0  exists

1 1 3 3 1 0  = 
0 6 15   = 15 6 0
0 1 3 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0
0 2 3  = 0 1 0
Apply   5 1 2 1 0 0 1
0 6 15 15 6 0 Apply   
0 5 15 0 0 5
0 1 0 15 6 5 1 0 1 1 0 0
0 2 3  = 0 1 0
1 1 3 3 1 0
0 2 0 1 0 1
0 1 0   = 15 6 5
0 1 3 0 0 1 Apply   


Apply   +  

1 0 1 1 0 0
1 0 0 3 1 1 3  1
"0 1 # = " 0 0#
0 1 0  = 15 6 5 2 2
0 0 3 15 6 6 0 2 0 1 0 1

Apply   2

Apply
0 2 0 1 0 1
1 0 0 3 1 1
0 1 0  = 15 6 5 0 2 3 0 1 0
0 0 31 1 1
0 0 1 5 2 2
3 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0
3 1

= 15 6 5 "0 1 #  = " 0 0#
5 2 2 2 2
0 0 3 1 1 1
3 1 1
 = 15 6 5 Apply


5 2 2
1 0 0
1 0 1 1 0 1 ' 1 *
4. Find the inverse of  = 0 2 3 by elementary 3  &0 0 )
"0 1 # = & 2 )
1 2 1 2
0 0 1 &1 1 1)
%3 (
3 3
transformation

Apply    
  
Solution:-

1 0 1
 = 0 2 3
1 2 1

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

8

1 0 0  = 
1 0 1 
1

 
0 0 1 2 3 1 0 0
1 0 0    1 1 5  = 0 1 0

2 4 7 0 0 1
0 0

0 1


 Apply    and   2
 
  
0 0

 

1 1 5 0 1 0
0 1 0  0

 1 2 31 0 0
0 1 2 1 1 0
2 1 1
' * 2 4 7 0 0 1
1 0 0 & 3 3 3 )
2 4 62 0 0
1 1 )
0 1 0  = & 0 0 0 1 2 0 1
0 0 1 & 2 2 )
& 1 1 1) 1 2 3 1 0 0
% 3 (
3 3 0 1 2  = 1 1 0
0 0 1 2 0 1
2 1 1
' *
& 3 3 3 ) Apply 1 
1 1 )
 
= & 0
& 2 2 ) 1 2 3 1 0 0
& 1 1 1) 0 1 2  = 1 1 0
% 3 ( 0 0 1 2 0 1
3 3
2 1 1 Apply   2
' *
& 3 3 3 )
1 2 31 0 0
1 1 )
 = & 0 0 2 42 2 0
& 2 2 ) 1 0 71 2 0
& 1 1 1)
% 3 (
3 3 1 0 7 1 2 0
0 1 2  = 1 1 0
1 2 3 0 0 1 2 0 1
5. Find the inverse of 1 1 5 by using elementary
2 4 7 Apply   7 
  + 2

1 0 7 1 2 0
transformation

0 0 7 14 0 7
1 0 0 13 2 7
Solution:-

1 2 3
,-.  = 1 1 5 0 1 2 1 1 0
2 4 7 0 0 2 4 0 2
0 1 0 3 1 2
1 2 3
|| = 1 1 5 1 0 0 13 2 7
2 4 7 0 1 0  = 3 1 2 
0 0 1 2 0 1
|| = 17 20 27 10 + 34 2
13 2 7
|| = 13 + 6 + 6 = 1 0  = 3 1 2 
2 0 1
13 2 7
 = 3 1 2 
A is nonsingular matrix

 exists
2 0 1

9

## cos 2 sin 2 0 sin 2 1

6. Find the inverse of the matrix sin 2 cos 2 0 1 0 0 0
" cos 2 #  = " cos 2 #
0 0 1 0 1 0 sin 2 cos 2 0
0 0 1 0 0 1

Apply   + 567 8 
79: 8
By elementary operation

Solution:-

0 0

cos 2 sin 2 0 1 567 8 0
79: 8
567 8
Let  = sin 2 cos 2 0
0 0 sin 2 0
79: 8 79:; 8
0 0 1 567 8 567 8
1 0 0 cos 2 sin 2 0
cos 2 sin 2 0
|| =  sin 2 cos 2 0 1 0 0 cos 2 sin 2 0
0 0 1 0 1 0  = sin 2 cos 2 0
0 0 1 0 0 1
|| = cos 2 cos 2 0 + sin 2 sin 2 0 + 0
cos 2 sin 2 0
|| = cos 2 + sin 2 = 1 0
   = sin 2 cos 2 0
0 0 1
cos 2 sin 2 0
A is nonsingular matrix
 = sin 2 cos 2 0
 exists

0 0 1
 =  2 3 3
7. Find the inverse of the matrix 2 2 3 by
cos 2 sin 2 0 1 0 0 3 2 2
sin 2 cos 2 0  = 0 1 0
0 0 1 0 0 1
elementary operation


 Solution:-
567 8
2 3 3
Apply

sin 2 1 <-.  = 2 2 3
1 0 0 0
" cos 2 #  = "cos 2 # 3 2 2
sin 2 cos 2 0 0 1 0
0 0 1 0 0 1 2 3 3
|| = 2 2 3
Apply   sin 2  3 2 2

## sin 2 cos 2 0 0 1 0 || = 24 + 6 + 34 9 + 34 6

0 567 8 0 0
79: 8
sin 2 + 567 8
79:; 8
|| = 20 15 30 = 25 0
0 0 567 8 1 0
 79: 8
567 8

sin 2 1
A is nonsingular matrix

## '1 0* ' 0 0*  exists

& cos 2 )  & cos 2 )
&0 1  = & sin 2
& 0)) & cos 2 1 0))  = 
cos 2
%0 0 1( % 0 0 1( 2 3 3 1 0 0
2 2 3  = 0 1 0


567 8 3 2 2 0 0 1
Apply

Apply 

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

10

3 2 2 0 0 1 0

2 2 3  = 0 1 0 0 1 1 \$ \$
0 0 1 \$
  
2 3 3 1 0 0 \$ \$
0 1 0  
Apply    0
\$ \$

1 1 1 1 0 1 2 3
2 2 3   = 0 1 0 ' 0 *
1 0 0 & 5 5 )
2 3 3 1 0 0 1 1
0 1 0  = & 0 )
Apply   2 
2 0 0 1 & 5 5 )
& 2 1 2)
% 5 (
2 2 30 1 0 5 5
2 2 22 0 2 2 3 7
0 0 52 1 2 ' *
& 5 5 5)
2 3 31 0 0 1 1
 = & 0 )
2 2 22 0 2 & 5 5 )
0 5 53 0 2 & 2 1 2)
% 5 (
5 5
1 1 1 1 0 1
0 0 5   = 2 1 2 2 3 7
0 5 5 3 0 2 ' *
& 5 5 5)
1 1
Apply    = & 0 )
& 5 5 )
1 1 1 1 0 1 & 2 1 2)
% 5 (
0 5 5   = 3 0 2 5 5
0 0 5 2 1 2
1 3 2
8. Find the inverse of the matrix 3 0 5by
\$ 

2 5 0
Apply

1 0 1
1 1 1
elementary operation
3 2
0 1 1  = " 0 #
0 0 5 5 5
Solution:-
2 1 2 1 3 2
Let  = 3 0 5
==,>   
2 5 0
2 3 1 3 2
' 0 *
1 0 0 || = 3 0 5
& 5 5)
0 1 1  =& 3 2) 2 5 0
0 0 5 & 5 0 5)
% 2 1 2( || = 10 + 25 30 + 10 215 0

Apply \$

|| = 25 30 + 30 = 25 0

2 3
' 0 *
A is nonsingular matrix

1 0 0 & 5 5 )
 exists
3 2 )
0 1 1  = & 0
0 0 1 & 5 5 )  = 
& 2 1 2)
% 5 (
5 5 1 3 2 1 0 0
3 0 5 A = 0 1 0

==,>   +  2 5 0 0 0 1

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

11

==,>   + 3 
2 2 0 1
0 1 4 

A B

3 0 5 0 1 0 0 0 4 \$ \$ \$

3 9 6 3 0 0 0 1 0  A 
\$ \$ \$
0 9 113 1 0
2 3
2 5 00 0 1 ' 1 *
& 5 5)
2 6 42 0 0 1 0 0 2 4 11 )
0 1 42 0 1 0 1 0 A = &
0 0 1 & 5 25 25 )
1 3 2 1 0 0 & 3 1 9 )
0 9 11 A = 3 1 0 % 5 25 25 (
0 1 4 2 0 1
2 3
' 1 *
Apply   5 5)
&
2 4 11
1 3 2 1 0 0 IA = & )
& 5 25 25 )
0 1 4  A = 2 0 1 & 3 1 9 )
0 9 11 3 1 0 % 5 25 25 (
Apply 1  2 3
' 1 *
1 3 2 1 0 0 & 5 5)
2 4 11 )
0 1 4  A = 2 0 1 A = &
0 9 11 3 1 0 & 5 25 25 )
& 3 1 9 )
==,>   3 
9 % 5 25 25 (

1 3 2 1 0 0 2 0 1
0 3 12 6 0 3 9. Find the inverse of the matrix 5 1 0  by
1 0 10 5 0 3 0 1 3

0 9 11 3 1 0
elementary operation

0 9 36 18 0 9
0 0 25 15 1 9
Solution:-

2 0 1
1 0 10 5 0 3 Let  = 5 1 0
0 1 4 A = 2 0 1 0 1 3
0 0 25 15 1 9
2 0 1
Apply \$  || = 5 1 0


0 1 3
5 0 3
1 0 10 || = 23 0 0 15 0
2 0 1
0 1 4 A = " 3 1 9#
0 0 1 || = 6 5 = 1 0
5 25 25

==,>   10 
  + 4 A is nonsingular matrix

5 0 3  exists
1 0 10
10 6 \$ \$
 @
0 0  = 
1 0 0 1 
2 0 1 1 0 0
\$ \$

5 1 0   = 0 1 0
0 1 3 0 0 1

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

12

Apply   1 0 0 3 1 1
0 1 0  = 15 6 5
5 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 5 2 2
2 0 1  = 1 0 0


0 1 3 0 0 1 3 1 1
 = 15 6 5
==,>   2 5 2 2

5 1 00 1 0 3 1 1
4 0 22 0 0 
= 15 6 5
1 1 22 1 0 5 2 2

1 1 2 2 1 0 1 2 2
2 0 1  = 1 0 0 10. Find the inverse of matrix 0 2 1  by
0 1 3 0 0 1 1 3 0

Apply   2
elementary raw operation

2 0 11 0 0
Solution:-

2 2 44 2 0 1 2 2
0 2 55 2 0 Let  = 0 2 1 
1 3 0
1 1 2 2 1 0
0 2 5  = 5 2 0 1 2 2
0 1 3 0 0 1 || =  0 2 1 
1 3 0
Apply 
|| = 10 3 20 + 1 20 2
1 1 2 2 1 0
0 1 3   = 0 0 1 || = 3 2 + 4 = 1 0
0 2 5 5 2 0

==,>    
+ 2
A is nonsingular matrix

 exists
1 1 2 2 1 0
0 1 3 0 0 1  = 
1 0 12 1 1
1 2 2 1 0 0
0 2 55 2 0
0 2 1   = 0 1 0
0 2 60 0 2
1 3 0 0 0 1
0 0 1 5 2 2
1 0 1 2 1 1   + 
0 1 3   = 0

0 1 1 2 2 1 0 0
0 0 1 5 2 2 0 2 1   = 0 1 0
==,>   +  and  3 0 5 2 1 0 1

Apply  

1 0 12 1 1
0 0 1 5 2 2
1 0 0 3 1 1 1 2 2 1 0 0
1  1
0 1 3 0 0 1 "0 1 #  = "0 0#
2 2
0 0 315 6 6 0 5 2 1 0 1
0 1 0 15 6 5
==,>   2 and  5

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

13

1 2 21 0 0 E E E 
0 2 1 0 1 0 
FGH . GI  = E E E  
1 0 11 1 0 E E E

0 5 2 1
\$ 1 0 1  = 
FGH . GI 
0 5 ||
 0 5/2 0
 1 5/2 1
0 0 1 2 3

11. Find the inverse of the matrix 1 1 5 by adjoint
1 0 1 1 1 0 2 4 7
' 1* ' 1 *
&0 1 )  &0 0)
& 2)  = & 2 )
method

& 1 ) & 5 )
%0 0
2 ( %1 2
1(
Solution:-

1 2 3
Apply 2  Let  = 1 1 5
2 4 7
1 0 1 1 1 0
1  1 || = 17 20 27 10 + 34 2
"0 1 #  = "0 0#
2 2
0 0 1 2 5 2 || = 13 + 6 + 6 = 1 0

1
==,>   +  
  +
2
A is nonsingular matrix

 exists
1 0 11 1 0
0 0 12 5 2 1 5
E = 1K L L = 17 20 = 13
1 0 03 6 2 4 7

0 1 0



0 1 5
E = 1K L L = 17 10 = 3
2 7
0 0 1 1
 \$

0 1

01

1 1
2 1 E = 1K L L = 14 2 = 2
2 4
1 0 0 3 6 2
0 1 0  = 1 2 2 3
1 E = 1K L L = 114 12 = 2
4 7
0 0 1 2 5 2
1 3
3 6 2 E = 1K L L = 17 6 = 1
 = 1 2 2 7
1
2 5 2 1 2
E = 1K L L = 14 4 = 0
2 4
3 6 2
 = 1 2 1 2 3
2 5 2 E  = 1 K L L = 110 3 = 7
1 5
1 3
E  = 1 K L L = 5 3 = 2
1 5
Inverse of square matrix by adjoint method

E E E 1 2
E = 1 K L L = 11 2 = 1
The co-factor matrix of given matrix A is

E E E  1 1
E  E  E E E E
E
Co-factor matrix=  E E 
E E E J
E  E  E
E

FGH . GI  =  E E 
E  E  E

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

14

13 3 2 0 1
E  = 1 K L L = 10 2 = 2
Co-factor matrix= 2 1 0 2 3
7 2 1
1 1
E  = 1 K L L = 3 0 = 3
13 3 2 J 0 3

FGH . GI  = 2 1 0
1 0
7 2 1 E = 1 K L L = 12 0 = 2
0 2
13 2 7 E E E

FGH . GI  = 3 1 2 E E E 
Co-factor matrix= 
2 0 1 E  E  E
1
 = 
FGH . GI  4 3 2
|| Co-factor matrix= 2 0 2
2 3 2
1 13 2 7 13 2 7

= 3 1 2 = 3 1 2 4 3 2 J
1
2 0 1 2 0 1 
FGH . GI  = 2 0 2
13 2 7 2 3 2
 = 3 1 2  4 2 2
2 0 1 
FGH . GI  = 3 0 3
1 0 1 2 2 2
12. Find the inverse of 0 2 3 by adjoint method 1
1 2 1  = 
FGH . GI 
||

1 4 2 2
 =
Solution:-

1 0 1 3 0 3
6
Let  = 0 2 3 2 2 2
1 2 1
1 4 2 2
 = 3 0 3
|| = 12 6 0 + 10 2 6
2 2 2
|| = 4 2 = 6 0 1 2 3
13. Find the inverse of the matrix 1 1 2 by
A is nonsingular matrix 1 2 4
 exists

2 3
E = 1K L L = 12 6 = 4
Solution:-
2 1 1 2 3
0 3 Let  = 1 1 2
E = 1K L L = 10 3 = 3 1 2 4
1 1
0 2 || = 14 4 24 2 + 32 1
E = 1K L L = 10 2 = 2
1 2
|| = 0 + 12 9 = 3 0
0 1
E = 1K L L = 10 2 = 2
2 1 A is nonsingular matrix
1 1  exists
E = 1K L L = 11 1 = 0
1 1
1 0 1 2
E = 1K L L = 12 0 = 2 E = 1K L L = 14 4 = 0
1 2 2 4

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

15

1 2 || = 3 0
E = 1K L L = 14 2 = 6
1 4
1 1
E = 1K L L = 12 1 = 3
A is nonsingular matrix
1 2  exists
2 3
E = 1K L L = 18 6 = 2 3 0
2 4 E = 1K L L = 13 0 = 3
2 1
1 3
E = 1K L L = 14 3 = 1 3 0
1 4 E = 1K L L = 13 0 = 3
5 1
1 2
E = 1K L L = 12 2 = 0 3 3
1 2 E = 1K L L = 16 15 = 9
5 2
2 3
E  = 1 K L L = 14 3 = 1 0 0
1 2 E = 1K L L = 10 0 = 0
2 1
1 3
E  = 1 K L L = 2 + 3 = 5 1 0
1 2 E = 1K L L = 11 0 = 1
5 1
1 2
E = 1 K L L = 11 + 2 = 3 1 0
1 1 E = 1K L L = 12 0 = 2
5 2
E E E
E
Co-factor matrix=  E E  0 0
E  = 1 K L L = 10 0 = 0
E  E  E 3 0

0 6 3 1 0
E  = 1 K L L = 0 0 = 0
Co-factor matrix= 2 1 0 3 0
1 5 3 1 0
E = 1 K L L = 13 0 = 3
3 3
0 6 3 J

FGH . GI  = 2 1 0 E E E
1 5 3 Co-factor matrix= E E E 
E  E  E
0 2 1

FGH . GI  = 6 1 5 3 3 9
3 0 3 Co-factor matrix= 0 1 2
0 0 3
1
 = 
FGH . GI 
|| 3 3 9 J

FGH . GI  = 0 1 2
1 0 2 1 0 0 3
 = 6 1 5
3 3 0 0
3 0 3

FGH . GI  = 3 1 0
1 0 0 9 2 3
14. Find the inverse of matrix 3 3 0  by adjoint
5 2 1 1
 = 
FGH . GI 
method ||

1 3 0 0
 = 3 1 0
Solution:-

1 0 0 3
9 2 3
Let  = 3 3 0
5 2 1 1 3 0 0
 = 3 1 0 
3
|| = 13 0 0 + 0 9 2 3
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
16

1 2 3 10 10 2
15. Find the inverse of the matrix 0 2 4 by adjoint 
FGH . GI  = 0 5 4
0 0 5 0 0 2
1
 = 
FGH . GI 
method

Solution:- ||

1 2 3 1 10 10 2
Let  = 0 2 4  = 0 5 4
10
0 0 5 0 0 2

## || = 110 0 20 0 + 30 0 2 1 1

16. Find the inverse of the matrix 1 2 1 by
|| = 10 0 + 0 = 10 0 1 1 2
A is nonsingular matrix

 exists

Solution:-

2 1 1
2 4 Let  = 1 2 1
E = 1K L L = 110 0 = 10 1 1 2
0 5
0 4 || = 24 1 + 12 + 1 + 11 2
E = 1K L L = 10 0 = 0
0 5
|| = 6 1 1 = 4 0
0 2
E = 1K L L = 10 0 = 0
0 0 A is nonsingular matrix
2 3
E = 1K L L = 110 0 = 10  exists
0 5
1 3 2 1
E = 1K L L = 15 0 = 5 E = 1K L L = 14 1 = 3
0 5 1 2

1 2 1 1
E = 1K L L = 10 0 = 0 E = 1K L L = 12 + 1 = 1
0 0 1 2

2 3 1 2
E  = 1 K L L = 18 6 = 2 E = 1K L L = 11 2 = 1
2 4 1 1

1 3 1 1
E  = 1 K L L = 4 0 = 4 E = 1K L L = 12 + 1 = 1
0 4 1 2

1 2 2 1
E = 1 K L L = 12 0 = 2 E = 1K L L = 14 1 = 3
0 2 1 2

E E E 2 1
E = 1K L L = 12 + 1 = 1
Co-factor matrix= E E E  1 1
E  E  E
1 1
E  = 1 K L L = 11 2 = 1
10 0 0 2 1
Co-factor matrix= 10 5 0 2 1
2 4 2 E  = 1 K L L = 2 + 1 = 1
1 1
10 0 0 J 2 1

FGH . GI  = 10 5 0 E = 1 K L L = 14 1 = 3
1 2
2 4 2

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

17

E E E
Co-factor matrix= E E E 
Solution:-
E  E  E The given equations are
3 1 1 M + 3> = 2 , 3M + 5> = 4
Co-factor matrix= 1 3 1 
1 1 3 1 3 M 2
O PO P = O P
3 5 > 4
3 1 1 J

FGH . GI  = 1 3 1  ==,>   3
1 1 3
3 5 4
3 1 1 3 96

FGH . GI  = 1 3 1 0 42
1 1 3
1 3 M 2
1 O P O>P = O P
 = 
FGH . GI  0 4 2
||
M + 3> 2
Q R=O P
1 3 1 1 4> 2
 = 1 3 1
4 1
1 1 3
M + 3> = 2 , 4> = 2 > =
2
3 3 1 1
Reduction method

2 2 2 2

## 19. Solve the equations 3M > = 1 , 4M + > = 6 using

using method of reduction

## 2M + > = 5 , 3M + 5> = 3 The given equations are

2 1 M 5 3M > = 1 , 4M + > = 6
O PO P = O P
3 5 > 3
3 1 M 1
O PO P = O P
==,>  2 3 4 1 > 6
6 10 6 ==,>  3 4
6 315
0 7 21 12 3 18
12 44
2 1 M 5 0 7 14
O PO P = O P
0 7 > 21
3 1 M 1
2M + > O PO P = O P
Q R=O
5
P 0 7 > 14
7> 21
3M > 1
Q R=O P
2M + > = 5 , 7> = 21 > = 3 7> 14

## 8 3M > = 1 , 7> = 14 > = 2

2M 3 = 5 2M = 8 M = M=4
2
3M 2 = 1 3M = 3 M = 1
18. Solve the equations M + 3> = 2 , 3M + 5> = 4 using
reduction method 20. Solve the equations 5M + 2> = 4 , 7M + 3> = 5
Using reduction method
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
18

## reduction M + 3> + 3T = 12 , M + 4> + 4T = 15 ,

Solution:- 22. Solve the following equations by the method of

## The given equations are and M + 3> + 4T = 13

5M + 2> = 4 , 7M + 3> = 5

5 2 M 4
Solution:-

O PO P = O P
7 3 > 5
The given equations are

## ==,>  5 7 M + 3> + 3T = 12 , M + 4> + 4T = 15 ,

35 15 25 M + 3> + 4T = 13
35 1428
0 1 3 1 3 3 M 12
>
1 4 4 U V = 15
5 2 M 4 1 3 4 T 13
O PO P = O P
0 1 > 3
==,>    

5M + 2> 4
Q R=O P
> 3 1 3 3 M 12
0 1 1 U>V = 3 
5M + 2> = 4 , > = 3 0 0 1 T 1

5M + 23 = 4 5M 6 = 4 5M = 10 M M + 3> + 3T 12
=2 >+T = 3
T 1
21. Solve the equations 2M + 3> = 9 , > M = 2
M + 3> + 3T = 12

> + T = 3 , T=1
using reduction method

>+1=3> =31> =2
Solution:-

M + 3 2 + 3 1 = 12
The given equations

2M + 3> = 9 , > M = 2
M = 12 9 M = 3
2M + 3> = 9 , M > = 2
Required values are M = 3 , > = 2 , T = 1
2 3 M 9
O PO P = O P
1 1 > 2
M > T = 1 , 2M > = 1 and 3M 3> 4T = 2
23. Solve the following equation by method of reduction
==,>  2 

2 2 4
2 39
Solution:-

## 2 3 M 9 M > T = 1 , 2M > + 0T = 1 , 3M 3> 4T = 2

O PO P = O P
0 5 > 5
1 1 1 M 1
2M + 3> 9 >
2 1 0  U V = 1
Q R=O P
5> 5 3 3 4 T 2
2M + 3> = 9 , 5> = 5 > = 1 ==,>   2 
3

2M + 31 = 9 2M = 9 3 2M = 6 M = 3 2 1 0 1
2 2 22
0 1 21
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
19

3 3 4 2 1 2 3 M 8
3 3 3 3 0 5 5  U>V = 15
0 0 11 0 5 13 T 23
1 1 1 M 1   
0 1 2  U>V = 1
0 0 1 T 1 0 5 1323
0 5 5 15
M>T 1 0 0 8 8
U > + 2T V = 1
T 1 1 2 3 M 8
0 5 5 U>V = 15
M>T =1 0 0 8 T 8
> + 2T = 1 , T = 1 T = 1 M + 2> + 3T 8
5> 5T  = 15
> 2 = 1 > = 2 1 > = 1 8T 8

M11=1 M + 2> + 3T = 8 1

## 24. Solve the equations 2M > + T = 1 , =X. H -YX.HG 2 > + 1 = 3 > = 2

M + 2> + 3T = 8 , 3M + > 4T = 1using reduction
Put in equation 1M + 2 2 + 3 1 = 8

M+4+3= 8M = 87 M = 1
method

Solution:-

## 3M > 3T = 10 , 5M 5> 4T = 3by method of

The given equations are

2M > + T = 1 , reduction

## M + 2> + 3T = 8 , 3M + > 4T = 1 Solution:-

2 1 1 M 1
1 2 3  U>V = 8
The given equations are

3 1 4 T 1 M + > + T = 6 ,

## Apply   3M > + 3T = 10 , 5M + 5> 4T = 3

1 2 3 M 8 1 1 1 M 6
2 1 1  U>V = 1 3 1 3  U>V = 10
3 1 4 T 1 5 5 4 T 3
==,>   2 
3 ==,>   3 
5

2 1 1 1 3 1 3 10
2 4 616 3 3 318
0 5 515 0 4 0 8
3 1 4 1 5 5 4 3
3 6 9 24 5 5 530
0 5 1323 0 0 927

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

20

1 1 1 M 6 M + 2> + T = 8 1
0 4 0  U>V = 8 
0 0 9 T 27 > 3T = 5.........................2
M+>+T 6 16T = 16 T = 1
4>  = 8 
9T 27 =X. T = 1 > 3 1 = 5
M + > + T = 6 . .1
> 3 = 5 > = 3 5
4> = 8 > = 2
> = 2 > = 2
9T = 27 T = 3
M+22+1= 8M = 85 M = 3
M+2+3= 6M = 65 M = 1
27. Solve the equation M + 3> + 2T = 6
26. Solve the equations M + 2> + T = 8 , 3M 2> + 5T = 5 , 2M 3> + 6T = 7

## 2M + 3> T = 11 , 3M > 2T = 5by reduction Solution:-

method
The given equations are

M + 3> + 2T = 6
Solution:-
3M 2> + 5T = 5 , 2M 3> + 6T = 7
1 3 2 M 6
The given equations are

M + 2> + T = 8 , 3 2 5 U>V = 5
2 3 6 T 7
2M + 3> T = 11 , 3M > 2T = 5
==,>   3 
2
1 2 1 M 8
2 3 1 U>V = 11 3 2 5 5
3 9 618
3 1 2 T 5
0 11 113
==,>   2 
3
2 3 6 7
2 3 1 11 2 6 412
2 4 216 0 9 2 5
0 1 3 5 1 3 2 M 6
0 11 1 U>V = 13
3 1 2 5 0 9 2 T 5
3 6 324
0 7 519 ==,>  11 9
1 2 1 M 8 0 99 2255
>
0 1 3 U V = 5  0 99 9 117
0 7 5 T 19 0 0 31 62
==,>   7 1 3 2 M 6
0 11 1 U>V = 13
0 7 519 0 0 31 T 62
0 7 21 35 M + 3> + 2T 6
0 0 16 16 11> T  = 13
31T 62
1 2 1 M 8
M + 3> + 2T = 6 . .1
0 1 3 U>V = 5
0 0 16 T 16 11> T = 13 .2

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

21

62 M+2+3= 6M = 65 M = 1
31T = 62 T = T=2
31 The three numbers are 1, 2, 3

Put T = 2 H -YX.HG 2
29. If three numbers are added the sum is 15. If the

11> 2 = 13 11> = 11
second number is subtracted from the sum of first
and third number then we get 5 and if twice the first

>=1
number is added to the second and the third
number is subtracted from the sum we get 4. Use
Put > = 1 , T = 2 H -YX.HG 2 matrices to find the numbers.

## M+31+22=6M =67 Let M , > 

T be the three numbers
Solution:-

M=1
M + > + T = 15 , M + T > = 5 , 2M + > T = 4
From the given condition

M + > + T = 15 , M > + T = 5 ,
2M + > T = 4
28. The sum of three numbers is 6. If we multiply third

1 1 1 M 15
number by 3 and add it to the second number we

1 1 1  U>V = 5 
get 11. By adding first and the third numbers we get
a number which is double the second number. Use 2 1 1 T 4

==,>    
2
this information and find a system of linear
equations. Find the three numbers using matrices
1 1 1 5
Let M , > 
T be the three numbers 1 1 115
Solution:-

0 2 0 10
M + > + T = 6 , > + 3T = 11 , M + T = 2>
From the given condition
2 1 1 4
M + > + T = 6 , 0M + > + 3T = 11 , 2 2 230
M 2> + T = 0 0 1 326
1 1 1 M 6
0 1 3 U>V = 11 1 1 1 M 15
1 2 1 T 0 0 2 0  U>V = 10
Apply    0 1 3 T 26
Apply   

1 1 1 M 6 
0 1 3 U>V = 11  0 1 326
0 3 0 T 6 0 1 0 5
Apply   + 3 0 0 321
0 3 06 1 1 1 M 15
0 3 9 33 0 2 0  U>V = 10
0 0 9 27 0 0 3 T 21
1 1 1 M 6 M+>+T 6
0 1 3 U>V = 11 2>  = 10
0 0 9 T 27 3T 21
M+>+T 6 M + > + T = 6 . .1
> + 3T  = 11 2> = 10 > = 5
9T 27 3T = 21 T = 7
M + > + T = 6 . .1
Put > = 5 , T = 7 H -YX.HG 1
> + 3T = 11 .2
M + 5 + 7 = 15 M = 15 12 M = 3
27
9T = 27 T = T=3
9
The three numbers are 3, 5, 7
=X. H -YX.HG 2 > + 3 3 = 11
> = 11 9 > = 2
30. If three numbers are added their sum is 2. If two

## Put > = 2 , T = 3 H -YX.HG 1

times the second number is subtracted from the sum
of first and third number we get 8 and if three times
the first number is added to the sum of second and
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
22

third number we get 4. Find the number using Cost of one dozen erasers = [. T
matrices.

