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Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


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MODEL SOLUTION OF M. S. BOARD BOOK

MATHEMATICS AND STATISTICS (40)


PART I
STANDARD XII
(ARTS & SCIENCE)

BY

Prakash D. Wasankar
M. Sc. (Mathematics) B. Ed.

Price: 200 Rs.

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


3

Model Solution of M.S. Board Book

Mathematics and Statistics (40)

Part II

Standard XII
(Arts & science)
Publisher

All rights reserved. This book or any portion thereof may not be reproduced or used in any manner whatsoever
without the express written permission of the publisher except for the use of brief quotations in a book review.

Published by

Mrs. Jyoti P. Wasankar

Sai Nagar Shegaon

Dist. Buldhana 444203

Mob 9422925819

E-mail jyotiwasankar@gmail.com

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


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Contents
Sr.No. Name of Chapter Page No.

1 Matrices 4

2 Mathematical Logic 28

3 Trigonometric Function 41

4 Pair of Straight Lines 101

5 Vectors 131

6 Three Dimensional Geometry 158

7 Line And Plane 166

8 Linear Programming 211

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


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3 2 61 0 0
MATRICES 3 3 60 3 0
0 1 0 1 3 0
2 2 50 0 1
Inverse matrix:-

Let A be a non singular matrix then   2 2 40 2 0


0 0 10 2 1
exist

 =   = 
1 1 2 0 1 0
0 1 0  = 1 3 0
0 0 1 0 2 1
Procedure for finding inverse matrix by using

Apply 1 
elementary operation

Keep 1 in the place of 


Keep 0 in the place of  
  1 1 2 0 1 0
i.

0 1 0  = 1 3 0
Keep 1 in the place of 
ii.

0 0 1 0 2 1
Keep 0 in the place of 
 
iii.

Keep 1 in the place of  Apply   


iv.

Keep 0 in the place of  



v.

1 0 2 1 2 0
3 2 6
vi.
0 1 0  = 1 3 0
1. Find the inverse of  = 1 1 2 by using
0 0 1 0 2 1
2 2 5
elementary transformation Apply   2

1 0 21 2 0
0 0 20 4 2
Solution:-

3 2 6 1 0 01 2 2
 = 1 1 2
2 2 5 1 0 0 1 2 2
0 1 0  = 1 3

0
3 2 6 0 0 1 0 2 1
|| = 1 1 2
2 2 5 1 2 2
 = 1 3 0
|| = 35 4 25 4 + 62 2 0 2 1

|| = 3 2 + 0 = 1 0 1 2 2
 = 1 3 0
A is nonsingular matrix 0 2 1

 exists 0 1 2
2. Find the inverse of  = 1 2 3 by elementary
 =  3 1 1

3 2 6 1 0 0
operation

1 1 2  = 0 1 0
2 2 5 0 0 1
Solution:-

0 1 2
Apply    = 1 2 3
3 1 1
1 1 2 0 1 0
3 2 6  = 1 0 0 0 1 2
|| = 1 2 3
2 2 5 0 0 1
3 1 1
Apply   3 
  2
|| = 0 11 9 + 21 6

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


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|| = 8 10 = 2 0 0 1 2 1 0 0
0 0 2 5 3 1
A is nonsingular matrix 0 1 0 4 3 1

 exists 1 1 1
' *
1 0 0
&2 2 2)
 =  0 1 0  = &4 3 1)
0 0 1 &5 3 1)
%2
0 1 2 1 0 0 2 2(
1 2 3  = 0 1 0
3 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1
' *
&2 2 2)
Apply    = &4 3 1)
&5 3 1)
1 2 3 0 1 0 % 2 2 2 (
0 1 2  = 1 0 0
3 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1
' *
&2 2 2)
Apply   3  = &4 3 1)
&5 3 1)
3 1 1 0 0 1 % 2 2 2(
3 6 9 0 3 0
0 5 8 0 3 1 2 0 1
3. Find the inverse of the matrix  = 5 1 0  by
1 2 3 0 1 0 0 1 3
0 1 2   = 1 0 0
0 5 8 0 3 1
elementary transformation

Apply   2 
  + 5
Solution:-

2 0 1
1 2 3 0 1 0
 = 5 1 0
0 2 42 0 0
0 1 3
1 0 12 1 0
2 0 1
0 5 80 3 1 || = 5 1 0
0 5 10 5 0 0
0 1 3
0 0 2 5 3 1
1 0 1 2 1 0 || = 23 0 0 15 0
0 1 2   = 1 0 0
|| = 6 5 = 1 0
0 0 2 5 3 1


 A is nonsingular matrix

Apply
 exists
2 1 0
1 0 1
1 0 0  = 
0 1 2   =" 5 3 1#
0 0 1
2 2 2 2 0 1 1 0 0
5 1 0   = 0 1 0

Apply   +  
  2 0 1 3 0 0 1
2 1 0 Apply  3 
1 0 1
1   
$ 
0 0
6 0 3 3 0 0
1 0 0   
  
5 1 0   = 0 1 0
0 1 3 0 0 1

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


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Apply    1 0 1
|| = 0 2 3
1 1 3 3 1 0 1 2 1
5 1 0   = 0 1 0


0 1 3 0 0 1 || = 12 6 0 + 10 2

Apply   5 || = 4 2 = 6 0

5 1 0 0 1 0
5 5 1515 5 0
A is nonsingular matrix

0 6 1515 6 0  exists


1 1 3 3 1 0  = 
0 6 15   = 15 6 0
0 1 3 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0
0 2 3  = 0 1 0
Apply   5 1 2 1 0 0 1
0 6 15 15 6 0 Apply   
0 5 15 0 0 5
0 1 0 15 6 5 1 0 1 1 0 0
0 2 3  = 0 1 0
1 1 3 3 1 0
0 2 0 1 0 1
0 1 0   = 15 6 5
0 1 3 0 0 1 Apply   


Apply   +  
  
1 0 1 1 0 0
1 0 0 3 1 1 3  1
"0 1 # = " 0 0#
0 1 0  = 15 6 5 2 2
0 0 3 15 6 6 0 2 0 1 0 1

 Apply   2

Apply
0 2 0 1 0 1
1 0 0 3 1 1
0 1 0  = 15 6 5 0 2 3 0 1 0
0 0 31 1 1
0 0 1 5 2 2
3 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0
3 1

= 15 6 5 "0 1 #  = " 0 0#
5 2 2 2 2
0 0 3 1 1 1
3 1 1
 = 15 6 5 Apply 


5 2 2
1 0 0
1 0 1 1 0 1 ' 1 *
4. Find the inverse of  = 0 2 3 by elementary 3  &0 0 )
"0 1 # = & 2 )
1 2 1 2
0 0 1 &1 1 1)
%3 (
3 3
transformation

Apply    
   
Solution:-

1 0 1
 = 0 2 3
1 2 1

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


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1 0 0  = 
1 0 1 
1

 
0 0 1 2 3 1 0 0
1 0 0    1 1 5  = 0 1 0

2 4 7 0 0 1
0 0

0 1


 Apply    and   2
 
  
0 0

 

1 1 5 0 1 0
0 1 0  0

 1 2 31 0 0
0 1 2 1 1 0
2 1 1
' * 2 4 7 0 0 1
1 0 0 & 3 3 3 )
2 4 62 0 0
1 1 )
0 1 0  = & 0 0 0 1 2 0 1
0 0 1 & 2 2 )
& 1 1 1) 1 2 3 1 0 0
% 3 (
3 3 0 1 2  = 1 1 0
0 0 1 2 0 1
2 1 1
' *
& 3 3 3 ) Apply 1 
1 1 )
 
= & 0
& 2 2 ) 1 2 3 1 0 0
& 1 1 1) 0 1 2  = 1 1 0
% 3 ( 0 0 1 2 0 1
3 3
2 1 1 Apply   2
' *
& 3 3 3 )
1 2 31 0 0
1 1 )
 = & 0 0 2 42 2 0
& 2 2 ) 1 0 71 2 0
& 1 1 1)
% 3 (
3 3 1 0 7 1 2 0
0 1 2  = 1 1 0
1 2 3 0 0 1 2 0 1
5. Find the inverse of 1 1 5 by using elementary
2 4 7 Apply   7 
  + 2

1 0 7 1 2 0
transformation

0 0 7 14 0 7
1 0 0 13 2 7
Solution:-

1 2 3
,-.  = 1 1 5 0 1 2 1 1 0
2 4 7 0 0 2 4 0 2
0 1 0 3 1 2
1 2 3
|| = 1 1 5 1 0 0 13 2 7
2 4 7 0 1 0  = 3 1 2 
0 0 1 2 0 1
|| = 17 20 27 10 + 34 2
13 2 7
|| = 13 + 6 + 6 = 1 0  = 3 1 2 
2 0 1
13 2 7
 = 3 1 2 
A is nonsingular matrix

 exists
2 0 1

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


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cos 2 sin 2 0 sin 2 1


6. Find the inverse of the matrix sin 2 cos 2 0 1 0 0 0
" cos 2 #  = " cos 2 #
0 0 1 0 1 0 sin 2 cos 2 0
0 0 1 0 0 1

Apply   + 567 8 
79: 8
By elementary operation

Solution:-

0 0

cos 2 sin 2 0 1 567 8 0
79: 8
567 8
Let  = sin 2 cos 2 0
0 0 sin 2 0
79: 8 79:; 8
0 0 1 567 8 567 8
1 0 0 cos 2 sin 2 0
cos 2 sin 2 0
|| =  sin 2 cos 2 0 1 0 0 cos 2 sin 2 0
0 0 1 0 1 0  = sin 2 cos 2 0
0 0 1 0 0 1
|| = cos 2 cos 2 0 + sin 2 sin 2 0 + 0
cos 2 sin 2 0
|| = cos 2 + sin 2 = 1 0
   = sin 2 cos 2 0
0 0 1
cos 2 sin 2 0
A is nonsingular matrix
 = sin 2 cos 2 0
 exists

0 0 1
 =  2 3 3
7. Find the inverse of the matrix 2 2 3 by
cos 2 sin 2 0 1 0 0 3 2 2
sin 2 cos 2 0  = 0 1 0
0 0 1 0 0 1
elementary operation


 Solution:-
567 8
2 3 3
Apply

sin 2 1 <-.  = 2 2 3
1 0 0 0
" cos 2 #  = "cos 2 # 3 2 2
sin 2 cos 2 0 0 1 0
0 0 1 0 0 1 2 3 3
|| = 2 2 3
Apply   sin 2  3 2 2

sin 2 cos 2 0 0 1 0 || = 24 + 6 + 34 9 + 34 6


0 567 8 0 0
79: 8
sin 2 + 567 8
79:; 8
|| = 20 15 30 = 25 0
0 0 567 8 1 0
 79: 8
567 8

sin 2 1
A is nonsingular matrix

'1 0* ' 0 0*  exists


& cos 2 )  & cos 2 )
&0 1  = & sin 2
& 0)) & cos 2 1 0))  = 
cos 2
%0 0 1( % 0 0 1( 2 3 3 1 0 0
2 2 3  = 0 1 0


567 8 3 2 2 0 0 1
Apply

Apply  

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


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3 2 2 0 0 1 0

2 2 3  = 0 1 0 0 1 1 $ $
0 0 1 $
  
2 3 3 1 0 0 $ $
0 1 0  
Apply    0
$ $

1 1 1 1 0 1 2 3
2 2 3   = 0 1 0 ' 0 *
1 0 0 & 5 5 )
2 3 3 1 0 0 1 1
0 1 0  = & 0 )
Apply   2 
  2 0 0 1 & 5 5 )
& 2 1 2)
% 5 (
2 2 30 1 0 5 5
2 2 22 0 2 2 3 7
0 0 52 1 2 ' *
& 5 5 5)
2 3 31 0 0 1 1
 = & 0 )
2 2 22 0 2 & 5 5 )
0 5 53 0 2 & 2 1 2)
% 5 (
5 5
1 1 1 1 0 1
0 0 5   = 2 1 2 2 3 7
0 5 5 3 0 2 ' *
& 5 5 5)
1 1
Apply    = & 0 )
& 5 5 )
1 1 1 1 0 1 & 2 1 2)
% 5 (
0 5 5   = 3 0 2 5 5
0 0 5 2 1 2
1 3 2
8. Find the inverse of the matrix 3 0 5by
$ 

2 5 0
Apply

1 0 1
1 1 1
elementary operation
3 2
0 1 1  = " 0 #
0 0 5 5 5
Solution:-
2 1 2 1 3 2
Let  = 3 0 5
==,>   
2 5 0
2 3 1 3 2
' 0 *
1 0 0 || = 3 0 5
& 5 5)
0 1 1  =& 3 2) 2 5 0
0 0 5 & 5 0 5)
% 2 1 2( || = 10 + 25 30 + 10 215 0

Apply $ 

|| = 25 30 + 30 = 25 0

2 3
' 0 *
A is nonsingular matrix

1 0 0 & 5 5 )
 exists
3 2 )
0 1 1  = & 0
0 0 1 & 5 5 )  = 
& 2 1 2)
% 5 (
5 5 1 3 2 1 0 0
3 0 5 A = 0 1 0

==,>   +  2 5 0 0 0 1

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


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==,>   + 3 
  2 2 0 1
0 1 4 

A B

3 0 5 0 1 0 0 0 4 $ $ $

3 9 6 3 0 0 0 1 0  A 
$ $ $
0 9 113 1 0
2 3
2 5 00 0 1 ' 1 *
& 5 5)
2 6 42 0 0 1 0 0 2 4 11 )
0 1 42 0 1 0 1 0 A = &
0 0 1 & 5 25 25 )
1 3 2 1 0 0 & 3 1 9 )
0 9 11 A = 3 1 0 % 5 25 25 (
0 1 4 2 0 1
2 3
' 1 *
Apply   5 5)
&
2 4 11
1 3 2 1 0 0 IA = & )
& 5 25 25 )
0 1 4  A = 2 0 1 & 3 1 9 )
0 9 11 3 1 0 % 5 25 25 (
Apply 1  2 3
' 1 *
1 3 2 1 0 0 & 5 5)
2 4 11 )
0 1 4  A = 2 0 1 A = &
0 9 11 3 1 0 & 5 25 25 )
& 3 1 9 )
==,>   3 
  9 % 5 25 25 (

1 3 2 1 0 0 2 0 1
0 3 12 6 0 3 9. Find the inverse of the matrix 5 1 0  by
1 0 10 5 0 3 0 1 3

0 9 11 3 1 0
elementary operation

0 9 36 18 0 9
0 0 25 15 1 9
Solution:-

2 0 1
1 0 10 5 0 3 Let  = 5 1 0
0 1 4 A = 2 0 1 0 1 3
0 0 25 15 1 9
2 0 1
Apply $  || = 5 1 0


0 1 3
5 0 3
1 0 10 || = 23 0 0 15 0
2 0 1
0 1 4 A = " 3 1 9#
0 0 1 || = 6 5 = 1 0
5 25 25

==,>   10 
  + 4 A is nonsingular matrix

5 0 3  exists
1 0 10
10 6 $ $
 @
0 0  = 
1 0 0 1 
2 0 1 1 0 0
$ $

5 1 0   = 0 1 0
0 1 3 0 0 1

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


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Apply   1 0 0 3 1 1
0 1 0  = 15 6 5
5 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 5 2 2
2 0 1  = 1 0 0


0 1 3 0 0 1 3 1 1
 = 15 6 5
==,>   2 5 2 2

5 1 00 1 0 3 1 1
4 0 22 0 0 
= 15 6 5
1 1 22 1 0 5 2 2

1 1 2 2 1 0 1 2 2
2 0 1  = 1 0 0 10. Find the inverse of matrix 0 2 1  by
0 1 3 0 0 1 1 3 0

Apply   2
elementary raw operation

2 0 11 0 0
Solution:-

2 2 44 2 0 1 2 2
0 2 55 2 0 Let  = 0 2 1 
1 3 0
1 1 2 2 1 0
0 2 5  = 5 2 0 1 2 2
0 1 3 0 0 1 || =  0 2 1 
1 3 0
Apply  
|| = 10 3 20 + 1 20 2
1 1 2 2 1 0
0 1 3   = 0 0 1 || = 3 2 + 4 = 1 0
0 2 5 5 2 0

==,>    
  + 2
A is nonsingular matrix

 exists
1 1 2 2 1 0
0 1 3 0 0 1  = 
1 0 12 1 1
1 2 2 1 0 0
0 2 55 2 0
0 2 1   = 0 1 0
0 2 60 0 2
1 3 0 0 0 1
0 0 1 5 2 2
1 0 1 2 1 1   + 
0 1 3   = 0

0 1 1 2 2 1 0 0
0 0 1 5 2 2 0 2 1   = 0 1 0
==,>   +  and  3 0 5 2 1 0 1

Apply  

1 0 12 1 1
0 0 1 5 2 2
1 0 0 3 1 1 1 2 2 1 0 0
1  1
0 1 3 0 0 1 "0 1 #  = "0 0#
2 2
0 0 315 6 6 0 5 2 1 0 1
0 1 0 15 6 5
==,>   2 and  5

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


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1 2 21 0 0 E E E 
0 2 1 0 1 0 
FGH . GI  = E E E  
1 0 11 1 0 E E E

0 5 2 1
$ 1 0 1  = 
FGH . GI 
0 5 ||
 0 5/2 0
 1 5/2 1
0 0 1 2 3

11. Find the inverse of the matrix 1 1 5 by adjoint
1 0 1 1 1 0 2 4 7
' 1* ' 1 *
&0 1 )  &0 0)
& 2)  = & 2 )
method

& 1 ) & 5 )
%0 0
2 ( %1 2
1(
Solution:-

1 2 3
Apply 2  Let  = 1 1 5
2 4 7
1 0 1 1 1 0
1  1 || = 17 20 27 10 + 34 2
"0 1 #  = "0 0#
2 2
0 0 1 2 5 2 || = 13 + 6 + 6 = 1 0

1
==,>   +  
  + 
2
A is nonsingular matrix

 exists
1 0 11 1 0
0 0 12 5 2 1 5
E = 1K L L = 17 20 = 13
1 0 03 6 2 4 7

0 1 0



0 1 5
E = 1K L L = 17 10 = 3
2 7
0 0 1 1
 $

0 1

01

1 1
2 1 E = 1K L L = 14 2 = 2
2 4
1 0 0 3 6 2
0 1 0  = 1 2 2 3
1 E = 1K L L = 114 12 = 2
4 7
0 0 1 2 5 2
1 3
3 6 2 E = 1K L L = 17 6 = 1
 = 1 2 2 7
1
2 5 2 1 2
E = 1K L L = 14 4 = 0
2 4
3 6 2
 = 1 2 1 2 3
2 5 2 E  = 1 K L L = 110 3 = 7
1 5
1 3
E  = 1 K L L = 5 3 = 2
1 5
Inverse of square matrix by adjoint method

E E E 1 2
E = 1 K L L = 11 2 = 1
The co-factor matrix of given matrix A is

E E E  1 1
E  E  E E E E
E
Co-factor matrix=  E E 
E E E J
E  E  E
E

FGH . GI  =  E E 
E  E  E

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


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13 3 2 0 1
E  = 1 K L L = 10 2 = 2
Co-factor matrix= 2 1 0 2 3
7 2 1
1 1
E  = 1 K L L = 3 0 = 3
13 3 2 J 0 3

FGH . GI  = 2 1 0
1 0
7 2 1 E = 1 K L L = 12 0 = 2
0 2
13 2 7 E E E

FGH . GI  = 3 1 2 E E E 
Co-factor matrix= 
2 0 1 E  E  E
1
 = 
FGH . GI  4 3 2
|| Co-factor matrix= 2 0 2
2 3 2
1 13 2 7 13 2 7

= 3 1 2 = 3 1 2 4 3 2 J
1
2 0 1 2 0 1 
FGH . GI  = 2 0 2
13 2 7 2 3 2
 = 3 1 2  4 2 2
2 0 1 
FGH . GI  = 3 0 3
1 0 1 2 2 2
12. Find the inverse of 0 2 3 by adjoint method 1
1 2 1  = 
FGH . GI 
||

1 4 2 2
 =
Solution:-

1 0 1 3 0 3
6
Let  = 0 2 3 2 2 2
1 2 1
1 4 2 2
 = 3 0 3
|| = 12 6 0 + 10 2 6
2 2 2
|| = 4 2 = 6 0 1 2 3
13. Find the inverse of the matrix 1 1 2 by
A is nonsingular matrix 1 2 4
 exists
adjoint method

2 3
E = 1K L L = 12 6 = 4
Solution:-
2 1 1 2 3
0 3 Let  = 1 1 2
E = 1K L L = 10 3 = 3 1 2 4
1 1
0 2 || = 14 4 24 2 + 32 1
E = 1K L L = 10 2 = 2
1 2
|| = 0 + 12 9 = 3 0
0 1
E = 1K L L = 10 2 = 2
2 1 A is nonsingular matrix
1 1  exists
E = 1K L L = 11 1 = 0
1 1
1 0 1 2
E = 1K L L = 12 0 = 2 E = 1K L L = 14 4 = 0
1 2 2 4

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


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1 2 || = 3 0
E = 1K L L = 14 2 = 6
1 4
1 1
E = 1K L L = 12 1 = 3
A is nonsingular matrix
1 2  exists
2 3
E = 1K L L = 18 6 = 2 3 0
2 4 E = 1K L L = 13 0 = 3
2 1
1 3
E = 1K L L = 14 3 = 1 3 0
1 4 E = 1K L L = 13 0 = 3
5 1
1 2
E = 1K L L = 12 2 = 0 3 3
1 2 E = 1K L L = 16 15 = 9
5 2
2 3
E  = 1 K L L = 14 3 = 1 0 0
1 2 E = 1K L L = 10 0 = 0
2 1
1 3
E  = 1 K L L = 2 + 3 = 5 1 0
1 2 E = 1K L L = 11 0 = 1
5 1
1 2
E = 1 K L L = 11 + 2 = 3 1 0
1 1 E = 1K L L = 12 0 = 2
5 2
E E E
E
Co-factor matrix=  E E  0 0
E  = 1 K L L = 10 0 = 0
E  E  E 3 0

0 6 3 1 0
E  = 1 K L L = 0 0 = 0
Co-factor matrix= 2 1 0 3 0
1 5 3 1 0
E = 1 K L L = 13 0 = 3
3 3
0 6 3 J

FGH . GI  = 2 1 0 E E E
1 5 3 Co-factor matrix= E E E 
E  E  E
0 2 1

FGH . GI  = 6 1 5 3 3 9
3 0 3 Co-factor matrix= 0 1 2
0 0 3
1
 = 
FGH . GI 
|| 3 3 9 J

FGH . GI  = 0 1 2
1 0 2 1 0 0 3
 = 6 1 5
3 3 0 0
3 0 3

FGH . GI  = 3 1 0
1 0 0 9 2 3
14. Find the inverse of matrix 3 3 0  by adjoint
5 2 1 1
 = 
FGH . GI 
method ||

1 3 0 0
 = 3 1 0
Solution:-

1 0 0 3
9 2 3
Let  = 3 3 0
5 2 1 1 3 0 0
 = 3 1 0 
3
|| = 13 0 0 + 0 9 2 3
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
16

1 2 3 10 10 2
15. Find the inverse of the matrix 0 2 4 by adjoint 
FGH . GI  = 0 5 4
0 0 5 0 0 2
1
 = 
FGH . GI 
method

Solution:- ||

1 2 3 1 10 10 2
Let  = 0 2 4  = 0 5 4
10
0 0 5 0 0 2

|| = 110 0 20 0 + 30 0 2 1 1


16. Find the inverse of the matrix 1 2 1 by
|| = 10 0 + 0 = 10 0 1 1 2
adjoint method
A is nonsingular matrix

 exists

Solution:-

2 1 1
2 4 Let  = 1 2 1
E = 1K L L = 110 0 = 10 1 1 2
0 5
0 4 || = 24 1 + 12 + 1 + 11 2
E = 1K L L = 10 0 = 0
0 5
|| = 6 1 1 = 4 0
0 2
E = 1K L L = 10 0 = 0
0 0 A is nonsingular matrix
2 3
E = 1K L L = 110 0 = 10  exists
0 5
1 3 2 1
E = 1K L L = 15 0 = 5 E = 1K L L = 14 1 = 3
0 5 1 2

1 2 1 1
E = 1K L L = 10 0 = 0 E = 1K L L = 12 + 1 = 1
0 0 1 2

2 3 1 2
E  = 1 K L L = 18 6 = 2 E = 1K L L = 11 2 = 1
2 4 1 1

1 3 1 1
E  = 1 K L L = 4 0 = 4 E = 1K L L = 12 + 1 = 1
0 4 1 2

1 2 2 1
E = 1 K L L = 12 0 = 2 E = 1K L L = 14 1 = 3
0 2 1 2

E E E 2 1
E = 1K L L = 12 + 1 = 1
Co-factor matrix= E E E  1 1
E  E  E
1 1
E  = 1 K L L = 11 2 = 1
10 0 0 2 1
Co-factor matrix= 10 5 0 2 1
2 4 2 E  = 1 K L L = 2 + 1 = 1
1 1
10 0 0 J 2 1

FGH . GI  = 10 5 0 E = 1 K L L = 14 1 = 3
1 2
2 4 2

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


17

E E E
Co-factor matrix= E E E 
Solution:-
E  E  E The given equations are
3 1 1 M + 3> = 2 , 3M + 5> = 4
Co-factor matrix= 1 3 1 
1 1 3 1 3 M 2
O PO P = O P
3 5 > 4
3 1 1 J

FGH . GI  = 1 3 1  ==,>   3
1 1 3
3 5 4
3 1 1 3 96

FGH . GI  = 1 3 1 0 42
1 1 3
1 3 M 2
1 O P O>P = O P
 = 
FGH . GI  0 4 2
||
M + 3> 2
Q R=O P
1 3 1 1 4> 2
 = 1 3 1
4 1
1 1 3
M + 3> = 2 , 4> = 2 > =
2
3 3 1 1
Reduction method

17. Solve the equations 2M + > = 5 , 3M + 5> = 3 M+ =2M =2 M = M =


2 2 2 2

19. Solve the equations 3M > = 1 , 4M + > = 6 using


using method of reduction

Solution:- reduction method

The given equations are Solution:-

2M + > = 5 , 3M + 5> = 3 The given equations are

2 1 M 5 3M > = 1 , 4M + > = 6
O PO P = O P
3 5 > 3
3 1 M 1
O PO P = O P
==,>  2 3 4 1 > 6
6 10 6 ==,>  3 4
6 315
0 7 21 12 3 18
12 44
2 1 M 5 0 7 14
O PO P = O P
0 7 > 21
3 1 M 1
2M + > O PO P = O P
Q R=O
5
P 0 7 > 14
7> 21
3M > 1
Q R=O P
2M + > = 5 , 7> = 21 > = 3 7> 14

8 3M > = 1 , 7> = 14 > = 2


2M 3 = 5 2M = 8 M = M=4
2
3M 2 = 1 3M = 3 M = 1
18. Solve the equations M + 3> = 2 , 3M + 5> = 4 using
reduction method 20. Solve the equations 5M + 2> = 4 , 7M + 3> = 5
Using reduction method
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
18

reduction M + 3> + 3T = 12 , M + 4> + 4T = 15 ,


Solution:- 22. Solve the following equations by the method of

The given equations are and M + 3> + 4T = 13


5M + 2> = 4 , 7M + 3> = 5

5 2 M 4
Solution:-

O PO P = O P
7 3 > 5
The given equations are

==,>  5 7 M + 3> + 3T = 12 , M + 4> + 4T = 15 ,

35 15 25 M + 3> + 4T = 13
35 1428
0 1 3 1 3 3 M 12
>
1 4 4 U V = 15
5 2 M 4 1 3 4 T 13
O PO P = O P
0 1 > 3
==,>    
  
5M + 2> 4
Q R=O P
> 3 1 3 3 M 12
0 1 1 U>V = 3 
5M + 2> = 4 , > = 3 0 0 1 T 1

5M + 23 = 4 5M 6 = 4 5M = 10 M M + 3> + 3T 12
=2 >+T = 3
T 1
21. Solve the equations 2M + 3> = 9 , > M = 2
M + 3> + 3T = 12

> + T = 3 , T=1
using reduction method

>+1=3> =31> =2
Solution:-

M + 3 2 + 3 1 = 12
The given equations

2M + 3> = 9 , > M = 2
M = 12 9 M = 3
2M + 3> = 9 , M > = 2
Required values are M = 3 , > = 2 , T = 1
2 3 M 9
O PO P = O P
1 1 > 2
M > T = 1 , 2M > = 1 and 3M 3> 4T = 2
23. Solve the following equation by method of reduction
==,>  2 

2 2 4
2 39
Solution:-

0 55 The given equations are

2 3 M 9 M > T = 1 , 2M > + 0T = 1 , 3M 3> 4T = 2


O PO P = O P
0 5 > 5
1 1 1 M 1
2M + 3> 9 >
2 1 0  U V = 1
Q R=O P
5> 5 3 3 4 T 2
2M + 3> = 9 , 5> = 5 > = 1 ==,>   2 
  3

2M + 31 = 9 2M = 9 3 2M = 6 M = 3 2 1 0 1
2 2 22
0 1 21
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
19

3 3 4 2 1 2 3 M 8
3 3 3 3 0 5 5  U>V = 15
0 0 11 0 5 13 T 23
1 1 1 M 1   
0 1 2  U>V = 1
0 0 1 T 1 0 5 1323
0 5 5 15
M>T 1 0 0 8 8
U > + 2T V = 1
T 1 1 2 3 M 8
0 5 5 U>V = 15
M>T =1 0 0 8 T 8
> + 2T = 1 , T = 1 T = 1 M + 2> + 3T 8
5> 5T  = 15
> 2 = 1 > = 2 1 > = 1 8T 8

M11=1 M + 2> + 3T = 8 1

M =2+1M =3 5> 5T = 15 > + T = 3 2

Required values are M = 3 , > = 1 , T = 1 8T = 8 T = 1

24. Solve the equations 2M > + T = 1 , =X. H -YX.HG 2 > + 1 = 3 > = 2


M + 2> + 3T = 8 , 3M + > 4T = 1using reduction
Put in equation 1M + 2 2 + 3 1 = 8

M+4+3= 8M = 87 M = 1
method

25. Solve the equations M + > + T = 6 ,


Solution:-

3M > 3T = 10 , 5M 5> 4T = 3by method of


The given equations are

2M > + T = 1 , reduction

M + 2> + 3T = 8 , 3M + > 4T = 1 Solution:-

2 1 1 M 1
1 2 3  U>V = 8
The given equations are

3 1 4 T 1 M + > + T = 6 ,

Apply   3M > + 3T = 10 , 5M + 5> 4T = 3

1 2 3 M 8 1 1 1 M 6
2 1 1  U>V = 1 3 1 3  U>V = 10
3 1 4 T 1 5 5 4 T 3
==,>   2 
  3 ==,>   3 
  5

2 1 1 1 3 1 3 10
2 4 616 3 3 318
0 5 515 0 4 0 8
3 1 4 1 5 5 4 3
3 6 9 24 5 5 530
0 5 1323 0 0 927

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


20

1 1 1 M 6 M + 2> + T = 8 1
0 4 0  U>V = 8 
0 0 9 T 27 > 3T = 5.........................2
M+>+T 6 16T = 16 T = 1
4>  = 8 
9T 27 =X. T = 1 > 3 1 = 5
M + > + T = 6 . .1
> 3 = 5 > = 3 5
4> = 8 > = 2
> = 2 > = 2
9T = 27 T = 3
M+22+1= 8M = 85 M = 3
M+2+3= 6M = 65 M = 1
27. Solve the equation M + 3> + 2T = 6
26. Solve the equations M + 2> + T = 8 , 3M 2> + 5T = 5 , 2M 3> + 6T = 7

2M + 3> T = 11 , 3M > 2T = 5by reduction Solution:-


method
The given equations are

M + 3> + 2T = 6
Solution:-
3M 2> + 5T = 5 , 2M 3> + 6T = 7
1 3 2 M 6
The given equations are

M + 2> + T = 8 , 3 2 5 U>V = 5
2 3 6 T 7
2M + 3> T = 11 , 3M > 2T = 5
==,>   3 
  2
1 2 1 M 8
2 3 1 U>V = 11 3 2 5 5
3 9 618
3 1 2 T 5
0 11 113
==,>   2 
  3
2 3 6 7
2 3 1 11 2 6 412
2 4 216 0 9 2 5
0 1 3 5 1 3 2 M 6
0 11 1 U>V = 13
3 1 2 5 0 9 2 T 5
3 6 324
0 7 519 ==,>  11 9
1 2 1 M 8 0 99 2255
>
0 1 3 U V = 5  0 99 9 117
0 7 5 T 19 0 0 31 62
==,>   7 1 3 2 M 6
0 11 1 U>V = 13
0 7 519 0 0 31 T 62
0 7 21 35 M + 3> + 2T 6
0 0 16 16 11> T  = 13
31T 62
1 2 1 M 8
M + 3> + 2T = 6 . .1
0 1 3 U>V = 5
0 0 16 T 16 11> T = 13 .2

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


21

62 M+2+3= 6M = 65 M = 1
31T = 62 T = T=2
31 The three numbers are 1, 2, 3

Put T = 2 H -YX.HG 2
29. If three numbers are added the sum is 15. If the

11> 2 = 13 11> = 11
second number is subtracted from the sum of first
and third number then we get 5 and if twice the first

>=1
number is added to the second and the third
number is subtracted from the sum we get 4. Use
Put > = 1 , T = 2 H -YX.HG 2 matrices to find the numbers.

