BY
Prakash D. Wasankar
M. Sc. (Mathematics) B. Ed.
Part II
Standard XII
(Arts & science)
Publisher
All rights reserved. This book or any portion thereof may not be reproduced or used in any manner whatsoever
without the express written permission of the publisher except for the use of brief quotations in a book review.
Published by
Mob 9422925819
Email jyotiwasankar@gmail.com
Contents
Sr.No. Name of Chapter Page No.
1 Matrices 4
2 Mathematical Logic 28
3 Trigonometric Function 41
5 Vectors 131
3 2 61 0 0
MATRICES 3 3 60 3 0
0 1 0 1 3 0
2 2 50 0 1
Inverse matrix:
= =
1 1 2 0 1 0
0 1 0 = 1 3 0
0 0 1 0 2 1
Procedure for finding inverse matrix by using
Apply 1
elementary operation
0 1 0 = 1 3 0
Keep 1 in the place of
ii.
0 0 1 0 2 1
Keep 0 in the place of
iii.
1 0 2 1 2 0
3 2 6
vi.
0 1 0 = 1 3 0
1. Find the inverse of = 1 1 2 by using
0 0 1 0 2 1
2 2 5
elementary transformation Apply 2
1 0 21 2 0
0 0 20 4 2
Solution:
3 2 6 1 0 01 2 2
= 1 1 2
2 2 5 1 0 0 1 2 2
0 1 0 = 1 3
0
3 2 6 0 0 1 0 2 1
 = 1 1 2
2 2 5 1 2 2
= 1 3 0
 = 35 4 25 4 + 62 2 0 2 1
 = 3 2 + 0 = 1 0 1 2 2
= 1 3 0
A is nonsingular matrix 0 2 1
exists 0 1 2
2. Find the inverse of = 1 2 3 by elementary
= 3 1 1
3 2 6 1 0 0
operation
1 1 2 = 0 1 0
2 2 5 0 0 1
Solution:
0 1 2
Apply = 1 2 3
3 1 1
1 1 2 0 1 0
3 2 6 = 1 0 0 0 1 2
 = 1 2 3
2 2 5 0 0 1
3 1 1
Apply 3
2
 = 0 11 9 + 21 6
 = 8 10 = 2 0 0 1 2 1 0 0
0 0 2 5 3 1
A is nonsingular matrix 0 1 0 4 3 1
exists 1 1 1
' *
1 0 0
&2 2 2)
= 0 1 0 = &4 3 1)
0 0 1 &5 3 1)
%2
0 1 2 1 0 0 2 2(
1 2 3 = 0 1 0
3 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1
' *
&2 2 2)
Apply = &4 3 1)
&5 3 1)
1 2 3 0 1 0 % 2 2 2 (
0 1 2 = 1 0 0
3 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1
' *
&2 2 2)
Apply 3 = &4 3 1)
&5 3 1)
3 1 1 0 0 1 % 2 2 2(
3 6 9 0 3 0
0 5 8 0 3 1 2 0 1
3. Find the inverse of the matrix = 5 1 0 by
1 2 3 0 1 0 0 1 3
0 1 2 = 1 0 0
0 5 8 0 3 1
elementary transformation
Apply 2
+ 5
Solution:
2 0 1
1 2 3 0 1 0
= 5 1 0
0 2 42 0 0
0 1 3
1 0 12 1 0
2 0 1
0 5 80 3 1  = 5 1 0
0 5 10 5 0 0
0 1 3
0 0 2 5 3 1
1 0 1 2 1 0  = 23 0 0 15 0
0 1 2 = 1 0 0
 = 6 5 = 1 0
0 0 2 5 3 1
A is nonsingular matrix
Apply
exists
2 1 0
1 0 1
1 0 0 =
0 1 2 =" 5 3 1#
0 0 1
2 2 2 2 0 1 1 0 0
5 1 0 = 0 1 0
Apply +
2 0 1 3 0 0 1
2 1 0 Apply 3
1 0 1
1
$
0 0
6 0 3 3 0 0
1 0 0
5 1 0 = 0 1 0