Let M , > 
T be the three numbers 4M + 3> + 2T = 60 , 2M + 4> + 6T = 90
Solution:-

6M + 2> + 3T = 70
M + > + T = 2 , M + T 2> = 8 , 3M + > + T = 4 4M + 3> + 2T = 60 , M + 2> + 3T = 45
From the given condition

## M + > + T = 2 , M 2> + T = 8 , 6M + 2> + 3T = 70

3M + > + T = 4 4 3 2 M 60
1 1 1 M 2 >
1 2 3 U V = 45
>
1 2 1 U V = 8 6 2 3 T 70
3 1 1 T 4 ==,>  
1 2 3 M 45
==,>    
3 >
4 3 2 U V = 60
6 2 3 T 70
1 2 1 8
1 1 12 ==,>   4 
6
0 3 0 6
4 3 2 60
3 1 1 4 4 8 12180
3 3 36 0 5 10120
0 2 22
6 2 3 70
1 1 1 M 2 6 12 18270
0 3 0  U>V = 6  0 10 15200
0 2 2 T 2
Apply  3 2 1 2 3 M 45
0 6 6 6 0 5 10 U>V = 120
0 6 0 12 0 10 15 T 200
0 0 618 Apply   2
1 1 1 M 2 0 10 15200
0 3 0  U>V = 6  0 10 20 240
0 0 6 T 18 0 0 5 40
M+>+T 2 1 2 3 M 45
3>  = 6  0 5 10 U>V = 180
6T 18 0 0 5 T 40
M + > + T = 2 . .1 M + 2> + 3T 45
3> = 6 > = 2 5> 10T  = 120
6T = 18 T = 3 5T 40
M + 2> + 3T = 45 . .1
Put > = 2 , T = 3 H -YX.HG 1
5> 10T = 120 > + 2T = 24 . .2
M2+3= 2M = 21 M = 1
5T = 40 T = 8
The three numbers are 1, 2 , 3
=X. T = 8 H -YX.HG 1 > + 2 8 = 24
> = 24 16 > = 8
31. The cost of 4 dozen pencils, 3 dozen pens and 2
=X. > = 8 , T = 8 H -YX.HG 1
dozen erasers is Rs. 60. The cost of 2 dozen pencils. 4
M + 2 8 + 3 8 = 45
dozen pens and 6 dozen erasers is Rs. 90 where as
the cost of 6 dozen pencils. 2 dozen pens and 3 M + 16 + 24 = 45 M + 40 = 45
dozen erasers is Rs. 70 find the cost of each item per M = 45 40 M = 5
dozen using matrices. Cost of one dozen pencils = [. 5
Solution:- Cost of one dozen pens = [. 8
Cost of one dozen erasers = [. 8
Cost of one dozen pencils = [. M
Let

## Cost of one dozen pens = [. >

32. The total cost of 3 televisions and 2 V.C. R.s is Rs.
35000. The shop-keeper wants profit of Rs. 1000 per
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
23

## Price of one pen = [. M

Price of one book = [. >
television and Rs. 500 per V. C. R. He can sell 2
televisions and 1 V. C. R. and he gets the total

2M + 5> = 110 
6M + 8> = 190
revenue Rs. 21,500. Find the selling price of a From given conditions

2M + 5> = 110 
3M + 4> = 95
television and a V. C. R.

2 5 M 110
O PO P = O P
Solution:-

Let

## ==,>  2 3

Cost of one V. C. R. = [. > 6 8 190
6 15330
3M + 2> = 35000 0 7 140
From given condition

## Selling price of one television = [. M + 1000 2 5 M 110

O PO P = O P
0 7 > 140
Selling price of one V. C. R.= [. > + 500
2M + 5> 110
Q R=O P
7> 140
2M + 1000 + > + 500 = 21500 2M + 5> = 110 . .1
From given condition

## 2M + 2000 + > + 500 = 21500 7> = 140 > = 20

2M + > = 21500 2500 =X. > = 35 H -YX.HG 1
2M + > = 19000 2M + 5 20 = 110
3 2 M 35000 2M + 100 = 110 2M = 10 M = 5
O PO P = O P
2 1 > 19000
Price of one pen = [. 5
==,>  3 2
6 3 57000 Price of one book = [. 20
6 4 70000
0 113000
34. The cost of 2 books and 6 note books is Rs. 34 and

3 2 M 35000
O PO P = O P
the cost of 3 books and 4 note books is Rs. 31. Using

0 1 > 13000
matrices, find the cost of one book and one note
3M + 2> 35000
Q R=O P
> 13000
book.

3M + 2> = 35000
Solution:-
> = 13000 > = 13000
3M + 2 13000 = 35000
Let

## 3M = 35000 26000 Cost of one book = [. M

9000 Cost of one note book = [. >
3M = 9000 M = M = 3000
3
2M + 6> = 34 
3M + 4> = 31
From given conditions

## = [. 3000 + 1000

Selling price of one television
M + 3> = 17 
3M + 4> = 31
Selling price of one television= [. 4000 1 3 M 17
O PO P = O P
Selling price of one V.C.R.= [. 13000 + 500 3 4 > 31
Selling price of one V.C.R.= [. 13500 ==,>   3
3 4 31
3 951
33. Nina and Mina want to buy pens and books. Nina
0 520
1 3 M 17
wants 2 pens and 5 books while Mina wants 6 pens

O PO P = O P
0 5 > 20
and 8 books. They both go to shop and buy them.

M + 3> 17
Q R=O P
When the shop-keeper gives them the pens and the

5> 20
books Nina pays him Rs. 110 and Mina pays him Rs.

M + 3> = 17 . .1
190. Find the prices of one pen and one book using

5> = 20 > = 4
matrices
=X. > = 4 H -YX.HG 1
Solution:-
Let M + 3 4 = 17 M = 17 12

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

24

M=5 M 6 + 6
O>P = O P
Cost of one book = [. 5 43
Cost of one note book = [. 4 M 0
O>P = O P
1
35. Solve the equations M + 2> = 2 

Method of inversion

M = 0 , > = 1
2M + 3> = 3by method of inversion
36. Solve the equations 2M + 5> = 1 

Solution:-

## The given equations are

Solution:-
M + 2> = 2 
2M + 3> = 3

1 2 M 2
The given equations are

O PO P = O P 2M + 5> = 1 
3M + 2> = 7
2 3 > 3

\ = ] .1 2 5 M 1
O P O> P = O P
3 2 7
1 2 2 M
Where  = O P , ] = O P , \ = O>P \ = ] .1
2 3 3
2 5 1 M
Multiply equation 1 both sides from left by  Where  = O P , ] = O P , \ = O>P
3 2 7
 \ =  ]
Multiply equation 1 both sides from left by 
 \ =  ]
 \ =  ]
\ =  ] \ =  ]
 \ =  ]
To find 
\ =  ] \ =  ]
1 2
=O P To find 
2 3

|| = 3 4 = 1 0 2 5
=O P
3 2
|| = 4 15 = 11 0
A is nonsingular matrix

 exists

## E = 1K 3=3

A is nonsingular matrix

 exists
E = 1K 2 = 2
E = 1K 2 = 2
E = 1K 2 = 2
E = 1K 3 = 3
E = 1K 1 = 1
E = 1K 5 = 5
1 3 2 3 2
 = O P  = O P E = 1K 2 = 2
1 2 1 2 1
M 3 2 2 1 2 5
O>P = O PO P  = O P
2 1 3 11 3 2

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

25

M 1 2 5 1 E = 1K 1 = 1
O>P = O PO P
11 3 2 7
1 1 1
M 1 2 35  = O P
O>P = O P 3 2 1
11 3 + 14
M 1 1 1 4
M 1 33 O>P = O PO P
O>P = O P 3 2 1 5
11 11
M 1 4 5
M 3 O>P = O P
O>P = O P 3 8 + 5
1
M 1 9
M = 3 , > = 1 O>P = O P
3 3
37. Solve the equations M + > = 4 
M 3
O>P = O P
2M > = 5by method of inversion 1

Solution:- M = 3 , > = 1

## M + 3> = 5by method of inversion

The given equations are

M + > = 4 
2M > = 5

1 1 M 4
O P O>P = O P
Solution:-

## 2 1 5 The given equations are

\ = ] .1 2M + 6> = 8 
M + 3> = 5
1 1 4 M 2 6 M 8
Where  = O P , ] = O P , \ = O>P O PO P = O P
2 1 5 1 3 > 5
Multiply equation 1 both sides from left by  \ = ] .1

##  \ =  ] 2 6 8 M

Where  = O P , ] = O P , \ = O>P
1 3 5
 \ =  ]
Multiply equation 1 both sides from left by 
\ =  ] \ =  ]
 

##  \ =  ]

To find 
 \ =  ]
1 1
=O P
2 1 \ =  ] \ =  ]
|| = 1 2 = 3 0 To find 

2 6
=O P
1 3
A is nonsingular matrix

 exists
|| = 6 6 = 0
E = 1K 1 = 1

E = 1K 2 = 2
A is singular matrix

##  does not exists

E = 1K 1 = 1
The values of x and y does not exist

26

## 39. Solve the equations M + > + T = 1 , 1 1

E = 1K L L = 11 1 = 2
M > + T = 2 
1 1
M + > T = 3by method of inversion 1 1
E = 1K L L = 11 1 = 0
1 1
1 1
E  = 1 K L L = 11 + 1 = 2
Solution:-

1 1
1 1
The given equations are

M + > + T = 1 , M > + T = 2 
E  = 1 K L L = 1 1 = 0
1 1
M + > T = 3 1 1
E = 1 K L L = 11 1 = 2
1 1
1 1 1 M 1
1 1 1  U>V = 2  E E E
1 1 1 T 3 Co-factor matrix= E E E 
E  E  E
\ = ] .1
0 2 2
1 1 1 1 M Co-factor matrix= 2 2 0 
Where  = 1 1 1  , ] = 2  , \ = U>V 2 0 2
1 1 1 3 T
0 2 2 J
Multiply equation 1 both sides from left by 


FGH . GI  = 2 2 0 
2 0 2
 \ =  ]
0 2 2
 \ =  ]
 
FGH . GI  = 2 2 0 
2 0 2
\ =  ] \ =  ]
1
 = 
FGH . GI 
To find   ||

1 1 1 1 0 2 2
|| = 1 1 1   = 2 2 0 
4
1 1 1 2 0 2

## || = 11 1 11 1 + 11 + 1 M 1 0 2 2 1

U>V = 2 2 0  2 
T 4
|| = 2 + 2 = 4 0 2 0 2 3
M 1 0+4+6
U>V = 2 4 + 0
T 4
2 + 0 6
A is nonsingular matrix

 exists
10
1 1 ' *
E = 1K L L = 11 1 = 0 M M & 4 )
1 1 1 10 6
U>V = 2  U>V = & )
1 1 T 4 T & 4)
E = 1K L L = 11 1 = 2 8
1 1 & 8)
% 4(
1 1
E = 1K L L = 11 + 1 = 2
1 1 5
M ' *
1 1 & 2 ) 5 3
E = 1K L L = 11 1 = 2 U>V = & 3) M = , > = , T = 2
1 1 2 2
T & 2)
% 2 (

27

## 40. Solve the equations 5M > + 4T = 5 5 4

E = 1K L L = 130 20 = 10
2M + 3> + 5T = 2 
5 6
5M 2> + 6T = 1by method of inversion 5 1
E = 1K L L = 110 + 5 = 5
5 2
1 4
E  = 1 K L L = 15 12 = 17
Solution:-

## The given equations are 3 5

5M > + 4T = 5 5 4
E  = 1 K L L = 25 8 = 17
2 5
2M + 3> + 5T = 2 

5 1
5M 2> + 6T = 1 E = 1 K L L = 115 + 2 = 17
2 3
5 1 4 M 5 E E E
2 3 5 U > V = 2  E
Co-factor matrix=  E E 
5 2 6 T 1 E  E  E

\ = ] .1 28 13 19
Co-factor matrix= 2 10 5 
5 1 4 5 M 17 17 17
Where  = 2 3 5 , ] = 2  , \ = U>V
5 2 6 1 T 28 13 19 J

FGH . GI  = 2 10 5 
Multiply equation 1 both sides from left by  17 17 17

##  \ =  ] 28 13 17


FGH . GI  = 2 10 17
 \ =  ] 19 5 17
1
\ =  ] \ =  ]  = 
FGH . GI 
||
To find 
1 28 2 17
5 1 4  = 13 10 17
51
|| = 2 3 5 19 5 17
5 2 6 M 1 28 2 17 5
U>V = 13 10 17 2 
|| = 518 + 10 + 112 25 + 44 15 51
T 19 5 17 1
|| = 140 13 76 = 140 89 = 51 0 M 1 140 4 + 17
U>V = 65 + 20 + 17 
T 51
A is nonsingular matrix 95 + 10 17
 exists M 1 153 M 3
U>V = 102  U>V = 2 
3 5 T 51 T
E = 1K L L = 118 + 10 = 28 102 2
2 6
M = 3 , > = 2 , T = 2
1K 2 5
E = L L = 112 25 = 13
5 6 41. Find the matrix X such that \ = ] where
2 3 1 2 0 1
E = 1K L L = 14 15 = 19 =O P 
] = O P
5 2 1 3 2 4

1 4
E = 1K L L = 16 + 8 = 2
2 6
Solution:-

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

28

\ = ] 1 2 3 1
0 3 5 \ = 3
1 2 0 1 0 0 1 2
O P\ = O P
1 3 2 4


Apply   +  
Apply

1 2 3
1 2 0 1 5 1
O P\ = O P
0 5 2 5 "0 1 # \ = 1
3 2
0 0 1


\$ 
Apply   2
Apply

0 1
1 2
O P \ = 2  1 2 3
0 1 1 ^ 1
5 0 2 2
Apply   2 1 0 1


0 1 1
1 2 A '1 0 *

0 2 \$ 2 3) 1
&
1 0 A 1 &0 5 )\ = 1 
& 1 2
\$
3 )
%0 0 1 (
4
1
1 0
O P\ = " 5 # Apply   +  
 
 \$
0 1 2
1
5
1 0 1


4
1 0 0


\ = " 5 0

#

2 1 0
1
5 1
0 1
\$

^
4
1 0 0
\$

\=" 5
_
# 0 1 0
2
1
5 1
1 0 0 ' *
1 2 3 & 3)
42. Find X if \ = ] where  = 1 1 2 and 0 1 0 \ = & 7 )
1 2 4 0 0 1 & 3)
1 % 2 (
] = 2
1
3 ' *
& 3)
\ = & 7)
& 3)
Solution:-

\ = ] % 2 (

1 2 3 1 1
' *
1 1 2 \ = 2  & 3)
1 2 4 3 \ = & 7)
& 3)
Apply   +  
 % 2 (

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

29

4 5
43. If  = O P then show that  = B  5

2 1
MATHEMATICAL LOGIC

Logical Connectives:-
Solution:-

4 5
=O P
Sr. Connectives symbol
2 1

No.

|| = L4 5L
1 And

2 1 ~
2 Or
3 Not
|| = 4 10 = 6 0
4 If .then
5 iff
A is nonsingular matrix Truth table for conjunction:-

 exists = Y =Y

## E = 1K 1 = 1

T T T
T F F

E = 1K 2 = 2
F T F
F F F

E = 1K 5 = 5
Truth table for disjunction:-

= Y =Y
E = 1K 4 = 4 T T T
1 1 5
 = O P
T F T
6 2 4
F T T

1 1 5
F F F

<. `. a. =  = O P1
6 2 4
Truth table for conditional:-

= Y =Y
1
. `. a. =  5
6
T T T
T F F
1 4 5 1 0
. `. a. = bO P 5O Pc
F T T

6 2 1 0 1
F F T

1 4 5 5 0
Truth table for Biconditional:-

. `. a. = bO PO Pc = Y =Y
6 2 1 0 5
1 1 5
T T T
. `. a. = O P . .2
6 2 4
T F F
F T F
F F T
From equation 1 and 2 Truth table for negation:-
<. `. a. = . `. a. = ~=
1
 =  5
T F
6
F T

patternsg= Y Yh =
44. Prepare the truth table for the statement

Solution:-

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

30

= Y i ~Y = ~Y i=
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

= Y = Y = Y Y g= Y Yh =
56
T T T F T T T
T T T T T T T F F T F F
T F F F T T F T T T T T
F T T T F T F F T T F F
F F T F T F T T F F F T

patterns= Y ~=
45. Prepare the truth table for the statement F T F F F F T
F F T T T F F
F F F T T F F
Solution:-

= Y =Y ~= = Y ~=
= Y ~= ~Y
49. Using truth table prove that the logical equivalence
T T T F F
T F F F T
F T F T T Solution:-
F F F T T

## patterns= Y ~= Y = Y =Y ~Y = ~Y ~= ~Y

46. Prepare the truth table for the statement 1 2 3 4 5 6

T T T F F T
Solution:- T F F T T F
F T F F T F

= Y =Y ~= ~= Y
1 2 3 4 5 6 F F F T T F
35 From the above truth table it is clear that all the
T T T F T T corresponding entries in columns 3 and 6 are
T F F F F T
identical

= Y ~= ~Y
F T T T T T
F F T T T T

patterns= i Y =
47. Prepare the truth table for the statement

= Y = Y ~= ~Y
50. Using truth table prove that the logical equivalence

Solution:-
Solution:-

= Y i =i Y=
1 2 3 4 5 6

= Y = Y = Y ~= ~Y ~= ~Y 47
45 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
T T T T T T
T T F F F F T T T T F F F T
T F T T F F T F F F F T F F
T F F F T F F T F F T F F F
F T T F T F F F T F T T T T
F T F T F F From the above truth table it is clear that all the
F F T F F F corresponding entries in columns 3 and 8 are
F F F T T T identical

## = ~Y i = = Y = Y ~= ~Y

48. Prepare the truth table for the statement

~= Y ~= ~Y
Solution:- 51. Using truth table prove that the logical equivalence

Solution:-

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

31

= Y = Y ~= Y ~= ~Y ~= ~Y = Y =Y =Y Y=
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6
45
T T T F F F F T T T T T T
T F F T F T T T F F F T F
F T F T T F T F T F T F F
F F F T T T T F F T T T T
From the above truth table it is clear that all the From the above truth table it is clear that all the
corresponding entries in columns 4 and 7are corresponding entries in columns 3 and 6 are
identical identical

~= Y ~= ~Y = Y = Y Y =

## = Y ~= ~Y ~Y ~=

55. Using truth table prove the logical equivalence

~= Y ~= ~Y
52. Using truth table prove that the logical equivalence
Solution:-

= Y 12 ~= ~Y 1 5 ~6 2 4 ~8
Solution:- 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
79

= Y = Y ~= Y ~= ~Y ~= ~Y
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 T T T F F F T F T T
T F F F T T F F T F
T T T F F F F F T F T F F T T F F
T F T F F T F F F T T T F T F T T
F T T F T F F From the above truth table it is clear that all the
F F F T T T T corresponding entries in columns 3 and 10 are
From the above truth table it is clear that all the identical

## = Y ~= ~Y ~Y ~=

corresponding entries in columns 4 and 7are
identical

~= Y ~= ~Y
~= Y ~= Y ~=
56. Using truth table prove the logical equivalence

= Y ~= Y ~Y ~=
53. Prove the following result
Solution:-

= Y = Y ~= Y ~= ~Y 52
Solution:- 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
47

= Y = Y ~= ~Y ~= Y ~Y ~=
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 T T T F F F F F
T F T F F T F F
T T T F F T T F T T F T F T T
T F F F T F F F F F T T T F T
F T T T F T T From the above truth table it is clear that all the
F F T T T T T corresponding entries in columns 5 and 8 are
From the above truth table it is clear that all the identical

~= Y ~= Y ~=
corresponding entries in columns 3, 6 and 7are
identical

= Y ~= Y ~Y ~=
~= Y = Y ~=
57. Using truth table prove the logical equivalence

= Y = Y Y =
54. Prove the following result
Solution:-
Solution:-

32

## All the entries in the last column of the truth table of

given statement pattern are T. the given statement

= Y ~= ~= Y = Y = Y Y = is tautology
1 2 3 4 5 6
53
T T F F T F

## g= Y ih g= Y ih is tautology

T F F F T F 60. Using truth table show that the statement pattern
F T T T T T
F F T F F F
From the above truth table it is clear that all the Solution:-
corresponding entries in columns 4 and 6 are

= Y i Y i = Y 14 53 67
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
identical

~= Y = Y ~= T T T T T T T T
T T F F T F F T
TAUTOLOGY:- All the entries in the last column of T F T T F T T T
the statement pattern are T it is called as tautology T F F T F T T T
CONTRADICTION:- All the entries in the last column F T T T F T T T
F T F F F T T T
of the statement pattern are F it is called as
F F T T F T T T
F F F T F T T T
CONTANGENCY:- The entries in the last column of All the entries in the last column of the truth table of
statement pattern are T as well as F is called as given statement pattern are T. the given statement

contingency

## g= Y ~Yh ~= is tautology

58. Using truth table show that the statement pattern

## Using truth table examine whether the following

Solution:- statement pattern are tautology, contradiction or
contingency.

= Y = Y ~= ~Y 35 61. = ~Y = Y
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
64
T T T F F F T Solution:-
T F F F T F T

= Y = Y ~Y = ~Y 53
F T T T F F T 1 2 3 4 5 6
F F T T T T T
All the entries in the last column of the truth table of T T T F F F
given statement pattern are T. the given statement T F F T T F

## g= Y ~Yh ~=is tautology

F T T F F F
F F T T F F
All the entries in the last column of the truth table of

= Y Y = is tautology
59. Using truth table show that the statement pattern given statement pattern are F. the given statement

= ~Y = Y is contradiction

62. ~= Y Y =
Solution:-

= Y =Y Y=
1 2 3 4 5
34 Solution:-
T T T T T
T F F T T
F T T F T
F F T T T

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

33

= Y Y= ~= ~= Y = Y i =Y =i
1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6
35 45
T T T F F F T T T T T T
T F T F F F T T F T T T
F T F T T F T F T T T T
F F T T F F T F F T T T
All the entries in the last column of the truth table of F T T T T T
given statement pattern are F. the given statement F T F T F F

~= Y Y = is contradiction
F F T F T F
F F F F F F

63. = Y = i
From the above truth table it is clear that the entries in
the last column are neither all T nor all F
Solution:- = Y = i is contingency

66. g= = Yh Y
= Y i =Y =i
1 2 3 4 5 6
45
T T T T T T Solution:-
T T F T F T

= Y =Y
T F T F T T 1 2 3 4 5
T F F F F F 13 42
F T T F F F T T T T T
F T F F F F T F F F T
F F T F F F F T T F T
F F F F F F F F T F T
From the above truth table it is clear that the entries in All the entries in the last column of the truth table of
the last column are neither all T nor all F given statement pattern are T. the given statement

## 64. g= Y ih g= Y ih 67. ~Y = Y

= Y i = Y 43 Y i 16 57
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Solution:-

= Y ~Y ~Y =
T T T T T T T T 1 2 3 4 5
T T F T T T T T 42
T F T T T T T T T T F F F
T F F T T F T T T F T T F
F T T T T T T T F T F F F
F T F T T T T T F F T F F
F F T F T T T T All the entries in the last column of the truth table of
F F F F F F F T given statement pattern are F. the given statement

All the entries in the last column of the truth table of
given statement pattern are T. the given statement

## g= Y ih g= Y ih is tautology 68. = Y ~=

65. = Y = i Solution:-
Solution:-

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

34

= Y =Y ~= = Y = ~= ~Y ~= = ~=
1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Y Y ~Y ~Y
34 3678
T T T F F
T F T F F T T T F F F F F T
F T T T T T F F F T F T F T
F F F T F F T F T F T F F T
From the above truth table it is clear that the entries in F F F T T F F T T
the last column are neither all T nor all F All the entries in the last column of the truth table of

= Y ~= is contingency
given statement pattern are T. the given statement

## = Y ~= Y = ~Y ~= ~Yis

69. = Y i tautology

= Y i = Y = i
72. Using truth table verify that
= Y i =Y
1 2 3 4 5
43
T T T T T Solution:-
T T F T F
= Y i Y i 14 = Y = i 67
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
T F T F T
T F F F T
T T T T T T T T
F T T F T
T T F T T T F T
F T F F T
T F T T T F T T
F F T F T
T F F F F F F F
F F F F T
F T T T F F F F
From the above truth table it is clear that the entries in
F T F T F F F F
the last column are neither all T nor all F F F T T F F F F
= Y i is contingency
The entries in column number 5 and 8 are identical
F F F F F F F F

70. = Y = ~Y
= Y i = Y = i is verified
Solution:-

= Y i = Y = i
73. Using truth table verified that

= Y =Y ~Y = ~Y
1 2 3 4 5 6
35
Solution:-
T T T F F F
T F F T T F

= Y i Y i 14 = Y = i 67
F T T F F F 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
F F T T F F
All the entries in the last column of the truth table of T T T T T T T T
given statement pattern are F. the given statement T T F F T T T T

= Y = ~Y is contradiction
T F T F T T T T
T F F F T T T T

F T T T T T T T
F T F F F T F F
F F T F F F T F

## The entries in column number 5 and 8 are identical

Solution:- F F F F F F F F

= Y i = Y = iis verified

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

35

~= Y = Y =Y ~= Y ~Y = ~Y
Negation of conjunction:- The negation of conjunction is 1 2 3 4 5 6

T T T F F F

~= Y ~= ~Y
Using truth table prove that T F F T T T
F T T F F F

Solution:- F F T F T F
The entries in column 4 and 6 are identical

## = Y = Y ~= Y ~= ~Y ~= ~Y ~= Y = ~Yis verified

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

T T T F F F F

is ~= Y
Negation of Biconditional:- The negation of biconditional
T F F T F T T
F T F T T F T
F F F T T T T
Using truth table prove that

## ~= Y = ~Y Y ~=

From the above truth table it is clear that all the
corresponding entries in columns 4 and 7are
identical

~= Y ~= ~Y = Y =Y ~3 ~= ~Y
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
16 25 78
T T T F F F F F F

~= Y
Negation of disjunction:- The negation of disjunction is T F F T F T T F T
F T F T T F F T T

## Using truth table verify that F F T F T T F F F

~= Y ~= ~Y
The entries in column 4 and 9 are identical

## ~= Y = ~Y Y ~=

Solution:-

~~=
Negation of negation:- The negation of negation is

= Y = Y ~= Y ~= ~Y ~= ~Y
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

## T T T F F F F Using truth table prove that ~~= =

T F T F F T F

= ~= ~~=
F T T F T F F 1 2 3
F F F T T T T
From the above truth table it is clear that all the T F T
corresponding entries in columns 4 and 7are F T F
identical The entries in column 1 and 3 are identical

~= Y ~= ~Y ~~= =

## Y ~i = Y giving justification

74. From the negation of the statement pattern
~= Y
Negation of implication:- The negation of implication is

36

## = g~Y ~~ih ~= ~Y Negation of disjunction Solution:-

= ~Y i ~= ~Y Negation of negation The negation given statement pattern is

~g= Y ih
= Y ~= igiving justification
75. From the negation of the statement pattern

Solution:-

## ~g= Y ~= ih = Y i giving justification

79. From the negation of the statement pattern

## = ~= Y ~i Negation of conjunction

= Y Y ~i giving justification
76. From the negation of the statement pattern

## = = ~Y ~i Negation of implication

Solution:-
If p, q, r are statements with truth values T, F, T
The negation given statement pattern is respectively, determine the truth values of the

~g= Y Y ~ih
following

80. Y = ~i
= ~= Y ~Y ~i Negation of conjunction

## = ~= ~Y g~Y ~~ih Negation of

Solution:-

disjunction p q r ~i = ~i Y = ~i

## = ~= ~Y ~Y i Negation of negation

The truth value of Y = ~i is T
T F T F T T

## ~= Y = ~Y giving justification 81. ~i = ~Y

77. From the negation of the statement pattern

Solution:- Solution:-

## The negation given statement pattern is p q r ~Y ~i ~i = ~i = ~Y

~g~= Y = ~Yh
The truth value of ~i = ~Y is T
T F T T F F T

## = ~~= Y ~= ~Y Negation of disjunction 82. = Y i

= g~~= ~Yh g~= ~~Yh Negation of
Solution:-

conjunction p q r =Y = Y i

## = = ~Y ~= Y Negation of negation The truth value of = Y i is T

T F T F T

83. i Y ~=
= Y i giving justification
78. From the negation of the statement pattern

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

37

Solution:- DUALITY
p q r ~= i Y i Y ~= Principle of duality:-

## The truth values of i Y ~= is T

T F T F F T
Consider

84. = Y Y i ~= Y = ~= ~Y

Solution:- ~= Y = ~= ~Y

## =Y Yi = Y Y i In the above statement pattern replace by or

by which are called as dual statement
p q r

## The truth values of = Y Y i is T

T F T T T T
Let t is tautology, c is contradiction then t replace
by c and c replace by t
If p and q are true r and s are false statements, find
the truth values of the following statements. Write the dual of the following statement pattern

85. = Y i 89. = Y i

Solution:- Solution:-

p q r =Y = Y i The dual of = Y i is = Y i

90. = Y i [
The statement = Y i is T
T T F T T

86. = i [
Solution:-

The dual of = Y i [ H[ = Y i [

91. = Y i = Y i
Solution:-

p r s rs = i [
Solution:-

## The truth values of = i [ is T

T F F T T
The dual of the given statement pattern

= Y i = Y iis= Y i =
87. = [ Y i
Y i

92. = Y i = Y = i
Solution:-

p q r [ =[ Yi = [ Y i
Solution:-

## The truth values = [ Y i is F

T T F F T F F
The dual of given statement pattern

= Y i = Y = iis
88. ~= ~i ~Y [
= Y i = Y = i

93. = Y E
Solution:-

p q r s ~Y ~i = ~i ~7 ~Y [
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
89 Solution:-

## The truth values of ~= ~i ~Y [ is F

T T F F F T T F F F

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

38

The dual of given statement pattern = Y E is The symbol is called as existential quantifiers
=Y.

94. ~= Y E
Use quantifier to convert each of the following
open sentence defined on N into a true
statement

M+5=7
Solution:-

100.

~= Y .
solution:-

## M z Such that 2M + 3 < 15

97. Ravi or Avinash went to Chennnai

This is a true M = 1 Gi 2 Gi 3 Gi 4 Gi 5 z
Solution:-

## Ravi and Avinash went to Chennnai 2M + 3 < 15

M 3 = 11
98. Madhuri has curly hair and brown eyes
103.
Solution:-
Solution:-

M z such that M 3 = 11
The dual of the given statement pattern is

## This is a true M = 14 z satisfied

Madhuri has curly hair or brown eyes
99. Shweta is a doctor or Sheela is a teacher

Solution:- M 3 = 11

104. M + 1 5
The dual of the given statement pattern is
Solution:-
Shweta is a doctor and Sheela is a teacher
M z Such that M  + 1 5
Universal quantifier:-
This is a true M = 1 Gi 2 z satisfied
The symbol is called as universal quantifier
M + 1 5
Existential quantifier:-
105. M  3M + 2 = 0

39

## This is a true M = 2 z satisfied 112. M  such that M 3 

M  3M + 2 = 0 Solution:-

106. M+3<7 M = 4 
6 
8 satisfiesM 3 

## This is a true M = 1 Gi 2 Gi 3 z satisfies

M  [XE .. M + 3 = 10
of following statement

M+3<7
113.

M > 0
Solution:-
107.

M + 3 = 10
No number belongs to A satisfies equation
Solution:-

## M z Such that M  > 0

The given sentence has truth value F

M  , M + 2 < 9
This is a true because the square is non- negative

## If  = 3, 4, 6, 8 determine the truth value of

114.