M+31+22=6M =67 Let M , > 


T be the three numbers
Solution:-

M=1
M + > + T = 15 , M + T > = 5 , 2M + > T = 4
From the given condition

M + > + T = 15 , M > + T = 5 ,
2M + > T = 4
28. The sum of three numbers is 6. If we multiply third

1 1 1 M 15
number by 3 and add it to the second number we

1 1 1  U>V = 5 
get 11. By adding first and the third numbers we get
a number which is double the second number. Use 2 1 1 T 4

==,>    
  2
this information and find a system of linear
equations. Find the three numbers using matrices
1 1 1 5
Let M , > 
T be the three numbers 1 1 115
Solution:-

0 2 0 10
M + > + T = 6 , > + 3T = 11 , M + T = 2>
From the given condition
2 1 1 4
M + > + T = 6 , 0M + > + 3T = 11 , 2 2 230
M 2> + T = 0 0 1 326
1 1 1 M 6
0 1 3 U>V = 11 1 1 1 M 15
1 2 1 T 0 0 2 0  U>V = 10
Apply    0 1 3 T 26
Apply   

1 1 1 M 6 
0 1 3 U>V = 11  0 1 326
0 3 0 T 6 0 1 0 5
Apply   + 3 0 0 321
0 3 06 1 1 1 M 15
0 3 9 33 0 2 0  U>V = 10
0 0 9 27 0 0 3 T 21
1 1 1 M 6 M+>+T 6
0 1 3 U>V = 11 2>  = 10
0 0 9 T 27 3T 21
M+>+T 6 M + > + T = 6 . .1
> + 3T  = 11 2> = 10 > = 5
9T 27 3T = 21 T = 7
M + > + T = 6 . .1
Put > = 5 , T = 7 H -YX.HG 1
> + 3T = 11 .2
M + 5 + 7 = 15 M = 15 12 M = 3
27
9T = 27 T = T=3
9
The three numbers are 3, 5, 7
=X. H -YX.HG 2 > + 3 3 = 11
> = 11 9 > = 2
30. If three numbers are added their sum is 2. If two

Put > = 2 , T = 3 H -YX.HG 1


times the second number is subtracted from the sum
of first and third number we get 8 and if three times
the first number is added to the sum of second and
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
22

third number we get 4. Find the number using Cost of one dozen erasers = [. T
matrices.

Let M , > 
T be the three numbers 4M + 3> + 2T = 60 , 2M + 4> + 6T = 90
Solution:-

6M + 2> + 3T = 70
M + > + T = 2 , M + T 2> = 8 , 3M + > + T = 4 4M + 3> + 2T = 60 , M + 2> + 3T = 45
From the given condition

M + > + T = 2 , M 2> + T = 8 , 6M + 2> + 3T = 70


3M + > + T = 4 4 3 2 M 60
1 1 1 M 2 >
1 2 3 U V = 45
>
1 2 1 U V = 8 6 2 3 T 70
3 1 1 T 4 ==,>  
1 2 3 M 45
==,>    
  3 >
4 3 2 U V = 60
6 2 3 T 70
1 2 1 8
1 1 12 ==,>   4 
  6
0 3 0 6
4 3 2 60
3 1 1 4 4 8 12180
3 3 36 0 5 10120
0 2 22
6 2 3 70
1 1 1 M 2 6 12 18270
0 3 0  U>V = 6  0 10 15200
0 2 2 T 2
Apply  3 2 1 2 3 M 45
0 6 6 6 0 5 10 U>V = 120
0 6 0 12 0 10 15 T 200
0 0 618 Apply   2
1 1 1 M 2 0 10 15200
0 3 0  U>V = 6  0 10 20 240
0 0 6 T 18 0 0 5 40
M+>+T 2 1 2 3 M 45
3>  = 6  0 5 10 U>V = 180
6T 18 0 0 5 T 40
M + > + T = 2 . .1 M + 2> + 3T 45
3> = 6 > = 2 5> 10T  = 120
6T = 18 T = 3 5T 40
M + 2> + 3T = 45 . .1
Put > = 2 , T = 3 H -YX.HG 1
5> 10T = 120 > + 2T = 24 . .2
M2+3= 2M = 21 M = 1
5T = 40 T = 8
The three numbers are 1, 2 , 3
=X. T = 8 H -YX.HG 1 > + 2 8 = 24
> = 24 16 > = 8
31. The cost of 4 dozen pencils, 3 dozen pens and 2
=X. > = 8 , T = 8 H -YX.HG 1
dozen erasers is Rs. 60. The cost of 2 dozen pencils. 4
M + 2 8 + 3 8 = 45
dozen pens and 6 dozen erasers is Rs. 90 where as
the cost of 6 dozen pencils. 2 dozen pens and 3 M + 16 + 24 = 45 M + 40 = 45
dozen erasers is Rs. 70 find the cost of each item per M = 45 40 M = 5
dozen using matrices. Cost of one dozen pencils = [. 5
Solution:- Cost of one dozen pens = [. 8
Cost of one dozen erasers = [. 8
Cost of one dozen pencils = [. M
Let

Cost of one dozen pens = [. >


32. The total cost of 3 televisions and 2 V.C. R.s is Rs.
35000. The shop-keeper wants profit of Rs. 1000 per
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
23

Price of one pen = [. M


Price of one book = [. >
television and Rs. 500 per V. C. R. He can sell 2
televisions and 1 V. C. R. and he gets the total

2M + 5> = 110 
6M + 8> = 190
revenue Rs. 21,500. Find the selling price of a From given conditions

2M + 5> = 110 
3M + 4> = 95
television and a V. C. R.

2 5 M 110
O PO P = O P
Solution:-

Cost of one television = [. M 3 4 > 95


Let

==,>  2 3


Cost of one V. C. R. = [. > 6 8 190
6 15330
3M + 2> = 35000 0 7 140
From given condition

Selling price of one television = [. M + 1000 2 5 M 110


O PO P = O P
0 7 > 140
Selling price of one V. C. R.= [. > + 500
2M + 5> 110
Q R=O P
7> 140
2M + 1000 + > + 500 = 21500 2M + 5> = 110 . .1
From given condition

2M + 2000 + > + 500 = 21500 7> = 140 > = 20


2M + > = 21500 2500 =X. > = 35 H -YX.HG 1
2M + > = 19000 2M + 5 20 = 110
3 2 M 35000 2M + 100 = 110 2M = 10 M = 5
O PO P = O P
2 1 > 19000
Price of one pen = [. 5
==,>  3 2
6 3 57000 Price of one book = [. 20
6 4 70000
0 113000
34. The cost of 2 books and 6 note books is Rs. 34 and

3 2 M 35000
O PO P = O P
the cost of 3 books and 4 note books is Rs. 31. Using

0 1 > 13000
matrices, find the cost of one book and one note
3M + 2> 35000
Q R=O P
> 13000
book.

3M + 2> = 35000
Solution:-
> = 13000 > = 13000
3M + 2 13000 = 35000
Let

3M = 35000 26000 Cost of one book = [. M


9000 Cost of one note book = [. >
3M = 9000 M = M = 3000
3
2M + 6> = 34 
3M + 4> = 31
From given conditions

= [. 3000 + 1000


Selling price of one television
M + 3> = 17 
3M + 4> = 31
Selling price of one television= [. 4000 1 3 M 17
O PO P = O P
Selling price of one V.C.R.= [. 13000 + 500 3 4 > 31
Selling price of one V.C.R.= [. 13500 ==,>   3
3 4 31
3 951
33. Nina and Mina want to buy pens and books. Nina
0 520
1 3 M 17
wants 2 pens and 5 books while Mina wants 6 pens

O PO P = O P
0 5 > 20
and 8 books. They both go to shop and buy them.

M + 3> 17
Q R=O P
When the shop-keeper gives them the pens and the

5> 20
books Nina pays him Rs. 110 and Mina pays him Rs.

M + 3> = 17 . .1
190. Find the prices of one pen and one book using

5> = 20 > = 4
matrices
=X. > = 4 H -YX.HG 1
Solution:-
Let M + 3 4 = 17 M = 17 12

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


24

M=5 M 6 + 6
O>P = O P
Cost of one book = [. 5 43
Cost of one note book = [. 4 M 0
O>P = O P
1
35. Solve the equations M + 2> = 2 

Method of inversion

M = 0 , > = 1
2M + 3> = 3by method of inversion
36. Solve the equations 2M + 5> = 1 

3M + 2> = 7by method of inversion


Solution:-

The given equations are


Solution:-
M + 2> = 2 
2M + 3> = 3

1 2 M 2
The given equations are

O PO P = O P 2M + 5> = 1 
3M + 2> = 7
2 3 > 3

\ = ] .1 2 5 M 1
O P O> P = O P
3 2 7
1 2 2 M
Where  = O P , ] = O P , \ = O>P \ = ] .1
2 3 3
2 5 1 M
Multiply equation 1 both sides from left by  Where  = O P , ] = O P , \ = O>P
3 2 7
 \ =  ]
Multiply equation 1 both sides from left by 
 \ =  ]
 \ =  ]
\ =  ] \ =  ]
 \ =  ]
To find 
\ =  ] \ =  ]
1 2
=O P To find 
2 3

|| = 3 4 = 1 0 2 5
=O P
3 2
|| = 4 15 = 11 0
A is nonsingular matrix

 exists

E = 1K 3=3


A is nonsingular matrix

 exists
E = 1K 2 = 2
E = 1K 2 = 2
E = 1K 2 = 2
E = 1K 3 = 3
E = 1K 1 = 1
E = 1K 5 = 5
1 3 2 3 2
 = O P  = O P E = 1K 2 = 2
1 2 1 2 1
M 3 2 2 1 2 5
O>P = O PO P  = O P
2 1 3 11 3 2

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


25

M 1 2 5 1 E = 1K 1 = 1
O>P = O PO P
11 3 2 7
1 1 1
M 1 2 35  = O P
O>P = O P 3 2 1
11 3 + 14
M 1 1 1 4
M 1 33 O>P = O PO P
O>P = O P 3 2 1 5
11 11
M 1 4 5
M 3 O>P = O P
O>P = O P 3 8 + 5
1
M 1 9
M = 3 , > = 1 O>P = O P
3 3
37. Solve the equations M + > = 4 
M 3
O>P = O P
2M > = 5by method of inversion 1

Solution:- M = 3 , > = 1

38. Solve the equations 2M + 6> = 8 

M + 3> = 5by method of inversion


The given equations are

M + > = 4 
2M > = 5

1 1 M 4
O P O>P = O P
Solution:-

2 1 5 The given equations are

\ = ] .1 2M + 6> = 8 
M + 3> = 5
1 1 4 M 2 6 M 8
Where  = O P , ] = O P , \ = O>P O PO P = O P
2 1 5 1 3 > 5
Multiply equation 1 both sides from left by  \ = ] .1

 \ =  ] 2 6 8 M


Where  = O P , ] = O P , \ = O>P
1 3 5
 \ =  ]
Multiply equation 1 both sides from left by 
\ =  ] \ =  ]
 

 \ =  ]


To find 
 \ =  ]
1 1
=O P
2 1 \ =  ] \ =  ]
|| = 1 2 = 3 0 To find 

2 6
=O P
1 3
A is nonsingular matrix

 exists
|| = 6 6 = 0
E = 1K 1 = 1

E = 1K 2 = 2
A is singular matrix

 does not exists


E = 1K 1 = 1
The values of x and y does not exist

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


26

39. Solve the equations M + > + T = 1 , 1 1


E = 1K L L = 11 1 = 2
M > + T = 2 
1 1
M + > T = 3by method of inversion 1 1
E = 1K L L = 11 1 = 0
1 1
1 1
E  = 1 K L L = 11 + 1 = 2
Solution:-

1 1
1 1
The given equations are

M + > + T = 1 , M > + T = 2 
E  = 1 K L L = 1 1 = 0
1 1
M + > T = 3 1 1
E = 1 K L L = 11 1 = 2
1 1
1 1 1 M 1
1 1 1  U>V = 2  E E E
1 1 1 T 3 Co-factor matrix= E E E 
E  E  E
\ = ] .1
0 2 2
1 1 1 1 M Co-factor matrix= 2 2 0 
Where  = 1 1 1  , ] = 2  , \ = U>V 2 0 2
1 1 1 3 T
0 2 2 J
Multiply equation 1 both sides from left by 


FGH . GI  = 2 2 0 
2 0 2
 \ =  ]
0 2 2
 \ =  ]
 
FGH . GI  = 2 2 0 
2 0 2
\ =  ] \ =  ]
1
 = 
FGH . GI 
To find   ||

1 1 1 1 0 2 2
|| = 1 1 1   = 2 2 0 
4
1 1 1 2 0 2

|| = 11 1 11 1 + 11 + 1 M 1 0 2 2 1


U>V = 2 2 0  2 
T 4
|| = 2 + 2 = 4 0 2 0 2 3
M 1 0+4+6
U>V = 2 4 + 0
T 4
2 + 0 6
A is nonsingular matrix

 exists
10
1 1 ' *
E = 1K L L = 11 1 = 0 M M & 4 )
1 1 1 10 6
U>V = 2  U>V = & )
1 1 T 4 T & 4)
E = 1K L L = 11 1 = 2 8
1 1 & 8)
% 4(
1 1
E = 1K L L = 11 + 1 = 2
1 1 5
M ' *
1 1 & 2 ) 5 3
E = 1K L L = 11 1 = 2 U>V = & 3) M = , > = , T = 2
1 1 2 2
T & 2)
% 2 (

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


27

40. Solve the equations 5M > + 4T = 5 5 4


E = 1K L L = 130 20 = 10
2M + 3> + 5T = 2 
5 6
5M 2> + 6T = 1by method of inversion 5 1
E = 1K L L = 110 + 5 = 5
5 2
1 4
E  = 1 K L L = 15 12 = 17
Solution:-

The given equations are 3 5

5M > + 4T = 5 5 4
E  = 1 K L L = 25 8 = 17
2 5
2M + 3> + 5T = 2 

5 1
5M 2> + 6T = 1 E = 1 K L L = 115 + 2 = 17
2 3
5 1 4 M 5 E E E
2 3 5 U > V = 2  E
Co-factor matrix=  E E 
5 2 6 T 1 E  E  E

\ = ] .1 28 13 19
Co-factor matrix= 2 10 5 
5 1 4 5 M 17 17 17
Where  = 2 3 5 , ] = 2  , \ = U>V
5 2 6 1 T 28 13 19 J

FGH . GI  = 2 10 5 
Multiply equation 1 both sides from left by  17 17 17

 \ =  ] 28 13 17



FGH . GI  = 2 10 17
 \ =  ] 19 5 17
1
\ =  ] \ =  ]  = 
FGH . GI 
||
To find 
1 28 2 17
5 1 4  = 13 10 17
51
|| = 2 3 5 19 5 17
5 2 6 M 1 28 2 17 5
U>V = 13 10 17 2 
|| = 518 + 10 + 112 25 + 44 15 51
T 19 5 17 1
|| = 140 13 76 = 140 89 = 51 0 M 1 140 4 + 17
U>V = 65 + 20 + 17 
T 51
A is nonsingular matrix 95 + 10 17
 exists M 1 153 M 3
U>V = 102  U>V = 2 
3 5 T 51 T
E = 1K L L = 118 + 10 = 28 102 2
2 6
M = 3 , > = 2 , T = 2
1K 2 5
E = L L = 112 25 = 13
5 6 41. Find the matrix X such that \ = ] where
2 3 1 2 0 1
E = 1K L L = 14 15 = 19 =O P 
] = O P
5 2 1 3 2 4

1 4
E = 1K L L = 16 + 8 = 2
2 6
Solution:-

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


28

\ = ] 1 2 3 1
0 3 5 \ = 3
1 2 0 1 0 0 1 2
O P\ = O P
1 3 2 4


Apply   +  
Apply

1 2 3
1 2 0 1 5 1
O P\ = O P
0 5 2 5 "0 1 # \ = 1
3 2
0 0 1


$ 
Apply   2
Apply

0 1
1 2
O P \ = 2  1 2 3
0 1 1 ^ 1
5 0 2 2
Apply   2 1 0 1


0 1 1
1 2 A '1 0 *

0 2 $ 2 3) 1
&
1 0 A 1 &0 5 )\ = 1 
& 1 2
$
3 )
%0 0 1 (
4
1
1 0
O P\ = " 5 # Apply   +  
  
 $
0 1 2
1
5
1 0 1


4
1 0 0


\ = " 5 0

#

2 1 0
1
5 1
0 1
$


^
4
1 0 0
$

\=" 5
_
# 0 1 0
2
1
5 1
1 0 0 ' *
1 2 3 & 3)
42. Find X if \ = ] where  = 1 1 2 and 0 1 0 \ = & 7 )
1 2 4 0 0 1 & 3)
1 % 2 (
] = 2
1
3 ' *
& 3)
\ = & 7)
& 3)
Solution:-

\ = ] % 2 (

1 2 3 1 1
' *
1 1 2 \ = 2  & 3)
1 2 4 3 \ = & 7)
& 3)
Apply   +  
   % 2 (

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


29

4 5
43. If  = O P then show that  = B  5

2 1
MATHEMATICAL LOGIC

Logical Connectives:-
Solution:-

4 5
=O P
Sr. Connectives symbol
2 1

No.

|| = L4 5L
1 And

2 1 ~
2 Or
3 Not
|| = 4 10 = 6 0
4 If .then
5 iff
A is nonsingular matrix Truth table for conjunction:-

 exists = Y =Y

E = 1K 1 = 1


T T T
T F F

E = 1K 2 = 2
F T F
F F F

E = 1K 5 = 5
Truth table for disjunction:-

= Y =Y
E = 1K 4 = 4 T T T
1 1 5
 = O P
T F T
6 2 4
F T T

1 1 5
F F F

<. `. a. =  = O P1
6 2 4
Truth table for conditional:-

= Y =Y
1
. `. a. =  5
6
T T T
T F F
1 4 5 1 0
. `. a. = bO P 5O Pc
F T T

6 2 1 0 1
F F T

1 4 5 5 0
Truth table for Biconditional:-

. `. a. = bO PO Pc = Y =Y
6 2 1 0 5
1 1 5
T T T
. `. a. = O P . .2
6 2 4
T F F
F T F
F F T
From equation 1 and 2 Truth table for negation:-
<. `. a. = . `. a. = ~=
1
 =  5
T F
6
F T

patternsg= Y Yh =
44. Prepare the truth table for the statement

Solution:-

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


30

= Y i ~Y = ~Y i=
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

= Y = Y = Y Y g= Y Yh =
56
T T T F T T T
T T T T T T T F F T F F
T F F F T T F T T T T T
F T T T F T F F T T F F
F F T F T F T T F F F T

patterns= Y ~=
45. Prepare the truth table for the statement F T F F F F T
F F T T T F F
F F F T T F F
Solution:-

= Y =Y ~= = Y ~=
= Y ~= ~Y
49. Using truth table prove that the logical equivalence
T T T F F
T F F F T
F T F T T Solution:-
F F F T T

patterns= Y ~= Y = Y =Y ~Y = ~Y ~= ~Y


46. Prepare the truth table for the statement 1 2 3 4 5 6

T T T F F T
Solution:- T F F T T F
F T F F T F

= Y =Y ~= ~= Y
1 2 3 4 5 6 F F F T T F
35 From the above truth table it is clear that all the
T T T F T T corresponding entries in columns 3 and 6 are
T F F F F T
identical

= Y ~= ~Y
F T T T T T
F F T T T T

patterns= i Y =
47. Prepare the truth table for the statement

= Y = Y ~= ~Y
50. Using truth table prove that the logical equivalence

Solution:-
Solution:-

= Y i =i Y=
1 2 3 4 5 6

= Y = Y = Y ~= ~Y ~= ~Y 47
45 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
T T T T T T
T T F F F F T T T T F F F T
T F T T F F T F F F F T F F
T F F F T F F T F F T F F F
F T T F T F F F T F T T T T
F T F T F F From the above truth table it is clear that all the
F F T F F F corresponding entries in columns 3 and 8 are
F F F T T T identical

= ~Y i = = Y = Y ~= ~Y


48. Prepare the truth table for the statement

~= Y ~= ~Y
Solution:- 51. Using truth table prove that the logical equivalence

Solution:-

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


31

= Y = Y ~= Y ~= ~Y ~= ~Y = Y =Y =Y Y=
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6
45
T T T F F F F T T T T T T
T F F T F T T T F F F T F
F T F T T F T F T F T F F
F F F T T T T F F T T T T
From the above truth table it is clear that all the From the above truth table it is clear that all the
corresponding entries in columns 4 and 7are corresponding entries in columns 3 and 6 are
identical identical

~= Y ~= ~Y = Y = Y Y =

= Y ~= ~Y ~Y ~=


55. Using truth table prove the logical equivalence

~= Y ~= ~Y
52. Using truth table prove that the logical equivalence
Solution:-

= Y 12 ~= ~Y 1 5 ~6 2 4 ~8
Solution:- 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
79

= Y = Y ~= Y ~= ~Y ~= ~Y
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 T T T F F F T F T T
T F F F T T F F T F
T T T F F F F F T F T F F T T F F
T F T F F T F F F T T T F T F T T
F T T F T F F From the above truth table it is clear that all the
F F F T T T T corresponding entries in columns 3 and 10 are
From the above truth table it is clear that all the identical

= Y ~= ~Y ~Y ~=


corresponding entries in columns 4 and 7are
identical

~= Y ~= ~Y
~= Y ~= Y ~=
56. Using truth table prove the logical equivalence

= Y ~= Y ~Y ~=
53. Prove the following result
Solution:-

= Y = Y ~= Y ~= ~Y 52
Solution:- 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
47

= Y = Y ~= ~Y ~= Y ~Y ~=
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 T T T F F F F F
T F T F F T F F
T T T F F T T F T T F T F T T
T F F F T F F F F F T T T F T
F T T T F T T From the above truth table it is clear that all the
F F T T T T T corresponding entries in columns 5 and 8 are
From the above truth table it is clear that all the identical

~= Y ~= Y ~=
corresponding entries in columns 3, 6 and 7are
identical

= Y ~= Y ~Y ~=
~= Y = Y ~=
57. Using truth table prove the logical equivalence

= Y = Y Y =
54. Prove the following result
Solution:-
Solution:-

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


32

All the entries in the last column of the truth table of


given statement pattern are T. the given statement

= Y ~= ~= Y = Y = Y Y = is tautology
1 2 3 4 5 6
53
T T F F T F

g= Y ih g= Y ih is tautology


T F F F T F 60. Using truth table show that the statement pattern
F T T T T T
F F T F F F
From the above truth table it is clear that all the Solution:-
corresponding entries in columns 4 and 6 are

= Y i Y i = Y 14 53 67
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
identical

~= Y = Y ~= T T T T T T T T
T T F F T F F T
TAUTOLOGY:- All the entries in the last column of T F T T F T T T
the statement pattern are T it is called as tautology T F F T F T T T
CONTRADICTION:- All the entries in the last column F T T T F T T T
F T F F F T T T
of the statement pattern are F it is called as
F F T T F T T T
contradiction
F F F T F T T T
CONTANGENCY:- The entries in the last column of All the entries in the last column of the truth table of
statement pattern are T as well as F is called as given statement pattern are T. the given statement

g= Y ih g= Y ih is tautology


contingency

g= Y ~Yh ~= is tautology


58. Using truth table show that the statement pattern

Using truth table examine whether the following


Solution:- statement pattern are tautology, contradiction or
contingency.

= Y = Y ~= ~Y 35 61. = ~Y = Y
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
64
T T T F F F T Solution:-
T F F F T F T

= Y = Y ~Y = ~Y 53
F T T T F F T 1 2 3 4 5 6
F F T T T T T
All the entries in the last column of the truth table of T T T F F F
given statement pattern are T. the given statement T F F T T F

g= Y ~Yh ~=is tautology


F T T F F F
F F T T F F
All the entries in the last column of the truth table of

= Y Y = is tautology
59. Using truth table show that the statement pattern given statement pattern are F. the given statement

= ~Y = Y is contradiction

62. ~= Y Y =
Solution:-

= Y =Y Y=
1 2 3 4 5
34 Solution:-
T T T T T
T F F T T
F T T F T
F F T T T

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


33

= Y Y= ~= ~= Y = Y i =Y =i
1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6
35 45
T T T F F F T T T T T T
T F T F F F T T F T T T
F T F T T F T F T T T T
F F T T F F T F F T T T
All the entries in the last column of the truth table of F T T T T T
given statement pattern are F. the given statement F T F T F F

~= Y Y = is contradiction
F F T F T F
F F F F F F

63. = Y = i
From the above truth table it is clear that the entries in
the last column are neither all T nor all F
Solution:- = Y = i is contingency

66. g= = Yh Y
= Y i =Y =i
1 2 3 4 5 6
45
T T T T T T Solution:-
T T F T F T

= Y =Y
T F T F T T 1 2 3 4 5
T F F F F F 13 42
F T T F F F T T T T T
F T F F F F T F F F T
F F T F F F F T T F T
F F F F F F F F T F T
From the above truth table it is clear that the entries in All the entries in the last column of the truth table of
the last column are neither all T nor all F given statement pattern are T. the given statement

= Y = iis contingency g= = Yh Y is tautology

64. g= Y ih g= Y ih 67. ~Y = Y

= Y i = Y 43 Y i 16 57
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Solution:-

= Y ~Y ~Y =
T T T T T T T T 1 2 3 4 5
T T F T T T T T 42
T F T T T T T T T T F F F
T F F T T F T T T F T T F
F T T T T T T T F T F F F
F T F T T T T T F F T F F
F F T F T T T T All the entries in the last column of the truth table of
F F F F F F F T given statement pattern are F. the given statement

~Y = Y is contradiction
All the entries in the last column of the truth table of
given statement pattern are T. the given statement

g= Y ih g= Y ih is tautology 68. = Y ~=


65. = Y = i Solution:-
Solution:-

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


34

= Y =Y ~= = Y = ~= ~Y ~= = ~=
1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Y Y ~Y ~Y
34 3678
T T T F F
T F T F F T T T F F F F F T
F T T T T T F F F T F T F T
F F F T F F T F T F T F F T
From the above truth table it is clear that the entries in F F F T T F F T T
the last column are neither all T nor all F All the entries in the last column of the truth table of

= Y ~= is contingency
given statement pattern are T. the given statement

= Y ~= Y = ~Y ~= ~Yis


69. = Y i tautology

= Y i = Y = i
72. Using truth table verify that
= Y i =Y
1 2 3 4 5
43
T T T T T Solution:-
T T F T F
= Y i Y i 14 = Y = i 67
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
T F T F T
T F F F T
T T T T T T T T
F T T F T
T T F T T T F T
F T F F T
T F T T T F T T
F F T F T
T F F F F F F F
F F F F T
F T T T F F F F
From the above truth table it is clear that the entries in
F T F T F F F F
the last column are neither all T nor all F F F T T F F F F
= Y i is contingency
The entries in column number 5 and 8 are identical
F F F F F F F F

70. = Y = ~Y
= Y i = Y = i is verified
Solution:-

= Y i = Y = i
73. Using truth table verified that

= Y =Y ~Y = ~Y
1 2 3 4 5 6
35
Solution:-
T T T F F F
T F F T T F

= Y i Y i 14 = Y = i 67
F T T F F F 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
F F T T F F
All the entries in the last column of the truth table of T T T T T T T T
given statement pattern are F. the given statement T T F F T T T T

= Y = ~Y is contradiction
T F T F T T T T
T F F F T T T T

71. = Y ~= Y = ~Y ~= ~Y


F T T T T T T T
F T F F F T F F
F F T F F F T F

The entries in column number 5 and 8 are identical


Solution:- F F F F F F F F

= Y i = Y = iis verified

NEGATION OF COMPOUND STATEMENT

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


35

~= Y = Y =Y ~= Y ~Y = ~Y
Negation of conjunction:- The negation of conjunction is 1 2 3 4 5 6

T T T F F F

~= Y ~= ~Y
Using truth table prove that T F F T T T
F T T F F F

Solution:- F F T F T F
The entries in column 4 and 6 are identical

= Y = Y ~= Y ~= ~Y ~= ~Y ~= Y = ~Yis verified


1 2 3 4 5 6 7

T T T F F F F

is ~= Y
Negation of Biconditional:- The negation of biconditional
T F F T F T T
F T F T T F T
F F F T T T T
Using truth table prove that

~= Y = ~Y Y ~=


From the above truth table it is clear that all the
corresponding entries in columns 4 and 7are
identical

~= Y ~= ~Y = Y =Y ~3 ~= ~Y
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
16 25 78
T T T F F F F F F

~= Y
Negation of disjunction:- The negation of disjunction is T F F T F T T F T
F T F T T F F T T

Using truth table verify that F F T F T T F F F

~= Y ~= ~Y
The entries in column 4 and 9 are identical

~= Y = ~Y Y ~=


Solution:-

~~=
Negation of negation:- The negation of negation is

= Y = Y ~= Y ~= ~Y ~= ~Y
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

T T T F F F F Using truth table prove that ~~= =


T F T F F T F

= ~= ~~=
F T T F T F F 1 2 3
F F F T T T T
From the above truth table it is clear that all the T F T
corresponding entries in columns 4 and 7are F T F
identical The entries in column 1 and 3 are identical

~= Y ~= ~Y ~~= =

Y ~i = Y giving justification


74. From the negation of the statement pattern
~= Y
Negation of implication:- The negation of implication is

Using truth table prove that ~= Y = ~Y Solution:-

Solution:- The negation of given statement pattern is

~gY ~i = Yh

= ~Y ~i ~= YNegation of conjunction

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


36

= g~Y ~~ih ~= ~Y Negation of disjunction Solution:-

= ~Y i ~= ~Y Negation of negation The negation given statement pattern is

~g= Y ih
= Y ~= igiving justification
75. From the negation of the statement pattern

= ~= ~Y i Negation of conjunction

= ~= g~Y ~ih Negation of disjunction


Solution:-

The negation given statement pattern is

~g= Y ~= ih = Y i giving justification


79. From the negation of the statement pattern

= = Y ~~= i Negation of implication Solution:-

= = Y g~~= ~ih Negation of disjunction The negation given statement pattern is

= = Y = ~i Negation of negation ~g= Y ih

= ~= Y ~i Negation of conjunction


= Y Y ~i giving justification
76. From the negation of the statement pattern

= = ~Y ~i Negation of implication


Solution:-
If p, q, r are statements with truth values T, F, T
The negation given statement pattern is respectively, determine the truth values of the

~g= Y Y ~ih
following

80. Y = ~i
= ~= Y ~Y ~i Negation of conjunction

= ~= ~Y g~Y ~~ih Negation of


Solution:-

disjunction p q r ~i = ~i Y = ~i

= ~= ~Y ~Y i Negation of negation


The truth value of Y = ~i is T
T F T F T T

~= Y = ~Y giving justification 81. ~i = ~Y


77. From the negation of the statement pattern

Solution:- Solution:-

The negation given statement pattern is p q r ~Y ~i ~i = ~i = ~Y

~g~= Y = ~Yh
The truth value of ~i = ~Y is T
T F T T F F T

= ~~= Y ~= ~Y Negation of disjunction 82. = Y i


= g~~= ~Yh g~= ~~Yh Negation of
Solution:-

conjunction p q r =Y = Y i

= = ~Y ~= Y Negation of negation The truth value of = Y i is T


T F T F T

83. i Y ~=
= Y i giving justification
78. From the negation of the statement pattern

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


37

Solution:- DUALITY
p q r ~= i Y i Y ~= Principle of duality:-

The truth values of i Y ~= is T


T F T F F T
Consider

84. = Y Y i ~= Y = ~= ~Y

Solution:- ~= Y = ~= ~Y

=Y Yi = Y Y i In the above statement pattern replace by or


by which are called as dual statement
p q r

The truth values of = Y Y i is T


T F T T T T
Let t is tautology, c is contradiction then t replace
by c and c replace by t
If p and q are true r and s are false statements, find
the truth values of the following statements. Write the dual of the following statement pattern

85. = Y i 89. = Y i

Solution:- Solution:-

p q r =Y = Y i The dual of = Y i is = Y i

90. = Y i [
The statement = Y i is T
T T F T T

86. = i [
Solution:-

The dual of = Y i [ H[ = Y i [

91. = Y i = Y i
Solution:-

p r s rs = i [
Solution:-

The truth values of = i [ is T


T F F T T
The dual of the given statement pattern

= Y i = Y iis= Y i =
87. = [ Y i
Y i

92. = Y i = Y = i
Solution:-

p q r [ =[ Yi = [ Y i
Solution:-

The truth values = [ Y i is F


T T F F T F F
The dual of given statement pattern

= Y i = Y = iis
88. ~= ~i ~Y [
= Y i = Y = i

93. = Y E
Solution:-

p q r s ~Y ~i = ~i ~7 ~Y [
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
89 Solution:-

The truth values of ~= ~i ~Y [ is F


T T F F F T T F F F

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


38

The dual of given statement pattern = Y E is The symbol is called as existential quantifiers
=Y.