0 1 3 0 0 1
Apply 1 0 1
 = 0 2 3
1 1 3 3 1 0 1 2 1
5 1 0 = 0 1 0
5 1 0 0 1 0
5 5 1515 5 0
A is nonsingular matrix
Apply +
1 0 1 1 0 0
1 0 0 3 1 1 3 1
"0 1 # = " 0 0#
0 1 0 = 15 6 5 2 2
0 0 3 15 6 6 0 2 0 1 0 1
Apply 2
Apply
0 2 0 1 0 1
1 0 0 3 1 1
0 1 0 = 15 6 5 0 2 3 0 1 0
0 0 31 1 1
0 0 1 5 2 2
3 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0
3 1
= 15 6 5 "0 1 # = " 0 0#
5 2 2 2 2
0 0 3 1 1 1
3 1 1
= 15 6 5 Apply
5 2 2
1 0 0
1 0 1 1 0 1 ' 1 *
4. Find the inverse of = 0 2 3 by elementary 3 &0 0 )
"0 1 # = & 2 )
1 2 1 2
0 0 1 &1 1 1)
%3 (
3 3
transformation
Apply
Solution:
1 0 1
= 0 2 3
1 2 1
1 0 0 =
1 0 1
1
0 0 1 2 3 1 0 0
1 0 0 1 1 5 = 0 1 0
2 4 7 0 0 1
0 0
0 1
Apply and 2
0 0
1 1 5 0 1 0
0 1 0 0
1 2 31 0 0
0 1 2 1 1 0
2 1 1
' * 2 4 7 0 0 1
1 0 0 & 3 3 3 )
2 4 62 0 0
1 1 )
0 1 0 = & 0 0 0 1 2 0 1
0 0 1 & 2 2 )
& 1 1 1) 1 2 3 1 0 0
% 3 (
3 3 0 1 2 = 1 1 0
0 0 1 2 0 1
2 1 1
' *
& 3 3 3 ) Apply 1
1 1 )
= & 0
& 2 2 ) 1 2 3 1 0 0
& 1 1 1) 0 1 2 = 1 1 0
% 3 ( 0 0 1 2 0 1
3 3
2 1 1 Apply 2
' *
& 3 3 3 )
1 2 31 0 0
1 1 )
= & 0 0 2 42 2 0
& 2 2 ) 1 0 71 2 0
& 1 1 1)
% 3 (
3 3 1 0 7 1 2 0
0 1 2 = 1 1 0
1 2 3 0 0 1 2 0 1
5. Find the inverse of 1 1 5 by using elementary
2 4 7 Apply 7
+ 2
1 0 7 1 2 0
transformation
0 0 7 14 0 7
1 0 0 13 2 7
Solution:
1 2 3
,. = 1 1 5 0 1 2 1 1 0
2 4 7 0 0 2 4 0 2
0 1 0 3 1 2
1 2 3
 = 1 1 5 1 0 0 13 2 7
2 4 7 0 1 0 = 3 1 2
0 0 1 2 0 1
 = 17 20 27 10 + 34 2
13 2 7
 = 13 + 6 + 6 = 1 0 = 3 1 2
2 0 1
13 2 7
= 3 1 2
A is nonsingular matrix
exists
2 0 1
Apply + 567 8
79: 8
By elementary operation
Solution:
0 0
cos 2 sin 2 0 1 567 8 0
79: 8
567 8
Let = sin 2 cos 2 0
0 0 sin 2 0
79: 8 79:; 8
0 0 1 567 8 567 8
1 0 0 cos 2 sin 2 0
cos 2 sin 2 0
 = sin 2 cos 2 0 1 0 0 cos 2 sin 2 0
0 0 1 0 1 0 = sin 2 cos 2 0
0 0 1 0 0 1
 = cos 2 cos 2 0 + sin 2 sin 2 0 + 0
cos 2 sin 2 0
 = cos 2 + sin 2 = 1 0
= sin 2 cos 2 0
0 0 1
cos 2 sin 2 0
A is nonsingular matrix
= sin 2 cos 2 0
exists
0 0 1
= 2 3 3
7. Find the inverse of the matrix 2 2 3 by
cos 2 sin 2 0 1 0 0 3 2 2
sin 2 cos 2 0 = 0 1 0
0 0 1 0 0 1
elementary operation
Solution:
567 8
2 3 3
Apply
sin 2 1 <. = 2 2 3
1 0 0 0
" cos 2 # = "cos 2 # 3 2 2
sin 2 cos 2 0 0 1 0
0 0 1 0 0 1 2 3 3
 = 2 2 3
Apply sin 2 3 2 2
sin 2 1
A is nonsingular matrix
Apply
3 2 2 0 0 1 0
2 2 3 = 0 1 0 0 1 1 $ $
0 0 1 $
2 3 3 1 0 0 $ $