Solution:-
each of the following

## M , [XE .. M + 4 = 7 M+2<9

All the number in set A satisfies the equation
108.

## Solution:- The given sentence has truth values T

M = 3 , satisfiesM + 4 = 7 115. M  such that M + 2 < 5

M  , M + 4 < 10
The given open sentence has truth value T
109. Solution:-

## Solution:- M = 2 satisfies equation M + 2 < 5

M = 6 
8 do not satisfies the equation
M + 4 < 10
The given equation has truth value T

116. M  , M + 6 9
The given sentence has truth value F

M  , M + 5 13
Solution:-

## M = 2 do not satisfies M + 6 9

110.

Solution:-

M = 3 
4 
6 do not satisfies M + 5 13
The given sentence has truth values F

## If  = 4, 5, 7, 9 determine the truth values of

The given sentence has truth value F each of the following quantified statement

## 111. M  such that M is odd number 117. M  [XE .. M + 2 = 7

Solution:- Solution:-
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
40

parallel:

## The given sentence has truth values T Two switches a 

aa are connected in parallel in

M  , M  3 | 10
the following circuit
118.

Solution:-

M = 7 
9 do
do not satisfies the given
sentence

## 119. M  [XE .. M  5 9

Solution:-

M = 4 satisfiesM  5 9
Represent the following circuit symbolically and
The given sentence has truth values T write the input-output
output of switching table

Solution:-

## The given sentence has truth values T

121. M , 2M } 17

Solution:-

## The given sentence has truth values F

APPLICATION OF LOGIC
Solution:-

## Let = = switch a is closed

Two switches in series:-

Two switches a 
a are connected in series in
the following circuit Y = switcha is closed

~= switcha is closed

~Y  switcha is closed

= Y ~= ~Y

follows

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

41

~= ~Y P q ~= ~Y
Y
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 124.
p q 56
1 1 0 0 1 0 1
1 0 0 1 1 0 1
0 1 1 0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1 0 1 1
123.

Solution:-

Let

= =switcha is closed

Y = switcha is closed

i = switch a is closed
closed
Solution:-

~= switcha is closed
Let

= =switcha is closed

Y = switcha is closed
The symbolic form of the given circuit diagram is

= Y Y i ~=
i = switch a is closed

~= switcha is closed
The switching table for the given circuit is as follows

~Y  switcha is closed
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
p q r ~p 12 52 34 67
1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1
The symbolic form of the given circuit diagram is 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0
g= Y ~= ~Yh i
1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0
1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
The switching table for the given circuit is as 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1
follows
0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
p q r ~p ~q 12 45 67 83
1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1
1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0
1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1
0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

42

cos  sin 2n + , n Z

 
TRIGNOMETRIC FUNCTION

cos  0 for  2n + = 4n + 1
2 2
An equation which contain trigonometric function is
called as trigonometric equation

or = 2n + = 4n + 3 where n Z

 
Principal solution:

cos  0
unknown angle x, where 0 x < 2, are called
The solution of trigonometric equation of an

5 9
for  , , , ,
2 2 2
as principal solution.

Or = , ,, ,
_ 
Theorem: The general solution of
  
sin  0 is  n, n Z
cos  0

3 5 7 9
Proof:
= , , , , ,
2 2 2 2 2

We know that

## sin 0 = 0 and sin  0 , 2n + 1

2

By periodicity of sin x
cos  0 is  2n + 1 , n Z
2
sin 0 = sin2n + 0 and

sin  sin2n + , n Z
Theorem: The general solution of

tan = 0 is  n, n Z
sin  0 for  2n

or = 2n + = 2n + 1 where n Z
Proof:

sin
tan = where cos 0
sin  0 cos

## for  0, 2, 4, , 6, tan = 0 implies sin  0

Or = , 3, , 5, We know that

## sin 0 = sin2n + 0 and

cos  0 is  2n + 1 , n Z
2
sin  sin2n + , n Z

sin  0 for  2n
Proof:

or = 2n + = 2n + 1 where n Z
We know that

3
cos = 0 and cos =0 sin  0
2 2

## By periodicity of sin x for  0, 2, 4, , 6,

Or = , 3, , 5,
cos = sin 2n + and
2 2
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
43

## sin  0 is  n, n Z cos cos  0

tan = 0 is  n, n Z Apply

## Theorem: The general of sin  sin is cos C cos D 

 n  1: , n Z CD CD
2 sin sin
2 2
sin  sin

2 sin sin =0
Proof:

sin sin  0 2 2

sin . sin =0
2 2
Apply

CD CD
sin C sin D  2 cos . sin 
2 2 sin = 0 or sin =0
2 2

2 cos . sin =0 Apply
2 2
sin  0 is  n , n Z

cos . sin =0
2 2 +
= n or = n , n Z
2 2

cos = 0 or sin =0
2 2 + = 2n or  n, n Z

Apply = 2n or  2n + , n Z
= 2n , n Z
cos  0 is  2n + 1
2
Hence the general solution of cos  cos is
sin  0 is  n , n Z
 2n , n Z
+
= 2n + 1 or = n , n Z
2 2 2 Theorem: If and are not multiple of then the

## + = 2n + 1 or  2n , n Z general solution of tan = tan is

= 2n + 1 or  2n + , n Z = n +

## = n + 1: where n is odd integer Proof:

tan = tan
 n  1: where n is even integer
or

sin sin

Hence the general solution of sin  sin is cos cos

## Theorem: The general of cos  cos is sin . cos cos . sin  0

 2n , n Z sin   0

## cos  cos Apply

sin  0 is  n , n Z
Proof:

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

44

= n , n Z 1 cos 2 = 2 sin

= n + , n Z 1 cos 2
sin 
2
Theorem: The general of cos   cos is

 n , n Z 1 cos 2
Similarly

sin 
2
cos  cos 
1 cos 2 1 cos 2
Proof:
=
We know that 2 2

## 1 + cos 2 We know that the general of cos  cos is

cos 
2
 2n , n Z

1 + cos 2 The general of cos2 = cos 2 is
Similarly

cos 
2
2 = 2n 2 , n Z
1 + cos 2 1 + cos 2
= 2 = 2n  , n Z
2 2

## 1 + cos 2 = 1 + cos 2 The general of sin  sin is

cos 2 = cos 2  n , n Z

We know that the general of cos  cos is Theorem: The general of tan = tan is

 2n , n Z = n , n Z

## The general of cos2 = cos 2 is Proof:

2 = 2n 2 , n Z tan = tan

## The general of cos   cos is 1 + tan = sec 

 n , n Z tan  sec  1

## Theorem: The general of sin  sin is

tan = sec  1

Similarly

 n , n Z
sec  1 = sec  1

sec   sec 
Proof:

sin  sin
 

1 1

We know that cos cos


## cos 2 = 1 2 sin cos  cos

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
45

a b c
cos  sin 
a  b  a  b  a  b 
We know that

cos 2 = 2 cos 1
cos . cos  sin . sin  cos
1 + cos 2 = 2 cos
cos   cos
1 + cos 2
cos 
2 We know that the general of cos  cos is

 2n , n Z
1 + cos 2
Similarly

cos  = 2n , n Z
2
1 + cos 2 1 + cos 2 = 2n + , n Z
=
2 2
Find the principal solution of cos x =


1 + cos 2 = 1 + cos 2 
1.

cos 2 = cos 2
Solution: -

1
we know that

## We know that the general of cos  cos is EG[ =

3 2
EG[2 M = EG[ M
 2n , n Z
=X. M =
3
The general of cos2 = cos 2 is
EG[ 2 = EG[
3 3
2 = 2n 2 , n Z 6
EG[ = EG[
3 3
2 = 2n  , n Z 5 1
EG[ = EG[ =
The general of cos   cos is 3 3 2
Where 0 < < 2 
0 < < 2
\$

 n , n Z 5 1
cos = cos = = cos x
3 3 2
Theorem: The general of sin  sin is
5
The required principle solution is
 n , n Z M = 
M =
3 3

cos x = 

Theorem: The general solution of 2. Problem : Find the principal solution of

## a cos  b sin  cis

 2n + , n Z wherea, b, c R, 1
Solution: - we know that

EG[ =
3 2
a EG[ M = EG[ M 

a 0, b 0, c 0, cos 
a  b  EG[ + M = EG[ M

b c =X. M =
sin  , cos  3
a  b a  b
EG[ = EG[ 

3 3
a cos  b sin  c
EG[ + = EG[
3 3
Proof:

EG[ = 

3 2

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

46

3 + 1 Where 0 <
\$
< 2 

EG[ =
3 2
B

2 1 11
EG[ = 
0< < 2
3 2 6
4 1
EG[ =
3 2 5 11
The required principle solution is
2 4 1 M= 
M =
EG[ = EG[ = 6 6
3 3 2
4. Find the principal solution of sin x =

Where 0 < < 2 




4
0< < 2 1
Solution: - we know that
3 [H =
5 1 4 2
EG[ = EG[ = = EG[ M [H  M = [H M
3 3 2

=X. M =
2 4 4
The required principle solution is

M= 
M =
3 3 [H = [H
4 4
3. Find the principal solution of cot x = 3 4
[H = [H
4 4
EG. M = 3 3 1
Solution: - the given equation is

[H = [H =
1 4 4 2
. M =
Where 0 < A < 2 

3
3
0< < 2
4
We know that

1
. =
6 3 3
The required principle solution is

M = 
M =
.  M = . M 
4 4
Find the principal solution of sin x =


. 2 M = . M
5.

3
Solution: - we know that

=X. M = [H =
6 3 2
[H  M = [H M
. = . 

6 6
=X. M =
3
. 2 = .
6 6 [H = [H
3 3
6 1 3
. = 
[H = [H
6 3 3
3
2 3
12 1 [H = [H =
3 3 2
. =
6 3 Where 0 < < 2 

5 1 0 < < 2
. = 
3
6 3
11 1 2
The required principle solution is

. = M= 
M =
6 3 3
3
6. Find the principal solution of sec x =


5 11 1
. = . =
6 6 3
Solution: - the given equation is

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

47

2 3 EG. M = 3
[-E M = EG[ M = 1
3 2
. M =
3
3
we know that

EG[ =
6 2
We know that

1
EG[2 M = EG[ M . =
6 3
=X. M =
6
.  + M = . M
EG[ 2 = EG[
6 6
12 =X. M =
EG[ = EG[ 6
6 6
11 3 . + = .
6 6
EG[ = EG[ = 6 + 1
6 6 2
. =
Where 0 < B < 2 


6 3
7 1
0 < < 2 . =
6 6 3
11 3 7 1
EG[ = EG[ = . = . =
6 6 2 6 6 3

## Where 0 < < 2 

11
The required principle solution is

M= 
M =
B
6 6
7. Find the principal solution of cosec x = 2 7
0< < 2
6
1
Solution: - The given equation is

EG[-E M = 2 =2 7
The required principle solution is
[H M M = 
M =
1 6 6
[H M = 9. Find the principal solution of . M = 3
2

1 . M = 3
We know that Solution: - the given equation is

[H =
6 2
[H  M = [H M
We know that

=X. M = . = 3
6 3

[H = [H .  + M = . M 

6 6
6
[H = [H
6 6 =X. M =
5 1 3
[H = [H =
6 6 2 . + = .
3 3
Where 0 < B < 2 
3 +
\$
. = 3
3
0 < < 2 4
6 . = 3
3
5 4
The required principle solution is

M= 
M = . = . = 3
6 6 3 3
8. Find the principal solution of cot x = 3
Where 0 < < 2 

Solution: -

Thegiven equation is

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

48

4
0< < 2 tan = tan and
3 3 3

tan 2 = tan
4 3 3
The required principle solution is

M = 
M = 3
3 3 tan = 3 and
3
6
[H M =
 tan = 3
10. Problem : Find the principal solution of

 3
2
tan = 3 and
1 3
Solution: - The given equation is

[H M = 5
2 tan = 3
3
1 2 5
tan = tan = 3
We know that

[H = 3 3
6 2
[H  + M = [H M 

## Where 0 < < 2 


[H 2 M = [H M

=X. M = 5
6 0< < 2
3
[H + = [H 

6 6
2 5
The required principle solution is
[H 2 = [H x= and x =
6 6 3 3
6 + 12. Find the principal solution of tan x = 1
[H = [H 

6 6
12
[H = [H tan x = 1
Solution: - the given equation is

6 6
7
[H = [H 

We know that
6 6
11 tan =1
[H = [H 4
6 6
7 11 1 tan x = tan x and
[H = [H =
6 6 2
Where 0 < B < 2 

_ tan2 x = tan x
11
0< < 2 put x =
6 4

tan = tan and
7 11 4 4
The required principle solution is

M= 
M =
6 6 tan 2 = tan
4 4
11. Find the principal solution of . M = 3 4
tan = 1 and
4
. M = 3 8
Solution: - the given equation is

tan = 1
4
3
tan = 1 and
We know that
4
. = 3
3 7
tan = 1
4
.  M = . M 
3 7
tan = tan = 1
. 2 M = . M 4 4

## Where 0 < < 2 

=X. M = A
3
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
49

7 1
0< < 2 EG[ M =
4 2

3 7 1
The required principle solution is We know that
M= 
M = EG[ =
4 4 4 2
13. Problem : Find the principal solution of 3EG[-E M + EG[ M = EG[ M 

## 2=0 EG[ + M = EG[ M

=X. M =
3EG[-E M + 2 = 0 4
Solution: - The given equation is

3EG[-E M = 2 EG[ = EG[ 

4 4
2
EG[-E M = EG[ + = EG[
3 4 4
1 2 4 1
= EG[ = 

[H M 3 4 2
3 4 + 1
[H M = EG[ =
2 4 2
3 1
EG[ = 

3 4 2
We know that

[H = 5 1
3 2 EG[ =
[H  + M = [H M 
4 2
[H 2 M = [H M 3 5 1
EG[ = EG[ =
4 4 2
=X. M =
3 Where 0 <

< 2 

A
[H + = [H 
5
3 3 0< < 2
4
[H 2 = [H
3 3
3 + 3 5
The required principle solution is
[H = [H 
M= 
M =
3 3 4 4
6 15. Find the principal solution of 3[-E M + 2 = 0
[H = [H
3 3
4
[H = [H 

Solution:

3 3
3[-E M + 2 = 0
-The given equation is
5
[H = [H
3 3 3[-E M = 2
4 5 3 2
[H = [H = [-E M =
3 3 2 3
Where 0 < < 2 

A 1 2
=
5 EG[ M 3
0< < 2 3
3 EG[ M =
2
4 5
The required principle solution is

M= 
M = 3
We know that
3 3
EG[ =
14. Find the principal solution of 2EG[ M + 1 = 0 6 2
EG[ M = EG[ M 

EG[ + M = EG[ M
2EG[ M + 1 = 0
Solution: -The given equation is

2EG[ M = 1 =X. M =
6

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

50

M = 2 ,
EG[ = EG[ 

6 6

EG[ + = EG[ 18. Find the general solution of sec x = 2
6 6
6 3 1
EG[ = 

## Solution: -The given equation is

6 2 [-E M = 2 = 2
EG[ M
6 + 3 1
EG[ = EG[ M = EG[ M = EG[
6 2 2 4
5 3
EG[ = 

6 2
We know that

## 7 3 The general of cos = cos is

EG[ =
6 2
= 2n , n Z
5 7 3
EG[ = EG[ =
6 6 2 The general of cos x = cos is

## Where 0 < B < 2 

\$ A

7
0< < 2 M = 2 ,
6 4

.- - -i, [G,X.HG H[
5 7
The required principle solution is

x= and x =
6 6
M = 2 ,
16. Find the general solution of sin x =
4


3 EG[-E M = 2
Solution: -The given equation is 19. Find the general solution of

[H M = [H M = [H
2 3
Where 0 < < 2

Solution: -

1
The given equation is

EG[-E M = 2 = 2
[H M
We know that

## The general of sin = sin is 1

[H M = [H M = [H
2 4
= n + 1: , n Z [H  + M = [H M

The general of sin x = sin is
=X. M =
4

[H + = [H
M = + 1 , 4 4
3 4 +
[H = [H
4 4
17. Find the general solution of cos x = 1 5
[H = [H
4 4
EG[ M = 1 EG[ M = EG[ 0 5
Solution: -The given equation is

[H M = [H
We know that 4

We know that

## The general of sin = sin is

= 2n , n Z
2 = + 1 ,
The general of cos x = cos 0 is
The general of sin x = sin A
\$
M = 2 0 ,

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

51

5
M = + 1 , . = .
4 6 6
5
20. Find the general solution of EG[ M =

. = .
 6 6

1 5
Solution: -The given equation is

2 4 6

We know that

## The general of EG[ 2 = EG[ is

2 = + ,
2 = 2 ,
The general solution of . M = . B is
\$

## The general of EG[ M = EG[ is

A
5
M = + ,
6
M = 2 ,
4
23. Find the general solution of [H M =



. M = 3
21. Find the general solution of

3
Solution: -The given equation is

[H M = [H M = [H
2 3
Solution: -

[H  + M = [H M
. M = 3
The given equation is

=X. M =
3
. M = .
3 [H + = [H
3 3
4
The general solution of . 2 = . is [H = [H
3 3
4
2 = + , [H M = [H
3
The general solution of . M = . is
We know that

The general of [H 2 = [H is
M = + ,
3
2 = + 1 ,

The general of [H M = [H
A
EG. M = 3
22. Find the general solution of

is

4
M = + 1 ,
Solution: -
3
EG. M = 3
The given equation is

## 1 24. Find the general solution of EG[ M = 


. M =
3

Solution: -

. M = . 1
6
The given equation is

## EG[ M = EG[ M = EG[

2 3
.  M = . M EG[ M = EG[ M

=X. M =
=X. M = 3
6
EG[ = EG[
3 3
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
52

2
EG[ = EG[
3 3
We know that

## 2 The general of sin = sin is

cos x = cos
3
We know that = n + 1: , n Z

## The general of sin2 x = sin is

The general of cos = cos is B

= 2n , n Z
2M = + 1 ,
6
The general of cos x = cos


M= + 1 ,

is
2 12
2
M = 2 ,
3
2M
27. Find the general solution of

. = 3
3
. M = 1
25. Find the general solution of
Solution: -

2M
Solution: - The given equation is

. M = 1 . = 3
3
The given equation is

2M
. M = . . = .
4 3 3
.  M = . M The general solution of tan = tan is

=X. M = 2 = + ,
4
The general solution of. = . is

. = .
4 4
2M
3 = + ,
. = . 3 3
4 4

3 2M = 3 + ,
. M = . 3
4
2M = 3 + ,
The general solution of tan = tan is
3
M= + ,
2 = + , 2 2

## 28. Find the general solution of cos 3x =


The general solution of . M = .

A 
is

3 1
M = + ,
Solution: -The given equation is

## 4 EG[3 M = EG[ 3M = EG[

2 4
26. Find the general solution of sin2 x = 
 We know that

## Solution: - The general of cos = cos is

1 2 = 2 ,
The given equation is

[H 2M = [H 2M = [H
2 6
The general of EG[3 M = EG[ A is

Where 0 < B < 2

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

53

3M = 2 , =X. M =
4 3

2 EG[ = EG[
M= , 3 3
3 12 2
EG[ = EG[
3 3
2
cot4 x = 1 EG[ 3M = EG[
29. Find the general solution of
3
Solution: - We know that

## cot 4x = 1 The general of cos = cos is

The given equation is

. 4 M = 1
2 = 2 ,

. 4M = . The general of EG[3 M = EG[

4
is

.  M = . M 2
3M = 2 ,
3
=X. M =
4 2 2
M= ,
3 9
. = .
4 4
31. Find the general solution of EG[-E3 M =


3

. = .
4 4 2 1 2
Solution: -The given equation is

EG[-E3 M = =
3 3 [H 3M 3
. 4M = .
4 3
[H 3M =
2
The general solution of tan = tan is
[H 3M = [H
3
2 = + , [H  + M = [H M

The general solution of =X. M =
3

. 4 M = .
[H + = [H
A 3 3
4
is

3 [H = [H
3 3
4M = + , 4
4
[H 3M = [H
3
3
M = + ,
4 16
We know that

## The general of sin = sin is

30. Find the general solution of sec3 x = 2
Solution: - 2 = + 1 ,

1 The general of [H 3 M = [H
A
The given equation is

[-E3 M = 2 = 2
EG[ 3M
is

1 4
EG[ 3M = 3M = + 1 ,
2 3

EG[ 3M = EG[ 4
3 M= + 1 ,
EG[ M = EG[ M 3 9

54

## 32. Find the general solution of [H M + \$ = 0

The general solution of

5M
EG[ = 0 H[
2
Solution: -The given equation is
[H M + = 0
5
5M
= 2 + 1 ,
2 2
We know that

2
M = 2 + 1 ,
The general solution of

[H 2 = 0 H[ 2 = , 5 2

M = 2 + 1 ,
5
The general solution of

[H M + = 0 = 0 H[ 35. Find the general solution of EG[2M = 0
5

M+ = ,
Solution: -

5
EG[2M = 0
The given equation is

M = ,
5
We know that

## 33. Find the general solution of [H  = 0

The general solution of

EG[ 2 = 0 H[ 2 = 2 + 1 ,
2
3M
Solution: -The given equation is

[H = 0
2 The general solution of

EG[2M = 0 H[
We know that

2M = 2 + 1 ,
The general solution of

[H 2 = 0 H[ 2 = , 2

M = 2 + 1 ,
4
The general solution of

3M
[H = 0 = 0 H[ 36. Find the general solution of sin 3x = 0
2
3M
Solution: -

= ,
2 [H 3M = 0
The given equation is

2
M= ,
We know that

## 34. Find the general solution of EG[  = 0

\$
[H 2 = 0 H[ 2 = ,

5M
Solution: -The given equation is

EG[ = 0
The general solution of
2 [H 3M = 0 H[

3M = ,
We know that

The general solution of
M= ,
cos = 0 is = 2n + 1 , n Z 3
2

55

## 37. Find the general solution of EG[ M + ^ = 0

. 3 M = 1

. 3M = 1
Solution: -The given equation is
Solution: -The given equation is
EG[ M + = 0
10
. 3M = .
We know that 4
The general solution of .  M = . M

EG[ 2 = 0 H[ 2 = 2 + 1 , =X. M =
2 4

. = .
4 4
The general solution of

EG[ M + = 0 H[ 3
10
. = .
4 4

M+ = 2 + 1 ,
10 2 3
. 3M = .
4
M = 2 + 1 ,
2 10 The general solution of . 2 = . is
38. Find the general solution of cos2 x = 

2 = + ,

## The general solution of . 3 M = .

Solution: -
A
1
The given equation is is

## EG[2 M = EG[ 2M = EG[ 3

2 3 3M = + ,
EG[ M = EG[ M 4

=X. M =
3 M= + ,
3 4
EG[ = EG[
3 3
40. Find the general solution of [H 4 M =

2
EG[ = EG[ 
3 3
2
3
Solution: -The given equation is
EG[ 2M = EG[
3 [H 4M = [H 4 M = [H
2 3
Where 0 < < 2
We know that

The general of cos = cos is We know that


2 = + 1 ,

is

## The general of sin4 x = sin is

2
2M = 2 ,
3

4M = + 1 ,
2M = 2 , 3
3

M= + 1 ,
M = , 4 12
3
41. Find the general solution of the equation
39. Find the general solution of
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
56

4EG[  M = 1
tan x = 1
43. Find the general solution of the equation
Solution: -

4EG[  M = 1
The given equation is Solution: -

1 .  M = 1
The given equation is
EG[  M =
4 .  M = 1
1  .  M = 1
EG[ M =

2 
 .  M = .
EG[ M = EG[
 4
3
. M = .
 
EG[  M = EG[  4
3 We know that

The general of .  2 = .  is
We know that

## The general solution of EG[ 2 = EG[ is

 

2 = ,
2 = ,
The general of .  M = .  A is

The general solution of
EG[  M = EG[  H[ M = ,
3 4

M = ,
3
EG[ 3M = EG[ 2M
44. Find the general solution of the equation

4[H  M 3 = 0
42. Find the general solution of the equation Solution: -

EG[ 3M = EG[ 2M
The given equation is

EG[ 3M EG[ 2M = 0
Solution: -

4[H  M 3 = 0 3M + 2M 3M 2M
The given equation is
2 [H [H =0
4[H  M = 3 2 2
3 5M M
[H  M = 2 [H [H = 0
4 2 2
5M M
[H [H = 0

3
[H M =
 2 2
2 5M M
 [H = 0 Gi [H = 0
EG[  M = [H 2 2
3

[H M = [H
We know that
 
3 The general solution of

[H 2 = 0 H[ 2 = ,
We know that

## The general of sin = sin is

2 = ,
The general solution of

5M M
[H = 0 Gi [H = 0
The general of [H  M = [H  is

2 2
5M M
is = Gi = ,
M = , 2 2
3 5M = 2 Gi M = 2 ,
2
M= Gi M = 2 ,
5
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
57

## 45. Find the general solution of the equation . M .  M 3 = 0

4 [H M EG[ M + 2 [H M + 2 EG[ M + 1 = 0 . M = 0 Gi .  M 3 = 0

## Solution: -The given equation is . M = 0 Gi .  M = 3

4 [H M EG[ M + 2 [H M + 2 EG[ M + 1 = 0 . M = 0 Gi .  M = 3


2 [H M 2 EG[ M + 1 + 2 EG[ M + 1 = 0 
. M = 0 Gi .  M = .
2 EG[ M + 12 [H M + 1 = 0 3

2 EG[ M + 1 = 0 Gi 2 [H M + 1 = 0 . M = 0 Gi .  M = . 
3
2 EG[ M = 1 Gi 2 [H M = 1 The general solution is
1 1
EG[ M = Gi [H M = M = Gi M = , ,
2 2 3

EG[ M = EG[ Gi [H M = [H
3 6
47. Find the general solution of the equation

[-E  M = 1 . 2M
EG[ M = EG[ Gi [H M = [H
3 6

Solution: -

EG[ M = EG[ Gi
3
The given equation is

[-E  2M = 1 . 2M

[H M = [H +
6 1 + .  2M = 1 . 2M
2 7
EG[ M = EG[ Gi [H M = [H .  2M = . 2M
3 6
.  2M + . 2M = 0

. 2M . 2M + 1 = 0
The general solution of

EG[ 2 = EG[ Gi [H 2 = [H H[
. 2M = 0 Gi . 2M + 1 = 0
2 = 2 , Gi
. 2M = 0 Gi . 2M = 1
2 = + 1 ,
2
M = 2 , Gi . 2M = 0 Gi . 2M = .
3 4
7
M = + 1 , . 2M = 0 Gi . 2M = .
6 4
4
. 2M = 0 Gi . 2M = .
4
46. Find the general solution of the equation

. M 3 . M = 0
3
. 2M = 0 Gi . 2M = .
Solution: - 4
The given equation is The general solution is
. M 3 . M = 0 3
2M = Gi 2M = + , ,
4
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
58

n m 3
x= or x = + , n, m Z
2 2 8
Solution: -

## The given equation is

[H 2M + [H 4M + [H 6M = 0 [H M + [H 3M + [H 5M = 0
48. Find the general solution of the equation

## Solution: - [H M + [H 5M + [H 3M = 0

M + 5M M 5M
2 [H EG[ + [H 3M = 0
2 2
The given equation is

[H 2M + [H 4M + [H 6M = 0
[H 3M + 2 [H 3M EG[2M = 0
[H 4M + [H 2M + [H 6M = 0
[H 3M + 2 [H 3M EG[ 2M = 0
2M + 6M 2M 6M
[H 4M + 2 [H EG[ =0 [H 3M 1 + 2 EG[ 2M = 0
2 2

[H 4M + 2 [H 4M EG[2M = 0 [H 3M = 0 Gi 1 + 2 EG[ 2M = 0

[H 4M + 2 [H 4M EG[ 2M = 0 [H 3M = 0 Gi 2 EG[ 2M = 1

[H 4M 1 + 2 EG[ 2M = 0 1
[H 3M = 0 Gi EG[ 2M =
2
[H 4M = 0 Gi 1 + 2 EG[ 2M = 0

[H 3M = 0 Gi EG[ 2M = EG[
[H 4M = 0 Gi 2 EG[ 2M = 1 3

1 [H 3M = 0 Gi EG[ 2M = EG[
[H 4M = 0 Gi EG[ 2M = 3
2
3
[H 3M = 0 Gi EG[ 2M = EG[
[H 4M = 0 Gi EG[ 2M = EG[ 3
3
2
[H 4M = 0 Gi EG[ 2M = EG[ [H 3M = 0 Gi EG[ 2M = EG[
3 3

3
[H 4M = 0 Gi EG[ 2M = EG[
3
The general solution of

2
3M = Gi 2M = 2 , ,
2 3
[H 4M = 0 Gi EG[ 2M = EG[
3
M= Gi 2M = 2 , ,
3 3

The general solution of

2 M= Gi M = , ,
4M = Gi 2M = 2 , , 3 3
3

M= Gi 2M = 2 , , [H M . M = . M [H M + 1
50. Find the general solution of the equation
4 3

M= Gi M = , ,
4 3
Solution: -

## The given equation is

[H M + [H 3M + [H 5M = 0 [H M . M = . M [H M + 1
49. Find the general solution of the equation

[H M . M + [H M = . M + 1

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

59

[H M. M + 1 = . M + 1
[H M. M + 1 . M + 1 = 0
The general solution is

. M + 1[H M 1 = 0 M = Gi M = 2 + 1 , ,
2
. M + 1 = 0 Gi [H M 1 = 0
. M = 1 Gi [H M = 1

. M = . Gi [H M = [H
OR

4 2

. M = . Gi
The given equation is

4 cos x + sin x = 1

[H M = [H
2
4
. M = . Gi
4

[H M = [H
2 2
3
. M = . Gi
1

4

[H M = [H
2
1
The general solution of is

2 = + Gi 2 = + 1
HH
-
G. [H
-[ > 2

, 1 1 1
EG[ M + [H M =
2 2 2
3 1
M = + Gi M = + 1 EG[ EG[ M + [H [H M =
4 2 4 4 2

, EG[ M = EG[
4 4

## The general of cos = cos is

EG[ M + [H M = 1
51. Find the general solution of the equation

2 = 2 ,

## The general of EG[ M A = EG[ A is

Solution: -

The given equation is

EG[ M + [H M = 1 M = 2 ,
4 4
[YXiH G. [H
-[
M = 2 + ,
4 4
EG[ M + [H M = 1

M = 2 + + Gi M = 2 +
[H M + EG[ M + 2 [H M EG[ M = 1
  4 4 4 4

1 + 2 [H M EG[ M = 1 2
M = 2 + Gi M = 2
4
2 [H M EG[ M = 0
M = 2 + Gi M = 2 ,
2
[H M EG[ M = 0
EG[ M [H M = 1
52. Find the general solution of the equation

[H M = 0 Gi EG[ M = 0
Solution: -

60

## The given equation is

EG[ M [H M = 1

3 2

1 2

1
HH
-
G. [H
-[ > 2

HH
-
G. [H
-[ > 2 3 1 1
EG[ M [H M =
2 2 2
1 1 1 1
EG[ M [H M = EG[ EG[ M [H [H M =
2 2 2 6 6 2
1
EG[ EG[ M [H [H M = EG[ M + = EG[
4 4 2 6 3

EG[ M + = EG[ The general of EG[ 2 = EG[ is
4 4

## The general of EG[ M + A = EG[ A is

M+ = 2 ,
6 3

M+ = 2 ,
4 4 M = 2 ,
3 6

M = 2 , 2
4 4 M = 2 ,
6 6

M = 2 + Gi M = 2 2 2
4 4 4 4 M = 2 + Gi M = 2
6 6 6 6
2
M = 2 Gi M = 2
4 x = 2n + or x = 2n , n Z
6 2
M = 2 Gi M = 2 ,
2

2 . M EG. M + 1 = 0
54. Find the general solution of the equation

3EG[ M [H M = 1
53. Find the general solution of the equation
Solution: -
Solution: -The given equation is The given equation is

## 3cos x sin x = 1 2 . M EG. M + 1 = 0

1
2 . M +1=0
. M
2.  M 1 + . M = 0

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

61

2.  M  2 . M . M 1  0
2. M. M  1 . M  1  0 EG[ 5M  [H 3M
56. Find the general solution of the equation

. M  12 . M 1  0
. M + 1  0 Gi 2 . M 1  0
Solution: -

. M  1 Gi 2 . M  1 EG[ 5M  [H 3M
The given equation is

1
. M  . Gi . M  EG[ 5M  EG[ 3M
4 2 2

. M  . Gi The general of cos  cos is
4
1
. M  . . 
2  2 ,
2
3
. M  . Gi The general of
4
1 EG[ 5M  EG[  3M H[
. M  . .  2
2

5M  2  3M ,
2
The general solution of is

3 1
M = + Gi M   .  5M  2   3M Gi 5M
4 2 2

,  2 3M
2

5M  2   3M Gi 5M
3  2  3M
2 2
55. Find the general solution of

. M + EG. M = 2 EG[-E M
5M  3M  2  Gi 5M 3M  2
2 2

Solution:-

. M + EG. M = 2 EG[-E M 8M  2  Gi
Gi 2M  2
2 2
[H M EG[ M 1
+ =2 M  Gi M  ,
EG[ M [H M [H M 4 18 4

[H  M  EG[  M 1
2
[H M EG[ M [H M
SINE RULE

## Theorem:- In ABC , with usual notation prove that

1 a b c
2 =
 
EG[ M sin A sin B sin C
1
EG[ M  In ABC B is acute then we use the following three
Proof:-
2

EG[ M  EG[ C is acute
cases for the proof of the sine rule

3
i.