94. ~= Y E
Use quantifier to convert each of the following
open sentence defined on N into a true
statement

M+5=7
Solution:-

The dual of given statement pattern ~= Y E is


100.

~= Y .
solution:-

95. = . E ~Y M z such that M + 5 = 7

Solution:- This is a true M = 2 z satisfied M + 5 = 7

The dual of the given statement pattern 101. M  = 25

= . E ~Yis= E . ~Y Solution:-

96. Vijay and Vinay cannot speak Hindi M z such that M  = 25

Solution:- This is a true M = 5 z satisfied M  = 25

The dual of the given statement pattern is 102. 2M + 3 < 15

Vijay or Vinay cannot speak Hindi Solution:-

M z Such that 2M + 3 < 15


97. Ravi or Avinash went to Chennnai

This is a true M = 1 Gi 2 Gi 3 Gi 4 Gi 5 z
Solution:-

The dual of the given statement pattern is satisfied

Ravi and Avinash went to Chennnai 2M + 3 < 15

M 3 = 11
98. Madhuri has curly hair and brown eyes
103.
Solution:-
Solution:-

M z such that M 3 = 11
The dual of the given statement pattern is

This is a true M = 14 z satisfied


Madhuri has curly hair or brown eyes
99. Shweta is a doctor or Sheela is a teacher

Solution:- M 3 = 11

104. M + 1 5
The dual of the given statement pattern is
Solution:-
Shweta is a doctor and Sheela is a teacher
M z Such that M  + 1 5
Universal quantifier:-
This is a true M = 1 Gi 2 z satisfied
The symbol is called as universal quantifier
M + 1 5
Existential quantifier:-
105. M  3M + 2 = 0

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


39

Solution:- M = 3 is an odd number

M z Such that M  3M + 2 = 0 The given sentence has truth values T

This is a true M = 2 z satisfied 112. M  such that M 3 

M  3M + 2 = 0 Solution:-

106. M+3<7 M = 4 
6 
8 satisfiesM 3 

Solution:- The given sentence has truth values T

M z Such that M + 3 < 7 If  = 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 determine the truth values

This is a true M = 1 Gi 2 Gi 3 z satisfies


M  [XE .. M + 3 = 10
of following statement

M+3<7
113.

M > 0
Solution:-
107.

M + 3 = 10
No number belongs to A satisfies equation
Solution:-

M z Such that M  > 0


The given sentence has truth value F

M  , M + 2 < 9
This is a true because the square is non- negative

If  = 3, 4, 6, 8 determine the truth value of


114.

Solution:-
each of the following

M , [XE .. M + 4 = 7 M+2<9


All the number in set A satisfies the equation
108.

Solution:- The given sentence has truth values T


M = 3 , satisfiesM + 4 = 7 115. M  such that M + 2 < 5

M  , M + 4 < 10
The given open sentence has truth value T
109. Solution:-

Solution:- M = 2 satisfies equation M + 2 < 5

M = 6 
8 do not satisfies the equation
M + 4 < 10
The given equation has truth value T

116. M  , M + 6 9
The given sentence has truth value F

M  , M + 5 13
Solution:-

M = 2 do not satisfies M + 6 9


110.

Solution:-

M = 3 
4 
6 do not satisfies M + 5 13
The given sentence has truth values F

If  = 4, 5, 7, 9 determine the truth values of


The given sentence has truth value F each of the following quantified statement

111. M  such that M is odd number 117. M  [XE .. M + 2 = 7

Solution:- Solution:-
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
40

M = 5 satisfiesM  2  7 Two switches are in parallel:-


parallel:

The given sentence has truth values T Two switches a 


aa are connected in parallel in

M  , M  3 | 10
the following circuit
118.

Solution:-

M = 7 
9 do
do not satisfies the given
sentence

The given sentence has truth values F

119. M  [XE .. M  5 9

Solution:-

M = 4 satisfiesM  5 9
Represent the following circuit symbolically and
The given sentence has truth values T write the input-output
output of switching table

120. M  such that M is an even number 122.

Solution:-

M = 4 is an even number

The given sentence has truth values T

121. M , 2M } 17

Solution:-

M = 9 do not satisfies 2M } 17

The given sentence has truth values F

APPLICATION OF LOGIC
Solution:-

Let = = switch a is closed


Two switches in series:-

Two switches a 
a are connected in series in
the following circuit Y = switcha is closed

~= switcha is closed

~Y  switcha is closed

The symbolic form of the given circuit diagram is

= Y ~= ~Y

The switching table for the given circuit is as


follows

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


41

~= ~Y P q ~= ~Y
Y
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 124.
p q 56
1 1 0 0 1 0 1
1 0 0 1 1 0 1
0 1 1 0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1 0 1 1
123.

Solution:-

Let

= =switcha is closed

Y = switcha is closed

i = switch a is closed
closed
Solution:-

~= switcha is closed
Let

= =switcha is closed

Y = switcha is closed
The symbolic form of the given circuit diagram is

= Y Y i ~=
i = switch a is closed

~= switcha is closed
The switching table for the given circuit is as follows

~Y  switcha is closed
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
p q r ~p 12 52 34 67
1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1
The symbolic form of the given circuit diagram is 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0
g= Y ~= ~Yh i
1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0
1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
The switching table for the given circuit is as 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1
follows
0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
p q r ~p ~q 12 45 67 83
1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1
1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0
1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1
0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


42

cos  sin 2n + , n Z

 
TRIGNOMETRIC FUNCTION


cos  0 for  2n + = 4n + 1
2 2
An equation which contain trigonometric function is
called as trigonometric equation

or = 2n + = 4n + 3 where n Z

 
Principal solution:

cos  0
unknown angle x, where 0 x < 2, are called
The solution of trigonometric equation of an

5 9
for  , , , ,
2 2 2
as principal solution.

Or = , ,, ,
_ 
Theorem: The general solution of
  
sin  0 is  n, n Z
cos  0

3 5 7 9
Proof:
= , , , , ,
2 2 2 2 2

We know that

sin 0 = 0 and sin  0 , 2n + 1


2

By periodicity of sin x
cos  0 is  2n + 1 , n Z
2
sin 0 = sin2n + 0 and

sin  sin2n + , n Z
Theorem: The general solution of

tan = 0 is  n, n Z
sin  0 for  2n

or = 2n + = 2n + 1 where n Z
Proof:

sin
tan = where cos 0
sin  0 cos

for  0, 2, 4, , 6, tan = 0 implies sin  0

Or = , 3, , 5, We know that

sin  0 is  n, n Z sin 0 = 0 and sin  0

Theorem: The general solution of By periodicity of sin x

sin 0 = sin2n + 0 and


cos  0 is  2n + 1 , n Z
2
sin  sin2n + , n Z

sin  0 for  2n
Proof:

or = 2n + = 2n + 1 where n Z
We know that

3
cos = 0 and cos =0 sin  0
2 2

By periodicity of sin x for  0, 2, 4, , 6,

Or = , 3, , 5,
cos = sin 2n + and
2 2
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
43

sin  0 is  n, n Z cos cos  0

tan = 0 is  n, n Z Apply

Theorem: The general of sin  sin is cos C cos D 

 n  1: , n Z CD CD
2 sin sin
2 2
sin  sin

2 sin sin =0
Proof:

sin sin  0 2 2

sin . sin =0
2 2
Apply

CD CD
sin C sin D  2 cos . sin 
2 2 sin = 0 or sin =0
2 2

2 cos . sin =0 Apply
2 2
sin  0 is  n , n Z

cos . sin =0
2 2 +
= n or = n , n Z
2 2

cos = 0 or sin =0
2 2 + = 2n or  n, n Z

Apply = 2n or  2n + , n Z
= 2n , n Z
cos  0 is  2n + 1
2
Hence the general solution of cos  cos is
sin  0 is  n , n Z
 2n , n Z
+
= 2n + 1 or = n , n Z
2 2 2 Theorem: If and are not multiple of then the

+ = 2n + 1 or  2n , n Z general solution of tan = tan is

= 2n + 1 or  2n + , n Z = n +

= n + 1: where n is odd integer Proof:

tan = tan
 n  1: where n is even integer
or

sin sin

Hence the general solution of sin  sin is cos cos

 n  1: , n Z sin . cos  cos . sin

Theorem: The general of cos  cos is sin . cos cos . sin  0

 2n , n Z sin   0

cos  cos Apply


sin  0 is  n , n Z
Proof:

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


44

= n , n Z 1 cos 2 = 2 sin

= n + , n Z 1 cos 2
sin 
2
Theorem: The general of cos   cos is

 n , n Z 1 cos 2
Similarly

sin 
2
cos  cos 
1 cos 2 1 cos 2
Proof:
=
We know that 2 2

cos 2 = 2 cos 1 1 cos 2 = 1 cos 2

1 + cos 2 = 2 cos cos 2 = cos 2

1 + cos 2 We know that the general of cos  cos is


cos 
2
 2n , n Z

1 + cos 2 The general of cos2 = cos 2 is
Similarly

cos 
2
2 = 2n 2 , n Z
1 + cos 2 1 + cos 2
= 2 = 2n  , n Z
2 2

1 + cos 2 = 1 + cos 2 The general of sin  sin is

cos 2 = cos 2  n , n Z

We know that the general of cos  cos is Theorem: The general of tan = tan is

 2n , n Z = n , n Z

The general of cos2 = cos 2 is Proof:

2 = 2n 2 , n Z tan = tan

2 = 2n  , n Z We know that

The general of cos   cos is 1 + tan = sec 

 n , n Z tan  sec  1

Theorem: The general of sin  sin is


tan = sec  1

Similarly

 n , n Z
sec  1 = sec  1

sec   sec 
Proof:

sin  sin
 

1 1

We know that cos cos


cos 2 = 1 2 sin cos  cos


Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
45

a b c
cos  sin 
a  b  a  b  a  b 
We know that

cos 2 = 2 cos 1
cos . cos  sin . sin  cos
1 + cos 2 = 2 cos
cos   cos
1 + cos 2
cos 
2 We know that the general of cos  cos is

 2n , n Z
1 + cos 2
Similarly

cos  = 2n , n Z
2
1 + cos 2 1 + cos 2 = 2n + , n Z
=
2 2
Find the principal solution of cos x =


1 + cos 2 = 1 + cos 2 
1.

cos 2 = cos 2
Solution: -

1
we know that

We know that the general of cos  cos is EG[ =


3 2
EG[2 M = EG[ M
 2n , n Z
=X. M =
3
The general of cos2 = cos 2 is
EG[ 2 = EG[
3 3
2 = 2n 2 , n Z 6
EG[ = EG[
3 3
2 = 2n  , n Z 5 1
EG[ = EG[ =
The general of cos   cos is 3 3 2
Where 0 < < 2 
0 < < 2
$

 n , n Z 5 1
cos = cos = = cos x
3 3 2
Theorem: The general of sin  sin is
5
The required principle solution is
 n , n Z M = 
M =
3 3

cos x = 

Theorem: The general solution of 2. Problem : Find the principal solution of

a cos  b sin  cis

 2n + , n Z wherea, b, c R, 1
Solution: - we know that

EG[ =
3 2
a EG[ M = EG[ M 

a 0, b 0, c 0, cos 
a  b  EG[ + M = EG[ M

b c =X. M =
sin  , cos  3
a  b a  b
EG[ = EG[ 

3 3
a cos  b sin  c
EG[ + = EG[
3 3
Proof:

Divided both sides by a  b  3 1


EG[ = 

3 2

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


46

3 + 1 Where 0 <
$
< 2 

EG[ =
3 2
B

2 1 11
EG[ = 
0< < 2
3 2 6
4 1
EG[ =
3 2 5 11
The required principle solution is
2 4 1 M= 
M =
EG[ = EG[ = 6 6
3 3 2
4. Find the principal solution of sin x =

Where 0 < < 2 




4
0< < 2 1
Solution: - we know that
3 [H =
5 1 4 2
EG[ = EG[ = = EG[ M [H  M = [H M
3 3 2

=X. M =
2 4 4
The required principle solution is

M= 
M =
3 3 [H = [H
4 4
3. Find the principal solution of cot x = 3 4
[H = [H
4 4
EG. M = 3 3 1
Solution: - the given equation is

[H = [H =
1 4 4 2
. M =
Where 0 < A < 2 


3
3
0< < 2
4
We know that

1
. =
6 3 3
The required principle solution is

M = 
M =
.  M = . M 
4 4
Find the principal solution of sin x =


. 2 M = . M
5.

3
Solution: - we know that

=X. M = [H =
6 3 2
[H  M = [H M
. = . 

6 6
=X. M =
3
. 2 = .
6 6 [H = [H
3 3
6 1 3
. = 
[H = [H
6 3 3
3
2 3
12 1 [H = [H =
3 3 2
. =
6 3 Where 0 < < 2 


5 1 0 < < 2
. = 
3
6 3
11 1 2
The required principle solution is

. = M= 
M =
6 3 3
3
6. Find the principal solution of sec x =


5 11 1
. = . =
6 6 3
Solution: - the given equation is

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


47

2 3 EG. M = 3
[-E M = EG[ M = 1
3 2
. M =
3
3
we know that

EG[ =
6 2
We know that

1
EG[2 M = EG[ M . =
6 3
=X. M =
6
.  + M = . M
EG[ 2 = EG[
6 6
12 =X. M =
EG[ = EG[ 6
6 6
11 3 . + = .
6 6
EG[ = EG[ = 6 + 1
6 6 2
. =
Where 0 < B < 2 


6 3
7 1
0 < < 2 . =
6 6 3
11 3 7 1
EG[ = EG[ = . = . =
6 6 2 6 6 3

Where 0 < < 2 


11
The required principle solution is

M= 
M =
B
6 6
7. Find the principal solution of cosec x = 2 7
0< < 2
6
1
Solution: - The given equation is

EG[-E M = 2 =2 7
The required principle solution is
[H M M = 
M =
1 6 6
[H M = 9. Find the principal solution of . M = 3
2

1 . M = 3
We know that Solution: - the given equation is

[H =
6 2
[H  M = [H M
We know that


=X. M = . = 3
6 3

[H = [H .  + M = . M 

6 6
6
[H = [H
6 6 =X. M =
5 1 3
[H = [H =
6 6 2 . + = .
3 3
Where 0 < B < 2 
3 +
$
. = 3
3
0 < < 2 4
6 . = 3
3
5 4
The required principle solution is

M= 
M = . = . = 3
6 6 3 3
8. Find the principal solution of cot x = 3
Where 0 < < 2 


Solution: -

Thegiven equation is

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


48

4
0< < 2 tan = tan and
3 3 3

tan 2 = tan
4 3 3
The required principle solution is

M = 
M = 3
3 3 tan = 3 and
3
6
[H M =
 tan = 3
10. Problem : Find the principal solution of

 3
2
tan = 3 and
1 3
Solution: - The given equation is

[H M = 5
2 tan = 3
3
1 2 5
tan = tan = 3
We know that

[H = 3 3
6 2
[H  + M = [H M 

Where 0 < < 2 


[H 2 M = [H M

=X. M = 5
6 0< < 2
3
[H + = [H 

6 6
2 5
The required principle solution is
[H 2 = [H x= and x =
6 6 3 3
6 + 12. Find the principal solution of tan x = 1
[H = [H 

6 6
12
[H = [H tan x = 1
Solution: - the given equation is

6 6
7
[H = [H 

We know that
6 6
11 tan =1
[H = [H 4
6 6
7 11 1 tan x = tan x and
[H = [H =
6 6 2
Where 0 < B < 2 

_ tan2 x = tan x
11
0< < 2 put x =
6 4

tan = tan and
7 11 4 4
The required principle solution is

M= 
M =
6 6 tan 2 = tan
4 4
11. Find the principal solution of . M = 3 4
tan = 1 and
4
. M = 3 8
Solution: - the given equation is

tan = 1
4
3
tan = 1 and
We know that
4
. = 3
3 7
tan = 1
4
.  M = . M 
3 7
tan = tan = 1
. 2 M = . M 4 4

Where 0 < < 2 


=X. M = A
3
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
49

7 1
0< < 2 EG[ M =
4 2

3 7 1
The required principle solution is We know that
M= 
M = EG[ =
4 4 4 2
13. Problem : Find the principal solution of 3EG[-E M + EG[ M = EG[ M 

2=0 EG[ + M = EG[ M



=X. M =
3EG[-E M + 2 = 0 4
Solution: - The given equation is


3EG[-E M = 2 EG[ = EG[ 

4 4
2
EG[-E M = EG[ + = EG[
3 4 4
1 2 4 1
= EG[ = 

[H M 3 4 2
3 4 + 1
[H M = EG[ =
2 4 2
3 1
EG[ = 

3 4 2
We know that

[H = 5 1
3 2 EG[ =
[H  + M = [H M 
4 2
[H 2 M = [H M 3 5 1
EG[ = EG[ =
4 4 2
=X. M =
3 Where 0 <

< 2 

A
[H + = [H 
5
3 3 0< < 2
4
[H 2 = [H
3 3
3 + 3 5
The required principle solution is
[H = [H 
M= 
M =
3 3 4 4
6 15. Find the principal solution of 3[-E M + 2 = 0
[H = [H
3 3
4
[H = [H 

Solution:

3 3
3[-E M + 2 = 0
-The given equation is
5
[H = [H
3 3 3[-E M = 2
4 5 3 2
[H = [H = [-E M =
3 3 2 3
Where 0 < < 2 

A 1 2
=
5 EG[ M 3
0< < 2 3
3 EG[ M =
2
4 5
The required principle solution is

M= 
M = 3
We know that
3 3
EG[ =
14. Find the principal solution of 2EG[ M + 1 = 0 6 2
EG[ M = EG[ M 

EG[ + M = EG[ M
2EG[ M + 1 = 0
Solution: -The given equation is


2EG[ M = 1 =X. M =
6

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


50

M = 2 ,
EG[ = EG[ 

6 6

EG[ + = EG[ 18. Find the general solution of sec x = 2
6 6
6 3 1
EG[ = 

Solution: -The given equation is

6 2 [-E M = 2 = 2
EG[ M
6 + 3 1
EG[ = EG[ M = EG[ M = EG[
6 2 2 4
5 3
EG[ = 

6 2
We know that

7 3 The general of cos = cos is


EG[ =
6 2
= 2n , n Z
5 7 3
EG[ = EG[ =
6 6 2 The general of cos x = cos is

Where 0 < B < 2 

$ A

7
0< < 2 M = 2 ,
6 4

.- - -i, [G,X.HG H[
5 7
The required principle solution is

x= and x =
6 6
M = 2 ,
16. Find the general solution of sin x =
4


3 EG[-E M = 2
Solution: -The given equation is 19. Find the general solution of

[H M = [H M = [H
2 3
Where 0 < < 2

Solution: -

1
The given equation is

EG[-E M = 2 = 2
[H M
We know that

The general of sin = sin is 1


[H M = [H M = [H
2 4
= n + 1: , n Z [H  + M = [H M

The general of sin x = sin is
=X. M =
4

[H + = [H
M = + 1 , 4 4
3 4 +
[H = [H
4 4
17. Find the general solution of cos x = 1 5
[H = [H
4 4
EG[ M = 1 EG[ M = EG[ 0 5
Solution: -The given equation is

[H M = [H
We know that 4

The general of cos = cos is


We know that

The general of sin = sin is


= 2n , n Z
2 = + 1 ,
The general of cos x = cos 0 is
The general of sin x = sin A
$
M = 2 0 ,

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


51

5
M = + 1 , . = .
4 6 6
5
20. Find the general solution of EG[ M =

. = .
 6 6

1 5
Solution: -The given equation is

EG[ M = EG[ M = EG[ . M = .


2 4 6

The general solution of . 2 = . is


We know that

The general of EG[ 2 = EG[ is


2 = + ,
2 = 2 ,
The general solution of . M = . B is
$

The general of EG[ M = EG[ is



A
5
M = + ,
6
M = 2 ,
4
23. Find the general solution of [H M =



. M = 3
21. Find the general solution of

3
Solution: -The given equation is

[H M = [H M = [H
2 3
Solution: -

[H  + M = [H M
. M = 3
The given equation is

=X. M =
3
. M = .
3 [H + = [H
3 3
4
The general solution of . 2 = . is [H = [H
3 3
4
2 = + , [H M = [H
3
The general solution of . M = . is
We know that

The general of [H 2 = [H is
M = + ,
3
2 = + 1 ,

The general of [H M = [H
A
EG. M = 3
22. Find the general solution of

is

4
M = + 1 ,
Solution: -
3
EG. M = 3
The given equation is

1 24. Find the general solution of EG[ M = 



. M =
3

Solution: -

. M = . 1
6
The given equation is

EG[ M = EG[ M = EG[


2 3
.  M = . M EG[ M = EG[ M

=X. M =
=X. M = 3
6
EG[ = EG[
3 3
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
52

2
EG[ = EG[
3 3
We know that

2 The general of sin = sin is


cos x = cos
3
We know that = n + 1: , n Z

The general of sin2 x = sin is



The general of cos = cos is B

= 2n , n Z
2M = + 1 ,
6
The general of cos x = cos


M= + 1 ,

is
2 12
2
M = 2 ,
3
2M
27. Find the general solution of

. = 3
3
. M = 1
25. Find the general solution of
Solution: -

2M
Solution: - The given equation is

. M = 1 . = 3
3
The given equation is

2M
. M = . . = .
4 3 3
.  M = . M The general solution of tan = tan is

=X. M = 2 = + ,
4
The general solution of. = . is

. = .
4 4
2M
3 = + ,
. = . 3 3
4 4

3 2M = 3 + ,
. M = . 3
4
2M = 3 + ,
The general solution of tan = tan is
3
M= + ,
2 = + , 2 2

28. Find the general solution of cos 3x =



The general solution of . M = .

A 
is

3 1
M = + ,
Solution: -The given equation is

4 EG[3 M = EG[ 3M = EG[


2 4
26. Find the general solution of sin2 x = 
 We know that

Solution: - The general of cos = cos is

1 2 = 2 ,
The given equation is

[H 2M = [H 2M = [H
2 6
The general of EG[3 M = EG[ A is

Where 0 < B < 2

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


53


3M = 2 , =X. M =
4 3

2 EG[ = EG[
M= , 3 3
3 12 2
EG[ = EG[
3 3
2
cot4 x = 1 EG[ 3M = EG[
29. Find the general solution of
3
Solution: - We know that

cot 4x = 1 The general of cos = cos is


The given equation is

. 4 M = 1
2 = 2 ,

. 4M = . The general of EG[3 M = EG[

4
is

.  M = . M 2
3M = 2 ,
3
=X. M =
4 2 2
M= ,
3 9
. = .
4 4
31. Find the general solution of EG[-E3 M =


3

. = .
4 4 2 1 2
Solution: -The given equation is

EG[-E3 M = =
3 3 [H 3M 3
. 4M = .
4 3
[H 3M =
2
The general solution of tan = tan is
[H 3M = [H
3
2 = + , [H  + M = [H M

The general solution of =X. M =
3

. 4 M = .
[H + = [H
A 3 3
4
is

3 [H = [H
3 3
4M = + , 4
4
[H 3M = [H
3
3
M = + ,
4 16
We know that

The general of sin = sin is


30. Find the general solution of sec3 x = 2
Solution: - 2 = + 1 ,

1 The general of [H 3 M = [H
A
The given equation is

[-E3 M = 2 = 2
EG[ 3M
is

1 4
EG[ 3M = 3M = + 1 ,
2 3

EG[ 3M = EG[ 4
3 M= + 1 ,
EG[ M = EG[ M 3 9

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


54

32. Find the general solution of [H M + $ = 0


The general solution of

5M
EG[ = 0 H[
2
Solution: -The given equation is
[H M + = 0
5
5M
= 2 + 1 ,
2 2
We know that

2
M = 2 + 1 ,
The general solution of

[H 2 = 0 H[ 2 = , 5 2

M = 2 + 1 ,
5
The general solution of

[H M + = 0 = 0 H[ 35. Find the general solution of EG[2M = 0
5

M+ = ,
Solution: -

5
EG[2M = 0
The given equation is


M = ,
5
We know that

33. Find the general solution of [H  = 0



The general solution of

EG[ 2 = 0 H[ 2 = 2 + 1 ,
2
3M
Solution: -The given equation is

[H = 0
2 The general solution of

EG[2M = 0 H[
We know that


2M = 2 + 1 ,
The general solution of

[H 2 = 0 H[ 2 = , 2

M = 2 + 1 ,
4
The general solution of

3M
[H = 0 = 0 H[ 36. Find the general solution of sin 3x = 0
2
3M
Solution: -

= ,
2 [H 3M = 0
The given equation is

2
M= ,
We know that

3 The general solution of

34. Find the general solution of EG[  = 0


$
[H 2 = 0 H[ 2 = ,

5M
Solution: -The given equation is

EG[ = 0
The general solution of
2 [H 3M = 0 H[

3M = ,
We know that


The general solution of
M= ,
cos = 0 is = 2n + 1 , n Z 3
2

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


55

37. Find the general solution of EG[ M + ^ = 0


. 3 M = 1

. 3M = 1
Solution: -The given equation is
Solution: -The given equation is
EG[ M + = 0
10
. 3M = .
We know that 4
The general solution of .  M = . M

EG[ 2 = 0 H[ 2 = 2 + 1 , =X. M =
2 4

. = .
4 4
The general solution of

EG[ M + = 0 H[ 3
10
. = .
4 4

M+ = 2 + 1 ,
10 2 3
. 3M = .
4
M = 2 + 1 ,
2 10 The general solution of . 2 = . is
38. Find the general solution of cos2 x = 

2 = + ,

The general solution of . 3 M = .



Solution: -
A
1
The given equation is is

EG[2 M = EG[ 2M = EG[ 3


2 3 3M = + ,
EG[ M = EG[ M 4

=X. M =
3 M= + ,
3 4
EG[ = EG[
3 3
40. Find the general solution of [H 4 M =

2
EG[ = EG[ 
3 3
2
3
Solution: -The given equation is
EG[ 2M = EG[
3 [H 4M = [H 4 M = [H
2 3
Where 0 < < 2
We know that

The general of cos = cos is We know that

2 = 2 , The general of sin = sin is

The general of EG[2 M = EG[



2 = + 1 ,

is

The general of sin4 x = sin is



2
2M = 2 ,
3

4M = + 1 ,
2M = 2 , 3
3

M= + 1 ,
M = , 4 12
3
41. Find the general solution of the equation
39. Find the general solution of
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
56

4EG[  M = 1
tan x = 1
43. Find the general solution of the equation
Solution: -

4EG[  M = 1
The given equation is Solution: -

1 .  M = 1
The given equation is
EG[  M =
4 .  M = 1
1  .  M = 1
EG[ M =

2 
 .  M = .
EG[ M = EG[
 4
3
. M = .
 