0 1 0
Apply 0
$ $
1 1 1 1 0 1 2 3
2 2 3 = 0 1 0 ' 0 *
1 0 0 & 5 5 )
2 3 3 1 0 0 1 1
0 1 0 = & 0 )
Apply 2
2 0 0 1 & 5 5 )
& 2 1 2)
% 5 (
2 2 30 1 0 5 5
2 2 22 0 2 2 3 7
0 0 52 1 2 ' *
& 5 5 5)
2 3 31 0 0 1 1
= & 0 )
2 2 22 0 2 & 5 5 )
0 5 53 0 2 & 2 1 2)
% 5 (
5 5
1 1 1 1 0 1
0 0 5 = 2 1 2 2 3 7
0 5 5 3 0 2 ' *
& 5 5 5)
1 1
Apply = & 0 )
& 5 5 )
1 1 1 1 0 1 & 2 1 2)
% 5 (
0 5 5 = 3 0 2 5 5
0 0 5 2 1 2
1 3 2
8. Find the inverse of the matrix3 0 5by
$
2 5 0
Apply
1 0 1
1 1 1
elementary operation
3 2
0 1 1 = " 0 #
0 0 5 5 5
Solution:
2 1 2 1 3 2
Let = 3 0 5
==,>
2 5 0
2 3 1 3 2
' 0 *
1 0 0  = 3 0 5
& 5 5)
0 1 1 =& 3 2) 2 5 0
0 0 5 & 5 0 5)
% 2 1 2(  = 10 + 25 30 + 10 215 0
Apply $
 = 25 30 + 30 = 25 0
2 3
' 0 *
A is nonsingular matrix
1 0 0 & 5 5 )
exists
3 2 )
0 1 1 = & 0
0 0 1 & 5 5 ) =
& 2 1 2)
% 5 (
5 5 1 3 2 1 0 0
3 0 5 A = 0 1 0
==,> + 2 5 0 0 0 1
==,> + 3
2 2 0 1
0 1 4
A B
3 0 5 0 1 0 0 0 4 $ $ $
3 9 6 3 0 0 0 1 0 A
$ $ $
0 9 113 1 0
2 3
2 5 00 0 1 ' 1 *
& 5 5)
2 6 42 0 0 1 0 0 2 4 11 )
0 1 42 0 1 0 1 0 A = &
0 0 1 & 5 25 25 )
1 3 2 1 0 0 & 3 1 9 )
0 9 11 A = 3 1 0 % 5 25 25 (
0 1 4 2 0 1
2 3
' 1 *
Apply 5 5)
&
2 4 11
1 3 2 1 0 0 IA = & )
& 5 25 25 )
0 1 4 A = 2 0 1 & 3 1 9 )
0 9 11 3 1 0 % 5 25 25 (
Apply 1 2 3
' 1 *
1 3 2 1 0 0 & 5 5)
2 4 11 )
0 1 4 A = 2 0 1 A = &
0 9 11 3 1 0 & 5 25 25 )
& 3 1 9 )
==,> 3
9 % 5 25 25 (
1 3 2 1 0 0 2 0 1
0 3 12 6 0 3 9. Find the inverse of the matrix 5 1 0 by
1 0 10 5 0 3 0 1 3
0 9 11 3 1 0
elementary operation
0 9 36 18 0 9
0 0 25 15 1 9
Solution:
2 0 1
1 0 10 5 0 3 Let = 5 1 0
0 1 4 A = 2 0 1 0 1 3
0 0 25 15 1 9
2 0 1
Apply $  = 5 1 0
0 1 3
5 0 3
1 0 10  = 23 0 0 15 0
2 0 1
0 1 4 A = " 3 1 9#
0 0 1  = 6 5 = 1 0
5 25 25
==,> 10
+ 4 A is nonsingular matrix
5 0 3 exists
1 0 10
10 6 $ $
@
0 0 =
1 0 0 1
2 0 1 1 0 0
$ $
5 1 0 = 0 1 0
0 1 3 0 0 1
Apply 1 0 0 3 1 1
0 1 0 = 15 6 5
5 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 5 2 2
2 0 1 = 1 0 0
0 1 3 0 0 1 3 1 1
= 15 6 5
==,> 2 5 2 2
5 1 00 1 0 3 1 1
4 0 22 0 0
= 15 6 5
1 1 22 1 0 5 2 2
1 1 2 2 1 0 1 2 2
2 0 1 = 1 0 0 10. Find the inverse of matrix 0 2 1 by
0 1 3 0 0 1 1 3 0
Apply 2
elementary raw operation
2 0 11 0 0
Solution:
2 2 44 2 0 1 2 2
0 2 55 2 0 Let = 0 2 1
1 3 0
1 1 2 2 1 0
0 2 5 = 5 2 0 1 2 2
0 1 3 0 0 1  = 0 2 1
1 3 0
Apply
 = 10 3 20 + 1 20 2
1 1 2 2 1 0