2 = 2 ,

M  2 ,
3

62

## ADBis a right angle triangle sin A sin B

 5
sin B 
AB
From equation 4 and 5

sin B   
c sin A sin B sin C
AD  c sin B . .1 Theorem:- In any ABC prove that
C is obtuse a  b  c   2bc cos A
b  c   a  2ca cos B
ii. I.

c   a  b  2ab cos C
II.
III.

Proof:-

a  b + c  2bc cos A
I. To prove that

## ADCis a right angle triangle

C =  C
sin  C 
AC
sin C 
b
AD  b sin C . .2
iii. C is right angle

=1
AC
= sin
Draw triangle ABC by taking vertex A in standard position

AC 2

C   C
From figure

## 2 2 lBC  a , lAC  b , lAB  c

 sin C
b A 0,0 , B
0  c, 0
AD  b sin C . .3
By definition of trigonometry
c sin B  b sin C
From equation 1, 2 and 3 we get
C  b cos A , b sin A
sin B sin C
 .4
b c In ABC

1) A is acute
Similarly

63

position

L. H. S. = a
From figure

## Using distance formula B 0,0 , C

  a, 0

L. H. S.  Ob cos A  c  b sin A  0 P
By definition of trigonometry

A  c cos B , c sin B
 b cos A  c  b sin A  0
In ABC
 b cos A  2bc cos A  c   b sin A
3) B is acute
 b cos A  sin A  2bc cos A  c 
4) B is obtuse
a  b  c   2bc cos A L. H. S. = b
L. H. S.  glACh
 h
Also

2bc cos A  b  c  a
  
Using distance formula

 cos B  a  c sin B  0 P
L. H. S.  Oc
b c a
  
cos A 
2bc  c cos B  a  c sin B  0

 c  cos B  2ac
ac cos B  a  c  sin B
II. To prove that

b  c   a  2ca
ca cos B
 c  cos  B  sin B  2ac cos B  a

b  a  c   2ac
ac cos B

Also

2ac cos B  a  c   b

a  c   b
cos B 
2ac

## III. To prove that

c   a  b  2ab cos C

64

##  a cos C  sin C  2ab cos C  b

c   a  b  2ab
ab cos C

Also

2ab cos C  a  b  c 

a  b  c 
cos C 
2ab

Projection Rule

## Theorem:- In ABC prove that

a  c cos B  b cos C
b  a cos C  c cos A
i.

c  a cos B  b cos A
ii.
iii.

Proof:-

To prove that

i. a  c cos B  b cos C

R. H. S.  c cos B  b cos C
Draw triangle ABC by taking vertex B in standard
position We know that

a  c   b
cos B 
From figure
2ac
lBC  a , lAC  b , lAB  c
a  b  c 
C 0,0 , A  b, 0 cos C 
2ab

a  c   b a  b  c 
R. H. S.  c b
By definition of trigonometry

## B  a cos C , a sin C 2ac 2ab

In ABC a  c   b a  b  c 
 
2a 2a
1) C is acute
a  c   b  a  b  c 
2) C is obtuse 
2a
L. H. S. = c 
L. H. S. = glABh 2a

2a

R. H. S.  a
Using distance formula

L. H. S. = Oa cos C  b  a sin C  0 P
R. H. S.  L. H. S.
 a cos C  b  a sin C  0 a  c cos B  b cos C
 a cos  C  2ab cos C  b  a sin c To prove that

65

## R. H. S. = a cos C  c cos A c = a cos B + b cos A

57. In ABC prove that
BC bc A
sin = cos
We know that
2 a 2
b + c  a
cos A =
2bc Solution:-
a  b c  bc A
cos C  R. H. S. = cos
2ab a 2
a + b c  b + c  a
R. H. S. = a +c
2ab 2bc
Using sine rule

a b c
= = = k say
a +b c
 
b +c a
   
sin A sin B sin C
= + a b c
2b 2b = k , = k , =k
sin A sin B sin C
a + b c  + b + c  a a = k sin A , b = ksin B , c = k sin C
=
2b
k sinB k sin C A
2b R. H. S. = cos
= k sin A 2
2b
sinB sin C A
R. H. S. = b R. H. S. = cos
sin A 2

R. H. S. = L. H. S B+C BC
2 cos 2 sin 2 A
= cos
b = a cos C  c cos A A A
2 sin 2 cos 2 2
c = a cos B + b cos A
B+C BC
iii.

## R. H. S. = a cos B + b cos A cos 2 sin 2

=
A
We know that sin 2

b + c  a In ABC
cos A =
2bc
A+B+C=
a +c b
  
cos B =
2ac
Divided both sides by 2

a + c  b b + c  a A+B+C
R. H. S. = a +b =
2ac 2bc 2 2
A B+C
a + c  b b + c  a + =
= + 2 2 2
2c 2c
B+C A
a + c  b + b + c  a =
= 2 2 2
2c
A BC
cos 2 2 sin 2
2c  R. H. S. =
= A
2c sin 2

R. H. S = c
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
66

A BC C AB
sin sin sin cos
R. H. S. = 2 2 R. H. S. = 2 2 2
A C
sin 2 cos 2

BC C AB
R. H. S. = sin = L. H. S. cos 2 cos 2
2 R. H. S. =
C
cos
58. ABC prove that 2
AB a+b C AB
cos = sin R. H. S. = cos = L. H. S.
2 c 2 2

## 59. In any ABC. If a , b , c  are in A.P. then prove

that cotA , cotB , cotC are in A.P.
Solution:-

a+b C
R. H. S. = sin
c 2 Solution:-

## a b c cotA , cotB , cotCare in A.P.

= = = k say
sin A sin B sin C
a b c
= k , = k , =k
sin A sin B sin C
It has common difference

## k sinA + k sin B C cotB cotA = cotC cotB

R. H. S. = sin
k sin C 2
sinA + sin B C
That to prove that
R. H. S. = sin
sin C 2 2 cot B = cot A + cot C

## A+B AB It is given that a , b , c  are in A.P. then

2 sin 2 cos 2 C
= sin
C C 2 b a = c  b
2 sin 2 cos 2

A+B AB b = a + c  b
sin 2 cos 2
= Divided both sides by 2ac
C
cos
2
b a + c  b
In ABC =
2ac 2ac
A+B+C= By using cosine rule for angle B

a + c  b
cos B =
Divided both sides by 2

A+B+C 2ac
=
2 2 Using sine rule
A+B C a b c
+ = = = = k say
2 2 2 sin A sin B sin C
A+B C a b c
= = k , = k , =k
2 2 2 sin A sin B sin C
a = k sin A , b = ksin B , c = k sin C

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

67

k  sin B k sin B 3
= cos B =
2k sin Ak sin C ksin C 2

k  sin B sin B 3
= cos B = .1
2 k  sin A sin C sin C 2
sin B
= cos B
2 sin A sin C
The angles A, B, C are in A.P. then

BA=CB
Divided both sides by sin B
2B = A + C
sin B cos B
=
2 sin A sin C sin B In ABC
In ABC
A+B+C=
A+B+C= A+C=B
B = A + C 2B = B
sing A + Ch
= cot B 3B = B =
2 sin A sin C 3
sin  = sin 180^
B = B = 60^
3
sinA + C
= 2 cot B
sin A sin C Put in equation 1
sin A cos C + cos A sin C
= 2 cot B sin 60 3
sin A sin C =
sin C 2
sin A cos C cos A sin C
+ = 2 cot B 3
sin A sin C sin A sin C
2 = 3
cot C + cot A = 2 cot B sin C 2

## cotA , cotB , cotCare in A.P. 1 1

=
2 sin C 2

1 2
b: c = 3: 2 then find A, B, C
60. The angles of a triangle ABC are in A.P. and
=
sin C 2

1 2 1
Solution:-
= = 2
b: c = 3: 2 sin C 2 sin C

b 3 1
= sin C =
c 2 2

## a b c sin C = sin 45^

= = = k say
sin A sin B sin C
a b c C = 45^
= k , = k , =k
sin A sin B sin C
a = k sin A , b = ksin B , c = k sin C A + B + C = 180^

68

## A = 180^ 105^ Using sine rule

A = 75^ a b
=
sin A sin B
61. In ABC , if A = 30^ and b: c = 2: 3 find B a 2a
=
sin 30^ sin B
1 2
=
1 sin B
Solution:-

## We know that cosine rule for A 2

2 = 2 sin B
b + c  a sin B = 1
cos A = 1
2bc sin B = sin 90^ B = 90^
B = 90^
b: c = 2: 3
62. In ABC , if A = 45^ , B = 60^ then find the
b: c = 2: 3 ratio of its sides
b 2
= = k say
c 3
Solution:-

## b c Let a, b, c are the sides of ABC

= = k
2 3 To find a: b: c
b c
= k and = k In ABC
2 3
A + B + C = 180^
b = 2k and c = 3k
45^ + 60^ + C = 180^
A = 30^
C = 180^ 105^

C = 75^
Put in equation 1

2k + 3k a
cos 30^ =
22k3k
Using sine rule

a b c
3 4k  + 3k  a = =
= sin A sin B sin C
2 43k 
a b b c
= and =
7k  a sin A sin B sin B sin C
3 =
23k  a sin A b sinB
= and =
6k  = 7k  a b sinB c sinC

## k = a as a > 0 a: b: c = sin 45^ : sin 60^ : sin 75^

k=a 1 3
a: b: c = : : sin 75^
2 2
b = 2a and c = 3 a
To find sin 75^

69

## sin 75^ = sin30^ + 45^  L. H. S. = a + c

a + b c 
sin 75 = sin 30 cos 45 + cos 30 sin 45
^ ^ ^ ^ ^
2b
1 1 3 1 b + c  a

+
sin 75^ = + 2b
2 2 2 2

1 + 3 a + b c  + b + c  a
sin 75 = L. H. S. = a + c
2b
^
22
2b
L. H. S. = a + c
2b
The required ratio of sides is

1 3 1 + 3 L. H. S. = a + c b
a: b: c = : :
2 2 22
L. H. S. = R. H. S.

## C A 64. In ABCprove that

63. With the usual notation prove that

2 a sin + c sin = a + c b
2 2 ab cos C c cos B = b c 

Solution:- Solution:-

## C A L. H. S. = ab cos C c cos B

L. H. S. = 2 a sin + c sin
2 2
Using cosine rule for angle B and C

a + b c 
Use half angle formula

1 cos cos C =
cos = 1 2 sin sin = 2ab
2 2 2
a + c  b
C 1 cos C cos B =
sin = 2ac
2 2
a + b c 
A 1 cos A L. H. S. = a b
sin = 2ab
2 2
a + c  b
1 cos C 1 cos A c
L. H. S. = 2 a + c 2ac
2 2
a + b c  a + c  b
L. H. S. = a a cos C + c c cos A L. H. S. = a U V
2a 2a
b + c  a
cos A = a + b c  a c  + b
2bc L. H. S. = a
a + b c  2a
cos C =
2ab
2b 2c 
L. H. S. =
a + b c  2
L. H. S. = a a +c
2ab
2b c  
b + c  a L. H. S =
c 2
2bc
L. H. S = b c 
a +b c
 
b +c a
   
L. H. S. = a +c L. H. S. = R. H. S
2b 2b

70

## 65. In ABC, if cos A = sin B cos C then Solution:-

cos A cos B
=
a b
It is a right angle triangle

Solution:-

## To show that ABC is a right angle triangle

We know that

a b
= = k say
i.e. To show that sin A sin B

A or B or C = 90^ a b
= k and = k
sin A sin B
cos A = sin B cos C
a = k sin A and b = k sin B
cos A + cos C = sin B
cos A cos B cos A cos B
= =
A+C AC B B k sin A k sin B sin A sin B
2 cos cos = 2 sin cos
2 2 2 2
cos A sin B = sin A cos B
A+B+C=A+B=C
sin A cos B cos A sin B = 0

sinA B = sin 0
Divided both sides by 2

A+B+C A+C B
= + = A B = 0 A = B
2 2 2 2 2
A+C B ABC is an isosceles triangle
=
2 2 2
67. In ABC if sin A + sin B = sin C
B AC B B
2 cos cos = 2 sin cos
2 2 2 2 2 Then show that it is right angle triangle

B AC B B
sin cos = sin cos
2 2 2 2
Solution:-

## sin A + sin B = sin C

AC B
cos = cos a b c
2 2
= = = k say
sin A sin B sin C
AC B a b c
= A C = B A = B + C1 = k , = k , =k
2 2 sin A sin B sin C
sin A 1 sin B 1 sin C 1
In ABC = , = , =
a k b k c k
a b c
A + B + C = 180^ sin A = , sin B = , sin C =
k k k
Using equation 1

A + A = 180^ 2A = 180^ a b c  a + b c 
+ = = 
k k k k k
180^ a + b = c  1
A= A = 90^
2 a, b, c are the sides of the triangle ABC

## ABC is a right angle triangle

theorem is satisfied in ABC
From equation 1 it is clear that the Pythagoras

## ABC is a right angle triangle

66. In ABC if
567 567
=

then show that it is an
68. With usual notation , show that
isosceles triangle

71

## 2bc cos A + ac cos B + ab cos C C C

c  = a + b 2ab cos  sin
= a + b + c  2 2
C C
c  = a + b 1 2ab cos + 2ab sin
2 2
Solution:-

## L. H. S. = 2bc cos A + ac cos B + ab cos C

Using first fundamental identities

C C
We know that the cosine rule
cos + sin = 1
b +c a
   2 2
cos A =
2bc C C
c  = a + b  cos  + sin
a + c  b 2 2
cos B = C C
2ac 2ab cos + 2ab sin
2 2
a + b c  C C
cos C = c  = a cos  + sin
2ab 2 2
C C
b + c  a + b cos + sin
L. H. S. = 2 Ubc 2 2
2bc C C
a + c  b 2ab cos + 2ab sin

+ ac 2 2
2ac
C C C
a + b c  c  = a cos  + a sin +b cos 
+ ab V 2 2 2
2ab C
+ b sin
 
2
b + c  a a + c  b C C
L. H. S. = 2 U + 2ab cos + 2ab sin
2 2 2 2
a + b c 
+ R C C C
2 c  = a cos  2ab cos  + b cos
2 2 2
b + c  a + a + c  b + a + b c 
= 2 C C C
2 + a sin + 2ab sin + b sin
2 2 2
L. H. S. = a + b + c  C
c  = a 2ab + b  cos
2
L. H. S. = R. H. S.
C
69. In ABC prove that +a + 2ab + b  sin
2
C C C C
a b cos + a + b sin = c  c  = a b cos  + a + b sin
2 2 2 2
Solution:- 70. In ABC prove that

## cos A cos B cos C a + b + c 

+ + =
We know that the cosine rule for angle C
a b c 2abc
a + b c 
cos C =
2ab Solution:-

## 2abcos C = a + b c  cos A cos B cos C

L. H. S. = + +
a b c
c  = a + b 2ab cos C

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

72

a + c  b b c  + a
L. H. S. =
We know that the cosine rule
2
b + c  a
cos A = 2a 2b
2bc L. H. S. =
2
a + c  b
cos B = 2a b 
2ac L. H. S. =
2
a + b c 
cos C = L. H. S. = a b
2ab

b + c  a a + c  b L. H. S. = R. H. S.
L. H. S. = 2bc + 2ac
a b 72. In ABC prove that
a + b c 
2ab AB
+ a b tan 2
c =
a + b tan A + B
b + c  a a + c  b a + b c  2
= + +
2abc 2abc 2abc
Solution:-
b +c a +a +c b +a +b c
        
= ab
2abc L. H. S. =
a+b
a + b + c 
L. H. S. = a b c
2abc = = = k say
sin A sin B sin C
L. H. S. = R. H. S. a b c
= k , = k , =k
sin A sin B sin C
71. In ABC prove that a = k sin A , b = ksin B , c = k sin C

## ac cos B bc cos A = a b k sin A ksin B

L. H. S. =
k sin A + ksin B
ksin A sin B
Solution:-
L. H. S. =
L. H. S. = ac cos B bc cos A ksin A sin B

sin A sin B
L. H. S. =
sin A + sin B
We know that the cosine rule

b + c  a
cos A = A+B AB
2bc 2 cos 2 sin 2
L. H. S. =
A+B AB
a + c  b 2 sin 2 cos 2
cos B =
2ac
A+B AB
a + c  b cos 2 sin 2
L. H. S. = ac L. H. S. =
2ac A+B AB
sin 2 cos 2
b + c  a
bc
2bc

a + c  b b + c  a
L. H. S. =
2 2

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

73

AB cos B
sin
2 L. H. S. =
cos C
AB
cos
L. H. S. = 2 L. H. S. = R. H. S.
A+B
sin 2
A+B 74. In ABC prove that
cos
2
a sin A b sin B = c sinA B
AB
tan
L. H. S. = 2
A+B
Solution:-
tan
2 R. H. S. = a sin A b sin B
L. H. S. = R. H. S. a b c
= = = k say
73. In ABC prove that sin A sin B sin C
a b c
= k , = k , =k
c b cos A cos B sin A sin B sin C
= a = k sin A , b = ksin B , c = k sin C
b c cos A cos C

## c b cos A L. H. S. = ksin A sin B

L. H. S. =
b c cos A
R. H. S. = ksin A sin Bsin A + sin B

A+B AB A+B AB
We know that the cosine rule
= k Q2 cos sin R Q2 sin cos R
b + c  a 2 2 2 2
cos A =
2bc AB AB A+B A+B
= k Q2 sin cos R Q2 sin cos
2 2 2 2
b + c  a
cb
2bc AB A+B
L. H. S. = = k sin 2 sin2
b  + c  a 2 2
b c
2bc
= k sinA B sinA + B
b + c  a
c 2c
L. H. S. = In ABC
b  + c  a
b
2b A+B+C=A+B=

2c  b c  + a = k sinA B sin 
L. H. S. = 2c
2b b  c  + a = k sin C sinA B
2b
= c sinA B = R. H. S.
a + c  b
L. H. S. =  2c 75. In ABC prove that
a + b c
2b cos 2A cos 2B 1 1
=  
Divided numerator and denominator by a a b a b

a + c  b Solution:-
L. H. S. =  2ac cos 2A cos 2B
a + b c L. H. S. =
2ab a b

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

74

1 2 sin A 1 2 sin B b  c   a
L. H. S. = cos A 
a b 2bc

1 sin A 1 sin B a  c   b
L. H. S. = 2  2 1 cos B 
a a b b 2ac

a a  c   b b b  c   a
L. H. S.  
c 2ac
2 c 2bc
We know that

a b sin A sin B
= =
sin A sin B a b a  c   b b  c   a
L. H. S.  
2c  2c 

a  c   b  b  c   a
Squaring both sides

sin A sin B L. H. S. 
= 2c 
a b
2a  2b 2a  b 
L. H. S.  
2c  2c 
Put in equation 1

## 1 sin B 1 sin B Since ABC is a right angle triangle

L. H. S. = 2  2
a b b b
1 1
L. H. S. =  = R. H. S.
a  b

## 76. In ABC , if C   prove that

a  b
sinA  B 
a  b 

a  b
Solution:-

L. H. S.  sinA  B L. H. S.  from ig c   a  b
a  b 

## L. H. S.  sin A cos B  cos A sin B 77. In ABC , prove that

B C
b  c tan 2  tan 2

We know that the sine rule

a b c a B C
  tan 2  tan 2
sin A sin B sin C

C  bc
2
Solution:-

L. H. S. 
a
a b c
 
sin A sin B sin
2
We know that the sine rule

a b sin A sin B 1 a b c
  c      k say
sin A sin B a b c sin A sin B sin C
a b a b c
sin A  , sin B   k ,  k , k
c c sin A sin B sin C
a  k sin A , b  ksin B , c  k sin C
a b k sin B  k sin C
L. H. S.  cos B  cos A
c c L. H. S. 
k sin A
We know that the cosine rule
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
75

## ksin B  sin C sin B  sin C a b c

L. H. S.   = = = k say
k sin A sin A sin A sin B sin C
BC BC a b c
2 cos 2 sin 2 = k , = k , =k
L. H. S.  sin A sin B sin C
sin A a = k sin A , b = ksin B , c = k sin C
A  B  C  A  B  C
BC BC R. H. S. = k  sin B k  sin C sin A
2 cos 2 sin 2
L. H. S. =
sing B + Ch R. H. S. = k  sin B sin C sin A
BC BC
2 cos 2 sin 2
L. H. S. = R. H. S. = k  sin B + sin Csin B sin C sin A
sinB  C
BC BC B+C BC
2 cos sin
L. H. S.  2 2 = k  Q2 sin
2
cos
2
R
BC BC
2 sin
2 cos 2 B+C BC
BC B C Q2 cos sin R sin A
sin 2 sin 2  2 2 2
L. H. S.  
BC B C
sin sin  2 B+C B+C
2 2 = k  Q2 sin cos R
B C B C 2 2
sin 2 cos 2  cos 2 sin 2
L. H. S.  BC BC
B C B C
sin 2 cos 2  cos 2 sin 2 Q2 sin
2
cos
2
R sin A

## B C = k  sinB + C sinB C sin A

Divided numerator and denominator by

cos cos
2 2 A+B+C= B+C=A
B C B C
sin 2 cos 2  cos 2 sin 2
B C = k  sin A sinB C sin A
cos 2 cos 2
L. H. S. 
B C B C = k  sin A sin A sinB C
sin 2 cos 2  cos 2 sin 2
B C
cos 2 cos 2 = k  sin A sinB C
B C B C
sin 2 cos 2 cos 2 sin 2 R. H. S. = a sinB C = L. H. S.
B C B C
cos 2 cos 2 cos 2 cos 2
L. H. S. 
B C B C
79. With the usual notation show that
sin 2 cos 2 cos 2 sin 2 c  a  b  tan A = a b + c   tan B
B C B C
cos 2 cos 2 cos 2 cos 2
= b c  + a  tan C
B C
tan 2  tan 2
L. H. S.   R. H. S.
B C
tan 2  tan 2
Solution:-

## 78. In ABC , prove that We know that

a b c
a sinB C = b c   sin A = = = k say
sin A sin B sin C
a b c
= k , = k , =k
sin A sin B sin C
Solution:-

76

## sin A b c  + a  tan C

c  a + b  tan A = c  a + b 
cos A 2abck
= b c  + a 
b c  + a

## b c  + a  tan C = 2abck . .3

But

b + c  a
cos A = and sin A = ak
2bc From equation 1, 2 and 3

## c  a + b  tan A c  a + b  tan A = a b + c   tan B

ak
= c  a + b  = b c  + a  tan C
b + c  a
2bc
80. In ABC Prove that
c  a + b  tan A
2abck A
= c  a + b  acos C cos B = 2b c cos 
c a + b  2

## sin B b = a cos C + c cos A 1

a b + c   tan B = a b + c  
cos B c = a cos B + b cos A . .2

b c = a cos C + c cos A
Equation 1 Equation 2
We know that

a + c  b a cos B + b cos A
cos B = b c = a cos C + c cos A acos B b cos A
2ac
b c = acos C cos B b c cos A
a b + c   tan B b c + b c cos A = acos C cos B
bk b c1 + cos A = acos C cos B
= a b + c  
a + c b A
2ac 1 + cos A = 2 cos 
2
A
a b + c   tan B 2b c cos = acos C cos B
2abck 2
= a b + c   A
a b + c acos C cos B = 2b c cos 
2
a b + c   tan B = 2abck .2 APPLICATION OF SINE RULE, COSINE RULE, AND
PROJUCTION RULE
Consider
Theorem:- In any ABC , if a + b + c = 2s then we
HALF ANGLE FORMULAE
sin C
b c  + a  tan C = b c  + a 
cos C
have

sin  =
775
5
i.
We know that

sin  =
757
a + b c  5
cos C =
ii.
2ab
sin  =
77

b c  + a  tan C
iii.

kc
= b c  + a 
a + b  c 
Proof :-

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

77

A A
cos A = 1 2 sin sin >0
2 2
A
2 sin = 1 cos A A s bs c
2 sin =
2 bc
Using cosine rule

b + c  a
To prove that
cos A =
2bc B s cs a
sin =
A b + c  a 2 ac
2 sin =1
2 2bc

A 2bc b + c  a 
We know that the half angle formula
2 sin = B
2 2bc cos B = 1 2 sin
2
A 2bc b c  + a
2 sin = B
2 2bc 2 sin = 1 cos B
2
A a b 2bc + c  
2 sin =
2 2bc
Using cosine rule

A a b c a  c  b
2 sin 
= cos B =
2 2bc 2ac

A a b + ca + b c B a  c  b
2 sin 
= 2 sin =1
2 2bc 2 2ac

## A a + b 2b + ca + b + c 2c B 2ac a c   b

2 sin = 2 sin =
2 2bc 2 2ac

## A a + b + c 2ba + b + c 2c B 2ac a c   b

2 sin = 2 sin =
2 2bc 2 2ac

a + b + c = 2s B b a 2ac  c  
2 sin =
2 2ac
A 2s 2b2s 2c
2 sin =
2 2bc B b a c
2 sin =
2 2ac
A 2s b2s c
2 sin =
2 2bc B b a  cb  a c
2 sin =
2 2ac
A s bs c
sin =
2 bc B a  b  c 2aa  b  c 2c
2 sin =
2 2ac

a  b  c = 2s
Taking square root of both sides

A s bs c
sin = B 2s 2a2s 2c
2 bc 2 sin =
2 2ac

 is an acute angle
B 2s a2s c
2 sin =
2 2ac

78

sin = 2 sin =
2 ac 2 2ab

## C 2s 2a2s 2b

B s as c 2 sin =
sin = 2 2ab
2 ac
C 2s a2s b
2 sin =

2 2ab

C s as b
is an acute angle

B sin =
sin >0 2 ab
2

B s as c
sin =
Taking square root of both sides

2 ac C s as b
sin =
2 ab
To prove that
is an acute angle

C s as b
sin =
2 ab C
sin > 0
2

C s as b
We know that the half angle formula

C sin =
cos C  1 2 sin 
2 ab
2
C Theorem:- In any ABC , if a + b + c = 2s then we
2 sin = 1 cos C
2 have

cos  =
77
5
Using cosine rule i.

a  b c  cos  =
77
cos C 
2ab 5
ii.

cos  =
775
C a  b c 
2 sin = 1

iii.
2 2ab

C 2ab a b  c 
Proof:-
2 sin =
2 2ab We know that the half angle formula

C 2ab a b  c  A
2 sin =  cos A = 2 cos  1
2 2ab 2

C c  a 2ab  b  A
2 sin = 2 cos = 1  cos A
2 2ab 2

C c  a b
2 sin =
2 2ab
Using cosine rule

b  c  a
cos A =
C c a  bc  a b 2bc
2 sin =
2 2ab

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

79

A b  c  a a  c  b
2 cos 
=1 cos B =
2 2bc 2ac

A 2bc  b  c  a B a  c  b
2 cos = 2 cos =1
2 2bc 2 2ac

A b  c a B 2ac  a  c  b
2 cos = 2 cos =
2 2bc 2 2ac
A b  c ab  c  a B a  c b
2 cos = 2 cos =
2 2bc 2 2ac
A a  b  c 2aa  b  c B a  c ba  c  b
2 cos = 2 cos =
2 2bc 2 2ac
a  b  c = 2s B a  b  c 2ba  b  c
2 cos =
2 2ac
A 2s 2a2s
2 cos =
2 2bc a  b  c = 2s

## A 2s a2s B 2s 2b2s

2 cos = 2 cos =
2 2bc 2 2bc
A s as B 2s b2s
cos = 2 cos =
2 bc 2 2ac
B s bs
A ss a cos =
cos = 2 ac
2 bc

B ss b
 is an acute angle cos =

2 ac
A
cos >0  is an acute angle

2

B
A ss a cos >0
cos = 2
2 bc

B ss b
cos =
2 ac
To prove that

B ss b
cos =
2 ac
To prove that

C ss c
cos =
2 ab
We know that the half angle formula

B
cos B = 2 cos  1
2 We know that the half angle formula
B C
2 cos = 1  cos B cos C  2 cos 1
2 2
Using cosine rule

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

80

C
2 cos = 1  cos C
77
tan  =
2 775
iii.