EG[  M = EG[  4
3 We know that

The general of .  2 = .  is
We know that

The general solution of EG[ 2 = EG[ is


 

2 = ,
2 = ,
The general of .  M = .  A is


The general solution of
EG[  M = EG[  H[ M = ,
3 4

M = ,
3
EG[ 3M = EG[ 2M
44. Find the general solution of the equation

4[H  M 3 = 0
42. Find the general solution of the equation Solution: -

EG[ 3M = EG[ 2M
The given equation is

EG[ 3M EG[ 2M = 0
Solution: -

4[H  M 3 = 0 3M + 2M 3M 2M
The given equation is
2 [H [H =0
4[H  M = 3 2 2
3 5M M
[H  M = 2 [H [H = 0
4 2 2
5M M
[H [H = 0

3
[H M =
 2 2
2 5M M
 [H = 0 Gi [H = 0
EG[  M = [H 2 2
3

[H M = [H
We know that
 
3 The general solution of

[H 2 = 0 H[ 2 = ,
We know that

The general of sin = sin is

2 = ,
The general solution of

5M M
[H = 0 Gi [H = 0
The general of [H  M = [H  is

2 2
5M M
is = Gi = ,
M = , 2 2
3 5M = 2 Gi M = 2 ,
2
M= Gi M = 2 ,
5
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
57

45. Find the general solution of the equation . M .  M 3 = 0

4 [H M EG[ M + 2 [H M + 2 EG[ M + 1 = 0 . M = 0 Gi .  M 3 = 0

Solution: -The given equation is . M = 0 Gi .  M = 3

4 [H M EG[ M + 2 [H M + 2 EG[ M + 1 = 0 . M = 0 Gi .  M = 3


2 [H M 2 EG[ M + 1 + 2 EG[ M + 1 = 0 
. M = 0 Gi .  M = .
2 EG[ M + 12 [H M + 1 = 0 3

2 EG[ M + 1 = 0 Gi 2 [H M + 1 = 0 . M = 0 Gi .  M = . 
3
2 EG[ M = 1 Gi 2 [H M = 1 The general solution is
1 1
EG[ M = Gi [H M = M = Gi M = , ,
2 2 3

EG[ M = EG[ Gi [H M = [H
3 6
47. Find the general solution of the equation

[-E  M = 1 . 2M
EG[ M = EG[ Gi [H M = [H
3 6

Solution: -

EG[ M = EG[ Gi
3
The given equation is

[-E  2M = 1 . 2M

[H M = [H +
6 1 + .  2M = 1 . 2M
2 7
EG[ M = EG[ Gi [H M = [H .  2M = . 2M
3 6
.  2M + . 2M = 0

. 2M . 2M + 1 = 0
The general solution of

EG[ 2 = EG[ Gi [H 2 = [H H[
. 2M = 0 Gi . 2M + 1 = 0
2 = 2 , Gi
. 2M = 0 Gi . 2M = 1
2 = + 1 ,
2
M = 2 , Gi . 2M = 0 Gi . 2M = .
3 4
7
M = + 1 , . 2M = 0 Gi . 2M = .
6 4
4
. 2M = 0 Gi . 2M = .
4
46. Find the general solution of the equation

. M 3 . M = 0
3
. 2M = 0 Gi . 2M = .
Solution: - 4
The given equation is The general solution is
. M 3 . M = 0 3
2M = Gi 2M = + , ,
4
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
58

n m 3
x= or x = + , n, m Z
2 2 8
Solution: -

The given equation is

[H 2M + [H 4M + [H 6M = 0 [H M + [H 3M + [H 5M = 0
48. Find the general solution of the equation

Solution: - [H M + [H 5M + [H 3M = 0

M + 5M M 5M
2 [H EG[ + [H 3M = 0
2 2
The given equation is

[H 2M + [H 4M + [H 6M = 0
[H 3M + 2 [H 3M EG[2M = 0
[H 4M + [H 2M + [H 6M = 0
[H 3M + 2 [H 3M EG[ 2M = 0
2M + 6M 2M 6M
[H 4M + 2 [H EG[ =0 [H 3M 1 + 2 EG[ 2M = 0
2 2

[H 4M + 2 [H 4M EG[2M = 0 [H 3M = 0 Gi 1 + 2 EG[ 2M = 0

[H 4M + 2 [H 4M EG[ 2M = 0 [H 3M = 0 Gi 2 EG[ 2M = 1

[H 4M 1 + 2 EG[ 2M = 0 1
[H 3M = 0 Gi EG[ 2M =
2
[H 4M = 0 Gi 1 + 2 EG[ 2M = 0

[H 3M = 0 Gi EG[ 2M = EG[
[H 4M = 0 Gi 2 EG[ 2M = 1 3

1 [H 3M = 0 Gi EG[ 2M = EG[
[H 4M = 0 Gi EG[ 2M = 3
2
3
[H 3M = 0 Gi EG[ 2M = EG[
[H 4M = 0 Gi EG[ 2M = EG[ 3
3
2
[H 4M = 0 Gi EG[ 2M = EG[ [H 3M = 0 Gi EG[ 2M = EG[
3 3

3
[H 4M = 0 Gi EG[ 2M = EG[
3
The general solution of

2
3M = Gi 2M = 2 , ,
2 3
[H 4M = 0 Gi EG[ 2M = EG[
3
M= Gi 2M = 2 , ,
3 3

The general solution of

2 M= Gi M = , ,
4M = Gi 2M = 2 , , 3 3
3

M= Gi 2M = 2 , , [H M . M = . M [H M + 1
50. Find the general solution of the equation
4 3

M= Gi M = , ,
4 3
Solution: -

The given equation is

[H M + [H 3M + [H 5M = 0 [H M . M = . M [H M + 1
49. Find the general solution of the equation

[H M . M + [H M = . M + 1

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


59

[H M. M + 1 = . M + 1
[H M. M + 1 . M + 1 = 0
The general solution is

. M + 1[H M 1 = 0 M = Gi M = 2 + 1 , ,
2
. M + 1 = 0 Gi [H M 1 = 0
. M = 1 Gi [H M = 1

. M = . Gi [H M = [H
OR

4 2

. M = . Gi
The given equation is

4 cos x + sin x = 1

[H M = [H
2
4
. M = . Gi
4

[H M = [H
2 2
3
. M = . Gi
1

4

[H M = [H
2
1
The general solution of is

2 = + Gi 2 = + 1
HH
-
G. [H
-[ > 2

, 1 1 1
EG[ M + [H M =
2 2 2
3 1
M = + Gi M = + 1 EG[ EG[ M + [H [H M =
4 2 4 4 2

, EG[ M = EG[
4 4

The general of cos = cos is


EG[ M + [H M = 1
51. Find the general solution of the equation

2 = 2 ,

The general of EG[ M A = EG[ A is



Solution: -


The given equation is

EG[ M + [H M = 1 M = 2 ,
4 4
[YXiH G. [H
-[
M = 2 + ,
4 4
EG[ M + [H M = 1

M = 2 + + Gi M = 2 +
[H M + EG[ M + 2 [H M EG[ M = 1
  4 4 4 4

1 + 2 [H M EG[ M = 1 2
M = 2 + Gi M = 2
4
2 [H M EG[ M = 0
M = 2 + Gi M = 2 ,
2
[H M EG[ M = 0
EG[ M [H M = 1
52. Find the general solution of the equation

[H M = 0 Gi EG[ M = 0
Solution: -

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


60

The given equation is

EG[ M [H M = 1

3 2

1 2

1
HH
-
G. [H
-[ > 2


HH
-
G. [H
-[ > 2 3 1 1
EG[ M [H M =
2 2 2
1 1 1 1
EG[ M [H M = EG[ EG[ M [H [H M =
2 2 2 6 6 2
1
EG[ EG[ M [H [H M = EG[ M + = EG[
4 4 2 6 3

EG[ M + = EG[ The general of EG[ 2 = EG[ is
4 4

The general of EG[ 2 = EG[ is 2 = 2 ,

2 = 2 , The general of EG[ M + B = EG[ is


The general of EG[ M + A = EG[ A is




M+ = 2 ,
6 3

M+ = 2 ,
4 4 M = 2 ,
3 6

M = 2 , 2
4 4 M = 2 ,
6 6

M = 2 + Gi M = 2 2 2
4 4 4 4 M = 2 + Gi M = 2
6 6 6 6
2
M = 2 Gi M = 2
4 x = 2n + or x = 2n , n Z
6 2
M = 2 Gi M = 2 ,
2

2 . M EG. M + 1 = 0
54. Find the general solution of the equation

3EG[ M [H M = 1
53. Find the general solution of the equation
Solution: -
Solution: -The given equation is The given equation is

3cos x sin x = 1 2 . M EG. M + 1 = 0


1
2 . M +1=0
. M
2.  M 1 + . M = 0

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


61

2.  M  2 . M . M 1  0
2. M. M  1 . M  1  0 EG[ 5M  [H 3M
56. Find the general solution of the equation

. M  12 . M 1  0
. M + 1  0 Gi 2 . M 1  0
Solution: -

. M  1 Gi 2 . M  1 EG[ 5M  [H 3M
The given equation is

1
. M  . Gi . M  EG[ 5M  EG[ 3M
4 2 2

. M  . Gi The general of cos  cos is
4
1
. M  . . 
2  2 ,
2
3
. M  . Gi The general of
4
1 EG[ 5M  EG[  3M H[
. M  . .  2
2

5M  2  3M ,
2
The general solution of is

3 1
M = + Gi M   .  5M  2   3M Gi 5M
4 2 2

,  2 3M
2

5M  2   3M Gi 5M
3  2  3M
2 2
55. Find the general solution of

. M + EG. M = 2 EG[-E M
5M  3M  2  Gi 5M 3M  2
2 2

Solution:-

. M + EG. M = 2 EG[-E M 8M  2  Gi
Gi 2M  2
2 2
[H M EG[ M 1
+ =2 M  Gi M  ,
EG[ M [H M [H M 4 18 4

[H  M  EG[  M 1
2
[H M EG[ M [H M
SINE RULE

Theorem:- In ABC , with usual notation prove that


1 a b c
2 =
 
EG[ M sin A sin B sin C
1
EG[ M  In ABC B is acute then we use the following three
Proof:-
2

EG[ M  EG[ C is acute
cases for the proof of the sine rule

3
i.

The general of EG[ 2 = EG[ is

2 = 2 ,

M  2 ,
3

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


62

ADBis a right angle triangle sin A sin B


 5
AD a b
sin B 
AB
AD a b c
From equation 4 and 5

sin B   
c sin A sin B sin C
AD  c sin B . .1 Theorem:- In any ABC prove that
C is obtuse a  b  c   2bc cos A
b  c   a  2ca cos B
ii. I.

c   a  b  2ab cos C
II.
III.

Proof:-

a  b + c  2bc cos A
I. To prove that

ADCis a right angle triangle


C =  C
AD
sin  C 
AC
AD
sin C 
b
AD  b sin C . .2
iii. C is right angle

AD = AC
AD
=1
AC
AD
= sin
Draw triangle ABC by taking vertex A in standard position

AC 2

C   C
From figure

2 2 lBC  a , lAC  b , lAB  c


AD
 sin C
b A 0,0 , B
0  c, 0
AD  b sin C . .3
By definition of trigonometry
c sin B  b sin C
From equation 1, 2 and 3 we get
C  b cos A , b sin A
sin B sin C
 .4
b c In ABC

1) A is acute
Similarly

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


63

2) A is obtuse Draw triangle ABC by taking vertex B in standard


position

L. H. S. = a
From figure

L. H. S.  glBCh lBC  a , lAC  b , lAB  c

Using distance formula B 0,0 , C


  a, 0

L. H. S.  Ob cos A  c  b sin A  0 P
By definition of trigonometry

A  c cos B , c sin B
 b cos A  c  b sin A  0
In ABC
 b cos A  2bc cos A  c   b sin A
3) B is acute
 b cos A  sin A  2bc cos A  c 
4) B is obtuse
a  b  c   2bc cos A L. H. S. = b
L. H. S.  glACh
 h
Also

2bc cos A  b  c  a
  
Using distance formula

 cos B  a  c sin B  0 P
L. H. S.  Oc
b c a
  
cos A 
2bc  c cos B  a  c sin B  0

 c  cos B  2ac
ac cos B  a  c  sin B
II. To prove that

b  c   a  2ca
ca cos B
 c  cos  B  sin B  2ac cos B  a

b  a  c   2ac
ac cos B

Also

2ac cos B  a  c   b

a  c   b
cos B 
2ac

III. To prove that

c   a  b  2ab cos C

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


64

 a cos C  sin C  2ab cos C  b

c   a  b  2ab
ab cos C

Also

2ab cos C  a  b  c 

a  b  c 
cos C 
2ab

Projection Rule

Theorem:- In ABC prove that

a  c cos B  b cos C
b  a cos C  c cos A
i.

c  a cos B  b cos A
ii.
iii.

Proof:-

To prove that

i. a  c cos B  b cos C

R. H. S.  c cos B  b cos C
Draw triangle ABC by taking vertex B in standard
position We know that

a  c   b
cos B 
From figure
2ac
lBC  a , lAC  b , lAB  c
a  b  c 
C 0,0 , A  b, 0 cos C 
2ab

a  c   b a  b  c 
R. H. S.  c b
By definition of trigonometry

B  a cos C , a sin C 2ac 2ab

In ABC a  c   b a  b  c 
 
2a 2a
1) C is acute
a  c   b  a  b  c 
2) C is obtuse 
2a
L. H. S. = c 
L. H. S. = glABh 2a

2a

R. H. S.  a
Using distance formula

L. H. S. = Oa cos C  b  a sin C  0 P
R. H. S.  L. H. S.
 a cos C  b  a sin C  0 a  c cos B  b cos C
 a cos  C  2ab cos C  b  a sin c To prove that

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


65

ii. b = a cos C  c cos A R. H. S. = L. H. S.

R. H. S. = a cos C  c cos A c = a cos B + b cos A


57. In ABC prove that
BC bc A
sin = cos
We know that
2 a 2
b + c  a
cos A =
2bc Solution:-
a  b c  bc A
cos C  R. H. S. = cos
2ab a 2
a + b c  b + c  a
R. H. S. = a +c
2ab 2bc
Using sine rule

a b c
= = = k say
a +b c
 
b +c a
   
sin A sin B sin C
= + a b c
2b 2b = k , = k , =k
sin A sin B sin C
a + b c  + b + c  a a = k sin A , b = ksin B , c = k sin C
=
2b
k sinB k sin C A
2b R. H. S. = cos
= k sin A 2
2b
sinB sin C A
R. H. S. = b R. H. S. = cos
sin A 2

R. H. S. = L. H. S B+C BC
2 cos 2 sin 2 A
= cos
b = a cos C  c cos A A A
2 sin 2 cos 2 2
c = a cos B + b cos A
B+C BC
iii.

R. H. S. = a cos B + b cos A cos 2 sin 2


=
A
We know that sin 2

b + c  a In ABC
cos A =
2bc
A+B+C=
a +c b
  
cos B =
2ac
Divided both sides by 2

a + c  b b + c  a A+B+C
R. H. S. = a +b =
2ac 2bc 2 2
A B+C
a + c  b b + c  a + =
= + 2 2 2
2c 2c
B+C A
a + c  b + b + c  a =
= 2 2 2
2c
A BC
cos 2 2 sin 2
2c  R. H. S. =
= A
2c sin 2

R. H. S = c
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
66

A BC C AB
sin sin sin cos
R. H. S. = 2 2 R. H. S. = 2 2 2
A C
sin 2 cos 2

BC C AB
R. H. S. = sin = L. H. S. cos 2 cos 2
2 R. H. S. =
C
cos
58. ABC prove that 2
AB a+b C AB
cos = sin R. H. S. = cos = L. H. S.
2 c 2 2

59. In any ABC. If a , b , c  are in A.P. then prove


that cotA , cotB , cotC are in A.P.
Solution:-

a+b C
R. H. S. = sin
c 2 Solution:-

Using sine rule To prove that

a b c cotA , cotB , cotCare in A.P.


= = = k say
sin A sin B sin C
a b c
= k , = k , =k
sin A sin B sin C
It has common difference

a = k sin A , b = ksin B , c = k sin C That is to prove that

k sinA + k sin B C cotB cotA = cotC cotB


R. H. S. = sin
k sin C 2
sinA + sin B C
That to prove that
R. H. S. = sin
sin C 2 2 cot B = cot A + cot C

A+B AB It is given that a , b , c  are in A.P. then


2 sin 2 cos 2 C
= sin
C C 2 b a = c  b
2 sin 2 cos 2

A+B AB b = a + c  b
sin 2 cos 2
= Divided both sides by 2ac
C
cos
2
b a + c  b
In ABC =
2ac 2ac
A+B+C= By using cosine rule for angle B

a + c  b
cos B =
Divided both sides by 2

A+B+C 2ac
=
2 2 Using sine rule
A+B C a b c
+ = = = = k say
2 2 2 sin A sin B sin C
A+B C a b c
= = k , = k , =k
2 2 2 sin A sin B sin C
a = k sin A , b = ksin B , c = k sin C

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


67

k  sin B k sin B 3
= cos B =
2k sin Ak sin C ksin C 2

k  sin B sin B 3
= cos B = .1
2 k  sin A sin C sin C 2
sin B
= cos B
2 sin A sin C
The angles A, B, C are in A.P. then

BA=CB
Divided both sides by sin B
2B = A + C
sin B cos B
=
2 sin A sin C sin B In ABC
In ABC
A+B+C=
A+B+C= A+C=B
B = A + C 2B = B
sing A + Ch
= cot B 3B = B =
2 sin A sin C 3
sin  = sin 180^
B = B = 60^
3
sinA + C
= 2 cot B
sin A sin C Put in equation 1
sin A cos C + cos A sin C
= 2 cot B sin 60 3
sin A sin C =
sin C 2
sin A cos C cos A sin C
+ = 2 cot B 3
sin A sin C sin A sin C
2 = 3
cot C + cot A = 2 cot B sin C 2

cotA , cotB , cotCare in A.P. 1 1


=
2 sin C 2

1 2
b: c = 3: 2 then find A, B, C
60. The angles of a triangle ABC are in A.P. and
=
sin C 2

1 2 1
Solution:-
= = 2
b: c = 3: 2 sin C 2 sin C

b 3 1
= sin C =
c 2 2

a b c sin C = sin 45^


= = = k say
sin A sin B sin C
a b c C = 45^
= k , = k , =k
sin A sin B sin C
a = k sin A , b = ksin B , c = k sin C A + B + C = 180^

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


68

A + 60^ + 45^ = 180^ To find B

A = 180^ 105^ Using sine rule

A = 75^ a b
=
sin A sin B
61. In ABC , if A = 30^ and b: c = 2: 3 find B a 2a
=
sin 30^ sin B
1 2
=
1 sin B
Solution:-

We know that cosine rule for A 2


2 = 2 sin B
b + c  a sin B = 1
cos A = 1
2bc sin B = sin 90^ B = 90^
B = 90^
b: c = 2: 3
62. In ABC , if A = 45^ , B = 60^ then find the
b: c = 2: 3 ratio of its sides
b 2
= = k say
c 3
Solution:-

b c Let a, b, c are the sides of ABC


= = k
2 3 To find a: b: c
b c
= k and = k In ABC
2 3
A + B + C = 180^
b = 2k and c = 3k
45^ + 60^ + C = 180^
A = 30^
C = 180^ 105^

C = 75^
Put in equation 1

2k + 3k a
cos 30^ =
22k3k
Using sine rule

a b c
3 4k  + 3k  a = =
= sin A sin B sin C
2 43k 
a b b c
= and =
7k  a sin A sin B sin B sin C
3 =
23k  a sin A b sinB
= and =
6k  = 7k  a b sinB c sinC

k  = a k  = a a: b: c = sin A : sin B : sin C

k = a as a > 0 a: b: c = sin 45^ : sin 60^ : sin 75^

k=a 1 3
a: b: c = : : sin 75^
2 2
b = 2a and c = 3 a
To find sin 75^

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


69

sin 75^ = sin30^ + 45^  L. H. S. = a + c


a + b c 
sin 75 = sin 30 cos 45 + cos 30 sin 45
^ ^ ^ ^ ^
2b
1 1 3 1 b + c  a

+
sin 75^ = + 2b
2 2 2 2

1 + 3 a + b c  + b + c  a
sin 75 = L. H. S. = a + c
2b
^
22
2b
L. H. S. = a + c
2b
The required ratio of sides is

1 3 1 + 3 L. H. S. = a + c b
a: b: c = : :
2 2 22
L. H. S. = R. H. S.

C A 64. In ABCprove that


63. With the usual notation prove that

2 a sin + c sin = a + c b
2 2 ab cos C c cos B = b c 

Solution:- Solution:-

C A L. H. S. = ab cos C c cos B


L. H. S. = 2 a sin + c sin
2 2
Using cosine rule for angle B and C

a + b c 
Use half angle formula

1 cos cos C =
cos = 1 2 sin sin = 2ab
2 2 2
a + c  b
C 1 cos C cos B =
sin = 2ac
2 2
a + b c 
A 1 cos A L. H. S. = a b
sin = 2ab
2 2
a + c  b
1 cos C 1 cos A c
L. H. S. = 2 a + c 2ac
2 2
a + b c  a + c  b
L. H. S. = a a cos C + c c cos A L. H. S. = a U V
2a 2a
b + c  a
cos A = a + b c  a c  + b
2bc L. H. S. = a
a + b c  2a
cos C =
2ab
2b 2c 
L. H. S. =
a + b c  2
L. H. S. = a a +c
2ab
2b c  
b + c  a L. H. S =
c 2
2bc
L. H. S = b c 
a +b c
 
b +c a
   
L. H. S. = a +c L. H. S. = R. H. S
2b 2b

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


70

65. In ABC, if cos A = sin B cos C then Solution:-

cos A cos B
=
a b
It is a right angle triangle

Solution:-

To show that ABC is a right angle triangle


We know that

a b
= = k say
i.e. To show that sin A sin B

A or B or C = 90^ a b
= k and = k
sin A sin B
cos A = sin B cos C
a = k sin A and b = k sin B
cos A + cos C = sin B
cos A cos B cos A cos B
= =
A+C AC B B k sin A k sin B sin A sin B
2 cos cos = 2 sin cos
2 2 2 2
cos A sin B = sin A cos B
A+B+C=A+B=C
sin A cos B cos A sin B = 0

sinA B = sin 0
Divided both sides by 2

A+B+C A+C B
= + = A B = 0 A = B
2 2 2 2 2
A+C B ABC is an isosceles triangle
=
2 2 2
67. In ABC if sin A + sin B = sin C
B AC B B
2 cos cos = 2 sin cos
2 2 2 2 2 Then show that it is right angle triangle

B AC B B
sin cos = sin cos
2 2 2 2
Solution:-

sin A + sin B = sin C


AC B
cos = cos a b c
2 2
= = = k say
sin A sin B sin C
AC B a b c
= A C = B A = B + C1 = k , = k , =k
2 2 sin A sin B sin C
sin A 1 sin B 1 sin C 1
In ABC = , = , =
a k b k c k
a b c
A + B + C = 180^ sin A = , sin B = , sin C =
k k k
Using equation 1

A + A = 180^ 2A = 180^ a b c  a + b c 
+ = = 
k k k k k
180^ a + b = c  1
A= A = 90^
2 a, b, c are the sides of the triangle ABC

ABC is a right angle triangle


theorem is satisfied in ABC
From equation 1 it is clear that the Pythagoras

ABC is a right angle triangle


66. In ABC if
567 567
=

then show that it is an
68. With usual notation , show that
isosceles triangle

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


71

2bc cos A + ac cos B + ab cos C C C


c  = a + b 2ab cos  sin
= a + b + c  2 2
C C
c  = a + b 1 2ab cos + 2ab sin
2 2
Solution:-

L. H. S. = 2bc cos A + ac cos B + ab cos C


Using first fundamental identities

C C
We know that the cosine rule
cos + sin = 1
b +c a
   2 2
cos A =
2bc C C
c  = a + b  cos  + sin
a + c  b 2 2
cos B = C C
2ac 2ab cos + 2ab sin
2 2
a + b c  C C
cos C = c  = a cos  + sin
2ab 2 2
C C
b + c  a + b cos + sin
L. H. S. = 2 Ubc 2 2
2bc C C
a + c  b 2ab cos + 2ab sin

+ ac 2 2
2ac
C C C
a + b c  c  = a cos  + a sin +b cos 
+ ab V 2 2 2
2ab C
+ b sin
 
2
b + c  a a + c  b C C
L. H. S. = 2 U + 2ab cos + 2ab sin
2 2 2 2
a + b c 
+ R C C C
2 c  = a cos  2ab cos  + b cos
2 2 2
b + c  a + a + c  b + a + b c 
= 2 C C C
2 + a sin + 2ab sin + b sin
2 2 2
L. H. S. = a + b + c  C
c  = a 2ab + b  cos
2
L. H. S. = R. H. S.
C
69. In ABC prove that +a + 2ab + b  sin
2
C C C C
a b cos + a + b sin = c  c  = a b cos  + a + b sin
2 2 2 2
Solution:- 70. In ABC prove that

cos A cos B cos C a + b + c 


+ + =
We know that the cosine rule for angle C
a b c 2abc
a + b c 
cos C =
2ab Solution:-

2abcos C = a + b c  cos A cos B cos C


L. H. S. = + +
a b c
c  = a + b 2ab cos C

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


72

a + c  b b c  + a
L. H. S. =
We know that the cosine rule
2
b + c  a
cos A = 2a 2b
2bc L. H. S. =
2
a + c  b
cos B = 2a b 
2ac L. H. S. =
2
a + b c 
cos C = L. H. S. = a b
2ab

b + c  a a + c  b L. H. S. = R. H. S.
L. H. S. = 2bc + 2ac
a b 72. In ABC prove that
a + b c 
2ab AB
+ a b tan 2
c =
a + b tan A + B
b + c  a a + c  b a + b c  2
= + +
2abc 2abc 2abc
Solution:-
b +c a +a +c b +a +b c
        
= ab
2abc L. H. S. =
a+b
a + b + c 
L. H. S. = a b c
2abc = = = k say
sin A sin B sin C
L. H. S. = R. H. S. a b c
= k , = k , =k
sin A sin B sin C
71. In ABC prove that a = k sin A , b = ksin B , c = k sin C

ac cos B bc cos A = a b k sin A ksin B


L. H. S. =
k sin A + ksin B
ksin A sin B
Solution:-
L. H. S. =
L. H. S. = ac cos B bc cos A ksin A sin B

sin A sin B
L. H. S. =
sin A + sin B
We know that the cosine rule

b + c  a
cos A = A+B AB
2bc 2 cos 2 sin 2
L. H. S. =
A+B AB
a + c  b 2 sin 2 cos 2
cos B =
2ac
A+B AB
a + c  b cos 2 sin 2
L. H. S. = ac L. H. S. =
2ac A+B AB
sin 2 cos 2
b + c  a
bc
2bc

a + c  b b + c  a
L. H. S. =
2 2

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


73

AB cos B
sin
2 L. H. S. =
cos C
AB
cos
L. H. S. = 2 L. H. S. = R. H. S.
A+B
sin 2
A+B 74. In ABC prove that
cos
2
a sin A b sin B = c sinA B
AB
tan
L. H. S. = 2
A+B
Solution:-
tan
2 R. H. S. = a sin A b sin B
L. H. S. = R. H. S. a b c
= = = k say
73. In ABC prove that sin A sin B sin C
a b c
= k , = k , =k
c b cos A cos B sin A sin B sin C
= a = k sin A , b = ksin B , c = k sin C
b c cos A cos C

Solution:- L. H. S. = k sin A sin A k sin B sin B

c b cos A L. H. S. = ksin A sin B


L. H. S. =
b c cos A
R. H. S. = ksin A sin Bsin A + sin B

A+B AB A+B AB
We know that the cosine rule
= k Q2 cos sin R Q2 sin cos R
b + c  a 2 2 2 2
cos A =
2bc AB AB A+B A+B
= k Q2 sin cos R Q2 sin cos
2 2 2 2
b + c  a
cb
2bc AB A+B
L. H. S. = = k sin 2 sin2
b  + c  a 2 2
b c
2bc
= k sinA B sinA + B
b + c  a
c 2c
L. H. S. = In ABC
b  + c  a
b
2b A+B+C=A+B=

2c  b c  + a = k sinA B sin 
L. H. S. = 2c
2b b  c  + a = k sin C sinA B
2b
= c sinA B = R. H. S.
a + c  b
L. H. S. =  2c 75. In ABC prove that
a + b c
2b cos 2A cos 2B 1 1
=  
Divided numerator and denominator by a a b a b

a + c  b Solution:-
L. H. S. =  2ac cos 2A cos 2B
a + b c L. H. S. =
2ab a b

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


74

1 2 sin A 1 2 sin B b  c   a
L. H. S. = cos A 
a b 2bc

1 sin A 1 sin B a  c   b
L. H. S. = 2  2 1 cos B 
a a b b 2ac

a a  c   b b b  c   a
L. H. S.  
c 2ac
2 c 2bc
We know that

a b sin A sin B
= =
sin A sin B a b a  c   b b  c   a
L. H. S.  
2c  2c 

a  c   b  b  c   a
Squaring both sides

sin A sin B L. H. S. 
= 2c 
a b
2a  2b 2a  b 
L. H. S.  
2c  2c 
Put in equation 1

1 sin B 1 sin B Since ABC is a right angle triangle


L. H. S. = 2  2
a b b b
1 1
L. H. S. =  = R. H. S.
a  b

76. In ABC , if C   prove that


a  b
sinA  B 
a  b 

a  b
Solution:-

L. H. S.  sinA  B L. H. S.  from ig c   a  b
a  b 

L. H. S.  sin A cos B  cos A sin B 77. In ABC , prove that

B C
b  c tan 2  tan 2

We know that the sine rule

a b c a B C
  tan 2  tan 2
sin A sin B sin C

C  bc
2
Solution:-

L. H. S. 
a
a b c
 
sin A sin B sin
2
We know that the sine rule

a b sin A sin B 1 a b c
  c      k say
sin A sin B a b c sin A sin B sin C
a b a b c
sin A  , sin B   k ,  k , k
c c sin A sin B sin C
a  k sin A , b  ksin B , c  k sin C
a b k sin B  k sin C
L. H. S.  cos B  cos A
c c L. H. S. 
k sin A
We know that the cosine rule
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
75

ksin B  sin C sin B  sin C a b c


L. H. S.   = = = k say
k sin A sin A sin A sin B sin C
BC BC a b c
2 cos 2 sin 2 = k , = k , =k
L. H. S.  sin A sin B sin C
sin A a = k sin A , b = ksin B , c = k sin C
A  B  C  A  B  C
BC BC R. H. S. = k  sin B k  sin C sin A
2 cos 2 sin 2
L. H. S. =
sing B + Ch R. H. S. = k  sin B sin C sin A
BC BC
2 cos 2 sin 2
L. H. S. = R. H. S. = k  sin B + sin Csin B sin C sin A
sinB  C
BC BC B+C BC
2 cos sin
L. H. S.  2 2 = k  Q2 sin
2
cos
2
R
BC BC
2 sin
2 cos 2 B+C BC
BC B C Q2 cos sin R sin A
sin 2 sin 2  2 2 2
L. H. S.  
BC B C
sin sin  2 B+C B+C
2 2 = k  Q2 sin cos R
B C B C 2 2
sin 2 cos 2  cos 2 sin 2
L. H. S.  BC BC
B C B C
sin 2 cos 2  cos 2 sin 2 Q2 sin
2
cos
2
R sin A

B C = k  sinB + C sinB C sin A


Divided numerator and denominator by

cos cos
2 2 A+B+C= B+C=A
B C B C
sin 2 cos 2  cos 2 sin 2
B C = k  sin A sinB C sin A
cos 2 cos 2
L. H. S. 
B C B C = k  sin A sin A sinB C
sin 2 cos 2  cos 2 sin 2
B C
cos 2 cos 2 = k  sin A sinB C
B C B C
sin 2 cos 2 cos 2 sin 2 R. H. S. = a sinB C = L. H. S.
B C B C
cos 2 cos 2 cos 2 cos 2
L. H. S. 
B C B C
79. With the usual notation show that
sin 2 cos 2 cos 2 sin 2 c  a  b  tan A = a b + c   tan B
B C B C
cos 2 cos 2 cos 2 cos 2
= b c  + a  tan C
B C
tan 2  tan 2
L. H. S.   R. H. S.
B C
tan 2  tan 2
Solution:-

78. In ABC , prove that We know that

a b c
a sinB C = b c   sin A = = = k say
sin A sin B sin C
a b c
= k , = k , =k
sin A sin B sin C
Solution:-

R. H. S. = b c   sin A a = k sin A , b = ksin B , c = k sin C

We know that the sine rule Consider

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


76

sin A b c  + a  tan C


c  a + b  tan A = c  a + b 
cos A 2abck
= b c  + a 
b c  + a

b c  + a  tan C = 2abck . .3


But

b + c  a
cos A = and sin A = ak
2bc From equation 1, 2 and 3

c  a + b  tan A c  a + b  tan A = a b + c   tan B


ak
= c  a + b  = b c  + a  tan C
b + c  a
2bc
80. In ABC Prove that
c  a + b  tan A
2abck A
= c  a + b  acos C cos B = 2b c cos 
c a + b  2

c  a + b  tan A = 2abck . .1 Solution:-

Consider We know that the projection theorem

sin B b = a cos C + c cos A 1


a b + c   tan B = a b + c  
cos B c = a cos B + b cos A . .2

b c = a cos C + c cos A
Equation 1 Equation 2
We know that

a + c  b a cos B + b cos A
cos B = b c = a cos C + c cos A acos B b cos A
2ac
b c = acos C cos B b c cos A
a b + c   tan B b c + b c cos A = acos C cos B
bk b c1 + cos A = acos C cos B
= a b + c  
a + c b A
2ac 1 + cos A = 2 cos 
2
A
a b + c   tan B 2b c cos = acos C cos B
2abck 2
= a b + c   A
a b + c acos C cos B = 2b c cos 
2
a b + c   tan B = 2abck .2 APPLICATION OF SINE RULE, COSINE RULE, AND
PROJUCTION RULE
Consider
Theorem:- In any ABC , if a + b + c = 2s then we
HALF ANGLE FORMULAE
sin C
b c  + a  tan C = b c  + a 
cos C
have

sin  =
775
5
i.
We know that

sin  =
757
a + b c  5
cos C =
ii.
2ab
sin  =
77

b c  + a  tan C
iii.

kc
= b c  + a 
a + b  c 
Proof :-

2ab We know that the half angle formula

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


77

A A
cos A = 1 2 sin sin >0
2 2
A
2 sin = 1 cos A A s bs c
2 sin =
2 bc
Using cosine rule

b + c  a
To prove that
cos A =
2bc B s cs a
sin =
A b + c  a 2 ac
2 sin =1
2 2bc

A 2bc b + c  a 
We know that the half angle formula
2 sin = B
2 2bc cos B = 1 2 sin
2
A 2bc b c  + a
2 sin = B
2 2bc 2 sin = 1 cos B
2
A a b 2bc + c  
2 sin =
2 2bc
Using cosine rule

A a b c a  c  b
2 sin 
= cos B =
2 2bc 2ac

A a b + ca + b c B a  c  b
2 sin 
= 2 sin =1
2 2bc 2 2ac

A a + b 2b + ca + b + c 2c B 2ac a c   b


2 sin = 2 sin =
2 2bc 2 2ac

A a + b + c 2ba + b + c 2c B 2ac a c   b


2 sin = 2 sin =
2 2bc 2 2ac

a + b + c = 2s B b a 2ac  c  
2 sin =
2 2ac
A 2s 2b2s 2c
2 sin =
2 2bc B b a c
2 sin =
2 2ac
A 2s b2s c
2 sin =
2 2bc B b a  cb  a c
2 sin =
2 2ac
A s bs c
sin =
2 bc B a  b  c 2aa  b  c 2c
2 sin =
2 2ac

a  b  c = 2s
Taking square root of both sides

A s bs c
sin = B 2s 2a2s 2c
2 bc 2 sin =
2 2ac

 is an acute angle
B 2s a2s c
2 sin =
2 2ac

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


78

B s as c C a  b  c 2aa  b  c 2b


sin = 2 sin =
2 ac 2 2ab

Taking square root of both sides a  b  c = 2s

C 2s 2a2s 2b


B s as c 2 sin =
sin = 2 2ab
2 ac
C 2s a2s b
2 sin =


2 2ab

C s as b
is an acute angle

B sin =
sin >0 2 ab
2

B s as c
sin =
Taking square root of both sides

2 ac C s as b
sin =
2 ab
To prove that
is an acute angle

C s as b
sin =
2 ab C
sin > 0
2

C s as b
We know that the half angle formula

C sin =
cos C  1 2 sin 
2 ab
2
C Theorem:- In any ABC , if a + b + c = 2s then we
2 sin = 1 cos C
2 have

cos  =
77
5
Using cosine rule i.

a  b c  cos  =
77
cos C 
2ab 5
ii.

cos  =
775
C a  b c 
2 sin = 1

iii.
2 2ab

C 2ab a b  c 
Proof:-
2 sin =
2 2ab We know that the half angle formula

C 2ab a b  c  A
2 sin =  cos A = 2 cos  1
2 2ab 2

C c  a 2ab  b  A
2 sin = 2 cos = 1  cos A
2 2ab 2

C c  a b
2 sin =
2 2ab
Using cosine rule

b  c  a
cos A =
C c a  bc  a b 2bc
2 sin =
2 2ab

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


79

A b  c  a a  c  b
2 cos 
=1 cos B =
2 2bc 2ac

A 2bc  b  c  a B a  c  b
2 cos = 2 cos =1
2 2bc 2 2ac

A b  c a B 2ac  a  c  b
2 cos = 2 cos =
2 2bc 2 2ac
A b  c ab  c  a B a  c b
2 cos = 2 cos =
2 2bc 2 2ac
A a  b  c 2aa  b  c B a  c ba  c  b
2 cos = 2 cos =
2 2bc 2 2ac
a  b  c = 2s B a  b  c 2ba  b  c
2 cos =
2 2ac
A 2s 2a2s
2 cos =
2 2bc a  b  c = 2s

A 2s a2s B 2s 2b2s


2 cos = 2 cos =
2 2bc 2 2bc
A s as B 2s b2s
cos = 2 cos =
2 bc 2 2ac
B s bs
A ss a cos =
cos = 2 ac
2 bc

B ss b
 is an acute angle cos =

2 ac
A
cos >0  is an acute angle

2

B
A ss a cos >0
cos = 2
2 bc

B ss b
cos =
2 ac
To prove that

B ss b
cos =
2 ac
To prove that

C ss c
cos =
2 ab
We know that the half angle formula

B
cos B = 2 cos  1
2 We know that the half angle formula
B C
2 cos = 1  cos B cos C  2 cos 1
2 2
Using cosine rule

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


80

C
2 cos = 1  cos C
77
tan  =
2 775
iii.