0 1 3 = 0 0 1  = 3 2 + 4 = 1 0
0 2 5 5 2 0
==,>
+ 2
A is nonsingular matrix
exists
1 1 2 2 1 0
0 1 3 0 0 1 =
1 0 12 1 1
1 2 2 1 0 0
0 2 55 2 0
0 2 1 = 0 1 0
0 2 60 0 2
1 3 0 0 0 1
0 0 1 5 2 2
1 0 1 2 1 1 +
0 1 3 = 0
0 1 1 2 2 1 0 0
0 0 1 5 2 2 0 2 1 = 0 1 0
==,> + and 3 0 5 2 1 0 1
Apply
1 0 12 1 1
0 0 1 5 2 2
1 0 0 3 1 1 1 2 2 1 0 0
1 1
0 1 3 0 0 1 "0 1 # = "0 0#
2 2
0 0 315 6 6 0 5 2 1 0 1
0 1 0 15 6 5
==,> 2 and 5
1 2 21 0 0 E E E
0 2 1 0 1 0
FGH . GI = E E E
1 0 11 1 0 E E E
0 5 2 1
$ 1 0 1 =
FGH . GI
0 5 
0 5/2 0
1 5/2 1
0 0 1 2 3
11. Find the inverse of the matrix 1 1 5 by adjoint
1 0 1 1 1 0 2 4 7
' 1* ' 1 *
&0 1 ) &0 0)
& 2) = & 2 )
method
& 1 ) & 5 )
%0 0
2 ( %1 2
1(
Solution:
1 2 3
Apply 2 Let = 1 1 5
2 4 7
1 0 1 1 1 0
1 1  = 17 20 27 10 + 34 2
"0 1 # = "0 0#
2 2
0 0 1 2 5 2  = 13 + 6 + 6 = 1 0
1
==,> +
+
2
A is nonsingular matrix
exists
1 0 11 1 0
0 0 12 5 2 1 5
E = 1K L L = 17 20 = 13
1 0 03 6 2 4 7
0 1 0
0 1 5
E = 1K L L = 17 10 = 3
2 7
0 0 1 1
$
0 1
01
1 1
2 1 E = 1K L L = 14 2 = 2
2 4
1 0 0 3 6 2
0 1 0 = 1 2 2 3
1 E = 1K L L = 114 12 = 2
4 7
0 0 1 2 5 2
1 3
3 6 2 E = 1K L L = 17 6 = 1
= 1 2 2 7
1
2 5 2 1 2
E = 1K L L = 14 4 = 0
2 4
3 6 2
= 1 2 1 2 3
2 5 2 E = 1K L L = 110 3 = 7
1 5
1 3
E = 1K L L = 5 3 = 2
1 5
Inverse of square matrix by adjoint method
E E E 1 2
E = 1K L L = 11 2 = 1
The cofactor matrix of given matrix A is
E E E 1 1
E E E E E E
E
Cofactor matrix= E E
E E E J
E E E
E
FGH . GI = E E
E E E
13 3 2 0 1
E = 1K L L = 10 2 = 2
Cofactor matrix= 2 1 0 2 3
7 2 1
1 1
E = 1K L L = 3 0 = 3
13 3 2 J 0 3
FGH . GI = 2 1 0
1 0
7 2 1 E = 1K L L = 12 0 = 2
0 2
13 2 7 E E E
FGH . GI = 3 1 2 E E E
Cofactor matrix=
2 0 1 E E E
1
=
FGH . GI 4 3 2
 Cofactor matrix= 2 0 2
2 3 2
1 13 2 7 13 2 7
= 3 1 2 = 3 1 2 4 3 2 J
1
2 0 1 2 0 1
FGH . GI = 2 0 2
13 2 7 2 3 2
= 3 1 2 4 2 2
2 0 1
FGH . GI = 3 0 3
1 0 1 2 2 2
12. Find the inverse of 0 2 3 by adjoint method 1
1 2 1 =
FGH . GI

1 4 2 2
=
Solution:
1 0 1 3 0 3
6
Let = 0 2 3 2 2 2
1 2 1
1 4 2 2
= 3 0 3
 = 12 6 0 + 10 2 6
2 2 2
 = 4 2 = 6 0 1 2 3
13. Find the inverse of the matrix 1 1 2 by
A is nonsingular matrix 1 2 4
exists
adjoint method
2 3
E = 1K L L = 12 6 = 4
Solution:
2 1 1 2 3
0 3 Let = 1 1 2
E = 1K L L = 10 3 = 3 1 2 4
1 1
0 2  = 14 4 24 2 + 32 1
E = 1K L L = 10 2 = 2
1 2
 = 0 + 12 9 = 3 0
0 1
E = 1K L L = 10 2 = 2