## Using cosine rule Proof:-

a  b c  A
cos C  A sin
2ab L. H. S. = tan = 2
2 A
cos
C a  b c  2
2 cos =1
2 2ab

C 2ab  a  b c 
We know that

2 cos =
2 2ab A s bs c
sin =
2 bc
C a  b c 
2 cos =
2 2ab
A ss a
C a  b ca  b  c cos =
2 cos = 2 bc
2 2ab
C a  b  c 2ca  b  c s bs c
2 cos = bc
2 2ab L. H. S. =
ss a
a  b  c = 2s bc

C 2s 2c2s
2 cos = s bs c bc
2 2ab L. H. S. =
bc ss a
C 2s c2s
2 cos =
2 2ab s bs c
L. H. S. = = R. H. S.
C s cs ss a
cos =
2 ab

C ss c
To prove that

cos =
2 ab tan
B
=
s as c
2 ss b
is an acute angle

B
 B sin 2
L. H. S. = tan =
C 2 B
cos 2
cos > 0
2
B s as c
C ss c sin =
cos = 2 ac
2 ab

## Theorem:- In any ABC , if a + b + c = 2s then we B ss b

cos =
have 2 ac
775
tan  =
s as c
77
i.
ac

tan  =
775 L. H. S. =
ss b
77
ii.
ac
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
81

s as c ac
L. H. S. =
ac s  b
ss

s as c
L. H. S. = = R. H. S.
ss b
To prove that

C s as b
2 ss c
is a right angle triangle

let C  C
C
C sin
2 C sin C  sin C 
cos AC b
2
AD  b sin C .1
C s as b
sin =
2 ab ii. C is obtuse

C ss c
cos =
2 ab

s as b
ab
L. H. S. =
ss c
ab

s as b ab
L. H. S. =
is a right angle triangle
ab ss
s  c let C = C

s as b sin C  sin C 
L. H. S. = = R.. H. S. AC b
ss c AD  b sin C . .2
iii. C is right angle
Area of triangle

## area of a ABC is given by

Theorem:- Prove that with the usual notations, the

## AABC )=  ab sin C =  bc sin A =


  ac sin B
 

Proof:-

cases of C
For the proof of this theorem we consider three
From above fig.

i. C is acute CD

= AC  1

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

82

AD  AC sin C = ss as bs c
2 2 AABC = ab
a b 

## 1 ss as bs c

AABC = lBC lAD AABC = ab
2 ab

## 1 AABC = ss as bs c

AABC = a b sin C
2
81. In ABC if a = 18 , b = 24 and c = 30 then find
Similarly
A A A
the values of
1 1 cos A , sin , cos , tan , AABC , sin A ,
AABC = bc sin A = ac sin B 2 2 2
2 2 tan A
Heros Formula
Solution:-

b + c  a
Theorem:- if a, b, c are the length of the sides BC, CA
and AB of ABC and a + b + c = 2s then cos A =
2bc
AABC = ss as bs c a = 18 , b = 24 and c = 30

## 24 + 30 18

cos A =
Proof :-
2 24 30
576 + 900 324
We know that

1 cos A =
AABC = a b sin C 2 24 30
2
1152 576
cos A = =
Use half angle formula 2 24 30 24 30
C C 576
sin C = 2 sin cos logcos A = log
2 2 24 30
1 C C logcos A = log 576 log 24 + log 30
AABC = a b 2 sin cos
2 2 2
logcos A = 2.7604 1.3802 + 1.4771
C C
AABC = ab sin cos
2 2 logcos A = 2.7604 2.8573

## C s as b logcos A = 1. 9031

sin =
2 ab cos A = antilog 1. 9031

## C ss c cos A = 0.8

cos =
2 ab
To find sin 

s as b ss c
AABC = ab A s bs c
ab ab sin =
2 bc

Where 2s = a + b + c

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

83

a+b+c 18 + 24 + 30
s= s= A 12 6 A 1
2 2 tan = tan =
2 36 18 2 3
72
s= = 36
2 To find AABC

## A 36 2436 30

sin =
Formula for finding area of triangle is
2 24 30
AABC = ss as bs c

A 12 6 A 1 Where 2s = a + b + c
sin = sin =
2 24 30 2 10
a+b+c 18 + 24 + 30
s= s=
2 2
To find cos

72
s= = 36
2
A ss a
cos =
2 bc AABC = 3636 1836 2436 30

## a+b+c 18 + 24 + 30 AABC = 61296 = 6 36 = 216 sq. units

s= s=
2 2
To find sin A
72
s= = 36
2 A A
sin A = 2 sin cos
2 2
A 3636 18 A 36 18
cos = cos =
2 24 30 2 24 30 s bs c ss a
sin A = 2
bc bc
A 9 A 3
cos = cos =
2 10 2 10 36 2436 30 3636 18
sin A = 2
24 30 24 30

To find tan 
12 6 36 18
sin A = 2
A s bs c 24 30 24 30
tan =
2 ss a
1 3 23
sin A = 2 =
Where 2s = a + b + c 10 10 10

a+b+c 18 + 24 + 30 3
s= s= sin A =
2 2 5

72 To find tan A
s= = 36 3
2
sin A
tan A = tan A = 5
cos A 4
A 36 2436 30 5
tan =
2 3636 18
3
tan A =
4
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
84

1 3b
ga + c + a cos C + c cos Bh =
2 2
82. Show that

A B C gAABCh
sin sin sin =
2 2 2 abcs Using projection theorem

## Solution:- a cos C + c cos B = b

A B C a + b + c = 3b a + c = 3b b
L. H. S. = sin sin sin
2 2 2
a + c = 2b
s bs c s as c a, b, c are in A.P
L. H. S. =
bc ac
84. Show that in ABC
s as b
A B a+bc
ab tan tan =
2 2 a+b+c

## s a s b s c

L. H. S. =
a b  c 
Solution:-

A B
L. H. S. = tan tan
s as bs c 2 2
L. H. S. =
abc We know that
ss as bs c
L. H. S. = A s bs c
abcs
tan =

2 ss a
ss as bs c
L. H. S. = B s as c
abcs tan =
2 ss b

## AABC = ss as bs c

But
s bs c s as c
L. H. S. =
ss a ss b
gAABCh
L. H. S. = = R. H. S.
abc
s bs c s as c
83. If in ABC , L. H. S. =
ss a

ss b

a cos  + c cos  =

s c
Show that a, b, c are in A.P.
L. H. S. =
Solution:- To show that a, b, c are in A.P. s

sc
L. H. S. =
s
To show that

b a = c b 2b = a + c
2s = a + b + c

a cos  + c cos  =
 a+b+c
s=
K567 K567 2
a + c =
  
a+b+c
c
1 3b L. H. S. = 2
a + a cos C + c + c cos B = a+b+c
2 2
2
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
85

a + b + c 2c k sin B k sin C A
2 R. H. S. = cot
L. H. S. = k sin B + k sin C 2
a+b+c
2 sin B sin C A
R. H. S. = cot
a+bc sin B + sin C 2
L. H. S. = = R. H. S.
a+b+c B+C BC
2 cos sin
R. H. S. = 2 2 cot A
85. Show that in ABC B+C BC 2
2 sin 2 cos 2
C B
b cos  + c cos = s B+C BC
2 2 cos sin
R. H. S. = 2 2 cot A
B+C BC 2
sin cos
2 2
Solution:-

C B
L. H. S. = b cos  + c cos In ABC
2 2
1 + cosC 1 + cos B A+B+C
L. H. S. = b + c A+B+C= =
2 2 2 2
B+C A
b + b cos C + c + c cos B =
L. H. S. = 2 2 2
2
A
b + c + b cos C + c cos B cos 2 2 BC A
L. H. S. = R. H. S. = tan cot
2 A 2 2
sin 2 2

A A
Use projection theorem
sin 2 B C cos 2
b cos C + c cos B = a R. H. S. = tan
A 2 A
cos 2 sin 2
a+b+c
L. H. S. =
2 BC
R. H. S. = tan = L. H. S.
a + b + c = 2s 2

2s
L. H. S. = = s = R. H. S.
INVERSE TRIGNOMETRIC FUNCTION
2

## 86. In any ABC , Prove that

Principal value branch of inverse trigonometric
function

## BC bc A a) The principle value branch of sin x is O  ,  P

tan = cot
2 b+c 2
b) The principle value branch of cos x is g0, h

Solution:- c) The principle value branch of tan x is  , 

## bc A d) The principle value branch of cot  x is 0, 

R. H. S. = cot e) The principle value branch of sec  x is g0, h
b+c 2

bc
Using sine rule

a b c
f) The principle value branch of
cosec  x is O  ,  P 0

= = = k say
sin A sin B sin C
87. Find the principle value of sin

a b c
= k , = k , =k 
sin A sin B sin C
a = k sin A , b = ksin B , c = k sin C Solution:-
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
86

## We know that The principle value branch of

1 1
sin = = sin EG[-E  M H[ O , P 0
6 2 6 2 2 2

The principle value branch of sin x is O , P

EG[-E  2 = 
< <
  6 2 6 2
1 The principle value of EG[-E  2 H[ B

sin = and < <
2 6 2 6 2
 90. Find the principle value of . 1
The principle value of sin  is B

 
Solution:-

We know that

. = 1
4
Solution:-

## Multiply both sides by 1

We know that

1
[H =
6 2 . = 1 . = 1
4 4
Multiply both sides by 1

= .  1 . 1 =
1 1 4 4
[H = [H =
6 2 6 2
The principle value branch of .  M H[  , 

1
= [H 

6 2
. 1 = 
< <
4 2 4 2
The principle value branch of [H  M H[ O  ,  P

## The principle value branch of .  M H[ A

1
[H  = 
< <
2 6 2 6 2 91. Find the principle value of .  3


Solution:-

. = 3
3
Solution:-

## We know that Multiply both sides by 1

1
[H = . = 3 . = 3
6 2 3 3

= .  3 .  3 =
3 3
Taking reciprocal of both sides

1 1
= 1/2 EG[-E 6 = 2 The principle value branch of .  M H[  , 

[H 6

= EG[-E  2 EG[-E  2 = . 3 = 
< <
6 6 3 2 3 2

87

Solution:-

 We know that

3 3
EG[ = EG[  =
6 2 2 6
Solution:-

## The principle value branch of EG[  M H[ g0, h

We know that

1 1
[H = = [H  3
4 2 4 2 EG[  = 
0 < <
2 6 6
1
[H  =
2 4 The principle value of EG[   H[ B

## The principle value branch of [H  M H[ O , P

95. Find the principle values of EG. 

 

1
[H  = 
< <
2 4 2 4 2
Solution:-

## The principle value of [H   H[ A


We know that

. = 3
3
93. Find the principle value of EG[  


## Taking reciprocal of both sides

1 1 1
=
Solution:-
EG. =
We know that . 3 3 3 3
1
EG[ =
3 2
We know that

EG. M = EG. M

We know that the formula

## EG[ M = EG[ M =X. M = EG. = EG.

3 3 3

=X. M = EG[ = EG[ 2 1 1 2
3 3 3 EG. = EG.  =
3 3 3 3
3 1 2 1
EG[ = EG[ = The principle value branch of EG.  M H[ 0, 
3 2 3 2
2 1 1 2 1 2 2
= EG[  EG[  = EG.  = 
0 < <
3 2 2 3 3 3 3

The principle value branch of EG[  M H[ g0, h The principle value branch of EG. 

H[


1 2 2
EG[  = 
0 < <
2 3 3
96. Find the values of

1 1
The principle value of EG[   H[ . 1  EG[   [H 
 
2 2

Solution:-

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

88

Consider .  1 1 1
. 1 + EG[  + [H 
2 2
42 + 12
=
72
We know that

. = 1
4 1 1 54
.  1 + EG[  + [H  =
2 2 72
. 1 = 3
4 =
4
The principle value branch of .  M H[ ,

 

97. Find the values of

. 1 = 
< < 1 1
4 2 4 2 EG[   2 [H 
2 2
The principle value branch of .  1 H[

A Solution:-

 


## We know that We know that

1 1 1 1
EG[ = EG[  = EG[ = EG[  =
3 2 2 3 3 2 2 3

The principle value branch of EG[  M H[ g0, h The principle value branch of EG[  M H[ g0, h

1 1
EG[  = 
0 < < EG[  = 
0 < <
2 3 3 2 3 3

## The principle value of EG[   H[ The principle value of EG[   H[

 

Consider [H   Consider [H  
 

## We know that We know that

1 1 1 1
[H = = [H  [H = = [H 
6 2 6 2 6 2 6 2

## The principle value branch of [H  M H[ O  ,  P The principle value branch of [H  M H[ O  ,  P

1 1
[H  = 
< < [H  = 
< <
2 6 2 6 2 2 6 2 6 2

## The principle value of [H   H[ B The principle value of [H   H[ B

 

1 1 1 1
. 1 + EG[  + [H  EG[  + 2 [H  = + 2
2 2 2 2 3 6

= + + 1 1 2
4 3 6 EG[  + 2 [H  = + =
2 2 3 3 3
1 1 7
. 1 + EG[  + [H  = +
2 2 12 6 98. Find the value of

89

## Solution:- EG[-E  2  EG.  3

Consider .  3 Solution:-

. = 3
3
We know that

1
[H =
. 
3 = 4 2
3

## The principle value branch of .  M H[ ,

Taking reciprocal of both sides
 
1 1
= 1/2 EG[-E 4 = 2
. 
3 = 
< < [H 4
3 2 3 2

## The principle value branch of . 3 H[

Multiply both sides by -1

Consider [-E  2 EG[-E = 2 EG[-E = 2
4 4

= EG[-E  2 EG[-E  2 =
4 4
We know that

1
EG[ =
3 2 The principle value branch of

EG[-E  M H[ O , P 0
2 2
Taking reciprocal of both sides

1
= 2 [-E 3 = 2
EG[-E  2 = 
< <
EG[ 3
4 2 4 2

## The principle value of EG[-E  2 H[ A

We know that

[-E M = [-E M
Consider EG.  3

=X. M = [-E = [-E
3 3 3 We know that

2 2 2 1
[-E = 2 = [-E 2 = . =
3 3 3 6 3

## The principle value branch of [-E  M H[ g0, h b  c

Taking reciprocal of both sides

1
2 2
[-E  2
= 
0 < < = 3 EG. 6 = 3
3 3 . 6

## The principle value of [-E 2 H[


EG.  3 =
6
2
.  3 [-E  2 = = The principle value branch of EG.  M H[ 0, 
3 3 3

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

90

1
EG.  3 = 
0 < < .  = EG.  M IGi M > 0
6 6 M
The principle value branch ofEG.  3H[

B
Proof:-

## ,-. EG.  M = >

EG[-E  2  EG.  3 = 
4 6
EG[ >
M = EG. > M =
6 + 4 [H >
cosec  2 + cot  3 = =
24 12
Taking reciprocal of both sides

1 [H > 1
PROPERRTIES OF INVERSE FUNCTION
= = . >
100. Prove that M EG[ > M
1 1 1
[H  = EG[-E  M IGi M 1 Gi M 1 .  = > .  = EG.  M
M M M
Proof:- 103. Prove that

1
M = EG[-E > M =
[H >
Proof:-

## ,-. [H  M = >

M = [H > M = [H >
Taking reciprocal of both sides

1 1
= [H > [H  = >
M M M = [H > > = [H  M
1 > = [H  M [H M = [H  M
[H  = EG[-E  M
M
104. Prove that

. M = .  M IGi M
101. Prove that

1
EG[  = [-E  M IGi M 1 Gi M 1
M Proof:-

## Let [-E  M = > M = . > M = . >

1 M = . > > = .  M
M = [-E> M =
EG[ >
> = .  M . M = .  M
Taking reciprocal of both sides

1 1
= EG[ > EG[  = >
105. Prove that

## M M EG[E  M = EG[E  M IGi |M| 1

1
EG[  = [-E  M
M
Proof:-

102. Prove that

91

## > = EG[-E  M EG[-E  M = EG[-E  M

M = [H > M = EG[ >
2

> = EG[  M 
> g0, h
106. Prove that

## EG[  M = EG[  M IGi M g1, 1h 2 2

= > + EG[  M
Proof:- 2
Let EG[ M = >
[H  M + EG[  M =
2
M = EG[ > M = EG[ >

## M = EG[ > EG[ 

M =>
110. Prove that

.  M  EG.  M = IGi M
EG[  M = EG[  M 2

,-. .  M = >

107. Prove that

2

EG.  M = > 
> 0 , 
2 2
Proof :-

## ,-. [-E  M = >

> + EG.  M =
M = [-E > M = [-E> 2

M = [-E > [-E  M = > .  M + EG.  M =
2
> = [-E  M [-E M = [-E  M
111. Prove that

EG[-E  M  [-E  M = IGi |M| 1 , M
2
108. Prove that

Proof:-

Solution:-

## ,-. EG. M = >

M = EG. > M = EG. > M = EG[-E> M = [-E >
2
M = EG. > EG.  M = >
[-E  M = > 
> O , P
2 2 2 2
> = EG.  M EG.  M = EG.  M

> + [-E  M = EG[-E  M + [-E  M =
109. Prove that 2 2

[H  M  EG[  M = IGi M g1, 1h
2
112. Prove that

M>
.  M  .  > = . 
Proof:- 1 M>

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

92

HI M, > > 0 
M> < 1 113. Prove that

M>
.  M .  > = . 
1  M>
Proof:-

## -i- M > 0, > > 0

We know that

.   . ]
.   ] = . .1
1 .  . ] Proof:-

,-. .  M =  
.  > = ] We know that

M = .  
> = . ] .  . ]
.  ] = . .1
1  .  . ]
M, > > 0 M = .  > 0 
>
= . ] > 0 ,-. .  M =  
.  > = ]

> = . ]

## M, > > 0 M = .  > 0 

>

0<<

. .2 
0 <]<
= . ] > 0
 
..3
A and B are acute angle that is they lie in the first
To show that  + ] lie in the first quadrant

0 <  <  . .2 
0 < ] <  ..3
Equation 1+ Equation 2

0+0< +] < +
2 2  ] H[ EX.- HI  > ]

M, > > 0 
M> < 1 0 < 1 M>
<] <
1 M> > 0 2 2

## The denominator of equation 1 is positive Equation 1 becomes

M>
.  + ] > 0 .  ] = ]
1 + M>
 + ]is an acute angle M>
= . 
1 + M>

0<+] < M>
2 .  M .  > = . 
1 + M>
Equation 1 becomes

M+>
114. Prove that
.  + ] = +]
1 M> M>
.  M  .  > =  . 
M+> 1 M>
= . 
1 M>
HI M, > > 0 
M> > 1
M+>
.  M + .  > = . 
1 M> Proof:-

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

93

M+>
.  M + .  > = + . 
1 M>
We know that

.   . ]
.   ] = . .1
1 .  . ] 115. Prove that

,-. .  M =  
.  > = ] 2M
2 .  M = [H  IGi |M| 1
1  M
M = .  
> = . ]

## M, > > 0 M = .  > 0 

>
Proof:-

= . ] > 0 2M
. `. a. = [H 
1  M
A and B are acute angle that is they lie in the first
quadrant ,-. .  M = > M = . >

2 . >
. `. a. = [H 

0 <  < . .2 
0 < ] < ..3
  1 + .  >
M+>
.  + ] = . .4 2 . >
1 M> . `. a. = [H 
[-E  >
M> > 1 0 > 1 M> 1 M> < 0 [H >
2 EG[ >
.  + ] < 0 . `. a. = [H 

1
EG[  >
 + ]lie in the second quadrant
. `. a. = [H 2 [H > EG[ >
<+] <
2
. `. a. = [H [H 2>

. `. a. = 2> . `. a. = 2 .  M
Subtract from both sides

<  + ] < . `. a. = <. `. a.
2

<  + ] < 0
2
116. Prove that

1 M
Now . g + ] h = .  + ] 2 .  M = EG[  IGi M 0
1  M
. g + ] h = . g  + ]h Proof:-
. g + ] h = g .  + ]h 1 M
. `. a. = EG[ 
. g + ] h = .  + ] 1  M

## M+> ,-. .  M = > M = . >

. g + ] h = > -Y. 4
1 M>
1 .  >
. `. a. = EG[ 
M+> 1 + .  >
 + ] = . 
1 M>
[H  >
1
M+> EG[  >
 + ] = + .  . `. a. = EG[ 
1 M> [-E  >

94

## EG[  > [H  > M>

.  M  .  > = . 
EG[  > 1 M>
. `. a. = EG[ 
1
EG[ >

Put M =  
> =
 

## . `. a. = EG[  EG[ 2> 1 1

1 1 
. `. a. = 2> = 2 .  M = <. `. a. .   .  = .  2 3
2 3 1 1
123

5
1 1
117. Prove that

2M .   .  = .  6
2 .  M = .  IGi 1 < M < 1 2 3 1
1 M 16

5
1 1
.   .  = .  6
Proof:-

2M 2 3 5
. `. a. = . 
1 M 6

## ,-. .  M = > M = . > 1 1

.   .  = .  1
2 3
2 . >
. `. a. = .  1 1
1 .  > .   .  =
2 3 4
[H >
2 EG[ >
. `. a. = . 
[H  >
119. Show that

1
EG[  > 1 2 3
.   .  = . 
2 11 4
[H >
2 EG[ >
. `. a. = . 
EG[  > [H  >
Solution:-

## 2 [H > EG[ > M>

. `. a. = .   .  M  .  > = . 
EG[ > [H  > 1 M>

[H 2> Put M =  
> = 
 
. `. a. = . 

EG[ 2>
1 2
.   . 
. `. a = .  . 2> 2 11
1 2

. `. a = 2> = 2 .  M = . 
2 11
1 2
1 2 11
. `. a = <. `. a.
11  4
1 2
. 
 . = . 22
 
2 11 1
118. Prove that

1 1 1 11
.   .  =
2 3 4
15
1 2  22
. 
 . = .

2 11 10
Solution:-

Using property 11

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

95

1 2 15 11 [H M
.   .  = .  EG[ M 1 
2 11 22 10 <. `. a. = . 
EG[ M
[H M
EG[ M 1 EG[ M
1 2 3
.   .  = . 
2 11 4 1  . M
<. `. a. = . 
1 . M
1  . M
120. Show that

2M 3M M <. `. a. = . 
. 
M  . 
= . 
1 1 . M
1 M 1 3M 

1 .  . M
<. `. a. = . 4
IGi |M|


3 1 . 4 . M

Solution:-
Using property

M>
.  = .  M  .  >
1 M>
Using property

X
.  X  .  = . 
1 X
<. `. a. = .  .  . . M
2M 4
=X. X = M , =
1 M
<. `. a. =  M = . `. a.
4
2M
.  M  . 
1 M
2M
M
122. Prove that

= . 1 M
1 EG[ M M

2M .  =
1M
1 M 1  EG[ M 2

M1 M    2M
= .  " 1 M #
1 M  2M 
Solution:-

1 M 1 EG[ M
<. `. a. = . 
2M 1  EG[ M
.  M  . 
1 M
M M  2M M
= .  2 [H  2
1 3M 
<. `. a. = . 
M
2 EG[  2
2M 3M M
.  M  .  = . 

1 M 1 3M 
M
<. `. a. = .  . 
2

M
121. Prove that

EG[ M  [H M <. `. a. = .  .
. 
= M 2
EG[ M [H M 4
M
<. `. a. = = . `. a.
2
Solution:-

EG[ M  [H M
<. `. a. = . 
EG[ M [H M
123. Express

96

## .  K , For 0 < M < in the simplest

 2
1
2 . 
= . 3

3 1
19
form

2
1  3
Solution:-

EG[ M [H M 2 . 
= .
.  3 8
EG[ M  [H M 9
[H M 1 2 9
EG[ M 1 2 .  = . 
= .  EG[ M
[H M 3 3 8
EG[ M 1 
EG[ M 1 3
2 .  = . 
1 . M 3 4
= . 
1  . M
1  . M
125. Prove that

= .  1 1 31
1 1 . M 2 .   .  = . 
2 7 17

. 4 . M
= . 

1  . 4 . M
Solution:-

1 1
<. `. a. = 2 .   . 
2 7

Consider 2 .  

Using property

M>
.  = .  M .  >
1  M>

= .  . .  . M
Using property

4 2M
2 .  M = . 
1 M
EG[ M [H M
.  = M 1
EG[ M  [H M 4 =X. M =
2

2
124. Prove that

1 3 1 2
2 .  = .  2 . 
= . 
3 4 2 1 
1 2

1 1
Solution:-

2 .  = . 
2 1
14
Using property

2M
2 .  M = . 
1 M
1 1
1 2 .  = . 
2 3
=X. M = 4
3
1 4
2 2 .  = . 
1 3 2 3
2 .  = . 
3 1 
1 3 1 4
2 .  = . 
2 3

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

97

4 1 1M 1
<. `. a. = .   .  .  = .  M
3 7 1M 2
1M
2.  = .  M
1M
Using property

M>
.  M  .  > = . 
1 M> Use the property

4 1 2M
 2 .  M = . 
<. `. a. = . 
3 7 1 M
4 1
1
3 7 1M
2 1  M
31 . 
" # = .  M
1M 
<. `. a. = . 21
 1
1  M
4
1 21
1M
2 1  M
31 =M
1M 
<. `. a. = . 
21 1 1  M
17
21
2 2M
31 1M
<. `. a. = .  =M
17 1  M 1 M
1  M

2 2M1  M
=M
126. Solve the equation
 EG[  2 EG[-E M
2 . M = . 1  2M  M  1  2M M 

2  2M 2M 2M 
=M
4M
Solution:-

1
2 2M  = 4M  2 = 6M  M  =
Using property

2M 3
2 .  M = . 
1 M
1
M=
2 EG[ M 3
.  = .  2 EG[-E M
1 EG[  M
1
2 EG[ M IGi M > 0 M =
= 2 EG[-E M 3
1 EG[  M
EG[ M 1
= EG. M = 1
128. Prove that

[H  M [H M 1 1M
.  M = EG[  IGi M g0 , 1h
2 1M
M = EG.  1 M =
4 Solution:-

1 1M
. `. a. = EG[ 
127. Solve the equation

1M 1 2 1M
.  = .  M IGi M > 0
1M 2
,-. .  M = > M = . >
Solution:-
Squaring both sides

M  = .  >
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
98

1 1 .  >
. `. a. = EG[


2 1  .  >
Using property

[H  M + EG[  M =
[H  > 2
1 1
EG[  >
. `. a. = EG[  <. `. a. = = . `. a.
2 [-E  > 2

## EG[  > [H  >

130. Prove that

1 EG[  > 1 3 3
. `. a. = EG[  [H  3 [H  =
2 1 2 4
EG[  > 2

1
. `. a. = EG[  EG[ 2>
Solution:-
2
1 3
<. `. a. = [H  3 [H 
1 2 2
. `. a. = 2> = > = .  M
2

. `. a. = <. `. a.
We know that

1 3
[H = 
[H =
4 2 3 2
129. Prove that

3 4
EG[   EG[  = <. `. a. = [H  [H 3 [H  [H
5 5 2 4 3

<. `. a. = 3 <. `. a. =
4 3 4
Solution:-

3 4
<. `. a. = EG[   EG[  3
5 5 <. `. a. = = . `. a.
4
3
,-. EG[  = M .1
5 131. Prove that

3 3 3 12 56
= EG[ M EG[ M = [H   EG[  = [H 
5 5 5 13 65
Using first fundamental identities Solution:-

[H  M = 1 EG[  M 3 3
,-. [H  = M [H M =
5 5
9 16
[H  M = 1 [H  M =
25 25
9
EG[ M = 1 [H  M EG[ M = 1
4 4 25
[H M = [H M = [H M > 0
5 5
4 16 4
M = [H  EG[ M = EG[ M =
5 25 5

3 4 12 12
EG[  = [H  > -Y . 1 ,-. EG[  = > EG[ > =
5 5 13 13
4 4
<. `. a. = [H  + EG[ 
5 5

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

99

144 1 1
[H > = 1 EG[  > [H > = 1 [H > = [H > =
169 4 2

169 144 25
[H > = [H > =
We know that

## 169 169 EG[M + > = EG[ M EG[ > [H M [H >

5 3 3 1 1
[H > = EG[M + > = +
13 2 2 2 2

3 1 2 1
EG[M + > = + = =
We know that
4 4 4 2
[H M + > = [H M EG[ > + EG[ M [H >
1
3 12 4 5 EG[M + > =
[H M + > = + 2
5 13 5 13
1
36 + 20 56 M + > = EG[ 
[H M + > = [H M + > = 2
65 65
1 3 1
56 [H  + EG[  = EG[ 
M + > = [H 
2 2 2
65
3 12 56
[H  + EG[  = [H 
5 13 65
133. Prove that

4 12 33
EG[   EG[  = EG[ 
132. Prove that 5 13 65

1 3 1
[H 
 EG[  = EG[ 
2 2 2
Solution:-

4 4
,-. EG[  = M EG[ M =
5 5
Solution:-

1 1 16
,-. [H  = M [H M = [H M = 1 EG[  M [H M = 1
2 2 25

1 9 3
EG[ M = 1 [H  M EG[ M = 1 [H M = [H M =
4 25 5

3 12 12
EG[ M = ,-. EG[  = > EG[ > =
4 13 13

3 3 144
,-. EG[ 
= > EG[ > = [H > = 1 EG[  > [H > = 1
2 2 169

3 169 144 25
[H > = 1 EG[  > [H > = 1 [H > = [H > =
4 169 169

5
[H > =
13

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

100

45 + 32 77
[H M + > = [H M + > =
85 85
We know that

## EG[M  > = EG[M EG[ > [H M [H >

77
4 12 3 5 M + > = [H 
85
EG[M  > =
5 13 5 13
3 12 77
48 15 33 [H  + EG[  = [H 
5 13 85
EG[M  > = EG[M + > =
65 65
135. If .  2M  .  3M =

33 A
M + > = EG[  of M
then find the value

65
4 12 33
EG[  + EG[  = EG[ 
Solution:-
5 13 65
.  2M  .  3M =
134. Prove that 4

3 18 77
[H 
 [H  = [H 
Use property

5 17 85 M>
.  M  .  > = . 
1 M>

2M  3M
Solution:-

3 3 .  =
,-. [H 
= M [H M = 1 2M 3M 4
5 5
5M
.  = .  1
9 1 6M 
EG[ M = 1 [H  M EG[ M = 1
25
5M
=1
1 6M 
16 4
EG[ M = EG[ M = 5M = 1 6M 
25 5
6M   5M 1 = 0
8 8
,-. [H  = > [H > =
17 17 5 5 4 61
M=
26
64
EG[ > = 1 [H  > EG[ > = 1
289 5 25  24
M=
12
289 64 225 5 49
EG[ > = EG[ > = M=
289 289 12

15 5 7
EG[ > = M=
17 12
5  7 5 7
M = Gi M =
12 12
We know that

## [H M + > = [H M EG[ > + EG[ M [H >

1
M = Gi M = 1
3 15 4 8 6
[H M + > = +
5 17 5 17 1
M > 0 M =
6
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
101

136. If .    .  K =
 K
A
Use property
value of M M>
then find the

.  M  .  > = . 
1 M>

1 1
Solution:-

M1 M1 
. 
 .  = <. `. a. = . 
5 7
M2 M2 4 1 1
1
5 7
1 1

 .  3 8
Use property

M> 1 1
.  M  .  > = .  1
1 M> 3 8
12 11
M1 M1 35
 <. `. a. = .  . 24
.  M 2 M  2 =
 
1 1
M1 M1 4 1 1 24
1 M 2 M  2 35
12 11
M  2M 1  M  1M 2 35  24
M  2 <. `. a. = . 
 .
. "

# 34 23
M 2 M 1M  1
 
35 24
M  2
= . 1 12 11
<. `. a. = .   . 
34 23
M  M 2  M M 2
.  = .  1
M 4 M  1
Again Use property

M>
2M  4 .  M  .  > = . 
. 
= . 1 1 M>
3
12 11

2M  4 <. `. a. = . 34 23
=1

3 12 11
1 34 23
2M  4 = 3 2M  3 + 4
325
1 1 <. `. a. = . 
391
2M  = 1 M  = M= 66
2 1 391
2
1 325
M > 0 M =
2 <. `. a. = . 
391
325
391

137. Show that

1 1 1 <. `. a. = .  1 = = . `. a.
.   .   .  4
5 7 3
1
 .  =
8 4
********************************************

Solution:-

1 1 1
<. `. a. = .   .   . 
5 7 3
1
 . 
8
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
102

## Show that every homogeneous equation of M +   > = 0

secondary in x and y represent a pair of lines
passing through the origin M + +   > = 0
Proof:-
These are liner equation of straight lines and do not
Let the homogeneous equation of second degree in x contain constant term

## The lines represent by these equation do not

and y is

M + 2M> + > = 0 
  passing through the origin

, , 
i- EG [. . G. ,, T-iG By case I and II

## Case I:- Let  = 0  0 , 0 Every homogeneous equation of secondary in x and y

represent a pair of line passing through the
=X. H -YX.HG  origin.
2M> + >  = 0 138. Find the separate equations of the lines

M  4M>  >  = 0
>2M + > = 0 represented by

## > =0, 2M + > = 0

Solution:-
These are the liner equation of straight. These
equations do not contain the constant term. The given homogeneous equation is

## The lines represent by these equations passing M  4M> + >  = 0

HH
-
G. [H
-[ > M 
through the origin.