Using cosine rule Proof:-

a  b c  A
cos C  A sin
2ab L. H. S. = tan = 2
2 A
cos
C a  b c  2
2 cos =1
2 2ab

C 2ab  a  b c 
We know that

2 cos =
2 2ab A s bs c
sin =
2 bc
C a  b c 
2 cos =
2 2ab
A ss a
C a  b ca  b  c cos =
2 cos = 2 bc
2 2ab
C a  b  c 2ca  b  c s bs c
2 cos = bc
2 2ab L. H. S. =
ss a
a  b  c = 2s bc

C 2s 2c2s
2 cos = s bs c bc
2 2ab L. H. S. =
bc ss a
C 2s c2s
2 cos =
2 2ab s bs c
L. H. S. = = R. H. S.
C s cs ss a
cos =
2 ab

C ss c
To prove that

cos =
2 ab tan
B
=
s as c
2 ss b
is an acute angle

B
 B sin 2
L. H. S. = tan =
C 2 B
cos 2
cos > 0
2
B s as c
C ss c sin =
cos = 2 ac
2 ab

Theorem:- In any ABC , if a + b + c = 2s then we B ss b


cos =
have 2 ac
775
tan  =
s as c
77
i.
ac

tan  =
775 L. H. S. =
ss b
77
ii.
ac
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
81

s as c ac
L. H. S. =
ac s  b
ss

s as c
L. H. S. = = R. H. S.
ss b
To prove that

C s as b
tan = ADCis
2 ss c
is a right angle triangle

let C  C
C
C sin
L. H. S. = tan = 2 AD AD
2 C sin C  sin C 
cos AC b
2
AD  b sin C .1
C s as b
sin =
2 ab ii. C is obtuse

C ss c
cos =
2 ab

s as b
ab
L. H. S. =
ss c
ab

s as b ab
L. H. S. =
is a right angle triangle
In above fig.ADCis
ab ss
s  c let C = C

AD AD
s as b sin C  sin C 
L. H. S. = = R.. H. S. AC b
ss c AD  b sin C . .2
iii. C is right angle
Area of triangle

area of a ABC is given by


Theorem:- Prove that with the usual notations, the

AABC )=  ab sin C =  bc sin A =



  ac sin B
 

Proof:-

cases of C
For the proof of this theorem we consider three
From above fig.

i. C is acute CD

AC = AD AD 
= AC  1

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


82


AD  AC sin C = ss as bs c
2 2 AABC = ab
a b 
AD = b sin C

1 ss as bs c


AABC = lBC lAD AABC = ab
2 ab

1 AABC = ss as bs c


AABC = a b sin C
2
81. In ABC if a = 18 , b = 24 and c = 30 then find
Similarly
A A A
the values of
1 1 cos A , sin , cos , tan , AABC , sin A ,
AABC = bc sin A = ac sin B 2 2 2
2 2 tan A
Heros Formula
Solution:-

b + c  a
Theorem:- if a, b, c are the length of the sides BC, CA
and AB of ABC and a + b + c = 2s then cos A =
2bc
AABC = ss as bs c a = 18 , b = 24 and c = 30

24 + 30 18


cos A =
Proof :-
2 24 30
576 + 900 324
We know that

1 cos A =
AABC = a b sin C 2 24 30
2
1152 576
cos A = =
Use half angle formula 2 24 30 24 30
C C 576
sin C = 2 sin cos logcos A = log
2 2 24 30
1 C C logcos A = log 576 log 24 + log 30
AABC = a b 2 sin cos
2 2 2
logcos A = 2.7604 1.3802 + 1.4771
C C
AABC = ab sin cos
2 2 logcos A = 2.7604 2.8573

C s as b logcos A = 1. 9031


sin =
2 ab cos A = antilog 1. 9031

C ss c cos A = 0.8


cos =
2 ab
To find sin 

s as b ss c
AABC = ab A s bs c
ab ab sin =
2 bc

Where 2s = a + b + c

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


83

a+b+c 18 + 24 + 30
s= s= A 12 6 A 1
2 2 tan = tan =
2 36 18 2 3
72
s= = 36
2 To find AABC

A 36 2436 30


sin =
Formula for finding area of triangle is
2 24 30
AABC = ss as bs c

A 12 6 A 1 Where 2s = a + b + c
sin = sin =
2 24 30 2 10
a+b+c 18 + 24 + 30
s= s=
2 2
To find cos

72
s= = 36
2
A ss a
cos =
2 bc AABC = 3636 1836 2436 30

Where 2s = a + b + c AABC = 618 12 6

a+b+c 18 + 24 + 30 AABC = 61296 = 6 36 = 216 sq. units


s= s=
2 2
To find sin A
72
s= = 36
2 A A
sin A = 2 sin cos
2 2
A 3636 18 A 36 18
cos = cos =
2 24 30 2 24 30 s bs c ss a
sin A = 2
bc bc
A 9 A 3
cos = cos =
2 10 2 10 36 2436 30 3636 18
sin A = 2
24 30 24 30

To find tan 
12 6 36 18
sin A = 2
A s bs c 24 30 24 30
tan =
2 ss a
1 3 23
sin A = 2 =
Where 2s = a + b + c 10 10 10

a+b+c 18 + 24 + 30 3
s= s= sin A =
2 2 5

72 To find tan A
s= = 36 3
2
sin A
tan A = tan A = 5
cos A 4
A 36 2436 30 5
tan =
2 3636 18
3
tan A =
4
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
84

1 3b
ga + c + a cos C + c cos Bh =
2 2
82. Show that

A B C gAABCh
sin sin sin =
2 2 2 abcs Using projection theorem

Solution:- a cos C + c cos B = b

A B C a + b + c = 3b a + c = 3b b
L. H. S. = sin sin sin
2 2 2
a + c = 2b
s bs c s as c a, b, c are in A.P
L. H. S. =
bc ac
84. Show that in ABC
s as b
A B a+bc
ab tan tan =
2 2 a+b+c

s a s b s c


L. H. S. =
a b  c 
Solution:-

A B
L. H. S. = tan tan
s as bs c 2 2
L. H. S. =
abc We know that
ss as bs c
L. H. S. = A s bs c
abcs
tan =

2 ss a
ss as bs c
L. H. S. = B s as c
abcs tan =
2 ss b

AABC = ss as bs c


But
s bs c s as c
L. H. S. =
ss a ss b
gAABCh
L. H. S. = = R. H. S.
abc
s bs c s as c
83. If in ABC , L. H. S. =
ss a

ss b

a cos  + c cos  =

s c
Show that a, b, c are in A.P.
L. H. S. =
Solution:- To show that a, b, c are in A.P. s

sc
L. H. S. =
s
To show that

b a = c b 2b = a + c
2s = a + b + c

a cos  + c cos  =
 a+b+c
s=
K567 K567 2
a + c =
  
a+b+c
c
1 3b L. H. S. = 2
a + a cos C + c + c cos B = a+b+c
2 2
2
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
85

a + b + c 2c k sin B k sin C A
2 R. H. S. = cot
L. H. S. = k sin B + k sin C 2
a+b+c
2 sin B sin C A
R. H. S. = cot
a+bc sin B + sin C 2
L. H. S. = = R. H. S.
a+b+c B+C BC
2 cos sin
R. H. S. = 2 2 cot A
85. Show that in ABC B+C BC 2
2 sin 2 cos 2
C B
b cos  + c cos = s B+C BC
2 2 cos sin
R. H. S. = 2 2 cot A
B+C BC 2
sin cos
2 2
Solution:-

C B
L. H. S. = b cos  + c cos In ABC
2 2
1 + cosC 1 + cos B A+B+C
L. H. S. = b + c A+B+C= =
2 2 2 2
B+C A
b + b cos C + c + c cos B =
L. H. S. = 2 2 2
2
A
b + c + b cos C + c cos B cos 2 2 BC A
L. H. S. = R. H. S. = tan cot
2 A 2 2
sin 2 2

A A
Use projection theorem
sin 2 B C cos 2
b cos C + c cos B = a R. H. S. = tan
A 2 A
cos 2 sin 2
a+b+c
L. H. S. =
2 BC
R. H. S. = tan = L. H. S.
a + b + c = 2s 2

2s
L. H. S. = = s = R. H. S.
INVERSE TRIGNOMETRIC FUNCTION
2

86. In any ABC , Prove that


Principal value branch of inverse trigonometric
function

BC bc A a) The principle value branch of sin x is O  ,  P



tan = cot
2 b+c 2
b) The principle value branch of cos x is g0, h

Solution:- c) The principle value branch of tan x is  , 

bc A d) The principle value branch of cot  x is 0, 


R. H. S. = cot e) The principle value branch of sec  x is g0, h
b+c 2

bc
Using sine rule

a b c
f) The principle value branch of
cosec  x is O  ,  P 0

= = = k say
sin A sin B sin C
87. Find the principle value of sin

a b c
= k , = k , =k 
sin A sin B sin C
a = k sin A , b = ksin B , c = k sin C Solution:-
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
86

We know that The principle value branch of

1 1
sin = = sin EG[-E  M H[ O , P 0
6 2 6 2 2 2

The principle value branch of sin x is O , P

EG[-E  2 = 
< <
  6 2 6 2
1 The principle value of EG[-E  2 H[ B

sin = and < <
2 6 2 6 2
 90. Find the principle value of . 1
The principle value of sin  is B

88. Find the principle value of [H 


 
Solution:-

We know that

. = 1
4
Solution:-

Multiply both sides by 1


We know that

1
[H =
6 2 . = 1 . = 1
4 4
Multiply both sides by 1

= .  1 . 1 =
1 1 4 4
[H = [H =
6 2 6 2
The principle value branch of .  M H[  , 

1
= [H 

6 2
. 1 = 
< <
4 2 4 2
The principle value branch of [H  M H[ O  ,  P

The principle value branch of .  M H[ A


1
[H  = 
< <
2 6 2 6 2 91. Find the principle value of .  3

The principle value of [H   H[ B



Solution:-

89. Find the principle value of EG[E  2 We know that



. = 3
3
Solution:-

We know that Multiply both sides by 1


1
[H = . = 3 . = 3
6 2 3 3

= .  3 .  3 =
3 3
Taking reciprocal of both sides

1 1
= 1/2 EG[-E 6 = 2 The principle value branch of .  M H[  , 

[H 6


= EG[-E  2 EG[-E  2 = . 3 = 
< <
6 6 3 2 3 2

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


87

The principle value branch of . 3 H[



Solution:-

92. Find the principle value of [H 


 We know that

3 3
EG[ = EG[  =
6 2 2 6
Solution:-

The principle value branch of EG[  M H[ g0, h


We know that

1 1
[H = = [H  3
4 2 4 2 EG[  = 
0 < <
2 6 6
1
[H  =
2 4 The principle value of EG[   H[ B

The principle value branch of [H  M H[ O , P



95. Find the principle values of EG. 

 

1
[H  = 
< <
2 4 2 4 2
Solution:-

The principle value of [H   H[ A



We know that

. = 3
3
93. Find the principle value of EG[  


Taking reciprocal of both sides

1 1 1
=
Solution:-
EG. =
We know that . 3 3 3 3
1
EG[ =
3 2
We know that

EG. M = EG. M

We know that the formula

EG[ M = EG[ M =X. M = EG. = EG.


3 3 3

=X. M = EG[ = EG[ 2 1 1 2
3 3 3 EG. = EG.  =
3 3 3 3
3 1 2 1
EG[ = EG[ = The principle value branch of EG.  M H[ 0, 
3 2 3 2
2 1 1 2 1 2 2
= EG[  EG[  = EG.  = 
0 < <
3 2 2 3 3 3 3

The principle value branch of EG[  M H[ g0, h The principle value branch of EG. 

H[


1 2 2
EG[  = 
0 < <
2 3 3
96. Find the values of

1 1
The principle value of EG[   H[ . 1  EG[   [H 
 
2 2

94. Find the principle value of EG[  


Solution:-

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


88

Consider .  1 1 1
. 1 + EG[  + [H 
2 2
42 + 12
=
72
We know that

. = 1
4 1 1 54
.  1 + EG[  + [H  =
2 2 72
. 1 = 3
4 =
4
The principle value branch of .  M H[ ,

 


97. Find the values of

. 1 = 
< < 1 1
4 2 4 2 EG[   2 [H 
2 2
The principle value branch of .  1 H[

A Solution:-

Consider EG[ Consider EG[ 


 


We know that We know that

1 1 1 1
EG[ = EG[  = EG[ = EG[  =
3 2 2 3 3 2 2 3

The principle value branch of EG[  M H[ g0, h The principle value branch of EG[  M H[ g0, h

1 1
EG[  = 
0 < < EG[  = 
0 < <
2 3 3 2 3 3

The principle value of EG[   H[ The principle value of EG[   H[


 

Consider [H   Consider [H  
 

We know that We know that

1 1 1 1
[H = = [H  [H = = [H 
6 2 6 2 6 2 6 2

The principle value branch of [H  M H[ O  ,  P The principle value branch of [H  M H[ O  ,  P


1 1
[H  = 
< < [H  = 
< <
2 6 2 6 2 2 6 2 6 2

The principle value of [H   H[ B The principle value of [H   H[ B


 

1 1 1 1
. 1 + EG[  + [H  EG[  + 2 [H  = + 2
2 2 2 2 3 6

= + + 1 1 2
4 3 6 EG[  + 2 [H  = + =
2 2 3 3 3
1 1 7
. 1 + EG[  + [H  = +
2 2 12 6 98. Find the value of

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


89

.  3 [-E  2 99. Find the values of

Solution:- EG[-E  2  EG.  3

Consider .  3 Solution:-

We know that Consider EG[-E  2


. = 3
3
We know that

1
[H =
. 
3 = 4 2
3

The principle value branch of .  M H[ ,


Taking reciprocal of both sides
 
1 1
= 1/2 EG[-E 4 = 2
. 
3 = 
< < [H 4
3 2 3 2

The principle value branch of . 3 H[



Multiply both sides by -1

Consider [-E  2 EG[-E = 2 EG[-E = 2
4 4

= EG[-E  2 EG[-E  2 =
4 4
We know that

1
EG[ =
3 2 The principle value branch of

EG[-E  M H[ O , P 0
2 2
Taking reciprocal of both sides

1
= 2 [-E 3 = 2
EG[-E  2 = 
< <
EG[ 3
4 2 4 2

The principle value of EG[-E  2 H[ A



We know that

[-E M = [-E M
Consider EG.  3

=X. M = [-E = [-E
3 3 3 We know that

2 2 2 1
[-E = 2 = [-E 2 = . =
3 3 3 6 3

The principle value branch of [-E  M H[ g0, h b  c


Taking reciprocal of both sides

1
2 2
[-E  2
= 
0 < < = 3 EG. 6 = 3
3 3 . 6

The principle value of [-E 2 H[



EG.  3 =
6
2
.  3 [-E  2 = = The principle value branch of EG.  M H[ 0, 
3 3 3

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


90

1
EG.  3 = 
0 < < .  = EG.  M IGi M > 0
6 6 M
The principle value branch ofEG.  3H[

B
Proof:-

,-. EG.  M = >


EG[-E  2  EG.  3 = 
4 6
EG[ >
M = EG. > M =
6 + 4 [H >
cosec  2 + cot  3 = =
24 12
Taking reciprocal of both sides

1 [H > 1
PROPERRTIES OF INVERSE FUNCTION
= = . >
100. Prove that M EG[ > M
1 1 1
[H  = EG[-E  M IGi M 1 Gi M 1 .  = > .  = EG.  M
M M M
Proof:- 103. Prove that

,-. EG[-E  M = > [H M = [H  M IGi M g1, 1h


1
M = EG[-E > M =
[H >
Proof:-

,-. [H  M = >

M = [H > M = [H >
Taking reciprocal of both sides

1 1
= [H > [H  = >
M M M = [H > > = [H  M
1 > = [H  M [H M = [H  M
[H  = EG[-E  M
M
104. Prove that

. M = .  M IGi M 
101. Prove that

1
EG[  = [-E  M IGi M 1 Gi M 1
M Proof:-

Solution:- Let . M = >

Let [-E  M = > M = . > M = . >


1 M = . > > = .  M
M = [-E> M =
EG[ >
> = .  M . M = .  M
Taking reciprocal of both sides

1 1
= EG[ > EG[  = >
105. Prove that

M M EG[E  M = EG[E  M IGi |M| 1


1
EG[  = [-E  M
M
Proof:-

,-. EG[-E  M = >

M = EG[-E > M = EG[-E>


102. Prove that

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


91

M = EG[-E > EG[-E  M = > ,-. [H  M = >

> = EG[-E  M EG[-E  M = EG[-E  M


M = [H > M = EG[ >
2

> = EG[  M 
> g0, h
106. Prove that

EG[  M = EG[  M IGi M g1, 1h 2 2



= > + EG[  M
Proof:- 2
Let EG[ M = >
[H  M + EG[  M =
2
M = EG[ > M = EG[ >

M = EG[ > EG[ 


M =>
110. Prove that

.  M  EG.  M = IGi M 
EG[  M = EG[  M 2

EG[  M = EG[  M Proof:-

,-. .  M = >

107. Prove that

[-E M = [-E  M IGi |M| 1 M = . > M = EG. >


2

EG.  M = > 
> 0 , 
2 2
Proof :-

,-. [-E  M = >



> + EG.  M =
M = [-E > M = [-E> 2

M = [-E > [-E  M = > .  M + EG.  M =
2
> = [-E  M [-E M = [-E  M
111. Prove that

EG[-E  M  [-E  M = IGi |M| 1 , M 
2
108. Prove that

EG.  M = EG.  M IGi M 


Proof:-

,-. EG[-E  M = >


Solution:-

,-. EG. M = >



M = EG. > M = EG. > M = EG[-E> M = [-E >
2
M = EG. > EG.  M = >
[-E  M = > 
> O , P
2 2 2 2
> = EG.  M EG.  M = EG.  M

> + [-E  M = EG[-E  M + [-E  M =
109. Prove that 2 2


[H  M  EG[  M = IGi M g1, 1h
2
112. Prove that

M>
.  M  .  > = . 
Proof:- 1 M>

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


92

HI M, > > 0 
M> < 1 113. Prove that

M>
.  M .  > = . 
1  M>
Proof:-

-i- M > 0, > > 0


We know that

.   . ]
.   ] = . .1
1 .  . ] Proof:-

,-. .  M =  
.  > = ] We know that

M = .  
> = . ] .  . ]
.  ] = . .1
1  .  . ]
M, > > 0 M = .  > 0 
>
= . ] > 0 ,-. .  M =  
.  > = ]

A and B are acute angle that is they lie in the first M = .  


> = . ]

M, > > 0 M = .  > 0 


>
quadrant

0<<

. .2 
0 <]<
= . ] > 0
 
..3
A and B are acute angle that is they lie in the first
To show that  + ] lie in the first quadrant
quadrant

0 <  <  . .2 
0 < ] <  ..3
Equation 1+ Equation 2

0+0< +] < +
2 2  ] H[ EX.- HI  > ]

0<+] < ]  H[ EX.- HI ] > 

M, > > 0 
M> < 1 0 < 1 M>
<] <
1 M> > 0 2 2

1 .  . ] > 0 This is the principle branch of .  M

The denominator of equation 1 is positive Equation 1 becomes


M>
.  + ] > 0 .  ] = ]
1 + M>
 + ]is an acute angle M>
= . 
1 + M>

0<+] < M>
2 .  M .  > = . 
1 + M>
Equation 1 becomes

M+>
114. Prove that
.  + ] = +]
1 M> M>
.  M  .  > =  . 
M+> 1 M>
= . 
1 M>
HI M, > > 0 
M> > 1
M+>
.  M + .  > = . 
1 M> Proof:-

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


93

M+>
.  M + .  > = + . 
1 M>
We know that

.   . ]
.   ] = . .1
1 .  . ] 115. Prove that

,-. .  M =  
.  > = ] 2M
2 .  M = [H  IGi |M| 1
1  M
M = .  
> = . ]

M, > > 0 M = .  > 0 


>
Proof:-

= . ] > 0 2M
. `. a. = [H 
1  M
A and B are acute angle that is they lie in the first
quadrant ,-. .  M = > M = . >

2 . >
. `. a. = [H 

0 <  < . .2 
0 < ] < ..3
  1 + .  >
M+>
.  + ] = . .4 2 . >
1 M> . `. a. = [H 
[-E  >
M> > 1 0 > 1 M> 1 M> < 0 [H >
2 EG[ >
.  + ] < 0 . `. a. = [H 

1
EG[  >
 + ]lie in the second quadrant
. `. a. = [H 2 [H > EG[ >
<+] <
2
. `. a. = [H [H 2>

. `. a. = 2> . `. a. = 2 .  M
Subtract from both sides

<  + ] < . `. a. = <. `. a.
2

<  + ] < 0
2
116. Prove that

1 M
Now . g + ] h = .  + ] 2 .  M = EG[  IGi M 0
1  M
. g + ] h = . g  + ]h Proof:-
. g + ] h = g .  + ]h 1 M
. `. a. = EG[ 
. g + ] h = .  + ] 1  M

M+> ,-. .  M = > M = . >


. g + ] h = > -Y. 4
1 M>
1 .  >
. `. a. = EG[ 
M+> 1 + .  >
 + ] = . 
1 M>
[H  >
1
M+> EG[  >
 + ] = + .  . `. a. = EG[ 
1 M> [-E  >

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


94

EG[  > [H  > M>


.  M  .  > = . 
EG[  > 1 M>
. `. a. = EG[ 
1
EG[ >

Put M =  
> =
 

. `. a. = EG[  EG[ 2> 1 1


1 1 
. `. a. = 2> = 2 .  M = <. `. a. .   .  = .  2 3
2 3 1 1
123

5
1 1
117. Prove that

2M .   .  = .  6
2 .  M = .  IGi 1 < M < 1 2 3 1
1 M 16

5
1 1
.   .  = .  6
Proof:-

2M 2 3 5
. `. a. = . 
1 M 6

,-. .  M = > M = . > 1 1


.   .  = .  1
2 3
2 . >
. `. a. = .  1 1
1 .  > .   .  =
2 3 4
[H >
2 EG[ >
. `. a. = . 
[H  >
119. Show that

1
EG[  > 1 2 3
.   .  = . 
2 11 4
[H >
2 EG[ >
. `. a. = . 
EG[  > [H  >
Solution:-

EG[  > Using property

2 [H > EG[ > M>


. `. a. = .   .  M  .  > = . 
EG[ > [H  > 1 M>

[H 2> Put M =  
> = 
 
. `. a. = . 

EG[ 2>
1 2
.   . 
. `. a = .  . 2> 2 11
1 2

. `. a = 2> = 2 .  M = . 
2 11
1 2
1 2 11
. `. a = <. `. a.
11  4
1 2
. 
 . = . 22
 
2 11 1
118. Prove that

1 1 1 11
.   .  =
2 3 4
15
1 2  22
. 
 . = .

2 11 10
Solution:-

Using property 11

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


95

1 2 15 11 [H M
.   .  = .  EG[ M 1 
2 11 22 10 <. `. a. = . 
EG[ M
[H M
EG[ M 1 EG[ M
1 2 3
.   .  = . 
2 11 4 1  . M
<. `. a. = . 
1 . M
1  . M
120. Show that

2M 3M M <. `. a. = . 
. 
M  . 
= . 
1 1 . M
1 M 1 3M 

1 .  . M
<. `. a. = . 4
IGi |M|


3 1 . 4 . M

Solution:-
Using property

M>
.  = .  M  .  >
1 M>
Using property

X
.  X  .  = . 
1 X
<. `. a. = .  .  . . M
2M 4
=X. X = M , =
1 M
<. `. a. =  M = . `. a.
4
2M
.  M  . 
1 M
2M
M
122. Prove that

= . 1 M
1 EG[ M M

2M .  =
1M
1 M 1  EG[ M 2

M1 M    2M
= .  " 1 M #
1 M  2M 
Solution:-

1 M 1 EG[ M
<. `. a. = . 
2M 1  EG[ M
.  M  . 
1 M
M M  2M M
= .  2 [H  2
1 3M 
<. `. a. = . 
M
2 EG[  2
2M 3M M
.  M  .  = . 

1 M 1 3M 
M
<. `. a. = .  . 
2

M
121. Prove that

EG[ M  [H M <. `. a. = .  .
. 
= M 2
EG[ M [H M 4
M
<. `. a. = = . `. a.
2
Solution:-

EG[ M  [H M
<. `. a. = . 
EG[ M [H M
123. Express

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


96

.  K , For 0 < M < in the simplest


 2
1
2 . 
= . 3

3 1
19
form

2
1  3
Solution:-

EG[ M [H M 2 . 
= .
.  3 8
EG[ M  [H M 9
[H M 1 2 9
EG[ M 1 2 .  = . 
= .  EG[ M
[H M 3 3 8
EG[ M 1 
EG[ M 1 3
2 .  = . 
1 . M 3 4
= . 
1  . M
1  . M
125. Prove that

= .  1 1 31
1 1 . M 2 .   .  = . 
2 7 17

. 4 . M
= . 

1  . 4 . M
Solution:-

1 1
<. `. a. = 2 .   . 
2 7

Consider 2 .  

Using property

M>
.  = .  M .  >
1  M>

= .  . .  . M
Using property

4 2M
2 .  M = . 
1 M
EG[ M [H M
.  = M 1
EG[ M  [H M 4 =X. M =
2

2
124. Prove that

1 3 1 2
2 .  = .  2 . 
= . 
3 4 2 1 
1 2

1 1
Solution:-

2 .  = . 
2 1
14
Using property

2M
2 .  M = . 
1 M
1 1
1 2 .  = . 
2 3
=X. M = 4
3
1 4
2 2 .  = . 
1 3 2 3
2 .  = . 
3 1 
1 3 1 4
2 .  = . 
2 3

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


97

4 1 1M 1
<. `. a. = .   .  .  = .  M
3 7 1M 2
1M
2.  = .  M
1M
Using property

M>
.  M  .  > = . 
1 M> Use the property

4 1 2M
 2 .  M = . 
<. `. a. = . 
3 7 1 M
4 1
1
3 7 1M
2 1  M
31 . 
" # = .  M
1M 
<. `. a. = . 21
 1
1  M
4
1 21
1M
2 1  M
31 =M
1M 
<. `. a. = . 
21 1 1  M
17
21
2 2M
31 1M
<. `. a. = .  =M
17 1  M 1 M
1  M

2 2M1  M
=M
126. Solve the equation
 EG[  2 EG[-E M
2 . M = . 1  2M  M  1  2M M 

2  2M 2M 2M 
=M
4M
Solution:-

1
2 2M  = 4M  2 = 6M  M  =
Using property

2M 3
2 .  M = . 
1 M
1
M=
2 EG[ M 3
.  = .  2 EG[-E M
1 EG[  M
1
2 EG[ M IGi M > 0 M =
= 2 EG[-E M 3
1 EG[  M
EG[ M 1
= EG. M = 1
128. Prove that

[H  M [H M 1 1M
.  M = EG[  IGi M g0 , 1h
2 1M
M = EG.  1 M =
4 Solution:-

1 1M
. `. a. = EG[ 
127. Solve the equation

1M 1 2 1M
.  = .  M IGi M > 0
1M 2
,-. .  M = > M = . >
Solution:-
Squaring both sides

M  = .  >
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
98

1 1 .  >
. `. a. = EG[


2 1  .  >
Using property

[H  M + EG[  M =
[H  > 2
1 1
EG[  >
. `. a. = EG[  <. `. a. = = . `. a.
2 [-E  > 2

EG[  > [H  >


130. Prove that

1 EG[  > 1 3 3
. `. a. = EG[  [H  3 [H  =
2 1 2 4
EG[  > 2

1
. `. a. = EG[  EG[ 2>
Solution:-
2
1 3
<. `. a. = [H  3 [H 
1 2 2
. `. a. = 2> = > = .  M
2

. `. a. = <. `. a.
We know that

1 3
[H = 
[H =
4 2 3 2
129. Prove that

3 4
EG[   EG[  = <. `. a. = [H  [H 3 [H  [H
5 5 2 4 3

<. `. a. = 3 <. `. a. =
4 3 4
Solution:-

3 4
<. `. a. = EG[   EG[  3
5 5 <. `. a. = = . `. a.
4
3
,-. EG[  = M .1
5 131. Prove that

3 3 3 12 56
= EG[ M EG[ M = [H   EG[  = [H 
5 5 5 13 65
Using first fundamental identities Solution:-

[H  M = 1 EG[  M 3 3
,-. [H  = M [H M =
5 5
9 16
[H  M = 1 [H  M =
25 25
9
EG[ M = 1 [H  M EG[ M = 1
4 4 25
[H M = [H M = [H M > 0
5 5
4 16 4
M = [H  EG[ M = EG[ M =
5 25 5

3 4 12 12
EG[  = [H  > -Y . 1 ,-. EG[  = > EG[ > =
5 5 13 13
4 4
<. `. a. = [H  + EG[ 
5 5

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


99

144 1 1
[H > = 1 EG[  > [H > = 1 [H > = [H > =
169 4 2

169 144 25
[H > = [H > =
We know that

169 169 EG[M + > = EG[ M EG[ > [H M [H >

5 3 3 1 1
[H > = EG[M + > = +
13 2 2 2 2

3 1 2 1
EG[M + > = + = =
We know that
4 4 4 2
[H M + > = [H M EG[ > + EG[ M [H >
1
3 12 4 5 EG[M + > =
[H M + > = + 2
5 13 5 13
1
36 + 20 56 M + > = EG[ 
[H M + > = [H M + > = 2
65 65
1 3 1
56 [H  + EG[  = EG[ 
M + > = [H 
2 2 2
65
3 12 56
[H  + EG[  = [H 
5 13 65
133. Prove that

4 12 33
EG[   EG[  = EG[ 
132. Prove that 5 13 65

1 3 1
[H 
 EG[  = EG[ 
2 2 2
Solution:-

4 4
,-. EG[  = M EG[ M =
5 5
Solution:-

1 1 16
,-. [H  = M [H M = [H M = 1 EG[  M [H M = 1
2 2 25

1 9 3
EG[ M = 1 [H  M EG[ M = 1 [H M = [H M =
4 25 5

3 12 12
EG[ M = ,-. EG[  = > EG[ > =
4 13 13

3 3 144
,-. EG[ 
= > EG[ > = [H > = 1 EG[  > [H > = 1
2 2 169

3 169 144 25
[H > = 1 EG[  > [H > = 1 [H > = [H > =
4 169 169

5
[H > =
13

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


100

45 + 32 77
[H M + > = [H M + > =
85 85
We know that

EG[M  > = EG[M EG[ > [H M [H >


77
4 12 3 5 M + > = [H 
85
EG[M  > =
5 13 5 13
3 12 77
48 15 33 [H  + EG[  = [H 
5 13 85
EG[M  > = EG[M + > =
65 65
135. If .  2M  .  3M =

33 A
M + > = EG[  of M
then find the value

65
4 12 33
EG[  + EG[  = EG[ 
Solution:-
5 13 65
.  2M  .  3M =
134. Prove that 4

3 18 77
[H 
 [H  = [H 
Use property

5 17 85 M>
.  M  .  > = . 
1 M>

2M  3M
Solution:-

3 3 .  =
,-. [H 
= M [H M = 1 2M 3M 4
5 5
5M
.  = .  1
9 1 6M 
EG[ M = 1 [H  M EG[ M = 1
25
5M
=1
1 6M 
16 4
EG[ M = EG[ M = 5M = 1 6M 
25 5
6M   5M 1 = 0
8 8
,-. [H  = > [H > =
17 17 5 5 4 61
M=
26
64
EG[ > = 1 [H  > EG[ > = 1
289 5 25  24
M=
12
289 64 225 5 49
EG[ > = EG[ > = M=
289 289 12

15 5 7
EG[ > = M=
17 12
5  7 5 7
M = Gi M =
12 12
We know that

[H M + > = [H M EG[ > + EG[ M [H >


1
M = Gi M = 1
3 15 4 8 6
[H M + > = +
5 17 5 17 1
M > 0 M =
6
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
101

136. If .    .  K =
 K
A
Use property
value of M M>
then find the

.  M  .  > = . 
1 M>

1 1
Solution:-

M1 M1 
. 
 .  = <. `. a. = . 
5 7
M2 M2 4 1 1
1
5 7
1 1

 .  3 8
Use property

M> 1 1
.  M  .  > = .  1
1 M> 3 8
12 11
M1 M1 35
 <. `. a. = .  . 24
.  M 2 M  2 =
 
1 1
M1 M1 4 1 1 24
1 M 2 M  2 35
12 11
M  2M 1  M  1M 2 35  24
M  2 <. `. a. = . 
 .
. "

# 34 23
M 2 M 1M  1
 
35 24
M  2
= . 1 12 11
<. `. a. = .   . 
34 23
M  M 2  M M 2
.  = .  1
M 4 M  1
Again Use property

M>
2M  4 .  M  .  > = . 
. 
= . 1 1 M>
3
12 11

2M  4 <. `. a. = . 34 23
=1

3 12 11
1 34 23
2M  4 = 3 2M  3 + 4
325
1 1 <. `. a. = . 
391
2M  = 1 M  = M= 66
2 1 391
2
1 325
M > 0 M =
2 <. `. a. = . 
391
325
391

137. Show that

1 1 1 <. `. a. = .  1 = = . `. a.
.   .   .  4
5 7 3
1
 .  =
8 4
********************************************

Solution:-

1 1 1
<. `. a. = .   .   . 
5 7 3
1
 . 
8
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
102

PAIR OF STRAIGHT LINE M + > >  = 0

Theorem:- M + > + >  = 0

Show that every homogeneous equation of M +   > = 0


secondary in x and y represent a pair of lines
passing through the origin M + +   > = 0
Proof:-
These are liner equation of straight lines and do not
Let the homogeneous equation of second degree in x contain constant term

The lines represent by these equation do not


and y is

M + 2M> + > = 0 
  passing through the origin

, , 
i- EG [. . G. ,, T-iG By case I and II

Case I:- Let  = 0  0 , 0 Every homogeneous equation of secondary in x and y


represent a pair of line passing through the
=X. H -YX.HG  origin.
2M> + >  = 0 138. Find the separate equations of the lines

M  4M>  >  = 0
>2M + > = 0 represented by

> =0, 2M + > = 0


Solution:-
These are the liner equation of straight. These
equations do not contain the constant term. The given homogeneous equation is

The lines represent by these equations passing M  4M> + >  = 0


HH
-
G. [H
-[ > M 
through the origin.