4M> > 
Case II: let  0  0 , 0
1 + =0
M M
>  >
Multiply equation I both sides by a

H. -. 4  1 = 0
M M
M  + 2M> + >   = 0

>
.H[ H[  . .
 M  + 2M> + >  = 0
M


. 
[X.iE.  > 
> 4 4 4 1 1
=
M 21
 M  + 2M> +  >   >  + >  = 0

> 4 16 4
M + > >    = 0
=
 M 2
M + > O>  P = 0
> 4 12
=
M + > >  M + > M 2
+ >  = 0

103

## > 4 23 M 3> = 0 ; 2M + 3> = 0

=
M 2

> 22 3
These are the separate equation of the lines

=
M 2
140. Find the separate equations of the lines

>
= 2 3 M   2M>EG[-E  >  = 0
represented by

> = M2 3
Solution: -

2 + 3M + > = 0 ; 2 3M + > = 0
The given homogeneous equation is

M  + 2M>EG[-E + >  = 0

HH
-
G. [H
-[ > M 
These are the separate equation of the lines

2EG[-EM> > 
139. Find the separate equations of the lines
1+ + =0
2M  3M> 9>  = 0 M M
represented by

>  >
Solution:- H. -.  2EG[-E  1 = 0
M M
>
.H[ H[  . .
M
The given homogeneous equation is

2M  3M> 9>  = 0
> 2EG[-E 2EG[-E 4 1 1

HH
-
G. [H
-[ > M  =
M 21
3M> >
2 9 =0 > 2EG[-E 4EG[-E  4
M M =
M 2
>  >
H. -. 9  3 2 = 0 > 2EG[-E 2EG[-E  1
M M =
M 2
>
.H[ H[  . .
M > 2EG[-E 2EG. 
=
M 2
> 3 3 4 9 2
=
M 29 > 2EG[-E EG.
=
M 2
> 3 9 + 72
= > >
M 18 = EG[-E + EG. ; = EG[-E EG.
M M
> 3 81 > >
= = EG[-E EG.  ;
M 18 M M
> 3 9 = EG[-E + EG.
=
M 18 > = EG[-E EG. M ; >
> 3 + 9 > 3 9 = EG[-E + EG.M
= ; =
M 18 M 18
> + EG[-E EG. M = 0
1 2
>= M ; >= M > + EG[-E + EG.M = 0
3 3

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

104

EG[-E EG. M  > = 0 These are the separate equation of the lines

EG[-E  EG.M  > = 0 142. Find the separate equation of the lines

3M  10M> 8>  = 0
represented by
These are the separate equation of the lines

## 141. Find the separate equations of the line Solution:-

11 M   8M>  >  = 0
represented by
The given homogeneous equation is

3M  10M> 8>  = 0

## Divided both sides byM 

Solution:-

M> >
The given homogeneous equation is
3 10 8 = 0
11M  8M>  > = 0
 
M M

HH
-
G. [H
-[ > M  >  >
H. -. 8 + 10 3 = 0
M M
8M> > 
11    = 0 >
M M .H[ H[  . .
M
>  >
H. -.  8  11 = 0 > 10 10 4 8 3
M M =
M 28
>
.H[ H[  . .
M > 10 100 + 96
=
M 16
> 8 8 4 1 11
=
M 21 > 10 196
=
M 16
> 8 64 44
= > 10 14
M 2 =
M 16
> 8 20
= > 25 7
M 2 =
M 16
> 8 25
= > 5 7
M 2 =
M 8
> 24 5
= 8> = M5 7
M 2
> 8> = M5 + 7 ; 8> = M5 7
= 4 5
M 8> = 2M ; 8> = 12M
> = M4 5 M 4> = 0 ; 3M + 2> = 0

## > = M4  5 ; > = M4 5 143. Find the separate equation of the lines

> = 4 5M ; > = 4  5M
3M  23M> 3>  = 0
represented by

105

## The given homogeneous equation is M> > 

1 2 .   = 0
3M  23M> 3>  = 0
M M
>  >
H. -. + 2 . 1 = 0
Divided both sides byM 
M M
>
M> > .H[ H[  . .
3 23  3  = 0 M
M M
>  > > 2 . 2 .  4 1 1
H. -. 3 + 23 3 = 0 =
M M M 21
> > 2 . 4 .  + 4
.H[ H[  . . =
M M 2
 > 2 . 21 + . 
> 23 23 4 3 3 =
= M 2
M 23
> 2 . 2 [-E
> 23 12 + 36 =
= M 2
M 23
> 2 . [-E 
> 23 48 =
= M 2
M 23
>
= . [-E
> 23 43 M
=
M 23 > = M . [-E 
> 23 23
= > = M . + [-E  ; >
M 23 = M . [-E 
> 3 23
= > = M . [-E  ; >
M 3 = M. + [-E 
3> = M3 23 . [-E M + > = 0 ;

## 3> = M3 + 23 ; 3> = M3 23 . + [-E M + > = 0


3 > = 3M ; 3> = 33M 145. Find the separate equation of the lines

3M  7M>  4>  = 0
represented by
M 3> = 0 ; 3M + > = 0

## 144. Find the separate equation of the lines Solution:-

M   2M> . >  = 0
represented by
The given homogeneous equation is

## The given homogeneous equation is Divided both sides byM 

M  + 2M> . >  = 0
M> >
37 + 4 =0
M M
Divided both sides byM 
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
106

>  >
H. -. 4 7  3 = 0
> 21 2
M M M
=
2
>
.H[ H[  . .
M
> = M1 2

## > 7 7 4 4 3 > = M1 + 2 ; > = M1 2

=
M 24
1 + 2M > = 0 ; 1 2M > = 0
> 7 49 48
= 147. Find the separate equation of the lines
M 8
> 71 M  4>  = 0
represented by
=
M 8

8> = M7 1
Solution:-

## 8> = M7 + 1 ; 8> = M7 1

The given homogeneous equation is

M  4>  = 0 M  2> = 0
8> = 8M ; 8> = 6M
M + 2>M 2> = 0
M > = 0 ; 3M 4> = 0 M + 2> = 0 ; M 2> = 0

## 146. Find the separate equation of the lines

148. Find the separate equation of the lines

5M  3>  = 0
represented by

M  + 2M> >  = 0
represented by

Solution:-
Solution:-
The given homogeneous equation is

5M  3>  = 0 5M 3> = 0
 
The given homogeneous equation is

M + 2M> > = 0
 
5M + 3>5M 3> = 0
Divided both sides byM  5M + 3> = 0 ; 5M 3> = 0
149. Find the separate equation of the lines
M> > 
1+2 =0
3M   7M> = 0
represented by
M M
>  >
H. -. 2 1 = 0
M M Solution:-

>
.H[ H[  . .
The given homogeneous equation is

M

## > 2 2 4 1 1 M = 0 ; 3M + 7> = 0

=
M 21 150. Find the separate equation of the lines

5M  3>  = 0
represented by
> 2 4 + 4
=
M 2

> 2 8 > 2 22
Solution:-
= =
M 2 M 2 The given homogeneous equation is

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

107

5M  3>  = 0 5M 3> = 0
  M> > 
2+2   =0
5M  3>5M 3> = 0
M M

## 5M  3> = 0 ; 5M 3> = 0 >  >

H. -. 2 2 = 0
151. Find the separate equation of the lines M M
>
6M  5M> 6>  = 0
represented by
.H[ H[  . .
M

## Solution:- > 2 2 4 1 2

=
M 21
The given homogeneous equation is

6M  5M> 6>  = 0
> 2 12 > 2 23
= =
M 2 M 2
Divided both sides byM  >
= 1 3
M
M> >
65  6  =0
M M > = M1 3

## >  > > = M1 + 3 ; > = M1 3

H. -. 6 + 5 6 = 0
M M
> 1 + 3M > = 0 ; 1 3M > = 0
.H[ H[  . .
M
Theorem:-
> 5 5 4 6 6
=
M 26
Show that the acute angle between the pair of lines
represented by M  + 2M> + >  = 0 is given by
> 5 25 + 144 ; 
= . 2 = . Obtain the condition that the
M 26 K
lines are
> 5 13
=
M 12 i. Perpendicular to each other
ii. Coincident.
12> = M5 13

Proof:-

## 12> = 8M ; 12> = 18M

The given homogeneous equation is

M   2M>  >  = 0 1
2M 3> = 0 ; 3M + 2> = 0
Let > = M be the equation of one of the line
152. Find the separate equation of the lines
represented by equation I
2M   2M> >  = 0 M   2MM  M = 0
represented by

Solution:- M   2M    M  = 0
The given homogeneous equation is
HH
-
G. [H
-[ > M 
2M   2M> >  = 0   2   = 0
Divided both sides byM    2   = 0

108

## This is a quadratic equation in m it has two roots say m1 H. -.   = 0

and m2 153. Find the measure of the acute angle between

2
[X GI iGG.[ =    = 3M  43M>  3>  = 0
the lines represented by


=iG
XE. GI iGG.[ =  .  =

Solution:-

## 2 - .- EX.-  ,- -.-- .- ,H -[represented

The given homogeneous equation is

##   EG=iH H. M   2M>  >  = 0

. 2 =
1   . 
 = 3 , 2 = 43 , = 3
   =     4 .  
 = 3 , = 23 , = 3
2 

   = 4 2 

. 2 =

4 4
   =

223 3 3


4  . 2 =
   = 33


2  212 9
  = . 2 =
6
2 
3
. 2 =  . 2 =
1 3

1
. 2 =
2  3
. 2 =
 1
2 = .  =
3 6
2 
. 2 =

154. Find the measure of the acute angle between

2M   7M>  3>  = 0
the lines represented by

 .  = 1
(I) If the lines are perpendicular to each other then


= 1 ;  =
Solution:-

=0
The given homogeneous equation is

## EG=iH H. M   2M>  >  = 0

 = 
(II) If the lines are coincident or parallel

  = 0  = 2 , 2 = 7 , = 3
2 
=0

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
109

7
 = 2 , = , = 3 . 2 = .
2 2

2  2 = .  O. P =
. 2 = 2 2

156. Find the acute angle between the lines
7  M  4M> + >  = 0
2 2 2 3
. 2 =
23 Solution:-

49
2 4 6
The given homogeneous equation is

M  4M>  >  = 0
. 2 =
5
EG=iH H. M   2M>  >  = 0

249 24  = 1 , 2 = 4 , = 1
. 2 = 2
5  = 1 , = 2 , = 1

2 
25 . 2 =
. 2 = 
5
22 1 1
. 2 = |1| . 2 =  
11

2 = .  1 =
4 24 1
. 2 =
2

. 2 = 3
155. Find the acute angle between the lines

M  + 2M>EG[-E + >  = 0
represented by

2 = . 3 2 = .  . =
Solution:- 3 3

## 157. Find the acute angle between the lines

3M  + 2M> >  = 0
The given homogeneous equation is

M + 2M>EG[-E + > = 0
 

## EG=iH H. M  + 2M> + >  = 0

Solution:-

 = 1, 2 = 2EG[-E, = 1
The given homogeneous equation is

3M   2M> >  = 0
 = 1 , = EG[-E , = 1
EG=iH H. M   2M>  >  = 0
2EG[-E 1
. 2 =    = 3 , 2 = 2 , = 1
2
 = 3 , = 1 , = 1
. 2 = LEG.  L
2 
. 2 = |EG. | . 2 =

. 2 = EG.
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
110

21 3 1  = 3 , 2 = 4 , = 3
. 2 =  
31
 = 3 , = 2 , = 3

24 2 
. 2 = . 2 =
2 
. 2 = |2|
22 3 3
. 2 =  
2 = . 2 33

## 158. Find the acute angle between the lines 213

. 2 =
2M  6M> + >  = 0 0

Solution:- . 2 = ||

2 = .  2 = .  .
2
The given homogeneous equation is

2M  6M> + >  = 0

2=
EG=iH H. M + 2M> + > = 0
  2

 = 2 , 2 = 6 , = 1
M   2M>  >  = 0is equal to the acute angle
160. Show that , if the acute angle between the lines

##  = 2 , = 3 , = 1 between the lines 4M  24M>  9>  = 0

2  .- 169  = 108  
. 2 =
+

23 2 1
Solution:-

. 2 =  
2+1
The given homogeneous equations are

M   2M>  >  = 0 1
29 2
. 2 = 4M  24M>  9>  = 0 2
3
,-. 2 
2 i- .- angles between the lines
27
. 2 =
3
represented by 1 and 2 then

2 = 2
27
2 = . 
3 . 2 = . 2

## 159. Find the acute angle between the lines 2  212 4 9

3M + 4M> 3> = 0 = 
 49
 

2  2144 36
=
Solution:-

## 3M   4M> 3>  = 0 2  2108

=
 13
EG=iH H. M   2M>  >  = 0
[YXiH G. [H
-[
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
111

4  4 108
=
   169 3M   M> >  = 0 differ by 4
162. Find k, if the slopes of the lines given by

  108
=
   169
Solution:-

169  = 108  
 
The given homogeneous equation is

3M   M> >  = 0

M   2M>  >  = 0is equal to the acute angle EG=iH H. M   2M>  >  = 0
161. Show that , if the acute angle between the lines

## between the lines 2M  5M>  3>  = 0  = 3 , 2 = , = 1

.- 100  =   
 = 3, = , = 1
2

Solution:-

2 2
   = = 2
1
The given homogeneous equations are

M   2M>  >  = 0 1
   =
2M  5M>  3>  = 0 2

  = = 3
,-. 2 
2 i- .- angles between the lines
represented by 1 and 2 then   = 4
2 = 2 [YXiH G. [H
-[
. 2 = . 2    = 16

25     4  = 16
2  2 4 6
=
 5  43 = 16

  12 = 16
25 24
2  2 4
 = 4 = 2
=
 5

## M   5M>  >  = 0 differ by 1

163. Find k if the slope of the line given by

1
2  22
=
 5
Solution:-

M   5M>  >  = 0
2  1
= EG=iH H. M   2M>  >  = 0
 5
 = , 2 = 5 , = 1
[YXiH G. [H
-[
5
4  1  = , = , = 1
= 2
   25
5
2 22
100  =       = =
1
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
112

   = 5 3M  + M> + 2>  = 0


  = =
1
Solution:-

  = 1
The given homogeneous equation is

3M  + M> + 2>  = 0
[YXiH G. [H
-[
EG=iH H. M  + 2M> + >  = 0
   = 1
 = 3, 2 = , = 2
    4  = 1

25 4 = 1  = 3, = , = 2
2
25 1 = 4 4 = 24 = 6 .- -YX.HG GI H- ,H - H[ 2M + > = 0

[,G=- GI ,H - =  = 2
6M   M>  >  = 0 H[ 2M  > = 0
164. Find the value of k, if one of the line given by

2 
 +  = 
  =
Solution:-

22 3
 +  = 
  =
The given homogeneous equation is

6M   M>  >  = 0 2 2
3
EG=iH H. M   2M>  >  = 0  +  = 
  =
2 2
 = 6, 2 = , = 1  = 2
3
 = 6, = , = 1 2 +  = 
2 =
2 2 2
.- -YX.HG GI H- ,H - H[ 2M  > = 0 3
 = + 2 
 =
2 4
[,G=- GI ,H - =  = 2
3 3 11
2  = +2 = +2, =
   = 
  = 4 2 2 4 2 4

11
=
2


   = 
;

  =6

   = 
  =6
3M  M>  5>  = 0is perpendicular to the line
166. Find k if one of the line given by

 = 2 5M  3> = 0

2   = 
2 =6 Solution:-

 =  2 
 = 3 The given homogeneous equation is

3 =  2 , = 5 3M  M>  5>  = 0 1

165. Find the value of k if 2M  > = 0 is one of the EG=iH H. M   2M>  >  = 0
line given by

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

113

 = 3, 2 = , = 5 We know that

 = 3, = , = 5 2 2
2    = 0= 2
1
.- -YX.HG GI H- ,H - H[
=0
5 M  3> = 0 2

## 5 2M   M> 3>  = 0 is equal to their product

168. Find k if the sum of the slope of the line given by

[,G=- GI ,H - =
3

Solution:-

## by 1 having slope m1 The given homogeneous equation is

1 3 2M   M> 3>  = 0
 = =
5/3 5

2 
Comparing with

   = 
  = M   2M>  >  = 0

 = 2 , 2 = , = 3
3 2 2 3 3
  = 
 =
5 5 5 5
 = 2, = , = 3
2
3
  = 
 = 1
5 5 We know that
3 2 
1=    = 
  =
5 5
8
=
5 5    =  
It is given that

=8

2  22 2
= = = 2
3 3
167. Find the value of k if the sum of the slope of the

## 3M  M> >  = 0is zero


line given by
is given by 3M   4M>  >  = 0 is three times
169. Find the value of k If the slope of one of the lines

## M   2M>  >  = 0 Comparing with

 = 3 , 2 = , = 1 M   2M>  >  = 0

 = 3 , 2 = 4, =
 = 3, = , = 1
2
 = 3, = 2 , =

114

## 2  EG=iH H. M   2M>  >  = 0

   = 
  =

 = 1 , 2 = , = 3
 = 3 H- 

2 2 3  = 1, = , = 3
3   = 
3  = 2

4 3 2 2
1    = = 2
4 = 
3 =  = 3

16 1 1 1
16 =  =  1 =
   =
3
=1
 1
  = =
3M  4M>  >  = 0 is 1 3
170. Find k if slope of one of the line given by

Solution:-    = 2  H- 

2
= = 2
3 3
The given homogeneous equation is

3M  4M>  >  = 0

## M   4M> >  = 0 exceeds the slope of the

172. Find k if slope of one of the line given by
Comparing with

M   2M>  >  = 0
other by 8

 = 3 , 2 = 4, =
Solution:-

M   4M> >  = 0
 = 3, = 2 , =
EG=iH H. M   2M>  >  = 0

 = , 2 = 4 , = 1
We know that

2 
   = 
  =
 = , = 2 , = 1
 = 1 H-   = 8   H- 
2 2 3 2 22
1   = 
1  = 8     = =
1
4 3 8  2 = 4 2 = 4  = 2
1   = 
 =

3 4 4 3 1 
1 = 1= 1=   =

=1

8 +   = 8 22 =
1
represented by M   M> 3>  = 0 is twice
171. Find k if sum of the slope of the lines

their product = 12 = 12

Solution:-

## The given homogeneous equation is

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
115

8 
= 2 8 = 2  = 4
M  2M>  >  = 0is three times the other
 5 5
173. If the slope of one of the lines given by

## prove that 3 = 4 PROBLEM ON TO FIND THE JOINT EQUATION OR

Solution:- COMBINE EQUATION

Let  
 be the slope of the lines given by
2M  > = 0 
3M 5> = 0
175. Find the joint equation of the pair of lines

## M   2M>  >  = 0 Then

2 
Solution:-

   = 
  =
The required joint equation is

## 2  2M3M 5>  >3M 5> = 0

3   = 
3  =

6M  10M>  3M> 5>  = 0
2  
4 = 
3 =  = 6M  7M> 5>  = 0
3

4  4
16 = 16 =
 3  M  2> 1 = 0 

176. Find the joint equation of the pair of lines

2M 3>  2 = 0
4 
= 3 = 4
3
Solution:-

## M  8M>  5>  = 0 is twice there product


M  2> 12M 3>  2 = 0
174. Find a if the sum of slope of lines represented by

## M2M 3>  2  2>2M 3>  2

12M 3>  2 = 0
Solution:-

Let  
 be the slope of the lines given by
2M  3M>  2M  4M> 6>   4> 2M  3> 2 = 0
M   8M>  5>  = 0
2M   M> 6>   7> 2 = 0

## passing through 2 , 3 and parallel to the co-

Comparing with 177. Find the joint equation of the pair of lines
M   2`M>  ]>  = 0

 =  , 2` = 8 , ] = 5
ordinate axes

 =  , ` = 4 , ] = 5
Solution:-

2` 
Since the lines are parallel to the co-ordinate axes
   = 
  =
] ]
then their equations are

> = 3 
M = 2 M 2 = 0 
> 3 = 0
24 
   = 
  =
5 5
8 
The required joint equation is

   = 
  = M 2> 3 = 0
5 5
M> 3M 2> + 6 = 0
   = 2  H- 

116

## line M  3> 1 = 0 and other is perpendicular to

through the point 2 , 3 and perpendicular to the the line2M 3> 1 = 0
178. Find the joint equation of the line passing

## 3M  2> 1 = 0andM 3>  2 = 0

line
Solution:-

Let  
 be the slope of the lines one is parallel to
M  3> 1 = 0 and other is perpendicular to the
Solution:-

Let  
 be the slope of the two lines line 2M 3>= 0
perpendicular to 3M  2> 1 = 0 and M 3>  2 =
0  = [,G=- GI ,H - M  3> 1 = 0

1 1
 =  =
[,G=- GI ,H - 3M  2> 1 = 0 3
1
1 2  =
 =  = [,G=- GI ,H - 2M 3> 1 = 0 
3 3
2
1 3
 =  =
1 2 2
 = 3
[,G=- GI ,H - M 3> + 2 = 0 

1
 =  = 3
Use the formula
1 > > = M M 
3

## the point 1 , 2 and having slope  = and


Use the formula The equation of line first and second line passing through

> > = M M 
 =  is

1 3
the point 2 , 3 and having slope  = and > 2 = M + 1 
> 2 = M + 1

The equation of line first and second line passing through

3 2
 = 3 is
3> 6 = M 1 
2> 4 = 3M 3
2
> 3 = M 2 
> 3 = 3M 2 M + 3> 5 = 0 
3M + 2> 1 = 0
3

3> 9 = 2M 4 
> 3 = 3M + 6 The required joint equation is

2M 3> + 5 = 0 
3M + > 9 = 0 M + 3> 53M + 2> 1 = 0

## M3M + 2> 1 + 3>3M + 2> 1

53M + 2> 1 = 0
The required joint equation is

## 2M 3> + 53M + > 9 = 0

3M  + 2M> M + 9M> + 6>  3> 15M 10>
6M + 2M> 18M 9M> 3> + 27> + 15M + 5>
 
+5=0
45 = 0
3M  + 11M> + 6>  16M 13> + 5 = 0
6M 7M> 3> 3M + 32> 45 = 0
 

## through the point 1 , 2 and parallel to the

179. Find the joint equation of the line passing
lines represented by 5M  8M>  3>  = 0
through the origin which are perpendicular to the

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

117

8 5
M   M>  >  = 0
3 3
Solution:-

Let  
 be the slope of the lines given by
3M   8M>  5>  = 0
5M 8M>  3> = 0 .1
 
181. Find the joint equation of the pair of lines

## lines represented by 5M   2M> 3>  = 0

Comparing with through the origin which are perpendicular to the

M   2M>  >  = 0

 = 5 , 2 = 8 , = 3
Solution:-

Let  
 be the slope of the lines given by
 = 5 , = 4 , = 3
5M   2M> 3>  = 0 .1
We know that

2 
   = 
  =
Comparing with
M   2M>  >  = 0
24
   =  = 5 , 2 = 2 , = 3
3
8  = 5 , = 1 , = 3
   = 2
3
5
We know that

  = 3 2 
3    = 
  =

21
   =
The slope of the lines perpendicular to equation 1 is

1 1 3


  2
   = 2
3
5
They passing through the origin their equations are

1 1   = 3
>= M 
> = M 3
 

 > = M 
 > = M
The slope of the lines perpendicular to equation 1 is

1 1
M   > = 0 
M   > = 0 

 
Their joint or combine equation is They passing through the origin their equations are
M   >M   > = 0 1 1
>= M 
> = M
 
MM   >   >M   > = 0
 > = M 
 > = M
M    M>   M>    >  = 0
M   > = 0 
M   > = 0
M      M>    >  = 0
Their joint or combine equation is

M   >M   > = 0
Use equation 2 and 3

118

 > = M

M   > = 0

## 2 5 MM   >   >M   > = 0

M   M> >  = 0
3 3
M    M>   M>    >  = 0
3M  2M> 5> = 0
 

M      M>    >  = 0
182. Find the joint equation of the pair of lines

## lines represented by M   4M> 5>  = 0

through the origin which are perpendicular to the Use equation 2 and 3

4 1
M   M> >  = 0
5 5

5M   4M> >  = 0
Solution:-

Let  
 be the slope of the lines given by

M   4M> 5>  = 0 .1
183. Find the joint equation of the pair of lines

## lines represented by 2M  3M> 9>  = 0

through the origin which are perpendicular to the
Comparing with

## M   2M>  >  = 0 Solution:-

 = 1 , 2 = 4 , = 5 Let  
 be the slope of the lines given by

 = 1 , = 2 , = 5 2M  3M> 9>  = 0 .1

## We know that Comparing with

2  M   2M>  >  = 0
   = 
  =

 = 2 , 2 = 3 , = 9
22
   = 3
5  = 2 , = , = 9
2
4
   = 2
5 We know that

1 2 
  = 3    = 
  =
5
3
2 2
   =
The slope of the lines perpendicular to equation 1 is

1 1 9


  1
   = 2
3
2
They passing through the origin their equations are

1 1   = 3
>= M 
> = M 9
 

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

119

2 
   = 
  =

The slope of the lines perpendicular to equation 1 is

1 1

1
  2
   = 2
1

   = 1 2
They passing through the origin their equations are

1 1
>= M 
> = M
    = 1 3
 > = M 
 > = M The slope of the lines perpendicular to equation 1 is
M   > = 0 
M   > = 0 1 1


 
Their joint or combine equation is

M   >M   > = 0
They passing through the origin their equations are

1 1
MM   >   >M   > = 0 >= M 
> = M
 
M    M>   M>    >  = 0
 > = M 
 > = M
M     M>    > = 0
 
M   > = 0 
M   > = 0
Use equation 2 and 3

1 2
Their joint or combine equation is

3 9

## 9M  3M> 2  MM   >   >M   > = 0

> =0
9 9 9 M    M>   M>    >  = 0
9M  3M> 2>  = 0
M      M>    >  = 0
184. Find the joint equation of the pair of lines
Use equation 2 and 3

## lines represented by M   M> >  = 0 M   M> >  = 0

through the origin which are perpendicular to the

## Solution:- 185. Find the joint equation of the pair of lines

Let  
 be the slope of the lines given by
lines represented by M   2M>  >  = 0
through the origin which are perpendicular to the

M   M> >  = 0 .1
Solution:-

Let  
 be the slope of the lines given by
Comparing with

M  2M>  > = 0
 
M   2M>  >  = 0 .1
 = 1 , 2 = 1 , = 1 2 
   = 
  =
1
 = 1 , = , = 1
2 The slope of the lines perpendicular to equation 1 is
We know that

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

120

1 1

[,G=- GI ,H - ]  .  30
  2

They passing through the origin their equations are [,G=- GI ,H - ]   EG. 30  3

1 1
>= M 
>  M
 
The equation of line OA and OB is

## >  3M ; >  3M

 >  M 
 >  M
3M >  0 ; 3
3M  >  0
=0
M   >  0 
M   > 
The joint equation of line OA and OB is

3M >3M  >  0
Their joint or combine equation is

M   >M   >
>  0
3M  >   0
MM   >   >M   >  0

## M    M>   M>    >   0

187. Find the joint equation of the pair of lines

## with the line 3M  >  6  0.

through the origin and making an angles /6
M      M>    >   0

2 
M   M> >   0

Solution:-

M 2M> >  0
Let OA and OB be two lines passing through the
  origin makes an angle of /6 with the line

## 186. Find the joint equation of the pair of lines 3M  > 6  0

[,G=- GI ,H -  3

with the line > = 3
through origin making an n equilateral triangle

Let slope OA or OB is m
Solution :-
.- -YX.HG GI  Gi ] H[ >
 M    1

We know that

 
. 2 
1   

2  ,   ,
  3
6
3
. 
The line OA and OB passing through the origin form

6 1  3
an equilateral triangle with line y=3

1 3

The inclination of line OA is 600

3 1  3
[,G=- GI ,H -   . 60  3
[YXiH G. [H
-[
[H
-[
The inclination of the line OB is 1200
1 3 
[,G=- GI ,H - ]  . 120^ 
3 1  3

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

121

1 3 = 3  3 1 2  3
=
3 2 3
1 6  9 = 3  6  9
[YXiH G. [H
-[
1 6  9 = 3  18  27
1 2  3 
6 24 26 = 0
 =
3 2 3
>
IiG -YX.HG 1 = 2 3 = 32  3
M
4 12  9 = 34  12  9
>  24>
6  26 = 0
M M 4 12  9 = 12  36  27
6>  24M> 26M  = 0
3  48  23 = 0

HH
-
G. [H
-[ > 2 >
IiG -YX.HG 1 =
M
3>   12M>  13M  = 0
>  48>
13M  12M> 3> = 0
  3   23 = 0
M M

## 3>   48M>  23M  = 0

through the origin and making an angles 30^
188. Find the joint equation of the pair of lines

## 189. Show that the lines M  4M>  >  = 0 and the

line M  > = 10 form an equilateral triangle find
Solution:-

## Let OA and OB be two lines passing through the its area

origin makes an angle of /6 with the line

3M  2> 11 = 0
Solution:-

3
[,G=- GI ,H - =
The given homogeneous equation is

2 M  4M>  >  = 0

Let slope OA or OB is m
HH
-
G. [H
-[ > M 

## .- -YX.HG GI  Gi ] H[ > > >

= M 1 14   =0
M M
>  >
4 1 = 0
M M
We know that

 
. 2 =
1     4E
M=
2
3
2 = 30^ ,  = ,  =
2 > 4 16 4 1 1
=
3 M 21
2
. 30 =
^
> 4 16 4
3
1 2 =
M 2

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

122

> 4 12 4 23 33 1
= = . 2 = = 3
M 2 2 3 1
>
= 2 3 . 2 = 3
M
2 = 60^
> = 2  3M ; > = 2 3M
The two angles of triangle are 600
2  3M > = 0 ; 2 3M > = 0
M  4M>  >  = 0and the line M  > = 10 form
[,G=- GI ,H -[  = 2  3 an equilateral triangle

##  = 2 3 To find area of equilateral triangle

1
-YXH,.-i, .iH ,- = =
3
The slope of given equation of line

M  > = 10is

= 1
Where p is a perpendicular distance from origin to

M  > = 10
the line

 

Let 1 be the angle between the lines having slope
1 0  0 10 
-YXH,.-i, .iH ,- = Q R
 3 2
. 2 =
1  
1 100
-YXH,.-i, .iH ,- =
2  3  1 3 2
. 2 = 50
1  2  31 = [Y. X H.
3
3  3
. 2 = 190. Show that the lines M  4M>  >  = 0 and the
1 3
line M  > = 6 form an equilateral triangle find
31  3
. 2 = = 3
its area
1  3 Solution:-

## 2 = 60^ M  4M>  >  = 0

HH
-
G. [H
-[ > M 
 and
Let 2 be the angle between the lines having slopes

> >
 14   =0
. 2 = M M
1  
>  >
4 1 = 0
2 3  1 M M
. 2 =
1  2 31
 4E
M=
3 3 2
. 2 =
1  3 > 4 16 4 1 1
=
M 21
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
123

> 4 16 4 3 3
= . 2 =
M 2 1  3

> 4 12 4 23 33 1
= = . 2 = = 3
M 2 2 3 1
>
= 2 3 . 2 = 3
M

## The two angles of triangle are 600

2  3M > = 0 ; 2 3M > = 0
M  4M>  >  = 0and the line M  > = 6 form
[,G=- GI ,H -[  = 2  3

 = 2 3
an equilateral triangle

## To find area of equilateral triangle

1
-YXH,.-i, .iH ,- = =
The slope of given equation of line

M  > = 10is 3

= 1
Where p is a perpendicular distance from origin to

M  > = 10
the line

 

Let 1 be the angle between the lines having slope

1
0  0 6
 -YXH,.-i, .iH ,- = U V
. 2 = 3 2
1  
1 6
2  3  1 -YXH,.-i, .iH ,- =
. 2 = 3 2
1  2  31 3
= [Y. X H.
3
3  3
. 2 =
1 3 -YXH,.-i, .iH ,- = 3 [Y. X H.

31  3
. 2 = = 3
1  3
191. Find the joint equation of the pair of lines

## with the line M = 3

through origin making an equilateral triangle

. 2 = 3

2 = 60 ^
Solution:-

## an equilateral triangle with the line M = 3

The line OA and OB passing through the origin form

 and
Let 2 be the angle between the lines having slopes


. 2 =
1  

2 3  1
. 2 =
1  2 31

124

## Since the line given by M   2M>  >   0 form an

equilateral triangle with the line ,M  >  1

2 
3

2 
. 
3 

1 2 
[,G=- GI  = . 30^  3 
3 
1 [YXiH G. [H
-[
[H
-[
.-
-YX.HG GI ,H - 
 H[ >  M
3

2 
3>  M ; M 3
3>  0 3
  

3    4 

The line OB makes an angle of 1500

[,G=- GI ] = . 150^ 
3  2     4
4  4

[,G=- GI ]  .  60^ 3  6  3   4
4  4
2
1 3  10  3   4
[,G=- GI ]  EG. 60  ^
3
3  9    3
  4

  3
3  3   3  4
The equation of line OB is

1
> M ; 3>  M   33   4
4 0
3

M  3>  0
GENERAL EQUATION OF STRAIGHT LINE

## M   2M>  >   2M  2I>  E  0

The equation
The joint equation of line OA and OB is

M 3>M  3>  0

Represented a pair of lines if

M  3>   0 I  0
I E
If the line given by M   2M>
M>  >   0 form
an equilateral triangle with the line ,M  >  1
192. 193. Show that the equation

then show that 3    3 4  0 3M   8M>  5>  2M 4> 1  0represent pairs of
lines . Find the angle between them
Solution:-
Solution:-

## equation M   2M>  >   0 then

if is the angle between the lines represented by the
The given equation is

. 2 

Comparing with

125

## M   2M>  >   2M  2I>  E = 0  = 2, 2 = 1, = 1, 2 = 1, 2I = 4 E = 3

 = 3, 2 = 8, = 5, 2 = 2, 2I = 4 E = 1 1 1
 = 2, = , = 1, = , I = 2, E = 3
2 2
 = 3, = 4, = 5, = 1, I = 2, E = 1
To show that equation 1 represented pair of lines


To show that equation 1 represented pair of lines

 H. -. .G [G .. I = 0
H. -. .G [G .. I = 0 I E
I E 
 <. `. a. = I
<. `. a. = I I E
I E 1 1
3 4 1 2
2 2
<. `. a. =  4 5 2 1
1 2 1 <. `. a. = 1 2
5 2 4 2 4 5 2
<. `. a. = 3 L L 4L L 1L L 1
2 1 1 1 1 2 2 3
2
<. `. a. = 35 4 44 2 18  5 1 1
<. `. a. = 27  24  3 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 1
<. `. a. = 27  27 = 0 <. `. a. = 2 L L 
2 3 2 1 2 1
<. `. a. = . `. a. 3 2
2 2
YX.HG 1 i-=i-[- .  =Hi GI ,H -[ 1 3 1 1
<. `. a. = 23 4 1  1 
2 2 2 2
5 3
2  <. `. a. = 2  
To find the angle

. 2 = 4 4

<. `. a. = 2  2 = 0
24 3 5 <. `. a. = . `. a.
. 2 =  
35 YX.HG 1 i-=i-[- .  =Hi GI ,H -[
216 15
. 2 = 2 
8
To find the angle

. 2 =
1 1 
. 2 = =
4 4 1 
1 22 21
2 = .  . 2 =
4 21

. 2 = |3|
194. Show that the equation

## 12M   2M>  2>   11M 5>  2 = 0

lines . Find the angle between them 195. Find the value of k if the equation
Solution:-

## aG,X.HG : The given equation is

represent pairs of lines
The given equation is

= 01
Comparing with

Comparing with

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

126

 = 12, 2 = 2, = 2, 2 = 11, 2I = 5,  = 2, 2 = 1, = 3, 2 = 4, 2I = ,
E=2 E = 6

11 5 1
 = 12, = , = 2, = ,I = ,E = 2  = 2, = , = 3, = 2, I = , E = 6
2 2 2 2

the equation 1 represented pair of lines The equation 1 represented pair of lines

 
I = 0 I = 0
I E I E
11 1
12 2 2
2 2
5 1
2 =0 3 =0
2 2 2
11 5
2 2 6
2 2 2
5 5 1
2 2 3 1 3
12 2 2  11 11 5 2 2 1 2
5 11 2 2 2 2  2
=0
2 2 2 2 6 2 6 2
2 2 2 2
=0  1
2 18 3   2  6 = 0
25 55 11 2 4 2 4
12 4 2   11 5
3
4 4 2

2 2 36     12 = 0
=0 2 2 2 2
2 99 = 0

9 8  55 11 5
12  11 = 0  11  9 = 0
4 4 2 2
108 8  55 55 242 = 0 11 = 0 Gi  9 = 0
= 11 Gi = 9
8  110 350 = 0

HH
-
G. [H
-[ > 2 1 
 = 23


4   55  175 = 0 2
1 25
4   20  35  175 = 0 = 6= 0
4 4
4  5  35  5 = 0 G ,H -[ i- G. =i,,-,
4  35  5 = 0
<H -[ i- H .-i[-E.H
4  35 = 0 ;  5 = 0
35
= Gi = 5 2M   4M> =>   4M  Y>  1 = 0represents a
197. Find p and q, if the equation

4
pair of lines perpendicular to each other
2M   M> 3>   4M  > 6 = 0 represents pair
196. Find the value of k if the equation
Solution:-
The given equation is

## 2M   4M> =>   4M  Y>  1 = 0 1

of lines. Further find whether these lines are

aG,X.HG : -
parallel or intersecting

to each other

2 = = 0 ; = = 2
Comparing with

127

##  = 2, 2 = 4, = =, 2 = 4, 2I = Y, The equation 1 represented pair of lines

E=1

Y I = 0
 = 2, = 2, = 2, = 2, I = , E = 1
2 I E
3 4 7
The equation 1 represented pair of lines
4 3 1 = 0
7 1 Y

3 1 4 1 4 3
I = 0 3 4  7L L=0
1 Y 7 Y 7 1
I E
33Y 1  44Y 7  74 21 = 0
2 2 2
Y 9Y  3 16Y 28 175 = 0
2 2 2 = 0 25Y 200 = 0
Y 25Y = 200
2 1
2 Y = 8
Y
2 Y 2 2
2 Y 2 2 2 2  2 2 Y = 0 2M  4M>  =>   4M  8>  Y = 0represents a pair

199. Find p and q, if the equation

1 2 1 2
2
Y
of lines perpendicular to each other

2 2 22 Y  2Y  4 = 0
4
Solution:-

Y
The given equation is

## 4 4  2Y  2Y  8 = 0 2M   4M>  =>   4M  8>  Y = 0 1

2
Y 
 4Y = 0 ,H -[ i-=i-[- .[ > -YX.HG 1 i- perpendicular to
2
YY 8 = 0
each other
Y = 0 ; Y 8 = 0 EG-II. GI M    EG-II. GI >   = 0
Y = 0 ; Y = 8
2  = = 0 ; = = 2
=M 8M>  3>   14M  2>  Y = 0represents a pair

198. Find p and q, if the equation

Comparing with

## M   2M>  >   2M  2I>  E = 0

of lines perpendicular to each other
Solution:-

 = 2, 2 = 4, = =, 2 = 4, 2I = 8, E=Y
The given equation is

## =M 8M>  3>  14M  2>  Y = 0 1

 
 = 2, = 2, = 2, = 2, I = 4, E = Y
,H -[ i-=i-[- .[ > -YX.HG 1 i- perpendicular
to each other The equation 1 represented pair of lines

## EG-II. GI M    EG-II. GI >   = 0 

I = 0
=  3 = 0 ; = = 3 I E
2 2 2
2 2 4 = 0
2 4 Y
Comparing with

## M   2M>  >   2M  2I>  E = 0 2 4 2 4 2 2

2 2 2L L=0
4 Y 2 Y 2 4
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
128

## 22Y 16 22Y 8  28  4 = 0

4Y 32 4Y  16  24 = 0
Solution: -

8Y  8 = 0
The given equation is

## =M 12M>  9>   16M  Y>  7 = 0represents


200. Find p and q, if the equation
Comparing with

## a pair of lines parallel to each other M   2M>  >   2M  2I>  E = 0

 = 2, 2 = 3, = 2, 2 = 5, 2I = 5,
Solution:-

E = 3
The given equation is

## =M  12M>  9>   16M  Y>  7

3 5 5
= 01  = 2, = , = 2, = , I = , E = 3
2 2 2

Comparing with

## M  2M>  >  2M  2I>  E = 0

 

 = =, 2 = 12, = 9, 2 = 16, 2I = Y, I = 0
I E
E=7

Y <. `. a. = I
 = =, = 6, = 9, = 8, I = ,E = 7
2 I E
3 5
The equation 1 represented pair of parallel lines 2
3 2 2
  = 0 ; 6 9= = 0 5
<. `. a. = 2
2 2
36 = 9= ; = = 4 5 5
3
2 2
 5 3 5
2 3
I = 0
<. `. a. = 2 2 2 2
I E 5 2 5
3 3
4 6 8 2 2
Y 3
6 9 2 = 0 5 2 2
Y
8 7 2 5 5
2
2 2
Y 25 3 9 25
9 Y 6 9 <. `. a. = 2 6 
4 Y 2  6 6 2  8 8 Y = 0 4 2 2 4
7 8 7 2 5 15
2 5
Y 2 4
4 63  642 4Y  83Y 72 1 21 25
4 <. `. a. = 
2 8 8
=0 1 4 1 1
252 Y  252 24Y 24Y 576 = 0 <. `. a. =  =  = 0
2 8 2 2
Y  48Y 576 = 0
Y   48Y  576 = 0
Equation 1represent the pair of lines

Y  24 = 0 ; Y = 24
To show that the lines are perpendicular to each
other

## 2M   3M>2>  5M  5> 3 = 0represents a EG-II. GI M    EG-II. GI >   = 0

201. Show that the equation

## pair of lines perpendicular to each other <. `. a. = EG-II. GI M    EG-II. GI >  

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
129

<. `. a. = 2 2 = 0  = 0 , 2 = , = 0 , 2 = 10, 2I = 6, E = 4

<. `. a. = . `. a.
 = 0 , = , = 0 , = 5, I = 3, E = 4
2
he equation 1 represent pair of perpendicular lines.

## 202. Find the value of k if the equation 3M  

Since equation 1 represent pair of lines if

## 10M>  3>   16>  = 0 represent pair of 

I = 0
I E
lines

0 5
Solution:-

2 =0
0 3
The given equation is

5 3 4

3  5 

0 = 0
0 2
Comparing with

## M   2M>  >   2M  2I>  E = 0 2 2

5 4 5 3
 = 3 , 2 = 10 , = 3 , 2 = 0, 2I = 16, E = 3
2 15  5 0 = 0
 = 3 , = 5 , = 3 , = 0, I = 8, E = 2 2
15 15
   = 0  + 15 = 0
2 2
Since equation 1 represent pair of lines if

  15 = 0
I = 0
I E = 0 
15= 0

3 5 0 = 0 
= 15
5 3 8 = 0
0 8 X. 0 = 15
3 8 5 8 5 3 204. Find the value of k if the equation M   3M> 
3L L 5L L 0L L=0
8 0 0 8
2>   M >  = 0 represent pair of lines
33 64 55 0  0 = 0

9 192 25 = 0 16 = 192
Solution:-

192
The given equation is
= = 12
16 M   3M>  2>   M >  = 0 1

6>  4 = 0
Comparing with

## M   2M>  >   2M  2I>  E = 0

 = 1 , 2 = 3 , = 2 , 2 = 1, 2I = 1, E =
Solution:-

3 1 1
 = 1 , = , = 2 , = , I = , E =
The given equation is

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

130

 Y
2 4
I = 0 2
4 8 1  0
I E Y
1 15
3 1 2
1
2 2 4 1 Y Y4 8
3 1 8 1
2L L 4 Y 15
 1  0
2 0 1 15
2 2 2
2 2
1 1
Y Y
2 2 60  4 4Y  0
2120 1 4 60
2 2
1 3 1 3
2 3 1 2 242  240  2Y  2Y
2 2Y   0
1 2 2 2  2 0
1 2 1 2 1 1
2  4Y 2Y  0 2Y 2Y  1  0
2 2 2 2
1 3 3 1 1 3 Y  2Y  1  0 Y 1  0
2   1
1  0
4 2 2 4 2 4 Y1
1 9 3 3 1
2 0 ] is formed by the lines
4 4 8 8 2
206.

## 12 12 M  4M>  >   0and

0   6 line ABis 2M  3> 1  0. Find the equation of the
and the line AB. The equation of the
4 8 4 8
median of the triangle drawn from the origin

## 2M  8M>  =>   YM  2> 15  0represents a

205. Find p and q if the equation
 Solution:-
pair of parallel lines

Solution:-

Comparing with

##   2 , 2  8 ,  = , 2  Y, 2I  2, E  15 Let  M , >  and ] M , > 

Y
  2 ,  4 ,  = ,  ,I  1
1, E  15 OP is the median of ]
]
2

## Equation 1 represents pair of parallel lines then

Point P is the midpoint of line AB

   16  2= =  8
By mid point formula

M  M >  >
,
2 2
Since equation 1 represent pair of lines if


I  0
To find the co-ordinate of point P

131

## M  4M>  >  = 0 . .1 M + M > + > 8 7

, ,
2 2 37 37
Given equation of line is

2M  3> 1 = 0 3> = 1 2M
The required equation of the median of triangle
drawn from the origin is
1 2M
>= .2
3
Using two point form
> > > >
=
Put in equation 1 M M M M

1 2M 1 2M  7
M  4M + =0 > 0 37 0 > 7
3 3 = =
M0 8
0 M 8
4M 8M  1 4M + 4M  37
M + =0
3 9 8> = 7M 7M 8> = 0

9M  4M 8M  1 4M + 4M 
3 + =0
9 9 9
**********************************************

9M  12M + 24M  + 1 4M + 4M 
=0
9

37M  16M + 1 = 0

## This is a quadratic equation in M it has two roots say

M 
M

Sum of roots =

VECTORS

16 16
SENCTON FORMLA FOR INTERNAL DIVISION
M + M = =
37 37
vectors a and b and C divides seg. AB internally
If A and B are two points having positions

K:

in the ratio m:n, then c = where c is the
Divided both sides by 2

M + M 1 16 M + M 8
K:
= =
2 2 37 2 37
position vector of the point C

Mco-ordinate of point = = _
K ; @ Proof:


## Point P lie on the line 2

A C B
Point P satisfies equation of line 2

M + M
> + > 1 2 2 acb
>= =
2 3
8
1 2 37 21
>= >=
3 3 37
O

7
>=
Since point C divided segment AB internally in the

37
ratio m:n then

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

132

, | = |]
| |
=
,]
= ]

, = ,]

]
 - G==G[H.-
Hi-E.HG
| = |]
| |
E  = E
= ]

E  =  E

]
 - [-
Hi-E.HG
E E = 
E  = E
E  = 
E  = E

HH
-
G. [H
-[ >
E  E =  
E  
=
E   =  

HH
-
G. [H
-[ >  
E =

E    
= H[ H[ [-E.HG IGiX, IGi -M.-i ,
HH[HG
 

 
E =

MID-POINT FORMULA
If a and b are position vector of points A and B, then
This is section formula for internal division
the position vector of the mid-point of C is

a + b
SENCTON FORMLA FOR EXTERNAL DIVISION
c =
2
vectors a and b and C divides seg. AB externally
If A and B are two points having positions

:
Proof: Since C is mid-point of segment AB then m=n

in the ratio m:n, then c = where c is the
:
+ 
E =
+
position vector of the point C

Proof: =X. =

 
E =
A B C


 
E =
2

 
E =
O

## Since point C divided segment AB externally in the 2

ratio m:n then This is mid- point formula
,
=
,]
CENTROID FORMULA

, = ,]
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
133

## If a , b and c are position vectors of vertices of let, ], E, = , Y  

i  are the
ABC then the position vector of the centroid G vertices of ] 
.

K5
K
of the triangle is given by g =
 
 i- E- .iGH
[ GI ] 

Proof: ]> E- .iGH
IGiX,
Aa    E
 
1
3
=  Y  i
2

Gg
 = 2
3
1  ]
To prove that  
= 3

 
Bb D d Cc
 ]
<. `. a =  

Let , ] 
E are the vertices of ]
<. `. a = =   Y  i E
Let
be the mid-point of side BC
<. `. a = =  Y  i     E
By mid-point formula

 E
From equation 1 and 2

 =  Y  i = 3

2
   E = 3

The centroid   divided segment AD internally in
the ratio 2:1 then by section formula for internal <. `. a = 3
 3


<. `. a = 3


division

2
 1
=
<. `. a = 3  
21

 E L. H. S = R. H. S.
2 2  1
=
21 208. If D,E,F are the mid-points of the sides BC, CA,

   E
and AB respectively of triangle ABC and if G is
=
3
 = 0

the centroid of triangle ABC then prove that

let, ] 
Eare the vertices of ].
This is centroid formula Solution:-

, 
Eare mid-point of sides BC,CA
PROBLEM ON MID-POINT FORMULA AND

and AB of ]
CENTROID FORMULA
]> H
=GH . IGiX,

 E E    

 , I =
207. If G1 and G2 are the centroids of the triangles
, - =
 ]
 
= 3

 
2 2 2
ABC and PQR then prove that

H[ .- E- .iGH
GI .iH ,- ] .-

   E
Solution:-

= 1
3

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

134


To prove that = 0
 210. Show that, If P, Q, R, S are the mid-point of the


<. `. a. =

sides of a quadrilateral ABCD. then prove that

<. `. a. =
  -   I
PQRS is a parallelogram by vector method.

## Solution: let , ] , E 

are the
<. `. a. = 3
 -  I vertices of YX
iH,.-i, ].

, , , a i- H
=GH . GI [H
- ], ],CD
 E E    
<. `. a. = 3  
2 2 2
and DA.

2  2  2E
<. `. a. = 3
By using mid-point formula

2  
=
= ,
2
2   E  E E 

<. `. a. = 3 Y = , i = , [
2 2 2

 
<. `. a. = 3    E =
2
IiG -YX.HG 1    E = 3

<. `. a. = 3 3 = 0
To show that PQRS is a parallelogram

<. `. a. = . `. a.
i.e. to show that the opposite side of parallelogram

are equal

, = ,a 
,a = ,
the plane such that   ] = 0 then

209. If A,B,C and D are four non-collinear points in

prove that the point D is the centroid of G =iG- .. , = ,a

= a
H. -. .G =iG- ..
the].

Solution:- Let , , E 

i- .- position

= Y =

 E  

=
Vectors of the points A, B, C and D respectively

 ]
 = 0
 2 2

 E  E 

 

E = 0
= =
2 2
3
   E = 0 E 

= 1
2
3
=    E
= i [
a

HH
-
G. [H
-[ > 3
E 

 
=
a
   E 2 2

=
3
E 


=
a
This is the centroid formula 2
H[ E- .iGH
GI ] E 
=
a 2
2

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

135

From equation 1 and 2 We know that points Q, P and G are collinear then

PQ = SR

point G divides QP internally in the ratio 1:2by
section formula for internal division
lPQ = lSR 1=  2Y

similarly lPS = lQR 3

3 = =  2Y
PQRS is a parallelogram
To show that
= 3

<. `. a. =
211. If ABC is a triangle whose orthocenter is P and

PA
 PB
 PC
 2PQ <. `. a. = = Y
the circumcentre is Q then prove that

<. `. a. = 3 2Y Y
<. `. a. = 3 3Y
letAa, Bb and Ccare the vertices of ABC. let
Solution:-

<. `. a. = 3 Y 
p
and q are the position vector of the points P
<. `. a. = 3
and Q <. `. a. = . `. a.
We know that points Q, P and G are collinear then 213. Using vector method Prove that, a quadrilateral
point G divides QP internally in the ratio 1:2by is a rectangle if and only if the diagonals are
section formula for internal division congruent and bisect each other.
1= + 2Y
=
3
Solution:-

3 = =  2Y
Given:- a quadrilateral ABCD is a rectangle

To show that
 
]  = 2 To prove that :- The diagonals AC and BC bisect each

<. `. a. =  ]  other

<. `. a. =  =   =  E =  YX
iH,.-i, ] H[  i-E. ,-
<. `. a. =    E 3=
H[ E- .iGH
GI ]
   E equal and parallel. Let , , E 

are the
We know that the opposite sides of a rectangle are

 , 3 =    E
3
<. `. a. = 3 3=
position vectors of the points A, B,C and D

,] = ,
<. `. a. = =  2Y 3=
<. `. a. = 2Y 2= | = |
|] |
<. `. a. = 2Y = 

<. `. a. = 2 =
]
<. `. a. = . `. a.
 = E


=   E
212. If P is orthocenter, Q is cicumcentre and G is

= 3
centroid of triangle ABC then prove that

HH
-
G. [H
-[ > 2
let, ] 
Eare the vertices of ]. let
Solution:-


  E
=

Y are the position vector of the points P = = - [>
2 2
and Q

136

## From the above equation the diagonal AC and BD P

vector -.
have the same mid-point say E having position
r

H q

Q R

Conversely: |
p = |QR

## To prove that: a quadrilateral ABCD is a rectangle

= 3 , | = 9 = 3
|

## The diagonals AC and BC bisect each other |

Y = |

H. -. .-
HG ,  
] - .- [- H
= = i = 1 2  1 1  2  3

=GH .
= 4 ,
| = 16 = 4
|
  E 

= |
i = |
2 2

  E = 
= Y = = 1  1 3 1  2 1

E
=  = 3 4 ,
| = 9  16 = 5
|

= ] h
31 2  1k  41  1 3k  51 2 3k
are parallel

] =
345
From the above equation

## The opposite sides of a quadrilateral are parallel 12 12 24k

h =
and equal 12
- YX
iH,i-i, ] H[  i-E. ,-. = 2
214. Using vector method, find the incentre of a EG Gi
H .- GI ` 1, 1, 2

## 1, 2,1, 1,1, 3 

1, 2, 3.
triangle whose vertices are
PROBLEM ON SECTION FORMULA FOR

Solution: Let = , Y 
i are the position vectors of
INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL DIVISION

2  
 4 2 respectively. Find the
the points P,Q and R 215. The position vectors of the points P and Q are

= = 1 2  1
position vector i  and co-ordinate of the point R
Y = 1  1 3 which divides the line segment PQ internally in

i = 1 2 3
the ratio 2:1

## <-. ` - .- H E- .i- GI then

Solution:-

let= 
Y are the position vectors of the points P
==  YY  ii

=Yi
and Q respectively

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

137

= = 2  , Y =  4 2 Let p
, q and r are the position vectors of the points

: = 2: 1
P,Q and R

= a + 2 1k
p

q = 5 + b + 2k
By using section formula for internal division

Y  =
i =
 r = 3 + + ck
2  4 2  1 2 
i = let Oobe the centroid of triangle PQR.
21
By centroid formula
3  6 3
i =
3 p
+ q + r
o =
3
i =  2 
1,2, 1
o
a + 2 1k + 5 + b + 2k + 3 + + ck
=
216. Find the co-ordinates of the point which divides
3
4, 2,5 
]2,3,7 externally in the ratio
the line joining the points

a + 2 + 3 + b + 1 + ck
0 + 0 + 0k =
3
8:5

Solution: let  
are the position vectors of the
0 + 0 + 0k
a+2 3+b
points A and B respectively
= +
 = 4 2  5 , = 2  3  7 3 3
1+c
+ k
: = 8: 5 3
a+2 3+b 1+c
0= , 0= , 0=
3 3 3
Let point C divided segment AB externally in the ratio
8:5
a + 2 = 0 , 3 + b = 0 , 1+c=0
By using section formula for external division
a = 2 , b = 3 , c = 1
mb na
c =
mn
3,1,4 
]4, 5, 3 and the centroid of
82  3  7k 54 2  5k
218. If two vertices of a triangle are

## c = the triangle is at 1, 2, 1 then find the co-

85

36  34  31k
ordinate of the third vertex C of the triangle

c =
3 Solution:-

34 31 Let , ] 
E are the vertices of ]
C 12 ,
3 3
To find the co-ordinate of the vertex C

,-. , , E
217. If the origin is the centroids of the triangle

## Pa, 2, 1, Q5, b, 2 and R3,1, c find the

whose vertices are

 = 3 + 1 + 4 , = 4 + 5 3

E =  + + E , = + 2 +
values of a, b and c

Solution:-

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

138

  H[ .- E- .iGH
GI ] 5  8  0
Y  4 2  5
= 
1 1
4  =
By using centroid formula

   E 
= 1
3
Y  4 2  5 4  =
3  1  4  4  5 3     E 1
= 5,
1
= 8,
1
=0
=
3
Y  4 = 5  5 1
 2 
1    6    1  E 2  5 = 8  8 2
=
3
4  = = 0 3
 2 
1   6
= 
From equation 3
3 3 3 1
1E 2 8 = 8 5 ; 6 = 3; = =
 6 2
3
1
1   6 1E =
= 1, = 2, =1 2
3 3 3

1   = 3, 6  = 6, 1E =3
The value of k is negative therefore the point C

 = 2 , = 0, E=2
divides the line AB externally in the ratio 1:2

EG Gi
H .- GI .Hi-
-i.-M 2, 0, 2
To find the value of p and q

1
=X. = H -YX.HG 1
219. If three points 4, 5, =, ]Y, 2, 4 
2
5, 8, 0arecollinear then find Y 5
H The ratio in which the point C divides the line AB 4= 5
2 2
HH The values of p and q
Y 5
4=
Solution: Let , ] 
E are the three 2 2
Y 5
= 4
2 2
collinear points

 = 4  5  = , = Y  2  4
Y 3
E = 5  8  0 , = , Y = 3
2 2
1
=X. = H -YX.HG 3
2
Let the point C divide segment AB in the ratio k:1

1
4  = = 0 , 2  = = 0
Then by section formula

Y  2  4  14  5  = 2
E =
1
==2
5  8  0
Y  4  2  5  4  =
=
220. Find the co-ordinates of the point which divides

1
3, 4, 1 
]6, 2, 4
the line segment joining the points

139

## H Internally in the ratio 2:3 = = 3  16  11

HH Externally in the ratio 2:3
- co-ordinate of the point P are 3, 16, 11

Solution:-

## let point E divides segment AB internally in the , ] 

Eare collinear. Hence find the
ratio 2:3 ratio in which the point A divides the line BC

 = 3  4 , = 6 2  4 Solution: -

Where  
are position vectors of the points A the given vector equation is

2  3E = 0
and B respectively By section formula for internal

2 = 3E
division

 
E =

HH
-
G. [H
-[ > 2
26 2  4  33  4
E = 3E 3E 1
23  = =
2 31
21  8  5
E = point A divides line BC externally. Hence points A, B
5
21 8 5
and C are collinear

E =  
5 5 5
Point A divides line BC externally in the ratio 3:1

2 8
E =  
5 5
Collinear vectors: One of the vector can be
expressed as a scalar multiple of other then the

## - co-ordinate of the point C are \$ , \$ , 1

 @
vectors are collinear.
Coplanar vectors: One of the vector can be

## HHlet point =  divides segment AB externally in

expressed as a linear combination another two

## Theorem: Two non-zero vectors  

are
vectors then the three vectors are coplanar
the ratio 2:3

 = 3  4 , = 6 2  4

## scalar m and n such that   = 0

collinear if and only if there exist a nonzero

Where  
are position vectors of the points A
Proof: If part:

## Given: Two non-zero vectors  

are collinear.
and B respectively By section formula for
external division


= =

and n such that   = 0
To prove that: if there exist a nonzero scalar m

26 2  4 33  4
= = Two non-zero vectors  
are collinear.
23

## 12 4  8 9 12  3  G T-iG [E,i [XE ..  =

= =
1
 = 0 , 1   = 0
3 16  11
= = H = 1, =
1

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

140

  = 0 We choose O as a origin

## Conversely: Only if part: ,-.  = ,

=  . 0]
= i

that   = 0
Given: if there exist a nonzero scalar m and n such We complete the parallelogram by drawing the lines
parallel to OA and OB through the point R

## To prove that: Two non-zero vectors  

are From fig. by using triangle law for vector addition

=

collinear

IiG IH.
=
if there exist a nonzero scalar m and n such that

  = 0

=
 =
and lie along the same line


0
HH
-
G. [H
-[ >


are collinear then there exist non-zero
scalar M [XE .. = M
= M
 =

and lie along the same line

]

 = -i- =

]
are collinear then there exist non-zero
 E - -M=i-[[ [  [E,i X,.H=,- GI scalar > [XE .. = >
= >]

.-  
are collinear  >]
= M

## Thus i can be expressed as a linear combination

and
COMBINATION OF VECTORS IN PLANE

## Theorem: If a and b are two non-zero non

Uniqueness: To show that the representation

i = M  > is unique
any vector r coplanar with them can be uniquely
collinear vectors, lying in the same plane then

## expressed as a linear combination of a and b. i.e.

there exist scalar x and y such that If possible that i = M   > where M 
> are
r = xa + yb scalar

## Proof: We show that M = M 

> = >

B M  > = M   >
Q R M M  = > >
r M M  = > >

## Suppose M M , divided both sides by M M 

M M  > >
=
P
O A

M M M M
> >
 =
M M
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
141

## > > M, >, Tnot

not all zero simultaneously [XE ..
 = -i- =
M M
M  >  TE  0
Vector  can be expressed as a scalar multiple of
vector therefore  
collinear. TE  M  >

## Which is contradiction to the fact that  

are ,-. T  0 ,
HH
-
G. [H
-[ > T

TE M  >

non-zero non collinear vectors.