4M> > 
Case II: let  0  0 , 0
1 + =0
M M
>  >
Multiply equation I both sides by a

H. -. 4  1 = 0
M M
M  + 2M> + >   = 0

>
.H[ H[  . .
 M  + 2M> + >  = 0
M


. 
[X.iE.  > 
> 4 4 4 1 1
=
M 21
 M  + 2M> +  >   >  + >  = 0

> 4 16 4
M + > >    = 0
=
 M 2
M + > O>  P = 0
> 4 12
=
M + > >  M + > M 2
+ >  = 0

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


103

> 4 23 M 3> = 0 ; 2M + 3> = 0


=
M 2

> 22 3
These are the separate equation of the lines

=
M 2
140. Find the separate equations of the lines

>
= 2 3 M   2M>EG[-E  >  = 0
represented by

> = M2 3
Solution: -

2 + 3M + > = 0 ; 2 3M + > = 0
The given homogeneous equation is

M  + 2M>EG[-E + >  = 0


HH
-
G. [H
-[ > M 
These are the separate equation of the lines

2EG[-EM> > 
139. Find the separate equations of the lines
1+ + =0
2M  3M> 9>  = 0 M M
represented by

>  >
Solution:- H. -.  2EG[-E  1 = 0
M M
>
.H[ H[  . .
M
The given homogeneous equation is

2M  3M> 9>  = 0
> 2EG[-E 2EG[-E 4 1 1

HH
-
G. [H
-[ > M  =
M 21
3M> >
2 9 =0 > 2EG[-E 4EG[-E  4
M M =
M 2
>  >
H. -. 9  3 2 = 0 > 2EG[-E 2EG[-E  1
M M =
M 2
>
.H[ H[  . .
M > 2EG[-E 2EG. 
=
M 2
> 3 3 4 9 2
=
M 29 > 2EG[-E EG.
=
M 2
> 3 9 + 72
= > >
M 18 = EG[-E + EG. ; = EG[-E EG.
M M
> 3 81 > >
= = EG[-E EG.  ;
M 18 M M
> 3 9 = EG[-E + EG.
=
M 18 > = EG[-E EG. M ; >
> 3 + 9 > 3 9 = EG[-E + EG.M
= ; =
M 18 M 18
> + EG[-E EG. M = 0
1 2
>= M ; >= M > + EG[-E + EG.M = 0
3 3

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


104

EG[-E EG. M  > = 0 These are the separate equation of the lines

EG[-E  EG.M  > = 0 142. Find the separate equation of the lines

3M  10M> 8>  = 0
represented by
These are the separate equation of the lines

141. Find the separate equations of the line Solution:-

11 M   8M>  >  = 0
represented by
The given homogeneous equation is

3M  10M> 8>  = 0

Divided both sides byM 


Solution:-

M> >
The given homogeneous equation is
3 10 8 = 0
11M  8M>  > = 0
 
M M


HH
-
G. [H
-[ > M  >  >
H. -. 8 + 10 3 = 0
M M
8M> > 
11    = 0 >
M M .H[ H[  . .
M
>  >
H. -.  8  11 = 0 > 10 10 4 8 3
M M =
M 28
>
.H[ H[  . .
M > 10 100 + 96
=
M 16
> 8 8 4 1 11
=
M 21 > 10 196
=
M 16
> 8 64 44
= > 10 14
M 2 =
M 16
> 8 20
= > 25 7
M 2 =
M 16
> 8 25
= > 5 7
M 2 =
M 8
> 24 5
= 8> = M5 7
M 2
> 8> = M5 + 7 ; 8> = M5 7
= 4 5
M 8> = 2M ; 8> = 12M
> = M4 5 M 4> = 0 ; 3M + 2> = 0

> = M4  5 ; > = M4 5 143. Find the separate equation of the lines

> = 4 5M ; > = 4  5M
3M  23M> 3>  = 0
represented by

4 5M  > = 0 ; 4  5M  > = 0 Solution:-

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


105

The given homogeneous equation is M> > 


1 2 .   = 0
3M  23M> 3>  = 0
M M
>  >
H. -. + 2 . 1 = 0
Divided both sides byM 
M M
>
M> > .H[ H[  . .
3 23  3  = 0 M
M M
>  > > 2 . 2 .  4 1 1
H. -. 3 + 23 3 = 0 =
M M M 21
> > 2 . 4 .  + 4
.H[ H[  . . =
M M 2
 > 2 . 21 + . 
> 23 23 4 3 3 =
= M 2
M 23
> 2 . 2 [-E
> 23 12 + 36 =
= M 2
M 23
> 2 . [-E 
> 23 48 =
= M 2
M 23
>
= . [-E
> 23 43 M
=
M 23 > = M . [-E 
> 23 23
= > = M . + [-E  ; >
M 23 = M . [-E 
> 3 23
= > = M . [-E  ; >
M 3 = M. + [-E 
3> = M3 23 . [-E M + > = 0 ;

3> = M3 + 23 ; 3> = M3 23 . + [-E M + > = 0



3 > = 3M ; 3> = 33M 145. Find the separate equation of the lines

3M  7M>  4>  = 0
represented by
M 3> = 0 ; 3M + > = 0

144. Find the separate equation of the lines Solution:-

M   2M> . >  = 0
represented by
The given homogeneous equation is

Solution:- 3M  7M> + 4>  = 0

The given homogeneous equation is Divided both sides byM 

M  + 2M> . >  = 0
M> >
37 + 4 =0
M M
Divided both sides byM 
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
106

>  >
H. -. 4 7  3 = 0
> 21 2
M M M
=
2
>
.H[ H[  . .
M
> = M1 2

> 7 7 4 4 3 > = M1 + 2 ; > = M1 2


=
M 24
1 + 2M > = 0 ; 1 2M > = 0
> 7 49 48
= 147. Find the separate equation of the lines
M 8
> 71 M  4>  = 0
represented by
=
M 8

8> = M7 1
Solution:-

8> = M7 + 1 ; 8> = M7 1


The given homogeneous equation is

M  4>  = 0 M  2> = 0
8> = 8M ; 8> = 6M
M + 2>M 2> = 0
M > = 0 ; 3M 4> = 0 M + 2> = 0 ; M 2> = 0

146. Find the separate equation of the lines


148. Find the separate equation of the lines

5M  3>  = 0
represented by

M  + 2M> >  = 0
represented by

Solution:-
Solution:-
The given homogeneous equation is

5M  3>  = 0 5M 3> = 0
 
The given homogeneous equation is

M + 2M> > = 0
 
5M + 3>5M 3> = 0
Divided both sides byM  5M + 3> = 0 ; 5M 3> = 0
149. Find the separate equation of the lines
M> > 
1+2 =0
3M   7M> = 0
represented by
M M
>  >
H. -. 2 1 = 0
M M Solution:-

>
.H[ H[  . .
The given homogeneous equation is

3M   7M> = 0 M3M + 7> = 0


M

> 2 2 4 1 1 M = 0 ; 3M + 7> = 0


=
M 21 150. Find the separate equation of the lines

5M  3>  = 0
represented by
> 2 4 + 4
=
M 2

> 2 8 > 2 22
Solution:-
= =
M 2 M 2 The given homogeneous equation is

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


107

5M  3>  = 0 5M 3> = 0
  M> > 
2+2   =0
5M  3>5M 3> = 0
M M

5M  3> = 0 ; 5M 3> = 0 >  >


H. -. 2 2 = 0
151. Find the separate equation of the lines M M
>
6M  5M> 6>  = 0
represented by
.H[ H[  . .
M

Solution:- > 2 2 4 1 2


=
M 21
The given homogeneous equation is

6M  5M> 6>  = 0
> 2 12 > 2 23
= =
M 2 M 2
Divided both sides byM  >
= 1 3
M
M> >
65  6  =0
M M > = M1 3

>  > > = M1 + 3 ; > = M1 3


H. -. 6 + 5 6 = 0
M M
> 1 + 3M > = 0 ; 1 3M > = 0
.H[ H[  . .
M
Theorem:-
> 5 5 4 6 6
=
M 26
Show that the acute angle between the pair of lines
represented by M  + 2M> + >  = 0 is given by
> 5 25 + 144 ; 
= . 2 = . Obtain the condition that the
M 26 K
lines are
> 5 13
=
M 12 i. Perpendicular to each other
ii. Coincident.
12> = M5 13

12> = M5 + 13 ; 12> = M5 13


Proof:-

12> = 8M ; 12> = 18M


The given homogeneous equation is

M   2M>  >  = 0 1
2M 3> = 0 ; 3M + 2> = 0
Let > = M be the equation of one of the line
152. Find the separate equation of the lines
represented by equation I
2M   2M> >  = 0 M   2MM  M = 0
represented by

Solution:- M   2M    M  = 0
The given homogeneous equation is
HH
-
G. [H
-[ > M 
2M   2M> >  = 0   2   = 0
Divided both sides byM    2   = 0

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


108

This is a quadratic equation in m it has two roots say m1 H. -.   = 0


and m2 153. Find the measure of the acute angle between

2
[X GI iGG.[ =    = 3M  43M>  3>  = 0
the lines represented by



=iG
XE. GI iGG.[ =  .  =

Solution:-

2 - .- EX.-  ,- -.-- .- ,H -[represented


The given homogeneous equation is

by the equation 1 3M  43M>  3>  = 0

  EG=iH H. M   2M>  >  = 0


. 2 =
1   . 
 = 3 , 2 = 43 , = 3
   =     4 .  
 = 3 , = 23 , = 3
2 

   = 4 2 

. 2 =

4 4
   =

223 3 3


4  . 2 =
   = 33


2  212 9
  = . 2 =
6
2 
3
. 2 =  . 2 =
1 3

1
. 2 =
2  3
. 2 =
 1
2 = .  =
3 6
2 
. 2 =

154. Find the measure of the acute angle between

2M   7M>  3>  = 0
the lines represented by

 .  = 1
(I) If the lines are perpendicular to each other then


= 1 ;  =
Solution:-


=0
The given homogeneous equation is

H. -. EG-II. GI M   EG-II. GI >  = 0 2M   7M>  3>  = 0

EG=iH H. M   2M>  >  = 0


 = 
(II) If the lines are coincident or parallel

  = 0  = 2 , 2 = 7 , = 3
2 
=0

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
109

7
 = 2 , = , = 3 . 2 = .
2 2

2  2 = .  O. P =
. 2 = 2 2

156. Find the acute angle between the lines
7  M  4M> + >  = 0
2 2 2 3
. 2 =
23 Solution:-

49
2 4 6
The given homogeneous equation is

M  4M>  >  = 0
. 2 =
5
EG=iH H. M   2M>  >  = 0

249 24  = 1 , 2 = 4 , = 1
. 2 = 2
5  = 1 , = 2 , = 1

2 
25 . 2 =
. 2 = 
5
22 1 1
. 2 = |1| . 2 =  
11

2 = .  1 =
4 24 1
. 2 =
2

. 2 = 3
155. Find the acute angle between the lines

M  + 2M>EG[-E + >  = 0
represented by


2 = . 3 2 = .  . =
Solution:- 3 3

157. Find the acute angle between the lines


3M  + 2M> >  = 0
The given homogeneous equation is

M + 2M>EG[-E + > = 0
 

EG=iH H. M  + 2M> + >  = 0


Solution:-

 = 1, 2 = 2EG[-E, = 1
The given homogeneous equation is

3M   2M> >  = 0
 = 1 , = EG[-E , = 1
EG=iH H. M   2M>  >  = 0
2EG[-E 1
. 2 =    = 3 , 2 = 2 , = 1
2
 = 3 , = 1 , = 1
. 2 = LEG.  L
2 
. 2 = |EG. | . 2 =

. 2 = EG.
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
110

21 3 1  = 3 , 2 = 4 , = 3
. 2 =  
31
 = 3 , = 2 , = 3

24 2 
. 2 = . 2 =
2 
. 2 = |2|
22 3 3
. 2 =  
2 = . 2 33

158. Find the acute angle between the lines 213


. 2 =
2M  6M> + >  = 0 0

Solution:- . 2 = ||

2 = .  2 = .  .
2
The given homogeneous equation is

2M  6M> + >  = 0

2=
EG=iH H. M + 2M> + > = 0
  2

 = 2 , 2 = 6 , = 1
M   2M>  >  = 0is equal to the acute angle
160. Show that , if the acute angle between the lines

 = 2 , = 3 , = 1 between the lines 4M  24M>  9>  = 0

2  .- 169  = 108  
. 2 =
+

23 2 1
Solution:-

. 2 =  
2+1
The given homogeneous equations are

M   2M>  >  = 0 1
29 2
. 2 = 4M  24M>  9>  = 0 2
3
,-. 2 
2 i- .- angles between the lines
27
. 2 =
3
represented by 1 and 2 then

2 = 2
27
2 = . 
3 . 2 = . 2

159. Find the acute angle between the lines 2  212 4 9


3M + 4M> 3> = 0 = 
 49
 

2  2144 36
=
Solution:-

The given homogeneous equation is  13

3M   4M> 3>  = 0 2  2108


=
 13
EG=iH H. M   2M>  >  = 0
[YXiH G. [H
-[
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
111

4  4 108
=
   169 3M   M> >  = 0 differ by 4
162. Find k, if the slopes of the lines given by

  108
=
   169
Solution:-

169  = 108  
 
The given homogeneous equation is

3M   M> >  = 0

M   2M>  >  = 0is equal to the acute angle EG=iH H. M   2M>  >  = 0
161. Show that , if the acute angle between the lines

between the lines 2M  5M>  3>  = 0  = 3 , 2 = , = 1


.- 100  =   
 = 3, = , = 1
2

Solution:-

2 2
   = = 2
1
The given homogeneous equations are

M   2M>  >  = 0 1
   =
2M  5M>  3>  = 0 2

  = = 3
,-. 2 
2 i- .- angles between the lines
represented by 1 and 2 then   = 4
2 = 2 [YXiH G. [H
-[
. 2 = . 2    = 16

25     4  = 16
2  2 4 6
=
 5  43 = 16

  12 = 16
25 24
2  2 4
 = 4 = 2
=
 5

M   5M>  >  = 0 differ by 1


163. Find k if the slope of the line given by

1
2  22
=
 5
Solution:-

M   5M>  >  = 0
2  1
= EG=iH H. M   2M>  >  = 0
 5
 = , 2 = 5 , = 1
[YXiH G. [H
-[
5
4  1  = , = , = 1
= 2
   25
5
2 22
100  =       = =
1
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
112

   = 5 3M  + M> + 2>  = 0


  = =
1
Solution:-

  = 1
The given homogeneous equation is

3M  + M> + 2>  = 0
[YXiH G. [H
-[
EG=iH H. M  + 2M> + >  = 0
   = 1
 = 3, 2 = , = 2
    4  = 1

25 4 = 1  = 3, = , = 2
2
25 1 = 4 4 = 24 = 6 .- -YX.HG GI H- ,H - H[ 2M + > = 0

[,G=- GI ,H - =  = 2
6M   M>  >  = 0 H[ 2M  > = 0
164. Find the value of k, if one of the line given by

2 
 +  = 
  =
Solution:-

22 3
 +  = 
  =
The given homogeneous equation is

6M   M>  >  = 0 2 2
3
EG=iH H. M   2M>  >  = 0  +  = 
  =
2 2
 = 6, 2 = , = 1  = 2
3
 = 6, = , = 1 2 +  = 
2 =
2 2 2
.- -YX.HG GI H- ,H - H[ 2M  > = 0 3
 = + 2 
 =
2 4
[,G=- GI ,H - =  = 2
3 3 11
2  = +2 = +2, =
   = 
  = 4 2 2 4 2 4

11
=
2


   = 
;

  =6

   = 
  =6
3M  M>  5>  = 0is perpendicular to the line
166. Find k if one of the line given by

 = 2 5M  3> = 0

2   = 
2 =6 Solution:-

 =  2 
 = 3 The given homogeneous equation is

3 =  2 , = 5 3M  M>  5>  = 0 1

165. Find the value of k if 2M  > = 0 is one of the EG=iH H. M   2M>  >  = 0
line given by

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


113

 = 3, 2 = , = 5 We know that


 = 3, = , = 5 2 2
2    = 0= 2
1
.- -YX.HG GI H- ,H - H[
=0
5 M  3> = 0 2

5 2M   M> 3>  = 0 is equal to their product


168. Find k if the sum of the slope of the line given by

[,G=- GI ,H - =
3

The line 2 is perpendicular to the line represented


Solution:-

by 1 having slope m1 The given homogeneous equation is

1 3 2M   M> 3>  = 0
 = =
5/3 5

2 
Comparing with

   = 
  = M   2M>  >  = 0

 = 2 , 2 = , = 3
3 2 2 3 3
  = 
 =
5 5 5 5
 = 2, = , = 3
2
3
  = 
 = 1
5 5 We know that
3 2 
1=    = 
  =
5 5
8
=
5 5    =  
It is given that

=8

2  22 2
= = = 2
3 3
167. Find the value of k if the sum of the slope of the

3M  M> >  = 0is zero



line given by
is given by 3M   4M>  >  = 0 is three times
169. Find the value of k If the slope of one of the lines

Solution:- the other

The given homogeneous equation is Solution:-

3M   M> >  = 0 The given homogeneous equation is

Comparing with 3M   4M>  >  = 0

M   2M>  >  = 0 Comparing with

 = 3 , 2 = , = 1 M   2M>  >  = 0

 = 3 , 2 = 4, =
 = 3, = , = 1
2
 = 3, = 2 , =

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


114

We know that M   M> 3>  = 0

2  EG=iH H. M   2M>  >  = 0


   = 
  =

 = 1 , 2 = , = 3
 = 3 H- 

2 2 3  = 1, = , = 3
3   = 
3  = 2


4 3 2 2
1    = = 2
4 = 
3 =  = 3

16 1 1 1
16 =  =  1 =
   =
3
=1
 1
  = =
3M  4M>  >  = 0 is 1 3
170. Find k if slope of one of the line given by

Solution:-    = 2  H- 

2
= = 2
3 3
The given homogeneous equation is

3M  4M>  >  = 0

M   4M> >  = 0 exceeds the slope of the


172. Find k if slope of one of the line given by
Comparing with

M   2M>  >  = 0
other by 8

 = 3 , 2 = 4, =
Solution:-

M   4M> >  = 0
 = 3, = 2 , =
EG=iH H. M   2M>  >  = 0

 = , 2 = 4 , = 1
We know that

2 
   = 
  =
 = , = 2 , = 1
 = 1 H-   = 8   H- 
2 2 3 2 22
1   = 
1  = 8     = =
1
4 3 8  2 = 4 2 = 4  = 2
1   = 
 =

3 4 4 3 1 
1 = 1= 1=   =

=1

8 +   = 8 22 =
1
represented by M   M> 3>  = 0 is twice
171. Find k if sum of the slope of the lines

their product = 12 = 12

Solution:-

The given homogeneous equation is


Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
115

8 
= 2 8 = 2  = 4
M  2M>  >  = 0is three times the other
 5 5
173. If the slope of one of the lines given by

prove that 3 = 4 PROBLEM ON TO FIND THE JOINT EQUATION OR


Solution:- COMBINE EQUATION

Let  
 be the slope of the lines given by
2M  > = 0 
3M 5> = 0
175. Find the joint equation of the pair of lines

M   2M>  >  = 0 Then

2 
Solution:-

   = 
  =
The required joint equation is

 = 3 2M  >3M 5> = 0

2  2M3M 5>  >3M 5> = 0


3   = 
3  =

6M  10M>  3M> 5>  = 0
2  
4 = 
3 =  = 6M  7M> 5>  = 0
3

4  4
16 = 16 =
 3  M  2> 1 = 0 

176. Find the joint equation of the pair of lines

2M 3>  2 = 0
4 
= 3 = 4
3
Solution:-

The required joint equation is

M  8M>  5>  = 0 is twice there product



M  2> 12M 3>  2 = 0
174. Find a if the sum of slope of lines represented by

M2M 3>  2  2>2M 3>  2


12M 3>  2 = 0
Solution:-

Let  
 be the slope of the lines given by
2M  3M>  2M  4M> 6>   4> 2M  3> 2 = 0
M   8M>  5>  = 0
2M   M> 6>   7> 2 = 0

passing through 2 , 3 and parallel to the co-


Comparing with 177. Find the joint equation of the pair of lines
M   2`M>  ]>  = 0

 =  , 2` = 8 , ] = 5
ordinate axes

 =  , ` = 4 , ] = 5
Solution:-

2` 
Since the lines are parallel to the co-ordinate axes
   = 
  =
] ]
then their equations are

> = 3 
M = 2 M 2 = 0 
> 3 = 0
24 
   = 
  =
5 5
8 
The required joint equation is

   = 
  = M 2> 3 = 0
5 5
M> 3M 2> + 6 = 0
   = 2  H- 

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


116

line M  3> 1 = 0 and other is perpendicular to


through the point 2 , 3 and perpendicular to the the line2M 3> 1 = 0
178. Find the joint equation of the line passing

3M  2> 1 = 0andM 3>  2 = 0


line
Solution:-

Let  
 be the slope of the lines one is parallel to
M  3> 1 = 0 and other is perpendicular to the
Solution:-

Let  
 be the slope of the two lines line 2M 3>= 0
perpendicular to 3M  2> 1 = 0 and M 3>  2 =
0  = [,G=- GI ,H - M  3> 1 = 0

1 1
 =  =
[,G=- GI ,H - 3M  2> 1 = 0 3
1
1 2  =
 =  = [,G=- GI ,H - 2M 3> 1 = 0 
3 3
2
1 3
 =  =
1 2 2
 = 3
[,G=- GI ,H - M 3> + 2 = 0 

1
 =  = 3
Use the formula
1 > > = M M 
3

the point 1 , 2 and having slope  = and



Use the formula The equation of line first and second line passing through

> > = M M 
 =  is

1 3
the point 2 , 3 and having slope  = and > 2 = M + 1 
> 2 = M + 1

The equation of line first and second line passing through

3 2
 = 3 is
3> 6 = M 1 
2> 4 = 3M 3
2
> 3 = M 2 
> 3 = 3M 2 M + 3> 5 = 0 
3M + 2> 1 = 0
3

3> 9 = 2M 4 
> 3 = 3M + 6 The required joint equation is

2M 3> + 5 = 0 
3M + > 9 = 0 M + 3> 53M + 2> 1 = 0

M3M + 2> 1 + 3>3M + 2> 1


53M + 2> 1 = 0
The required joint equation is

2M 3> + 53M + > 9 = 0


3M  + 2M> M + 9M> + 6>  3> 15M 10>
6M + 2M> 18M 9M> 3> + 27> + 15M + 5>
 
+5=0
45 = 0
3M  + 11M> + 6>  16M 13> + 5 = 0
6M 7M> 3> 3M + 32> 45 = 0
 

180. Find the joint equation of the pair of lines

through the point 1 , 2 and parallel to the


179. Find the joint equation of the line passing
lines represented by 5M  8M>  3>  = 0
through the origin which are perpendicular to the

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


117

8 5
M   M>  >  = 0
3 3
Solution:-

Let  
 be the slope of the lines given by
3M   8M>  5>  = 0
5M 8M>  3> = 0 .1
 
181. Find the joint equation of the pair of lines

lines represented by 5M   2M> 3>  = 0


Comparing with through the origin which are perpendicular to the

M   2M>  >  = 0

 = 5 , 2 = 8 , = 3
Solution:-

Let  
 be the slope of the lines given by
 = 5 , = 4 , = 3
5M   2M> 3>  = 0 .1
We know that

2 
   = 
  =
Comparing with
M   2M>  >  = 0
24
   =  = 5 , 2 = 2 , = 3
3
8  = 5 , = 1 , = 3
   = 2
3
5
We know that

  = 3 2 
3    = 
  =

21
   =
The slope of the lines perpendicular to equation 1 is

1 1 3


  2
   = 2
3
5
They passing through the origin their equations are

1 1   = 3
>= M 
> = M 3
 

 > = M 
 > = M
The slope of the lines perpendicular to equation 1 is

1 1
M   > = 0 
M   > = 0 

 
Their joint or combine equation is They passing through the origin their equations are
M   >M   > = 0 1 1
>= M 
> = M
 
MM   >   >M   > = 0
 > = M 
 > = M
M    M>   M>    >  = 0
M   > = 0 
M   > = 0
M      M>    >  = 0
Their joint or combine equation is

M   >M   > = 0
Use equation 2 and 3

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


118

MM   >   >M   > = 0  > = M 


 > = M

M    M>   M>    >  = 0 M   > = 0 


M   > = 0

M      M>    >  = 0 Their joint or combine equation is

Use equation 2 and 3 M   >M   > = 0

2 5 MM   >   >M   > = 0


M   M> >  = 0
3 3
M    M>   M>    >  = 0
3M  2M> 5> = 0
 

M      M>    >  = 0
182. Find the joint equation of the pair of lines

lines represented by M   4M> 5>  = 0


through the origin which are perpendicular to the Use equation 2 and 3

4 1
M   M> >  = 0
5 5

5M   4M> >  = 0
Solution:-

Let  
 be the slope of the lines given by

M   4M> 5>  = 0 .1
183. Find the joint equation of the pair of lines

lines represented by 2M  3M> 9>  = 0


through the origin which are perpendicular to the
Comparing with

M   2M>  >  = 0 Solution:-

 = 1 , 2 = 4 , = 5 Let  
 be the slope of the lines given by

 = 1 , = 2 , = 5 2M  3M> 9>  = 0 .1

We know that Comparing with

2  M   2M>  >  = 0
   = 
  =

 = 2 , 2 = 3 , = 9
22
   = 3
5  = 2 , = , = 9
2
4
   = 2
5 We know that

1 2 
  = 3    = 
  =
5
3
2 2
   =
The slope of the lines perpendicular to equation 1 is

1 1 9


  1
   = 2
3
2
They passing through the origin their equations are

1 1   = 3
>= M 
> = M 9
 

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


119

2 
   = 
  =

The slope of the lines perpendicular to equation 1 is

1 1

1
  2
   = 2
1

   = 1 2
They passing through the origin their equations are

1 1
>= M 
> = M
    = 1 3
 > = M 
 > = M The slope of the lines perpendicular to equation 1 is
M   > = 0 
M   > = 0 1 1


 
Their joint or combine equation is

M   >M   > = 0
They passing through the origin their equations are

1 1
MM   >   >M   > = 0 >= M 
> = M
 
M    M>   M>    >  = 0
 > = M 
 > = M
M     M>    > = 0
 
M   > = 0 
M   > = 0
Use equation 2 and 3

1 2
Their joint or combine equation is

M  M> >  = 0 M   >M   > = 0


3 9

9M  3M> 2  MM   >   >M   > = 0


> =0
9 9 9 M    M>   M>    >  = 0
9M  3M> 2>  = 0
M      M>    >  = 0
184. Find the joint equation of the pair of lines
Use equation 2 and 3

lines represented by M   M> >  = 0 M   M> >  = 0


through the origin which are perpendicular to the

Solution:- 185. Find the joint equation of the pair of lines

Let  
 be the slope of the lines given by
lines represented by M   2M>  >  = 0
through the origin which are perpendicular to the

M   M> >  = 0 .1
Solution:-

Let  
 be the slope of the lines given by
Comparing with

M  2M>  > = 0
 
M   2M>  >  = 0 .1
 = 1 , 2 = 1 , = 1 2 
   = 
  =
1
 = 1 , = , = 1
2 The slope of the lines perpendicular to equation 1 is
We know that

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


120

1 1

[,G=- GI ,H - ]  .  30
  2

They passing through the origin their equations are [,G=- GI ,H - ]   EG. 30  3

1 1
>= M 
>  M
 
The equation of line OA and OB is

>  3M ; >  3M



 >  M 
 >  M
3M >  0 ; 3
3M  >  0
=0
M   >  0 
M   > 
The joint equation of line OA and OB is

3M >3M  >  0
Their joint or combine equation is

M   >M   >
>  0
3M  >   0
MM   >   >M   >  0

M    M>   M>    >   0


187. Find the joint equation of the pair of lines

with the line 3M  >  6  0.


through the origin and making an angles /6
M      M>    >   0

2 
M   M> >   0

Solution:-

M 2M> >  0
Let OA and OB be two lines passing through the
  origin makes an angle of /6 with the line

186. Find the joint equation of the pair of lines 3M  > 6  0

[,G=- GI ,H -  3

with the line > = 3
through origin making an n equilateral triangle

Let slope OA or OB is m
Solution :-
.- -YX.HG GI  Gi ] H[ >
 M    1

We know that

 
. 2 
1   

2  ,   ,
  3
6
3
. 
The line OA and OB passing through the origin form

6 1  3
an equilateral triangle with line y=3

1 3

The inclination of line OA is 600

3 1  3
[,G=- GI ,H -   . 60  3
[YXiH G. [H
-[
[H
-[
The inclination of the line OB is 1200
1 3 
[,G=- GI ,H - ]  . 120^ 
3 1  3

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


121

1 3 = 3  3 1 2  3
=
3 2 3
1 6  9 = 3  6  9
[YXiH G. [H
-[
1 6  9 = 3  18  27
1 2  3 
6 24 26 = 0
 =
3 2 3
>
IiG -YX.HG 1 = 2 3 = 32  3
M
4 12  9 = 34  12  9
>  24>
6  26 = 0
M M 4 12  9 = 12  36  27
6>  24M> 26M  = 0
3  48  23 = 0

HH
-
G. [H
-[ > 2 >
IiG -YX.HG 1 =
M
3>   12M>  13M  = 0
>  48>
13M  12M> 3> = 0
  3   23 = 0
M M

3>   48M>  23M  = 0


through the origin and making an angles 30^
188. Find the joint equation of the pair of lines

with the line 3M  2> 11 = 0. 23M   48M>  3>  = 0

189. Show that the lines M  4M>  >  = 0 and the


line M  > = 10 form an equilateral triangle find
Solution:-

Let OA and OB be two lines passing through the its area


origin makes an angle of /6 with the line

3M  2> 11 = 0
Solution:-

3
[,G=- GI ,H - =
The given homogeneous equation is

2 M  4M>  >  = 0

Let slope OA or OB is m
HH
-
G. [H
-[ > M 

.- -YX.HG GI  Gi ] H[ > > >


= M 1 14   =0
M M
>  >
4 1 = 0
M M
We know that

 
. 2 =
1     4E
M=
2
3
2 = 30^ ,  = ,  =
2 > 4 16 4 1 1
=
3 M 21
2
. 30 =
^
> 4 16 4
3
1 2 =
M 2

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


122

> 4 12 4 23 33 1
= = . 2 = = 3
M 2 2 3 1
>
= 2 3 . 2 = 3
M
2 = 60^
> = 2  3M ; > = 2 3M
The two angles of triangle are 600
2  3M > = 0 ; 2 3M > = 0
M  4M>  >  = 0and the line M  > = 10 form
[,G=- GI ,H -[  = 2  3 an equilateral triangle

 = 2 3 To find area of equilateral triangle

1
-YXH,.-i, .iH ,- = =
3
The slope of given equation of line

M  > = 10is

= 1
Where p is a perpendicular distance from origin to

M  > = 10
the line

 

Let 1 be the angle between the lines having slope
1 0  0 10 
-YXH,.-i, .iH ,- = Q R
 3 2
. 2 =
1  
1 100
-YXH,.-i, .iH ,- =
2  3  1 3 2
. 2 = 50
1  2  31 = [Y. X H.
3
3  3
. 2 = 190. Show that the lines M  4M>  >  = 0 and the
1 3
line M  > = 6 form an equilateral triangle find
31  3
. 2 = = 3
its area
1  3 Solution:-

. 2 = 3 The given homogeneous equation is

2 = 60^ M  4M>  >  = 0


HH
-
G. [H
-[ > M 
 and
Let 2 be the angle between the lines having slopes

> >
 14   =0
. 2 = M M
1  
>  >
4 1 = 0
2 3  1 M M
. 2 =
1  2 31
 4E
M=
3 3 2
. 2 =
1  3 > 4 16 4 1 1
=
M 21
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
123

> 4 16 4 3 3
= . 2 =
M 2 1  3

> 4 12 4 23 33 1
= = . 2 = = 3
M 2 2 3 1
>
= 2 3 . 2 = 3
M

> = 2  3M ; > = 2 3M 2 = 60^

The two angles of triangle are 600


2  3M > = 0 ; 2 3M > = 0
M  4M>  >  = 0and the line M  > = 6 form
[,G=- GI ,H -[  = 2  3

 = 2 3
an equilateral triangle

To find area of equilateral triangle

1
-YXH,.-i, .iH ,- = =
The slope of given equation of line

M  > = 10is 3

= 1
Where p is a perpendicular distance from origin to

M  > = 10
the line

 

Let 1 be the angle between the lines having slope

1
0  0 6
 -YXH,.-i, .iH ,- = U V
. 2 = 3 2
1  
1 6
2  3  1 -YXH,.-i, .iH ,- =
. 2 = 3 2
1  2  31 3
= [Y. X H.
3
3  3
. 2 =
1 3 -YXH,.-i, .iH ,- = 3 [Y. X H.