## Our assumption that M M is wrong T T

M >
M = M [HH,i,> >
> = > 
E    
T T
.- EGH .HG i  M  >is unique M >
H   ,

T T

combination of  
. E   
vectori can be uniquely expressed as a linear

## Thus E can be expressed as a linear combination of

, , E are coplanar if and only if there exist  

Theorem: Three non-zero, zero, non
non-collinear vectors

## scalar M, >, T not all zero simultaneously

, , E
are coplanar
[XE .. M  >  TE = 0
Theorem: If , , E
are three non-zero non-
coplanar vectors then any vector i in the space

Proof: If part:

## To prove that: there exist scalar M, >

>, T not all zero M  >  TE . whereM,
where >, T i- [E,i[.
combination

## simultaneously [XE .. M  >  TE  0

, , Eare coplanar
Proof:

Eccan
 

an be express as a linear combination of

[E,-i[ 
[XE
[XE ..

E   

   E  0
Let   .
= i ,  = E
 ,
0]
H  M,  >, 1  T

M  >  TE  0
Since the lines OA, OB, and OC are non-coplanar
non they
determine three planes AOB,BOC and COA.
Conversely: Only if part:

## Given: there exist scalar M, >, T not all zero

Trough the point P draw the plane parallel to the

## simultaneously [XE .. M  >  TE  0

plane BOC, COA and AOB intersect the line OA,
OB and OC in points L,M and N

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

142


= Vector  can be expressed as a linear combination of

E. Therefore , , E
are coplanar
 <
= <
 
Which is contradiction to the fact that  , , E
are non-
]X. IiG IH.
< =

= <



zero non-coplanar vectors.

## Our assumption that M M is wrong

H IiG IH. =
= < z
M = M [HH,i,> > = > , T = T

= < 
z
.- EGH .HG i = M  >  TEis unique


< and lie along the same line

< 
are collinear then there exist non-zero combination of  , 
E .
vectori can be uniquely expressed as a linear

= M
scalar M [XE .. < = M
Show that the points 5, 5, 2, ]1, 3, 0
and lie along the same line

]
222.

## 1, 2 1are collinear.

and


]
are collinear then there exist non-zero
= >
= >]
scalar > [XE .. Solution: let , , E
are the position vectors of the points

## and lie along the same line

z 

A, B and C respectively then

 = 5 5  2

z 
are collinear then there exist non-zero
scalar T [XE .. z = TE
= T = 3  0

i = M  >  TE . E = 2

## Uniqueness: To show that the representation

i = M  >  TE . is unique
To show that A, B and C are collinear



i.e. to show ] lie along the same line
If possible that i = M   >  T E where = 
]
M , > 
T are scalar
= 3  0 5 5  2
]
We show that M = M , > = > 
T = T
= 3  0 5  5 2
]
M  >  TE = M   >  T E
= 4  2 2
]
M M  = > >  T E TE
= 22  1
]
M M  = > >  T TE
= E 

Suppose M M , divided both sides by M M 
= 2 5 5  2

M M  > > T TE
= 
M M M M M M = 2 5  5 2

> > T T
 =  E = 6  3 3

M M M M
> > T T = 32  2

 =  E -i- = , =
M M M M

143

## From equation 1 and 2 i = M  >  TE

1 1 Where M, > 
T i- [E,i[
= 
]
2 3
3  
2
= 
] = M4 
3
 >3 3  5
can be expressed as a scalar multiple of 
]  T2


] are collinear. A is the common point 3   = 4M  M M 3> 3>  5>

## he points A, B and C are collinear 2T T T

223. If  H[ 1,0,5 and ]2, 1, 4 then find AB 3  

and the unit vector along the direction of ] = 4M 3>  2T
 M 3> T
Solution: let , , are the position vectors of the
 M  5> T

4M 3>  2T = 3 1
points A and B respectively then

 =  0  5
M 3> T = 1 2
= 2  4
M  5> T = 1 3
= 
]

= 2  4  0  5
]
Using Cramers solve equation 1,2 and 3

4 3 2
= 2  4  0 5
] =  1 3 1
1 5 1
= 3
]
= 43  5  31 1  25 3
| = 9  1  1 = 11
] = |]
= 32 6  4 = 30

Let be the unit vector along the direction of ] 3 3 2
= 1 3 1

] 1
= = 1 5 1
| 11 3
|]
= 33  5  31  1  25  3
224. Express the vector 3   as a linear = 24  16
combination of the vectors 4  ,
= 40
3 3  5and2
4 3 2
=  1 1 1
1 1 1
Solution:-

leti = 3  
= 41  1 31 1  21  1
 = 4  ,
= 6  4 = 10
= 3 3  5 ,E = 2
4 3 3
=  1 3 1
1 5 1
Consider

144

## = 43 5  31  1  3 5 3 M >  T = 3 2

= 32  6  6 = 20 4M  3> 2T = 4 3

40 4
M= = =
30 3
Using Cramers solve equation 1,2 and 3

2 2 3
10 1 =  1 1 1 
>= = =
30 3 4 3 2

## 20 2 = 22 3 22  4  33 4

T= = =
30 3
= 2 4 3 = 9
4 1 2
i =    E 1 2 3
3 3 3
= 3 1 1 
225. Express the vector 3  4 as a linear 4 3 2
combination of the vectors 2  4 , = 12 3 26 4  39  4
2  and3  2 = 1 4 15

Solution:- = 18

leti = 3  4 2 1 3
=  1 3 1 
 = 2  4 4 4 2

## = 2  3 ,E = 3  2 = 26 4  12  4  34 12

= 4  2 24 = 18

2 2 1
Consider

i = M  >  TE
=  1 1 3
Where M, > 
T i- [E,i[ 4 3 4

## = 24  9 24 12 1 3 4

3  4
= M2  4 = 10  16  1 = 27
 >2  3
18
 T3  2 M=

=
9
=2

3  4 18
>= = =2
= 2M  M 4M  2> > 9
 3> 27
T= = = 3
3T  T 2T 9

## i = 2  2  3E

3  4
= 2M  2>  3T If , , E
are the position vectors of the points A,
 M >  T B and C where 1, 3, 0, ]2, 5, 0,
226.

##  4M  3> 2T 4, 2, 0 

E = M  >, then find M 
>

2M  2>  3T = 1 1 Solution:-

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

145

, , E
are the position vectors of the points A, B and C  2E = M 2>  2M  3>
 3M 4>E
 =  3  0
M 2> = 0 , 2M  3> = 1, 3M 4> = 2
= 2  5  0 ,E = 4  2  0
M = 2> 4>  3> = 1 , > = 1 , > = 1
E = M  >
M =21=2
4  2  0 = M  3  0  >2  5  0
i = 2=  1Y
4  2  0 = M  3M  2>  5>
i can be expressed as a linear combination of
4  2 = M  2>  3M  5> = 
Y

M  2> = 4 1 = , Y 
i are coplanar

3M  5> = 2 2 228. If  =  2 , = 2  

## E = 3 then find the scalars m and n such that

E =  
Solve equation 1 and 2 for x and y

-Y . 1 3 3M  6> = 12
E =  
3M  5> = 2
Solution:

3 =  2  2 

3 =  2  2 
- -

> = 10
3 =   2      2  
=X. > = 10 H -YX.HG 1
 2 = 3 , = 0 , 2  = 1
M  20 = 4 ; M = 4 20
= ,  2 = 3, 3 = 3, =1
M = 16
=1
227. If , , E
are non-zero, non-coplanar vectors,
show that the vectors  2  3E ,
2  3 4E 
 2Eare coplanar
APPLICATION OF VECTORS

Solution: let = =  2  3E , Y = 2  3 4E
Using vector methods prove that the angle
in a semicircle is a right angle.

i =  2E Proof:

To show that = , Y , 
i are coplanar i.e. to show Draw the circle with center at origin and radius is r.

## the circle with position vectors a and b

that one of the vector can be express as a scalar let A and B are the end points of diameter AB of
multiple of another two vectors

[E,i M 
> [XE .. i = M=  >Y

 2E = M 2  3E
 >2  3 4E

##  2E = M 2M  3ME 2>  3>

4>E
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
146

## The median of a trapezium is parallel to parallel

sides of the trapezium and its length is half of
the sum of the parallel sides.

Proof

## IiG IH. , = ,] = ,  i

HX[
=i

| = |]
| | = |
| = |i |

|| = = |E| = |i |

## Let CE be the point on the circle. Let  , , E ,

are the position vectors of the vertices

]
To show that 
of the trapezium ABCD respectively

Let - , 
I are the position vectors of the mid-
]
EG [H
-i 
mid
points of the sides AD and BC of trapezium ABCD

= E  E By mid-point formula

;  =
 ]
X. IiG IH. 0  
 E
-  , I =
2 2
 E  E

 E E  E
To prove that

]
 E E E  E

i.

## , =  g,]  ,h


ii.

 |E|
 iii.

= I --
Consider
 |i | |i |
 E  

 i i
=
2 2
0 1
   E

AC
BC = 0 2
1

 g] h 1
2
By property of dot product

AC BC

IiG IH.
IiG ]
mACB  90^ E - -M=i-[[ [  [E,i X,.H=,- GI
]

## The angle in a semi-circle

G T-iG [E,i [XE .. ]
T-iG

=
circle is a right angle

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

147

1

= g h
2
Now ABCD is a parallelogram therefore the opposite

1
side are parallel and equal

=
] 
] =
2
| = |
|] |

=


.-
Hi-E.HG GI ] i- -YX,
Where = , that is
can be express as a
K

=
]
scalar multiple of

 = E

## Again from fig. +

= E + 

]
HH
-
G. [H
-[ > 2

] +
E + 
= = - [>
2 2
To prove that , =  g,] + ,h

Therefore the diagonals AC and DC have same mid-
|
, = |
point E. the diagonals AC and DC bisect each

1
other
+
, = |] |
2 Conversely: Only if part:

1
| + |
, = g|] |h
2
Given: Suppose that the diagonals of quadrilateral
ABCD bisect each other

1
, = g,] + ,h
2
To prove that: The quadrilateral ABCD is a
parallelogram

A quadrilateral is a parallelogram if and only Since the diagonals AC and DC bisect each other
if its diagonals bisect each other. That is they have same mid-point say E.

## Proof: If part: By mid-point formula

+
E + 
- = =
2 2
Given: A quadrilateral is a parallelogram

+
= E + 
To prove that: The diagonals of a quadrilateral bisect

 = E

each other

## Let ABCD is a quadrilateral. Let a , b , c , d are the

position vectors of the vertices of the =
]
quadrilateral ABCD respectively E - -M=i-[[ [  [E,i X,.H=,- GI
]

]
A B

E
Therefore the opposite sides of the quadrilateral
ABCD are parallel and equal

148

## Prove that the altitudes of a triangle are p

c p c  a b  0
a  b

p
c  p  a c  a b  0
b
concurrent.

  +
Proof:

p
a  p b
b c  a c  0
b

b  a 
p  a  0
cb

b  a p c  0
 

 0
AB CP

i. e. CP AB  0

Let ABC is a triangle. Let  , , E are the position Hence the altitudes of a triangle are concurrent
vectors of the vertices of the triangle ABC
Prove that the medians of a triangle are
respectively
concurrent.
Let AD, BE and CF are the altitudes of triangle ABC

 ], ]  
]
Proof:

Let
, - , 
I are the position vectors of the points
D , E and F respectively. Let P be the point of
intersection of the altitudes AD and BE.

]
 
]


To show that
]

]
 Let ABC is a triangle. Let a , b , c are the position
]
 
vectors of the vertices of the triangle ABC

=  E  0
respectively

## = E  E  0 and AB with position vectors d , e , and f. By mid-

Let D, E and F are the mid-points
mid of the side BC, CA

= E =  E    0 1
point formula

BP AC b + c c + a a  b
d = , e  , f 
2 2 2
 0
BP AC
2d  b + c , 2e  c  a , 2f = a  b
 b c  a  0
p
2d  a  a  b
 c , 2e  b = c  a  b,
c  a  b c  a  0
p
2f + c  a  b
 c
p a  b c  a b  0 2
c  p
divided both sides by 3
equation 2  equation 1
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
149

2d  a a  b  c 2e  b a  b  c
zc  yb
 ; 
= d     1
3 3 3 3 zy

2f + c a  b  c xa  zc
 similarly e     2
3 3 xz

2d  a 2e  b 2f  c a  b  c yb  xa
   f  3
3 3 3 3 yx

a  b  c
let g =
3
From equation 1

dz  y  zc  yb
y
2d  1a 2e  1b 2f  1c
g    add xa to both sides
sides
21 21 21

x  zc  yb

## divided both sides

sides by x  y  z
divided the medians AD , BE and CF internally in

dz  y  xa xa
x  zc  yb
the ratio 2:1. That is G is the point of


concurrence of all the medians of triangle ABC
.Hence the medians of triangle are concurrent xyz xyz

ex  z  yb xa  zc  yb
similarly 
Prove that the angle bisectors of the triangle are
xyz xyz

concurrent.

f y  x  zc xaa  zc  yb

xyz xyz
Proof:

dz  y  xa ex  z  yb f y  x  zc
 
xyz xyz xyz
xa  yb  zc
  h
xyz

## H lies on the three

This shows that the point Hh

## Let ABC is a triangle. Let a , b , c are the position y  z x ,

bisector AD, BE and CF dividing them in the ratio

  y
y zrespectively
respectively

## Let d , e , and f are the position vectors of the points

Hence the three bisector segments are concurrent in
the point H. This point of concurrence of the
D, E and F. bisectors is called the incentre of triangle ABC.
ABC
let lBC  x , lAC  yy, lAB  z 229. If A3, 1, 1 , B1, 5, 2 are the vertices and
Now the angle bisector AD meets the side BC in G3, 3, 1is
is the centroid of triangle ABC then by the
point D. vector method, find the mid-point
mid of the side BC.

## , c are the position vectors of the

Solution: Let a , b
The
ratio AB: AC that is z: y By section formula for
The point D divided the side BC internally in the
vertices of the triangle ABC respectively then

a  3   k , b
  5  2k
internal division

150

## Since G3, 3, 1 is the centriod of triangle ABC with c = 5 4 + k ; d = 2 + + 4k

position vector g = 3  3  k
Let E be the mid-point of diagonal AC

a + c + 2 k + 5 4 + k
By centroid formula
e = =
3  3  k 2 2
3  k   5  2k  a  b  ck 6 2

3 e =
2
= 3 1

## 4a 6b 1+c

3  3  k   + k
3 3 3
Let F be the mid-point of diagonal BD

4a b + d 8 3 4k + 2 + + 4k
 3 , 4  a  9 , a  9 4 , a  5 f = =
3 2 2

6b f =
6 2
= 3 2
= 3 , 6 + b = 9 , b = 9 6, b = 3 2
3
1+c
 1, 1  c  3, c  3 1, c  2
3
From equations 1 and 2

e = f
the co ordinate of vertex C 5, 3, 2
The diagonals AC and BD have the same mid-point
c = 5 + 3 + 2k
the diagonals AC and BD bisect each other.
Let Dd be the mid-point of side BC. Then by mid- Therefore the quadrilateral ABCD is a
point formula parallelogram.

b + c
B2, 4, 1, C1, 3, 2 and D5, 1, 6. Using
231. The vertices of the quadrilateral are A(1, 2, 1)
d =
2
vector method, prove that
+ 5 + 2k + 5 + 3 + 2k
d = I. The line segment joining the mid-points E and F
2 of the sides AD and BC respectively is parallel to
d = 3 + 4 + 2k
. EF =  AB  CD Is the quadrilateral ABCD is a

the sides AB and CD.
II.
D 3, 4, 2
trapezium?

## Solution: Let ABCD is a quadrilateral. Let a , b , c , d

with vertices A1, 2, 1, B8, 3, 4,
230. By vector method. Show that the quadrilateral

## C5, 4, 1 and D2, 1, 4is a parallelogram

are the position vectors of the vertices of the

a =  2  k ; b = 2  4 k
Solution:-

## Let ABCD is a quadrilateral. Let a , b , c , d are the

position vectors of the vertices of the c =  3  2k ; d = 5  6k
quadrilateral ABCD respectively Since Ee and Ff are the mid-points of the sides
To show that the diagonals AC and BD bisect each AD and BC
other

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

151

a + d + 2 + k + 5 + 6k EF
CD
e = =
2 2

6 + + 7k
This show that EF is parallel to AB and CD

e =
2 9 
| = + 3 + 3
EF = |EF
b + c 2 + 4 k + + 3 + 2k 2
f = =
2 2
81 153 9 17
3 + 7 + k EF = + 9 + 9 = =
f = 4 4 4
2
= f e 3
consider EF EF = 17 4
2
3 + 7 + k 6 + + 7k
= | = 3 + 2 + 2
AB = |AB
2 2
EF

9 + 6 6k AB = 9 + 4 + 4 = 17
EF
=
2
| = 6 + 4 + 4
CD = |CD
3
= 3 + 2 2k 1
2 CD = 36 + 16 + 16 = 68 = 4 17
EF

= b a = 217
consider AB
Consider AB + CD = 17 + 217
AB = 2 + 4 k + 2 + k

AB + CD = 317
AB = 3 + 2 2k 2

put in equation 4
From equation 1 and 2
1
3 EF = AB + CD
=
AB 2
2
EF

EF
AB Hence the quadrilateral ABCD is a trapezium.

consider CD

## = 5 + 6k + 3 + 2k method prove that the point C5, 6, 1 lie on

of the diameter of the circle then using vector
CD

= 6 4 + 4k
CD
the circumference of the circle.

## Solution: Let a , b , c are the position vectors of the

CD = 23 + 2 2k
points A, B, C respectively
1 a = 3 2 + 2k , b = 2 + 9 + 5k
3 + 2 2k =
CD 3
2
c = 5 + 6 k

From equation 1 and 3
AC = c a
3 1

= CD
2 2 = 5 + 6 k 3 2 + 2k
EF
AC
3
=
EF CD AC = 5 + 6 k 3 + 2 2k

4
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
152

AC = 2 + 8 3k
Let AB = b

BC = c b
We have

= 5 + 6 k 2 + 9 + 5k
BC lAB = lBC = lCD = lAD

= 5 + 6 k 2 9 5k
BC |a| = b

BC = 3 3 6k
 BC
from ig. AB = AC

Now AC = 2 + 8 3k 3 3 6k
BC AC = a + b

= 6 24 + 18 = 24 24 = BC
BD + DC
AC BC

= 0 BD DC
= BC
AC BC

BC
= b a
BD
AC

## C is the common point = a + b b a

AC BD

mACB = 90^ = a b a + b b a
AC BD

BD

## Therefore the point C lie on the circumference of the = a b |a| + b a b

AC BD

BD
AC = |a| + |a|
circle.

= 0
AC BD
Using vector method, prove that a quadrilateral
is a rhombus if and only if diagonals bisect
each otheat a right angles.
AC BD

## Proof: if part: Therefore the diagonals AC and BD are

perpendicular to each other.
Given: The quadrilateral ABCD is a rhombus
The diagonals of a rhombus bisect each other.
To prove that: The diagonals of a rhombus bisect
each other. Conversely: Only if part:

## To prove that: The quadrilateral ABCD is a rhombus

M Since the diagonals AC and BD bisect each other.
Therefore they have same mid-point. Let M is
the mid-point of diagonals AC and BD then

a + c b + d
A B

## : Let ABCD is a quadrilateral. Let a , b , c , d are the =

2 2

a + c = b + d
position vectors of the vertices of the

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

153

DC =
AB = a + b + c k

b c b c 

DC AB
a c c a 
Therefore the opposite sides of quadrilateral ABCD + ka b b a h

= a b c b c  b a c c a 
are parallel and equal

## Therefore the quadrilateral ABCD is a rhombus. + c a b b a 

a b c
a b c =. abc = a b c 
Scalar triple product
a b c

## 233. If a = 3 2  7k, b = 5  2k and

Definition of scalar triple product: The dot product of

## a and b cis called as scalar triple product

c =  kthen find a b c
Properties of scalar triple product
Solution: -

a = 3 2 + 7k
1) In scalar triple product or box product vectors
-Since
are interchange in cyclic order then the value of
b = 5 + 2k
i. e. abc = bca = cab
box product remain unchanged

## 2) In box product any two vectors are equal then c = + k

3 2 7
i. e. abb = bcc = gcaah=0 a b c =. abc = 5 1 2
the value of box product is zero.

## 3) If a , b and c are coplanar then abc = 0 1 1 1

4) If abc = 0 then the vectors a , b and c are a b c
1 2 5 2
= .3 L L+2L L
coplanar
1 1 1 1
the gABAC
h = 0 5 1
5) If the four points A, B,C and D are coplanar then
+ 7L L
6) If gABAC
h = 0 then the four points A, B,C 1 1
and D are coplanar a b c
7) In S. T. P. the dot and cross are interchange then = 31 + 2 + 25 + 2
the values of S. T. P. remain unchanged + 75 1

a b c = 3 6 + 28 = 25
Expression for S. T. P. or box product
a b c =. abc
234. If a = 2  k, b =  2
 3k and
Let a = a + b + c k c = 3 4  5kthen find a b c. Interpret the

b = a + b + c k
result

c = a + b + c k
Solution:-

a = 2 + k
k
Since

a b c = a + b + c k a b c b = + 2 3k
a b c
c = 3 4 + 5k

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

154

2 1 1
a b c =. abc = 1 2 3
Solution:-

3 4 5 leta = 2 + k
a b c b = 2 5 + pk
2 3 1 3
= .2 L L+ 1L L
4 5 3 5 c = 5 9 + 4k
1 2
+ 1L L
3 4 a , b and c are coplanar
a b c
i. e. a b c =. abc = 0
= 210 12 + 15 + 9
+ 14 6 1 2 1
2 5 p = 0
a b c = 4 + 14 10 = 14 14 = 0 5 9 4

a b c =. abc = 0 5 p 2 p 2 5
1L L + 2L L +1L L=0
9 4 5 4 5 9
a , bandc are coplanar 20 + 9p + 28 5p + 18 + 25 = 0
235. Show that the vectors 6k , 3  4k
and 2 5  3k are coplanar 20 + 9p + 16 10p 18 + 25 = 0

Solution:- p + 3 = 0

leta = 6k p = 3 , p = 3

## 237. Find the value of if the vectors   k,

b = 3  4k
 k and 2 + 3 + kare coplanar
c = 2 5  3k

## To show that a , b and c are coplanar

Solution:-

leta = + + k
i. e. to show that a b c =. abc = 0
b = + k
1 1 6
L. H. S. = 1 3 4  c = 2 + 3 + k
2 5 3
a , b and c are coplanar
3 4 1 4 1 3
L. H. S. = 1 L L+1L L 6L L
5 3 2 3 2 5 i. e. a b c =. abc = 0
L. H. S. = 19 + 20 + 13 8 65 + 6
1 1 1
L. H. S. = 11 5 6 = 11 11
1 1 1 = 0
2 3
L. H. S. = 0 1 1 1 1 1 1
1L L 1L L+ 1L L=0
3 2 2 3
L. H. S. = R. H. S

 3 1 2 + 13 + 2 = 0
a , b and c are coplanar
3 + 2 + 5 = 0
236. Find the value of p if the vectors 2  k,
2 5  pk and 5 9 + 4kare coplanar 2 + 4 = 0

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

155

2 = 4 , = 2 = 
]
= 2   4
238. If the origin O,A1, 2, 3, B2, 3, 4 and
2 0 2
Px, y, zare coplanar show that x 2y + z = 0
= 4   6
]

= E  =  4 2 2 0 2
Solution:-


=  4  0
since O is the origin then

OA = a = 1 + 2 + 3k


= b = 2 + 3 + 4k =


OB
=  2  2
= x + y + zk
OP = p 2 0 2

a , b and p
are coplanar = 3  2  4


abp
= 0 4 1 6

g] 
h = 1 4 0
1 2 3 3 2 4
2 3 4 = 0
4 0 1 0 1 4
x y z = 4 L L 1L L 6L L
2 4 3 4 3 2
3 4 2 4 2 3
1
y z
2L
x z
L + 3
x y
=0 = 416 0 14  0  62  12

## 3z 4y 22z 4x + 32y 3x = 0 = 64  4  60 = 64  64 = 0

3z 4y 4z + 8x + 6y 9x = 0 g] 
 h = 0

## M + 2> T = 0 The given points A, B, C and D are coplanar

M  2>  T = 0
2, 1, 1, ]4, 0, =,
240. Find the value of p if the points

M  2>  T = 0 1,1, 1 
2, 4, 3are coplanar
239. Show that the pointsA2, 0, 2, B2, 1 4,
C1,4, 2 and D1, 2, 2are coplanar
Solution:-

let = 2 1 

= 4  0  =
Solution:-

let = 2 0 2
E =  
= 2   4

= 2  4  3
E =  4 2

=  2  2
Since the four points A, B, C and D are coplanar


H. -. g] 
h = 0

=  = 4  0  = 2 1 
]
Show that the four points A, B, C and D are coplanar


H. -. .G [G .. g] 
h = 0
= 2   = 1
]

## Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I

156

= E  =   2 1 
 a , b , care three non-coplanar vectors. If
b c c a a b
242.

=  2  0
 p
= , q = , r =
abc abc abc
=
 = 2  4  3 2 1 

a p
= b q = c r = 1
Prove that

= 0  5  2
 a p
+ b q + c r = 3
i.

a  b p
+ b + c q + c + a
ii.

2 1 =1

g] 
h = 1 2 0 =0
iii.
r = 3
0 5 2 Solution:-

2 0 1 0 1 2
2L L 1L L  = 1 L L=0 a p
= b q = c r = 1
To prove that
5 2 0 2 0 5

## 24 0 12  0  = 15  0 = 0 b c a b c abc

a p
= a = = =1
abc abc abc
8  2 5=  5 = 0
c a b c a abc
5=  15 = 0 b q = b = = =1
abc abc abc
5= = 15 = = 3
a b c a b abc
241. If X = 2  , = 3  and
c r = c = = =1
abc abc abc
= thenX 
 gX  
h
Therefore from the above three equations

= b q = c r = 1
a p
Solution:

X = 2 + +
+
+ b q + c r = 3
To prove that
a p
= + 0
X +
L. H. S. = a p + b q + c r
k L. H. S. = 1 + 1 + 1 = 3
u v = 1 2 1 L. H. S. = R. H. S.
3 0 1
a + b p + b + c q + c + a r = 3
To prove that

u v = 2 0 1 3  k0  6
L. H. S. = a + b p + b + c q + c + a r
u v = 2  4  6k F. T. = a + b p = a p + b p

b c b c
k = a + b
v w
= 3 abc abc
0 1
0 1 1 abc bbc
= +
abc abc
= 0 1 3 0  k3 0
v w
=1+0=1
=  3  3k
v w S. T. = b + c q = b q + c q
c a c a
1 1 0 = b + c

abc abc
u  w
 gu v v w
h = 2 4 6
abc gccah
1 3 3 = +
abc abc
= 112 18 + 16 + 6 + 0 =1+0=1
=6 T. T. = c + a r = c r + a r

157

## a b a b To prove that abc = 0

= c + a
abc abc
abc aab L. H. S. = abc
= +
abc abc
L. H. S. = ab 3a 2b
=1+0=1
L. H. S. = F. T + S. T. +T. T.
L. H. S. = a b 3a 2b
L. H. S. = 1 + 1 + 1 = 3
L. H. S. = R. H. S. L. H. S. = a 3b a 2b b

a  bb  cc  a = 2abc
243. Prove that
L. H. S. = a 3b a 0

Solution: L. H. S. = a 3b a = 0

L. H. S. = a  bb  cc  a L. H. S. = R. H. S.

L. H. S. = a  b b + c c + a To find c2

L. H. S. = a + b b c + a + c c + a c  = |c| = c c

L. H. S. = a + b c  = 3a 2b 3a 2b
b c + b a + c c + c
c  = 3a 3a 2b 2b 3a 2b
ah

c  = 9a a 6a b 6a b + 4b b
L. H. S. = a + b b c + b a + 0 + c a
c  = 9|a| 12a b + 4b

L. H. S. = a b c + b a + c a + b
b c + b a + c a
c  = 9|a| 12|a|b cos + 4b

3
L. H. S. = a b c + a b a + a c a
1
+ b b c + b b a + b c  = 9a 12ab + 4b
2
c a
c  = 9a 6ab + 4b
L. H. S. = abc + 0 + +0 + 0 + 0 + bca

## Prove that the volume of parallelepiped is abc

VOLUME OF PARALLELOPIPED
L. H. S. = abc + abc

L. H. S. = 2abc = b , OC
= a , OB
Proof: let OA = c represented the co-

L. H. S. = R. H. S.
terminus edges of parallelepiped

## 244. If c = 3a 2b then prove that abc = 0. Also

a and b is
find c2 when the measure of the angle between

Solution:-