31  3
. 2 = = 3
1  3
191. Find the joint equation of the pair of lines

with the line M = 3


through origin making an equilateral triangle

. 2 = 3

2 = 60 ^
Solution:-

an equilateral triangle with the line M = 3


The line OA and OB passing through the origin form

 and
Let 2 be the angle between the lines having slopes

.- H E,H .HG GI ,H -  H[ 30^



. 2 =
1  

2 3  1
. 2 =
1  2 31

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


124

Since the line given by M   2M>  >   0 form an


equilateral triangle with the line ,M  >  1

2 
3

2 
. 
3 

1 2 
[,G=- GI  = . 30^  3 
3 
1 [YXiH G. [H
-[
[H
-[
.-
-YX.HG GI ,H - 
 H[ >  M
3

2 
3>  M ; M 3
3>  0 3
  

3    4 

The line OB makes an angle of 1500

[,G=- GI ] = . 150^ 
3  2     4
4  4

[,G=- GI ]  .  60^ 3  6  3   4
4  4
2
1 3  10  3   4
[,G=- GI ]  EG. 60  ^
3
3  9    3
  4

  3
3  3   3  4
The equation of line OB is

1
> M ; 3>  M   33   4
4 0
3

M  3>  0
GENERAL EQUATION OF STRAIGHT LINE

M   2M>  >   2M  2I>  E  0


The equation
The joint equation of line OA and OB is

M 3>M  3>  0

Represented a pair of lines if

M  3>   0 I  0
I E
If the line given by M   2M>
M>  >   0 form
an equilateral triangle with the line ,M  >  1
192. 193. Show that the equation

then show that 3    3 4  0 3M   8M>  5>  2M 4> 1  0represent pairs of
lines . Find the angle between them
Solution:-
Solution:-

equation M   2M>  >   0 then


if is the angle between the lines represented by the
The given equation is

2  3M   8M>  5>  2M 4> 1  0 1


. 2 

Comparing with

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


125

M   2M>  >   2M  2I>  E = 0  = 2, 2 = 1, = 1, 2 = 1, 2I = 4 E = 3

 = 3, 2 = 8, = 5, 2 = 2, 2I = 4 E = 1 1 1
 = 2, = , = 1, = , I = 2, E = 3
2 2
 = 3, = 4, = 5, = 1, I = 2, E = 1
To show that equation 1 represented pair of lines


To show that equation 1 represented pair of lines

 H. -. .G [G .. I = 0
H. -. .G [G .. I = 0 I E
I E 
 <. `. a. = I
<. `. a. = I I E
I E 1 1
3 4 1 2
2 2
<. `. a. =  4 5 2 1
1 2 1 <. `. a. = 1 2
5 2 4 2 4 5 2
<. `. a. = 3 L L 4L L 1L L 1
2 1 1 1 1 2 2 3
2
<. `. a. = 35 4 44 2 18  5 1 1
<. `. a. = 27  24  3 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 1
<. `. a. = 27  27 = 0 <. `. a. = 2 L L 
2 3 2 1 2 1
<. `. a. = . `. a. 3 2
2 2
YX.HG 1 i-=i-[- .  =Hi GI ,H -[ 1 3 1 1
<. `. a. = 23 4 1  1 
2 2 2 2
5 3
2  <. `. a. = 2  
To find the angle

. 2 = 4 4

<. `. a. = 2  2 = 0
24 3 5 <. `. a. = . `. a.
. 2 =  
35 YX.HG 1 i-=i-[- .  =Hi GI ,H -[
216 15
. 2 = 2 
8
To find the angle

. 2 =
1 1 
. 2 = =
4 4 1 
1 22 21
2 = .  . 2 =
4 21

. 2 = |3|
194. Show that the equation

2M   M> >   M  4> 3 = 0represent pairs of 2 = . 3

12M   2M>  2>   11M 5>  2 = 0


lines . Find the angle between them 195. Find the value of k if the equation
Solution:-

aG,X.HG : The given equation is


represent pairs of lines
The given equation is

2M   M> >   M  4> 3 = 0 1 12M   2M>  2>   11M 5>  2


= 01
Comparing with

M   2M>  >   2M  2I>  E = 0


Comparing with

M   2M>  >   2M  2I>  E = 0

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


126

 = 12, 2 = 2, = 2, 2 = 11, 2I = 5,  = 2, 2 = 1, = 3, 2 = 4, 2I = ,
E=2 E = 6

11 5 1
 = 12, = , = 2, = ,I = ,E = 2  = 2, = , = 3, = 2, I = , E = 6
2 2 2 2

the equation 1 represented pair of lines The equation 1 represented pair of lines

 
I = 0 I = 0
I E I E
11 1
12 2 2
2 2
5 1
2 =0 3 =0
2 2 2
11 5
2 2 6
2 2 2
5 5 1
2 2 3 1 3
12 2 2  11 11 5 2 2 1 2
5 11 2 2 2 2  2
=0
2 2 2 2 6 2 6 2
2 2 2 2
=0  1
2 18 3   2  6 = 0
25 55 11 2 4 2 4
12 4 2   11 5
3
4 4 2

2 2 36     12 = 0
=0 2 2 2 2
2 99 = 0

9 8  55 11 5
12  11 = 0  11  9 = 0
4 4 2 2
108 8  55 55 242 = 0 11 = 0 Gi  9 = 0
= 11 Gi = 9
8  110 350 = 0

HH
-
G. [H
-[ > 2 1 
 = 23


4   55  175 = 0 2
1 25
4   20  35  175 = 0 = 6= 0
4 4
4  5  35  5 = 0 G ,H -[ i- G. =i,,-,
4  35  5 = 0
<H -[ i- H .-i[-E.H
4  35 = 0 ;  5 = 0
35
= Gi = 5 2M   4M> =>   4M  Y>  1 = 0represents a
197. Find p and q, if the equation

4
pair of lines perpendicular to each other
2M   M> 3>   4M  > 6 = 0 represents pair
196. Find the value of k if the equation
Solution:-
The given equation is

2M   4M> =>   4M  Y>  1 = 0 1


of lines. Further find whether these lines are

aG,X.HG : -
parallel or intersecting

The given equation is ,H -[ i-=i-[- .[ > -YX.HG 1 i- perpendicular

2M   M> 3>   4M  > 6 = 0 1


to each other

EG-II. GI M    EG-II. GI >   = 0

2 = = 0 ; = = 2
Comparing with

M   2M>  >   2M  2I>  E = 0

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


127

Comparing with  = =, 2 = 8, = 3, 2 = 14, 2I = 2, E=Y

M   2M>  >   2M  2I>  E = 0  = 3, = 4, = 3, = 7, I = 1, E = Y

 = 2, 2 = 4, = =, 2 = 4, 2I = Y, The equation 1 represented pair of lines


E=1

Y I = 0
 = 2, = 2, = 2, = 2, I = , E = 1
2 I E
3 4 7
The equation 1 represented pair of lines
4 3 1 = 0
7 1 Y

3 1 4 1 4 3
I = 0 3 4  7L L=0
1 Y 7 Y 7 1
I E
33Y 1  44Y 7  74 21 = 0
2 2 2
Y 9Y  3 16Y 28 175 = 0
2 2 2 = 0 25Y 200 = 0
Y 25Y = 200
2 1
2 Y = 8
Y
2 Y 2 2
2 Y 2 2 2 2  2 2 Y = 0 2M  4M>  =>   4M  8>  Y = 0represents a pair

199. Find p and q, if the equation

1 2 1 2
2
Y
of lines perpendicular to each other

2 2 22 Y  2Y  4 = 0
4
Solution:-

Y
The given equation is

4 4  2Y  2Y  8 = 0 2M   4M>  =>   4M  8>  Y = 0 1


2
Y 
 4Y = 0 ,H -[ i-=i-[- .[ > -YX.HG 1 i- perpendicular to
2
YY 8 = 0
each other
Y = 0 ; Y 8 = 0 EG-II. GI M    EG-II. GI >   = 0
Y = 0 ; Y = 8
2  = = 0 ; = = 2
=M 8M>  3>   14M  2>  Y = 0represents a pair

198. Find p and q, if the equation

Comparing with

M   2M>  >   2M  2I>  E = 0


of lines perpendicular to each other
Solution:-

 = 2, 2 = 4, = =, 2 = 4, 2I = 8, E=Y
The given equation is

=M 8M>  3>  14M  2>  Y = 0 1


 
 = 2, = 2, = 2, = 2, I = 4, E = Y
,H -[ i-=i-[- .[ > -YX.HG 1 i- perpendicular
to each other The equation 1 represented pair of lines

EG-II. GI M    EG-II. GI >   = 0 


I = 0
=  3 = 0 ; = = 3 I E
2 2 2
2 2 4 = 0
2 4 Y
Comparing with

M   2M>  >   2M  2I>  E = 0 2 4 2 4 2 2


2 2 2L L=0
4 Y 2 Y 2 4
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
128

22Y 16 22Y 8  28  4 = 0


4Y 32 4Y  16  24 = 0
Solution: -

8Y  8 = 0
The given equation is

8Y = 8 ; Y = 1 2M   3M> 2>  5M  5> 3 = 0 1

=M 12M>  9>   16M  Y>  7 = 0represents



200. Find p and q, if the equation
Comparing with

a pair of lines parallel to each other M   2M>  >   2M  2I>  E = 0

 = 2, 2 = 3, = 2, 2 = 5, 2I = 5,
Solution:-

E = 3
The given equation is

=M  12M>  9>   16M  Y>  7


3 5 5
= 01  = 2, = , = 2, = , I = , E = 3
2 2 2

Theequation 1 represented pair of lines


Comparing with

M  2M>  >  2M  2I>  E = 0


 

 = =, 2 = 12, = 9, 2 = 16, 2I = Y, I = 0
I E
E=7

Y <. `. a. = I
 = =, = 6, = 9, = 8, I = ,E = 7
2 I E
3 5
The equation 1 represented pair of parallel lines 2
3 2 2
  = 0 ; 6 9= = 0 5
<. `. a. = 2
2 2
36 = 9= ; = = 4 5 5
3
2 2
 5 3 5
2 3
I = 0
<. `. a. = 2 2 2 2
I E 5 2 5
3 3
4 6 8 2 2
Y 3
6 9 2 = 0 5 2 2
Y
8 7 2 5 5
2
2 2
Y 25 3 9 25
9 Y 6 9 <. `. a. = 2 6 
4 Y 2  6 6 2  8 8 Y = 0 4 2 2 4
7 8 7 2 5 15
2 5
Y 2 4
4 63  642 4Y  83Y 72 1 21 25
4 <. `. a. = 
2 8 8
=0 1 4 1 1
252 Y  252 24Y 24Y 576 = 0 <. `. a. =  =  = 0
2 8 2 2
Y  48Y 576 = 0
Y   48Y  576 = 0
Equation 1represent the pair of lines

Y  24 = 0 ; Y = 24
To show that the lines are perpendicular to each
other

2M   3M>2>  5M  5> 3 = 0represents a EG-II. GI M    EG-II. GI >   = 0


201. Show that the equation

pair of lines perpendicular to each other <. `. a. = EG-II. GI M    EG-II. GI >  


Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
129

<. `. a. = 2 2 = 0  = 0 , 2 = , = 0 , 2 = 10, 2I = 6, E = 4

<. `. a. = . `. a.
 = 0 , = , = 0 , = 5, I = 3, E = 4
2
he equation 1 represent pair of perpendicular lines.

202. Find the value of k if the equation 3M  


Since equation 1 represent pair of lines if

10M>  3>   16>  = 0 represent pair of 


I = 0
I E
lines


0 5
Solution:-

2 =0
0 3
The given equation is

3M   10M>  3>   16>  = 0 1 2


5 3 4

3  5 

0 = 0
0 2
Comparing with

M   2M>  >   2M  2I>  E = 0 2 2


5 4 5 3
 = 3 , 2 = 10 , = 3 , 2 = 0, 2I = 16, E = 3
2 15  5 0 = 0
 = 3 , = 5 , = 3 , = 0, I = 8, E = 2 2
15 15
   = 0  + 15 = 0
2 2
Since equation 1 represent pair of lines if

  15 = 0
I = 0
I E = 0 
15= 0

3 5 0 = 0 
= 15
5 3 8 = 0
0 8 X. 0 = 15
3 8 5 8 5 3 204. Find the value of k if the equation M   3M> 
3L L 5L L 0L L=0
8 0 0 8
2>   M >  = 0 represent pair of lines
33 64 55 0  0 = 0

9 192 25 = 0 16 = 192
Solution:-

192
The given equation is
= = 12
16 M   3M>  2>   M >  = 0 1

203. Find the value of k if the equation M>  10M 


6>  4 = 0
Comparing with

M   2M>  >   2M  2I>  E = 0

 = 1 , 2 = 3 , = 2 , 2 = 1, 2I = 1, E =
Solution:-

3 1 1
 = 1 , = , = 2 , = , I = , E =
The given equation is

M>  10M  6>  4 = 0 1 2 2 2

M   2M>  >   2M  2I>  E = 0 Since equation 1 represent pair of lines if

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


130

 Y
2 4
I = 0 2
4 8 1  0
I E Y
1 15
3 1 2
1
2 2 4 1 Y Y4 8
3 1 8 1
2L L 4 Y 15
 1  0
2 0 1 15
2 2 2
2 2
1 1
Y Y
2 2 60  4 4Y  0
2120 1 4 60
2 2
1 3 1 3
2 3 1 2 242  240  2Y  2Y
2 2Y   0
1 2 2 2  2 0
1 2 1 2 1 1
2  4Y 2Y  0 2Y 2Y  1  0
2 2 2 2
1 3 3 1 1 3 Y  2Y  1  0 Y 1  0
2   1
1  0
4 2 2 4 2 4 Y1
1 9 3 3 1
2 0 ] is formed by the lines
4 4 8 8 2
206.

12 12 M  4M>  >   0and


0   6 line ABis 2M  3> 1  0. Find the equation of the
and the line AB. The equation of the
4 8 4 8
median of the triangle drawn from the origin

2M  8M>  =>   YM  2> 15  0represents a


205. Find p and q if the equation
 Solution:-
pair of parallel lines

Solution:-

The given equation is

2M   8M>  =>   YM  2> 15  0 .1

Comparing with

M   2M>  >   2M  2I>  E  0 AB be the given line

  2 , 2  8 ,  = , 2  Y, 2I  2, E  15 Let  M , >  and ] M , > 


Y
  2 ,  4 ,  = ,  ,I  1
1, E  15 OP is the median of ]
]
2

Equation 1 represents pair of parallel lines then


Point P is the midpoint of line AB

   16  2= =  8
By mid point formula

M  M >  >
,
2 2
Since equation 1 represent pair of lines if


I  0
To find the co-ordinate of point P

I E The given homogeneous equation is

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


131

M  4M>  >  = 0 . .1 M + M > + > 8 7


, ,
2 2 37 37
Given equation of line is

2M  3> 1 = 0 3> = 1 2M
The required equation of the median of triangle
drawn from the origin is
1 2M
>= .2
3
Using two point form
> > > >
=
Put in equation 1 M M M M

1 2M 1 2M  7
M  4M + =0 > 0 37 0 > 7
3 3 = =
M0 8
0 M 8
4M 8M  1 4M + 4M  37
M + =0
3 9 8> = 7M 7M 8> = 0

9M  4M 8M  1 4M + 4M 
3 + =0
9 9 9
**********************************************

9M  12M + 24M  + 1 4M + 4M 
=0
9

37M  16M + 1 = 0

This is a quadratic equation in M it has two roots say


M 
M

Sum of roots =

VECTORS

16 16
SENCTON FORMLA FOR INTERNAL DIVISION
M + M = =
37 37
vectors a and b and C divides seg. AB internally
If A and B are two points having positions

K:

in the ratio m:n, then c = where c is the
Divided both sides by 2

M + M 1 16 M + M 8
K:
= =
2 2 37 2 37
position vector of the point C

Mco-ordinate of point = = _
K ; @ Proof:


Point P lie on the line 2


A C B
Point P satisfies equation of line 2

M + M
> + > 1 2 2 acb
>= =
2 3
8
1 2 37 21
>= >=
3 3 37
O

7
>=
Since point C divided segment AB internally in the

37
ratio m:n then

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


132

, | = |]
| |
=
,]
= ]

, = ,]

]
 - G==G[H.-
Hi-E.HG
| = |]
| |
E  = E
= ]

E  =  E

]
 - [-
Hi-E.HG
E E = 
E  = E
E  = 
E  = E

HH
-
G. [H
-[ >
E  E =  
E  
=
E   =  


HH
-
G. [H
-[ >  
E =

E    
= H[ H[ [-E.HG IGiX, IGi -M.-i ,
HH[HG
 

 
E =

MID-POINT FORMULA
If a and b are position vector of points A and B, then
This is section formula for internal division
the position vector of the mid-point of C is

a + b
SENCTON FORMLA FOR EXTERNAL DIVISION
c =
2
vectors a and b and C divides seg. AB externally
If A and B are two points having positions

:
Proof: Since C is mid-point of segment AB then m=n

in the ratio m:n, then c = where c is the
:
+ 
E =
+
position vector of the point C

Proof: =X. =

 
E =
A B C


 
E =
2

 
E =
O

Since point C divided segment AB externally in the 2


ratio m:n then This is mid- point formula
,
=
,]
CENTROID FORMULA

, = ,]
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
133

If a , b and c are position vectors of vertices of let, ], E, = , Y  


i  are the
ABC then the position vector of the centroid G vertices of ] 
.

K5
K
of the triangle is given by g =
 
 i- E- .iGH
[ GI ] 

Proof: ]> E- .iGH
IGiX,
Aa    E
 
1
3
=  Y  i
2

Gg
 = 2
3
1  ]
To prove that   
= 3

 
Bb D d Cc
 ]
<. `. a =   

Let , ] 
E are the vertices of ]
<. `. a = =   Y  i E
Let
be the mid-point of side BC
<. `. a = =  Y  i     E
By mid-point formula

 E
From equation 1 and 2


 =  Y  i = 3

2
   E = 3

The centroid   divided segment AD internally in
the ratio 2:1 then by section formula for internal <. `. a = 3
 3


<. `. a = 3


division

2
 1
=
<. `. a = 3  
21

 E L. H. S = R. H. S.
2 2  1
=
21 208. If D,E,F are the mid-points of the sides BC, CA,

   E
and AB respectively of triangle ABC and if G is
=
3
 = 0

the centroid of triangle ABC then prove that

let, ] 
Eare the vertices of ].
This is centroid formula Solution:-

, 
Eare mid-point of sides BC,CA
PROBLEM ON MID-POINT FORMULA AND

and AB of ]
CENTROID FORMULA
]> H
=GH . IGiX,

 E E    

 , I =
207. If G1 and G2 are the centroids of the triangles
, - =
 ]
  
= 3

 
2 2 2
ABC and PQR then prove that

H[ .- E- .iGH
GI .iH ,- ] .-

   E
Solution:-

= 1
3

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


134


To prove that = 0
 210. Show that, If P, Q, R, S are the mid-point of the


<. `. a. =

sides of a quadrilateral ABCD. then prove that

<. `. a. =
  -   I
PQRS is a parallelogram by vector method.

Solution: let , ] , E 


are the
<. `. a. = 3
 -  I vertices of YX
iH,.-i, ].

, , , a i- H
=GH . GI [H
- ], ],CD
 E E    
<. `. a. = 3  
2 2 2
and DA.

2  2  2E
<. `. a. = 3
By using mid-point formula

2  
=
= ,
2
2   E  E E 

<. `. a. = 3 Y = , i = , [
2 2 2

 
<. `. a. = 3    E =
2
IiG -YX.HG 1    E = 3

<. `. a. = 3 3 = 0
To show that PQRS is a parallelogram

<. `. a. = . `. a.
i.e. to show that the opposite side of parallelogram

are equal

, = ,a 
,a = ,
the plane such that   ] = 0 then

209. If A,B,C and D are four non-collinear points in

prove that the point D is the centroid of G =iG- .. , = ,a

= a
H. -. .G =iG- ..
the].

Solution:- Let , , E 

i- .- position

= Y =

 E  

=
Vectors of the points A, B, C and D respectively

 ]
 = 0
 2 2

 E  E 

 

E = 0
= =
2 2
3
   E = 0 E 

= 1
2
3
=    E
= i [
a

HH
-
G. [H
-[ > 3
E 

 
=
a
   E 2 2

=
3
E 


=
a
This is the centroid formula 2
H[ E- .iGH
GI ] E 
=
a 2
2

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


135

From equation 1 and 2 We know that points Q, P and G are collinear then


PQ = SR

point G divides QP internally in the ratio 1:2by
section formula for internal division
lPQ = lSR 1=  2Y

similarly lPS = lQR 3

3 = =  2Y
PQRS is a parallelogram
To show that
= 3

<. `. a. =
211. If ABC is a triangle whose orthocenter is P and

PA
 PB
 PC
 2PQ <. `. a. = = Y
the circumcentre is Q then prove that

<. `. a. = 3 2Y Y
<. `. a. = 3 3Y
letAa, Bb and Ccare the vertices of ABC. let
Solution:-

<. `. a. = 3 Y 
p
and q are the position vector of the points P
<. `. a. = 3
and Q <. `. a. = . `. a.
We know that points Q, P and G are collinear then 213. Using vector method Prove that, a quadrilateral
point G divides QP internally in the ratio 1:2by is a rectangle if and only if the diagonals are
section formula for internal division congruent and bisect each other.
1= + 2Y
=
3
Solution:-

3 = =  2Y
Given:- a quadrilateral ABCD is a rectangle

To show that
 
]  = 2 To prove that :- The diagonals AC and BC bisect each

<. `. a. =  ]  other

<. `. a. =  =   =  E =  YX
iH,.-i, ] H[  i-E. ,-
<. `. a. =    E 3=
H[ E- .iGH
GI ]
   E equal and parallel. Let , , E 

are the
We know that the opposite sides of a rectangle are

 , 3 =    E
3
<. `. a. = 3 3=
position vectors of the points A, B,C and D

,] = ,
<. `. a. = =  2Y 3=
<. `. a. = 2Y 2= | = |
|] |
<. `. a. = 2Y = 

<. `. a. = 2 =
]
<. `. a. = . `. a.
 = E


=   E
212. If P is orthocenter, Q is cicumcentre and G is


= 3
centroid of triangle ABC then prove that


HH
-
G. [H
-[ > 2
let, ] 
Eare the vertices of ]. let
Solution:-


  E
=

Y are the position vector of the points P = = - [>
2 2
and Q

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


136

From the above equation the diagonal AC and BD P

vector -.
have the same mid-point say E having position
r

-diagonal AC and BD bisect each other


H q

quadrilateral is a rectangle then it diagonal


Q R

bisect each other p S

Conversely: |
p = |QR

Given: The diagonals AC and BC bisect each other  = i Y = 1 2 3 1 1 + 3


To prove that: a quadrilateral ABCD is a rectangle


 = 3 , | = 9 = 3
|

The diagonals AC and BC bisect each other |


Y = |

H. -. .-
HG ,  
] - .- [- H
= = i = 1 2  1 1  2  3

=GH .
= 4 ,
 | = 16 = 4
|
  E 

= |
i = |
2 2

  E = 
= Y = = 1  1 3 1  2 1

E
=  = 3 4 ,
| = 9  16 = 5
|


= ] h
31 2  1k  41  1 3k  51 2 3k
are parallel

] =
345
From the above equation

The opposite sides of a quadrilateral are parallel 12 12 24k


h =
and equal 12
- YX
iH,i-i, ] H[  i-E. ,-. = 2
214. Using vector method, find the incentre of a EG Gi
H .- GI ` 1, 1, 2

1, 2,1, 1,1, 3 


1, 2, 3.
triangle whose vertices are
PROBLEM ON SECTION FORMULA FOR

Solution: Let = , Y 
i are the position vectors of
INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL DIVISION

2  
 4 2 respectively. Find the
the points P,Q and R 215. The position vectors of the points P and Q are

= = 1 2  1
position vector i  and co-ordinate of the point R
Y = 1  1 3 which divides the line segment PQ internally in

i = 1 2 3
the ratio 2:1

<-. ` - .- H E- .i- GI then


Solution:-

let= 
Y are the position vectors of the points P
==  YY  ii

=Yi
and Q respectively

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


137

= = 2  , Y =  4 2 Let p
, q and r are the position vectors of the points

: = 2: 1
P,Q and R

= a + 2 1k
p

q = 5 + b + 2k
By using section formula for internal division

Y  =
i =
 r = 3 + + ck
2  4 2  1 2 
i = let Oobe the centroid of triangle PQR.
21
By centroid formula
3  6 3
i =
3 p
+ q + r
o =
3
i =  2 
 1,2, 1
o
a + 2 1k + 5 + b + 2k + 3 + + ck
=
216. Find the co-ordinates of the point which divides
3
4, 2,5 
]2,3,7 externally in the ratio
the line joining the points

a + 2 + 3 + b + 1 + ck
0 + 0 + 0k =
3
8:5

Solution: let  
are the position vectors of the
0 + 0 + 0k
a+2 3+b
points A and B respectively
= +
 = 4 2  5 , = 2  3  7 3 3
1+c
+ k
: = 8: 5 3
a+2 3+b 1+c
0= , 0= , 0=
3 3 3
Let point C divided segment AB externally in the ratio
8:5
a + 2 = 0 , 3 + b = 0 , 1+c=0
By using section formula for external division
a = 2 , b = 3 , c = 1
mb na
c =
mn
3,1,4 
]4, 5, 3 and the centroid of
82  3  7k 54 2  5k
218. If two vertices of a triangle are

c = the triangle is at 1, 2, 1 then find the co-


85

36  34  31k
ordinate of the third vertex C of the triangle

c =
3 Solution:-

34 31 Let , ] 
E are the vertices of ]
C 12 ,
3 3
To find the co-ordinate of the vertex C

,-. , , E
217. If the origin is the centroids of the triangle

Pa, 2, 1, Q5, b, 2 and R3,1, c find the


whose vertices are

 = 3 + 1 + 4 , = 4 + 5 3

E =  + + E , = + 2 +
values of a, b and c

Solution:-

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


138

  H[ .- E- .iGH
GI ] 5  8  0
Y  4 2  5
= 
1 1
4  =
By using centroid formula

   E 
= 1
3
Y  4 2  5 4  =
3  1  4  4  5 3     E 1
= 5,
1
= 8,
1
=0
=
3
Y  4 = 5  5 1
 2 
1    6    1  E 2  5 = 8  8 2
=
3
4  = = 0 3
 2 
1   6
= 
From equation 3
3 3 3 1
1E 2 8 = 8 5 ; 6 = 3; = =
 6 2
3
1
1   6 1E =
= 1, = 2, =1 2
3 3 3

1   = 3, 6  = 6, 1E =3
The value of k is negative therefore the point C

 = 2 , = 0, E=2
divides the line AB externally in the ratio 1:2

EG Gi
H .- GI .Hi-
-i.-M 2, 0, 2
To find the value of p and q

1
=X. = H -YX.HG 1
219. If three points 4, 5, =, ]Y, 2, 4 
2
5, 8, 0arecollinear then find Y 5
H The ratio in which the point C divides the line AB 4= 5
2 2
HH The values of p and q
Y 5
4=
Solution: Let , ] 
E are the three 2 2
Y 5
= 4
2 2
collinear points

 = 4  5  = , = Y  2  4
Y 3
E = 5  8  0 , = , Y = 3
2 2
1
=X. = H -YX.HG 3
2
Let the point C divide segment AB in the ratio k:1

1
4  = = 0 , 2  = = 0
Then by section formula

Y  2  4  14  5  = 2
E =
1
==2
5  8  0
Y  4  2  5  4  =
=
220. Find the co-ordinates of the point which divides

1
3, 4, 1 
]6, 2, 4
the line segment joining the points

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


139

H Internally in the ratio 2:3 = = 3  16  11


HH Externally in the ratio 2:3
- co-ordinate of the point P are 3, 16, 11

221. If 2  3E = 0 then prove that the points


Solution:-

let point E divides segment AB internally in the , ] 


Eare collinear. Hence find the
ratio 2:3 ratio in which the point A divides the line BC

 = 3  4 , = 6 2  4 Solution: -

Where  
are position vectors of the points A the given vector equation is

2  3E = 0
and B respectively By section formula for internal

2 = 3E
division

 
E =

HH
-
G. [H
-[ > 2
26 2  4  33  4
E = 3E 3E 1
23  = =
2 31
21  8  5
E = point A divides line BC externally. Hence points A, B
5
21 8 5
and C are collinear

E =  
5 5 5
Point A divides line BC externally in the ratio 3:1

2 8
E =  
5 5
Collinear vectors: One of the vector can be
expressed as a scalar multiple of other then the

- co-ordinate of the point C are $ , $ , 1


 @
vectors are collinear.
Coplanar vectors: One of the vector can be

HHlet point =  divides segment AB externally in


expressed as a linear combination another two

Theorem: Two non-zero vectors  


are
vectors then the three vectors are coplanar
the ratio 2:3

 = 3  4 , = 6 2  4

scalar m and n such that   = 0


collinear if and only if there exist a nonzero

Where  
are position vectors of the points A
Proof: If part:

Given: Two non-zero vectors  


are collinear.
and B respectively By section formula for
external division


= =

and n such that   = 0
To prove that: if there exist a nonzero scalar m

26 2  4 33  4
= = Two non-zero vectors  
are collinear.
23

12 4  8 9 12  3  G T-iG [E,i [XE ..  =


= =
1
 = 0 , 1   = 0
3 16  11
= = H = 1, =
1

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


140

  = 0 We choose O as a origin

Conversely: Only if part: ,-.  = ,


=  . 0]
 = i

that   = 0
Given: if there exist a nonzero scalar m and n such We complete the parallelogram by drawing the lines
parallel to OA and OB through the point R

To prove that: Two non-zero vectors  


are From fig. by using triangle law for vector addition


= 
 
collinear

IiG IH.
 =
if there exist a nonzero scalar m and n such that

  = 0

 =
 =
and lie along the same line


0
HH
-
G. [H
-[ >


are collinear then there exist non-zero
scalar M [XE .. = M
= M
 =

and lie along the same line

]

 = -i- =

]
are collinear then there exist non-zero
 E - -M=i-[[ [  [E,i X,.H=,- GI scalar > [XE .. = >
= >]

.-  
are collinear  >]
 = M

FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM OF LINEAR i = M  >

Thus i can be expressed as a linear combination


and
COMBINATION OF VECTORS IN PLANE

Theorem: If a and b are two non-zero non


Uniqueness: To show that the representation

i = M  > is unique
any vector r coplanar with them can be uniquely
collinear vectors, lying in the same plane then

expressed as a linear combination of a and b. i.e.


there exist scalar x and y such that If possible that i = M   > where M 
> are
r = xa + yb scalar

Proof: We show that M = M 


> = >

B M  > = M   >
Q R M M  = > >
r M M  = > >

Suppose M M , divided both sides by M M 

M M  > >
=
P
O A

M M M M
> >
 =
M M
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
141

> > M, >, Tnot


not all zero simultaneously [XE ..
 = -i- =
M M
M  >  TE  0
Vector  can be expressed as a scalar multiple of
vector therefore  
collinear. TE  M  >

Which is contradiction to the fact that  


are ,-. T  0 ,
HH
-
G. [H
-[ > T

TE M  >

non-zero non collinear vectors.

Our assumption that M M is wrong T T


M >
M = M [HH,i,> >
> = > 
E    
T T
.- EGH .HG i  M  >is unique M >
H   ,

T T

combination of  
. E   
vectori can be uniquely expressed as a linear

Thus E can be expressed as a linear combination of



, , E are coplanar if and only if there exist  

Theorem: Three non-zero, zero, non
non-collinear vectors

scalar M, >, T not all zero simultaneously


, , E
are coplanar
[XE .. M  >  TE = 0
Theorem: If , , E
are three non-zero non-
coplanar vectors then any vector i in the space

Proof: If part:

Given: vectors , , E are coplanar can be uniquely expressed as a linear

To prove that: there exist scalar M, >


>, T not all zero M  >  TE . whereM,
where >, T i- [E,i[.
combination

simultaneously [XE .. M  >  TE  0

, , Eare coplanar
Proof:

Eccan
 

an be express as a linear combination of

[E,-i[ 
[XE
[XE ..

E   

   E  0
Let   .
= i ,  = E
 ,
0]
H  M,  >, 1  T

M  >  TE  0
Since the lines OA, OB, and OC are non-coplanar
non they
determine three planes AOB,BOC and COA.
Conversely: Only if part:

Given: there exist scalar M, >, T not all zero


Trough the point P draw the plane parallel to the

simultaneously [XE .. M  >  TE  0


plane BOC, COA and AOB intersect the line OA,
OB and OC in points L,M and N

To prove that: , , E are coplanar From fig.

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


142


= Vector  can be expressed as a linear combination of

E. Therefore , , E
are coplanar
 <
= <
 
Which is contradiction to the fact that  , , E
are non-
]X. IiG IH.
< =

= <



zero non-coplanar vectors.

Our assumption that M M is wrong


H IiG IH. =
= < z
M = M [HH,i,> > = > , T = T

= < 
z
.- EGH .HG i = M  >  TEis unique


< and lie along the same line


< 
are collinear then there exist non-zero combination of  , 
E .
vectori can be uniquely expressed as a linear

= M
scalar M [XE .. < = M
Show that the points 5, 5, 2, ]1, 3, 0
and lie along the same line

]
222.

1, 2 1are collinear.


and


]
are collinear then there exist non-zero
= >
= >]
scalar > [XE .. Solution: let , , E
are the position vectors of the points

and lie along the same line


z 

A, B and C respectively then

 = 5 5  2

z 
are collinear then there exist non-zero
scalar T [XE .. z = TE
= T = 3  0

i = M  >  TE . E = 2

Uniqueness: To show that the representation


i = M  >  TE . is unique
To show that A, B and C are collinear



i.e. to show ] lie along the same line
If possible that i = M   >  T E where = 
]
M , > 
T are scalar
= 3  0 5 5  2
]
We show that M = M , > = > 
T = T
= 3  0 5  5 2
]
M  >  TE = M   >  T E
= 4  2 2
]
M M  = > >  T E TE
= 22  1
]
M M  = > >  T TE
= E 

Suppose M M , divided both sides by M M 
= 2 5 5  2

M M  > > T TE
= 
M M M M M M = 2 5  5 2

> > T T
 =  E = 6  3 3

M M M M
> > T T = 32  2

 =  E -i- = , =
M M M M

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


143

From equation 1 and 2 i = M  >  TE

1 1 Where M, > 
T i- [E,i[
= 
]
2 3
3  
2
= 
] = M4 
3
 >3 3  5
can be expressed as a scalar multiple of 
]  T2


] are collinear. A is the common point 3   = 4M  M M 3> 3>  5>

he points A, B and C are collinear 2T T T


223. If  H[ 1,0,5 and ]2, 1, 4 then find AB 3  

and the unit vector along the direction of ] = 4M 3>  2T
 M 3> T
Solution: let , , are the position vectors of the
 M  5> T

4M 3>  2T = 3 1
points A and B respectively then

 =  0  5
M 3> T = 1 2
= 2  4
M  5> T = 1 3
= 
]

= 2  4  0  5
]
Using Cramers solve equation 1,2 and 3

4 3 2
= 2  4  0 5
] =  1 3 1
1 5 1
= 3
]
= 43  5  31 1  25 3
| = 9  1  1 = 11
] = |]
= 32 6  4 = 30

Let be the unit vector along the direction of ] 3 3 2
= 1 3 1

] 1
= = 1 5 1
| 11 3
|]
= 33  5  31  1  25  3
224. Express the vector 3   as a linear = 24  16
combination of the vectors 4  ,
= 40
3 3  5and2
4 3 2
=  1 1 1
1 1 1
Solution:-

leti = 3  
= 41  1 31 1  21  1
 = 4  ,
= 6  4 = 10
= 3 3  5 ,E = 2
4 3 3
=  1 3 1
1 5 1
Consider

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


144

= 43 5  31  1  3 5 3 M >  T = 3 2

= 32  6  6 = 20 4M  3> 2T = 4 3

40 4
M= = =
30 3
Using Cramers solve equation 1,2 and 3

2 2 3
10 1 =  1 1 1 
>= = =
30 3 4 3 2

20 2 = 22 3 22  4  33 4


T= = =
30 3
= 2 4 3 = 9
4 1 2
i =    E 1 2 3
3 3 3
= 3 1 1 
225. Express the vector 3  4 as a linear 4 3 2
combination of the vectors 2  4 , = 12 3 26 4  39  4
2  and3  2 = 1 4 15

Solution:- = 18

leti = 3  4 2 1 3
=  1 3 1 
 = 2  4 4 4 2

= 2  3 ,E = 3  2 = 26 4  12  4  34 12

= 4  2 24 = 18

2 2 1
Consider

i = M  >  TE
=  1 1 3
Where M, > 
T i- [E,i[ 4 3 4

= 24  9 24 12 1 3 4


3  4
= M2  4 = 10  16  1 = 27
 >2  3
18
 T3  2 M=

=
9
=2

3  4 18
>= = =2
= 2M  M 4M  2> > 9
 3> 27
T= = = 3
3T  T 2T 9

i = 2  2  3E


3  4
= 2M  2>  3T If , , E
are the position vectors of the points A,
 M >  T B and C where 1, 3, 0, ]2, 5, 0,
226.

 4M  3> 2T 4, 2, 0 


E = M  >, then find M 
>

2M  2>  3T = 1 1 Solution:-

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


145

, , E
are the position vectors of the points A, B and C  2E = M 2>  2M  3>
 3M 4>E
 =  3  0
M 2> = 0 , 2M  3> = 1, 3M 4> = 2
= 2  5  0 ,E = 4  2  0
M = 2> 4>  3> = 1 , > = 1 , > = 1
E = M  >
M =21=2
4  2  0 = M  3  0  >2  5  0
i = 2=  1Y
4  2  0 = M  3M  2>  5>
i can be expressed as a linear combination of
4  2 = M  2>  3M  5> = 
Y

M  2> = 4 1 = , Y 
i are coplanar

3M  5> = 2 2 228. If  =  2 , = 2  

E = 3 then find the scalars m and n such that


E =  
Solve equation 1 and 2 for x and y

-Y . 1 3 3M  6> = 12
E =  
3M  5> = 2
Solution:

3 =  2  2 

3 =  2  2 
- -

> = 10
3 =   2      2  
=X. > = 10 H -YX.HG 1
 2 = 3 , = 0 , 2  = 1
M  20 = 4 ; M = 4 20
= ,  2 = 3, 3 = 3, =1
M = 16
=1
227. If , , E
are non-zero, non-coplanar vectors,
show that the vectors  2  3E ,
2  3 4E 
 2Eare coplanar
APPLICATION OF VECTORS

Solution: let = =  2  3E , Y = 2  3 4E
Using vector methods prove that the angle
in a semicircle is a right angle.

i =  2E Proof:

To show that = , Y , 
i are coplanar i.e. to show Draw the circle with center at origin and radius is r.

the circle with position vectors a and b


that one of the vector can be express as a scalar let A and B are the end points of diameter AB of
multiple of another two vectors

[E,i M 
> [XE .. i = M=  >Y

 2E = M 2  3E
 >2  3 4E

 2E = M 2M  3ME 2>  3>


4>E
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
146

The median of a trapezium is parallel to parallel


sides of the trapezium and its length is half of
the sum of the parallel sides.

Proof

IiG IH. , = ,] = ,  i


HX[
=i

| = |]
| | = |
| = |i |

|| = = |E| = |i |

Let CE be the point on the circle. Let  , , E ,


are the position vectors of the vertices

]
To show that 
of the trapezium ABCD respectively

Let - , 
I are the position vectors of the mid-
]
EG [H
-i 
mid
points of the sides AD and BC of trapezium ABCD

= E  E By mid-point formula

;  =
 ]
X. IiG IH. 0  
 E
-  , I =
2 2
 E  E

 E E  E
To prove that


]
 E E E  E

i.

, =  g,]  ,h



ii.

 |E|
 iii.

= I --
Consider
 |i | |i |
 E  

 i i
=
2 2
0 1
   E


AC
BC = 0 2
1

 g] h 1
2
By property of dot product


AC BC

IiG IH.
IiG ]
mACB  90^ E - -M=i-[[ [  [E,i X,.H=,- GI
]

The angle in a semi-circle


G T-iG [E,i [XE .. ]
T-iG

=
circle is a right angle

Put in equation number 1

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


147

1

= g h
2
Now ABCD is a parallelogram therefore the opposite

1
side are parallel and equal


=
] 
] =
2
| = |
|] |

=


.-
Hi-E.HG GI ] i- -YX,
Where = , that is
can be express as a
K

=
]
scalar multiple of


 = E

Again from fig. +


= E + 


]
HH
-
G. [H
-[ > 2


] +
E + 
= = - [>
2 2
To prove that , =  g,] + ,h

Therefore the diagonals AC and DC have same mid-
|
, = |
point E. the diagonals AC and DC bisect each

1
other
+
, = |] |
2 Conversely: Only if part:

1
| + |
, = g|] |h
2
Given: Suppose that the diagonals of quadrilateral
ABCD bisect each other

1
, = g,] + ,h
2
To prove that: The quadrilateral ABCD is a
parallelogram

A quadrilateral is a parallelogram if and only Since the diagonals AC and DC bisect each other
if its diagonals bisect each other. That is they have same mid-point say E.

Proof: If part: By mid-point formula

+
E + 
- = =
2 2
Given: A quadrilateral is a parallelogram

+
= E + 
To prove that: The diagonals of a quadrilateral bisect

 = E

each other

Let ABCD is a quadrilateral. Let a , b , c , d are the


position vectors of the vertices of the =
]
quadrilateral ABCD respectively E - -M=i-[[ [  [E,i X,.H=,- GI
]


]
A B

E
Therefore the opposite sides of the quadrilateral
ABCD are parallel and equal

D C Therefore, the quadrilateral ABCD is a parallelogram

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


148

Prove that the altitudes of a triangle are p


c p c  a b  0
a  b

p
c  p  a c  a b  0
b
concurrent.

  +
Proof:

p
a  p b
b c  a c  0
b

b  a 
p  a  0
cb

b  a p c  0
 

 0
AB CP


i. e. CP AB  0

Let ABC is a triangle. Let  , , E are the position Hence the altitudes of a triangle are concurrent
vectors of the vertices of the triangle ABC
Prove that the medians of a triangle are
respectively
concurrent.
Let AD, BE and CF are the altitudes of triangle ABC

 ], ]  
]
Proof:

Let
, - , 
I are the position vectors of the points
D , E and F respectively. Let P be the point of
intersection of the altitudes AD and BE.

]
 
]


To show that
]

]
 Let ABC is a triangle. Let a , b , c are the position
]
 
vectors of the vertices of the triangle ABC

=  E  0
respectively

= E  E  0 and AB with position vectors d , e , and f. By mid-


Let D, E and F are the mid-points
mid of the side BC, CA

= E =  E    0 1
point formula


BP AC b + c c + a a  b
d = , e  , f 
2 2 2
 0
BP AC
2d  b + c , 2e  c  a , 2f = a  b
 b c  a  0
p
2d  a  a  b
 c , 2e  b = c  a  b,
c  a  b c  a  0
p
2f + c  a  b
 c
p a  b c  a b  0 2
c  p
divided both sides by 3
equation 2  equation 1
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
149

2d  a a  b  c 2e  b a  b  c
zc  yb
 ; 
= d     1
3 3 3 3 zy

2f + c a  b  c xa  zc
 similarly e     2
3 3 xz

2d  a 2e  b 2f  c a  b  c yb  xa
   f  3
3 3 3 3 yx

a  b  c
let g =
3
From equation 1

dz  y  zc  yb
y
2d  1a 2e  1b 2f  1c
g    add xa to both sides
sides
21 21 21

From the above equations it is clear that the point G dz  y  xa  xa


x  zc  yb

divided both sides


sides by x  y  z
divided the medians AD , BE and CF internally in

dz  y  xa xa
x  zc  yb
the ratio 2:1. That is G is the point of


concurrence of all the medians of triangle ABC
.Hence the medians of triangle are concurrent xyz xyz

ex  z  yb xa  zc  yb
similarly 
Prove that the angle bisectors of the triangle are
xyz xyz

concurrent.

f y  x  zc xaa  zc  yb

xyz xyz
Proof:

dz  y  xa ex  z  yb f y  x  zc
 
xyz xyz xyz
xa  yb  zc
  h
xyz

H lies on the three


This shows that the point Hh

Let ABC is a triangle. Let a , b , c are the position y  z x ,


bisector AD, BE and CF dividing them in the ratio

vectors of the vertices of the triangle ABC z  x y , and x


  y
y zrespectively
respectively

Let d , e , and f are the position vectors of the points


Hence the three bisector segments are concurrent in
the point H. This point of concurrence of the
D, E and F. bisectors is called the incentre of triangle ABC.
ABC
let lBC  x , lAC  yy, lAB  z 229. If A3, 1, 1 , B1, 5, 2 are the vertices and
Now the angle bisector AD meets the side BC in G3, 3, 1is
is the centroid of triangle ABC then by the
point D. vector method, find the mid-point
mid of the side BC.

, c are the position vectors of the


Solution: Let a , b
The
ratio AB: AC that is z: y By section formula for
The point D divided the side BC internally in the
vertices of the triangle ABC respectively then

a  3   k , b
  5  2k
internal division

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


150

let C a, b, c, c  a  b  ck a = + 2 k ; b = 8 3 4k

Since G3, 3, 1 is the centriod of triangle ABC with c = 5 4 + k ; d = 2 + + 4k


position vector g = 3  3  k
Let E be the mid-point of diagonal AC

a + c + 2 k + 5 4 + k
By centroid formula
e = =
3  3  k 2 2
3  k   5  2k  a  b  ck 6 2

3 e =
2
= 3 1

4a 6b 1+c


3  3  k   + k
3 3 3
Let F be the mid-point of diagonal BD

4a b + d 8 3 4k + 2 + + 4k
 3 , 4  a  9 , a  9 4 , a  5 f = =
3 2 2

6b f =
6 2
= 3 2
= 3 , 6 + b = 9 , b = 9 6, b = 3 2
3
1+c
 1, 1  c  3, c  3 1, c  2
3
From equations 1 and 2

e = f
the co ordinate of vertex C 5, 3, 2
The diagonals AC and BD have the same mid-point
c = 5 + 3 + 2k
the diagonals AC and BD bisect each other.
Let Dd be the mid-point of side BC. Then by mid- Therefore the quadrilateral ABCD is a
point formula parallelogram.

b + c
B2, 4, 1, C1, 3, 2 and D5, 1, 6. Using
231. The vertices of the quadrilateral are A(1, 2, 1)
d =
2
vector method, prove that
+ 5 + 2k + 5 + 3 + 2k
d = I. The line segment joining the mid-points E and F
2 of the sides AD and BC respectively is parallel to
d = 3 + 4 + 2k
. EF =  AB  CD Is the quadrilateral ABCD is a

the sides AB and CD.
II.
D 3, 4, 2
trapezium?

Solution: Let ABCD is a quadrilateral. Let a , b , c , d


with vertices A1, 2, 1, B8, 3, 4,
230. By vector method. Show that the quadrilateral

C5, 4, 1 and D2, 1, 4is a parallelogram


are the position vectors of the vertices of the
quadrilateral ABCD respectively

a =  2  k ; b = 2  4 k
Solution:-

Let ABCD is a quadrilateral. Let a , b , c , d are the


position vectors of the vertices of the c =  3  2k ; d = 5  6k
quadrilateral ABCD respectively Since Ee and Ff are the mid-points of the sides
To show that the diagonals AC and BD bisect each AD and BC
other

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


151

a + d + 2 + k + 5 + 6k EF
CD
e = =
2 2

6 + + 7k
This show that EF is parallel to AB and CD

e =
2 9 
| = + 3 + 3
EF = |EF
b + c 2 + 4 k + + 3 + 2k 2
f = =
2 2
81 153 9 17
3 + 7 + k EF = + 9 + 9 = =
f = 4 4 4
2
= f e 3
consider EF EF = 17 4
2
3 + 7 + k 6 + + 7k
= | = 3 + 2 + 2
AB = |AB
2 2
EF

9 + 6 6k AB = 9 + 4 + 4 = 17
EF
=
2
| = 6 + 4 + 4
CD = |CD
3
= 3 + 2 2k 1
2 CD = 36 + 16 + 16 = 68 = 4 17
EF

= b a = 217
consider AB
Consider AB + CD = 17 + 217
AB = 2 + 4 k + 2 + k

AB + CD = 317
AB = 3 + 2 2k 2

put in equation 4
From equation 1 and 2
1
3 EF = AB + CD
=
AB 2
2
EF

EF
AB Hence the quadrilateral ABCD is a trapezium.

= d c 232. If A3, 2, 2 and B2, 9, 5 are the end points


consider CD

= 5 + 6k + 3 + 2k method prove that the point C5, 6, 1 lie on


of the diameter of the circle then using vector
CD

= 6 4 + 4k
CD
the circumference of the circle.

Solution: Let a , b , c are the position vectors of the


CD = 23 + 2 2k
points A, B, C respectively
1 a = 3 2 + 2k , b = 2 + 9 + 5k
3 + 2 2k =
CD 3
2
c = 5 + 6 k


From equation 1 and 3
AC = c a
3 1

= CD
2 2 = 5 + 6 k 3 2 + 2k
EF
AC
3
=
EF CD AC = 5 + 6 k 3 + 2 2k

4
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
152

AC = 2 + 8 3k
Let AB = b
= a , AD

BC = c b
We have

= 5 + 6 k 2 + 9 + 5k
BC lAB = lBC = lCD = lAD

= 5 + 6 k 2 9 5k
BC |a| = b

BC = 3 3 6k
 BC
from ig. AB = AC

Now AC = 2 + 8 3k 3 3 6k
BC AC = a + b

= 6 24 + 18 = 24 24 = BC
BD + DC
AC BC

= 0 BD DC
= BC
AC BC

BC
= b a
BD
AC

C is the common point = a + b b a


AC BD

mACB = 90^ = a b a + b b a
AC BD

That is the angle in semi-circle is a right angle AC = a b a a + b b b a


BD

Therefore the point C lie on the circumference of the = a b |a| + b a b


AC BD

BD
AC = |a| + |a|
circle.

= 0
AC BD
Using vector method, prove that a quadrilateral
is a rhombus if and only if diagonals bisect
each otheat a right angles.
AC BD

Proof: if part: Therefore the diagonals AC and BD are


perpendicular to each other.
Given: The quadrilateral ABCD is a rhombus
The diagonals of a rhombus bisect each other.
To prove that: The diagonals of a rhombus bisect
each other. Conversely: Only if part:

D C Given: The diagonals of a rhombus bisect each other

To prove that: The quadrilateral ABCD is a rhombus


M Since the diagonals AC and BD bisect each other.
Therefore they have same mid-point. Let M is
the mid-point of diagonals AC and BD then

a + c b + d
A B

: Let ABCD is a quadrilateral. Let a , b , c , d are the =


2 2

a + c = b + d
position vectors of the vertices of the
quadrilateral ABCD respectively

Since the quadrilateral ABCD is a rhombus c d = b a

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


153


DC =
AB = a + b + c k

b c b c 

DC AB
a c c a 
Therefore the opposite sides of quadrilateral ABCD + ka b b a h

= a b c b c  b a c c a 
are parallel and equal

Therefore the quadrilateral ABCD is a rhombus. + c a b b a 

a b c
a b c =. abc = a b c 
Scalar triple product
a b c

233. If a = 3 2  7k, b = 5  2k and


Definition of scalar triple product: The dot product of

a and b cis called as scalar triple product


c =  kthen find a b c
Properties of scalar triple product
Solution: -

a = 3 2 + 7k
1) In scalar triple product or box product vectors
-Since
are interchange in cyclic order then the value of
b = 5 + 2k
i. e. abc = bca = cab
box product remain unchanged

2) In box product any two vectors are equal then c = + k

3 2 7
i. e. abb = bcc = gcaah=0 a b c =. abc = 5 1 2
the value of box product is zero.

3) If a , b and c are coplanar then abc = 0 1 1 1


4) If abc = 0 then the vectors a , b and c are a b c
1 2 5 2
= .3 L L+2L L
coplanar
1 1 1 1
the gABAC
AD
h = 0 5 1
5) If the four points A, B,C and D are coplanar then
+ 7L L
6) If gABAC
AD
h = 0 then the four points A, B,C 1 1
and D are coplanar a b c
7) In S. T. P. the dot and cross are interchange then = 31 + 2 + 25 + 2
the values of S. T. P. remain unchanged + 75 1

a b c = 3 6 + 28 = 25
Expression for S. T. P. or box product
a b c =. abc
234. If a = 2  k, b =  2
 3k and
Let a = a + b + c k c = 3 4  5kthen find a b c. Interpret the

b = a + b + c k
result

c = a + b + c k
Solution:-

a = 2 + k
k
Since

a b c = a + b + c k a b c b = + 2 3k
a b c
c = 3 4 + 5k

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


154

2 1 1
a b c =. abc = 1 2 3
Solution:-

3 4 5 leta = 2 + k
a b c b = 2 5 + pk
2 3 1 3
= .2 L L+ 1L L
4 5 3 5 c = 5 9 + 4k
1 2
+ 1L L
3 4 a , b and c are coplanar
a b c
i. e. a b c =. abc = 0
= 210 12 + 15 + 9
+ 14 6 1 2 1
2 5 p = 0
a b c = 4 + 14 10 = 14 14 = 0 5 9 4

a b c =. abc = 0 5 p 2 p 2 5
1L L + 2L L +1L L=0
9 4 5 4 5 9
a , bandc are coplanar 20 + 9p + 28 5p + 18 + 25 = 0
235. Show that the vectors 6k , 3  4k
and 2 5  3k are coplanar 20 + 9p + 16 10p 18 + 25 = 0

Solution:- p + 3 = 0

leta = 6k p = 3 , p = 3

237. Find the value of if the vectors   k,


b = 3  4k
 k and 2 + 3 + kare coplanar
c = 2 5  3k

To show that a , b and c are coplanar


Solution:-

leta = + + k
i. e. to show that a b c =. abc = 0
b = + k
1 1 6
L. H. S. = 1 3 4  c = 2 + 3 + k
2 5 3
a , b and c are coplanar
3 4 1 4 1 3
L. H. S. = 1 L L+1L L 6L L
5 3 2 3 2 5 i. e. a b c =. abc = 0
L. H. S. = 19 + 20 + 13 8 65 + 6
1 1 1
L. H. S. = 11 5 6 = 11 11
1 1 1 = 0
2 3
L. H. S. = 0 1 1 1 1 1 1
1L L 1L L+ 1L L=0
3 2 2 3
L. H. S. = R. H. S

 3 1 2 + 13 + 2 = 0
a , b and c are coplanar
3 + 2 + 5 = 0
236. Find the value of p if the vectors 2  k,
2 5  pk and 5 9 + 4kare coplanar 2 + 4 = 0

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


155

2 = 4 , = 2 = 
]
= 2   4
238. If the origin O,A1, 2, 3, B2, 3, 4 and
2 0 2
Px, y, zare coplanar show that x 2y + z = 0
= 4   6
]

= E  =  4 2 2 0 2
Solution:-


=  4  0
since O is the origin then

OA = a = 1 + 2 + 3k


= b = 2 + 3 + 4k =


OB
=  2  2
= x + y + zk
OP = p 2 0 2

a , b and p
are coplanar = 3  2  4


abp
= 0 4 1 6

g] 
h = 1 4 0
1 2 3 3 2 4
2 3 4 = 0
4 0 1 0 1 4
x y z = 4 L L 1L L 6L L
2 4 3 4 3 2
3 4 2 4 2 3
1
y z
2L
x z
L + 3
x y
=0 = 416 0 14  0  62  12

3z 4y 22z 4x + 32y 3x = 0 = 64  4  60 = 64  64 = 0

3z 4y 4z + 8x + 6y 9x = 0 g] 
 h = 0

M + 2> T = 0 The given points A, B, C and D are coplanar

M  2>  T = 0
2, 1, 1, ]4, 0, =,
240. Find the value of p if the points

M  2>  T = 0 1,1, 1 
2, 4, 3are coplanar
239. Show that the pointsA2, 0, 2, B2, 1 4,
C1,4, 2 and D1, 2, 2are coplanar
Solution:-

let = 2 1 

= 4  0  =
Solution:-

let = 2 0 2
E =  
= 2   4

= 2  4  3
E =  4 2


=  2  2
Since the four points A, B, C and D are coplanar


H. -. g] 
h = 0

=  = 4  0  = 2 1 
]
Show that the four points A, B, C and D are coplanar


H. -. .G [G .. g] 
h = 0
= 2   = 1
]

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


156

= E  =   2 1 
 a , b , care three non-coplanar vectors. If
b c c a a b
242.

=  2  0
 p
= , q = , r =
abc abc abc
=
 = 2  4  3 2 1 

a p
= b q = c r = 1
Prove that

= 0  5  2
 a p
+ b q + c r = 3
i.

a  b p
+ b + c q + c + a
ii.

2 1 =1

g] 
h = 1 2 0 =0
iii.
r = 3
0 5 2 Solution:-

2 0 1 0 1 2
2L L 1L L  = 1 L L=0 a p
= b q = c r = 1
To prove that
5 2 0 2 0 5

24 0 12  0  = 15  0 = 0 b c a b c abc


a p
= a = = =1
abc abc abc
8  2 5=  5 = 0
c a b c a abc
5=  15 = 0 b q = b = = =1
abc abc abc
5= = 15 = = 3
a b c a b abc
241. If X = 2  , = 3  and
c r = c = = =1
abc abc abc
= thenX 
 gX  
h
Therefore from the above three equations

= b q = c r = 1
a p
Solution:

X = 2 + +
+
+ b q + c r = 3
To prove that
a p
= + 0
X +
L. H. S. = a p + b q + c r
k L. H. S. = 1 + 1 + 1 = 3
u v = 1 2 1 L. H. S. = R. H. S.
3 0 1
a + b p + b + c q + c + a r = 3
To prove that

u v = 2 0 1 3  k0  6
L. H. S. = a + b p + b + c q + c + a r
u v = 2  4  6k F. T. = a + b p = a p + b p

b c b c
k = a + b
v w
= 3 abc abc
0 1
0 1 1 abc bbc
= +
abc abc
= 0 1 3 0  k3 0
v w
=1+0=1
=  3  3k
v w S. T. = b + c q = b q + c q
c a c a
1 1 0 = b + c

abc abc
u  w
 gu v v w
h = 2 4 6
abc gccah
1 3 3 = +
abc abc
= 112 18 + 16 + 6 + 0 =1+0=1
=6 T. T. = c + a r = c r + a r

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I


157

a b a b To prove that abc = 0


= c + a
abc abc
abc aab L. H. S. = abc
= +
abc abc
L. H. S. = ab 3a 2b
=1+0=1
L. H. S. = F. T + S. T. +T. T.
L. H. S. = a b 3a 2b
L. H. S. = 1 + 1 + 1 = 3
L. H. S. = R. H. S. L. H. S. = a 3b a 2b b

a  bb  cc  a = 2abc
243. Prove that
L. H. S. = a 3b a 0

Solution: L. H. S. = a 3b a = 0

L. H. S. = a  bb  cc  a L. H. S. = R. H. S.

L. H. S. = a  b b + c c + a To find c2

L. H. S. = a + b b c + a + c c + a c  = |c| = c c

L. H. S. = a + b c  = 3a 2b 3a 2b
b c + b a + c c + c
c  = 3a 3a 2b 2b 3a 2b
ah

c  = 9a a 6a b 6a b + 4b b
L. H. S. = a + b b c + b a + 0 + c a
c  = 9|a| 12a b + 4b

L. H. S. = a b c + b a + c a + b
b c + b a + c a
c  = 9|a| 12|a|b cos + 4b

3
L. H. S. = a b c + a b a + a c a
1
+ b b c + b b a + b c  = 9a 12ab + 4b
2
c a
c  = 9a 6ab + 4b
L. H. S. = abc + 0 + +0 + 0 + 0 + bca

Prove that the volume of parallelepiped is abc


VOLUME OF PARALLELOPIPED
L. H. S. = abc + abc

L. H. S. = 2abc = b , OC
= a , OB
Proof: let OA = c represented the co-

L. H. S. = R. H. S.
terminus edges of parallelepiped

244. If c = 3a 2b then prove that abc = 0. Also

a and b is
find c2 when the measure of the angle between

Solution:-

Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I