2 1 A is nonsingular matrix
1 1 exists
E = 1K L L = 11 1 = 0
1 1
1 0 1 2
E = 1K L L = 12 0 = 2 E = 1K L L = 14 4 = 0
1 2 2 4
1 2  = 3 0
E = 1K L L = 14 2 = 6
1 4
1 1
E = 1K L L = 12 1 = 3
A is nonsingular matrix
1 2 exists
2 3
E = 1K L L = 18 6 = 2 3 0
2 4 E = 1K L L = 13 0 = 3
2 1
1 3
E = 1K L L = 14 3 = 1 3 0
1 4 E = 1K L L = 13 0 = 3
5 1
1 2
E = 1K L L = 12 2 = 0 3 3
1 2 E = 1K L L = 16 15 = 9
5 2
2 3
E = 1K L L = 14 3 = 1 0 0
1 2 E = 1K L L = 10 0 = 0
2 1
1 3
E = 1K L L = 2 + 3 = 5 1 0
1 2 E = 1K L L = 11 0 = 1
5 1
1 2
E = 1K L L = 11 + 2 = 3 1 0
1 1 E = 1K L L = 12 0 = 2
5 2
E E E
E
Cofactor matrix= E E 0 0
E = 1K L L = 10 0 = 0
E E E 3 0
0 6 3 1 0
E = 1K L L = 0 0 = 0
Cofactor matrix= 2 1 0 3 0
1 5 3 1 0
E = 1K L L = 13 0 = 3
3 3
0 6 3 J
FGH . GI = 2 1 0 E E E
1 5 3 Cofactor matrix= E E E
E E E
0 2 1
FGH . GI = 6 1 5 3 3 9
3 0 3 Cofactor matrix= 0 1 2
0 0 3
1
=
FGH . GI
 3 3 9 J
FGH . GI = 0 1 2
1 0 2 1 0 0 3
= 6 1 5
3 3 0 0
3 0 3
FGH . GI = 3 1 0
1 0 0 9 2 3
14. Find the inverse of matrix 3 3 0 by adjoint
5 2 1 1
=
FGH . GI
method 
1 3 0 0
= 3 1 0
Solution:
1 0 0 3
9 2 3
Let = 3 3 0
5 2 1 1 3 0 0
= 3 1 0
3
 = 13 0 0 + 0 9 2 3
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
16
1 2 3 10 10 2
15. Find the inverse of the matrix 0 2 4 by adjoint
FGH . GI = 0 5 4
0 0 5 0 0 2
1
=
FGH . GI
method
Solution: 
1 2 3 1 10 10 2
Let = 0 2 4 = 0 5 4
10
0 0 5 0 0 2
exists
Solution:
2 1 1
2 4 Let = 1 2 1
E = 1K L L = 110 0 = 10 1 1 2
0 5
0 4  = 24 1 + 12 + 1 + 11 2
E = 1K L L = 10 0 = 0
0 5
 = 6 1 1 = 4 0
0 2
E = 1K L L = 10 0 = 0
0 0 A is nonsingular matrix
2 3
E = 1K L L = 110 0 = 10 exists
0 5
1 3 2 1
E = 1K L L = 15 0 = 5 E = 1K L L = 14 1 = 3
0 5 1 2
1 2 1 1
E = 1K L L = 10 0 = 0 E = 1K L L = 12 + 1 = 1
0 0 1 2
2 3 1 2
E = 1K L L = 18 6 = 2 E = 1K L L = 11 2 = 1
2 4 1 1
1 3 1 1
E = 1K L L = 4 0 = 4 E = 1K L L = 12 + 1 = 1
0 4 1 2
1 2 2 1
E = 1K L L = 12 0 = 2 E = 1K L L = 14 1 = 3
0 2 1 2
E E E 2 1
E = 1K L L = 12 + 1 = 1
Cofactor matrix= E E E 1 1
E E E
1 1
E = 1K L L = 11 2 = 1
10 0 0 2 1
Cofactor matrix= 10 5 0 2 1
2 4 2 E = 1K L L = 2 + 1 = 1
1 1
10 0 0 J 2 1
FGH . GI = 10 5 0 E = 1K L L = 14 1 = 3
1 2
2 4 2
E E E
Cofactor matrix= E E E
Solution:
E E E The given equations are
3 1 1 M + 3> = 2 , 3M + 5> = 4
Cofactor matrix= 1 3 1
1 1 3 1 3 M 2
O PO P = O P
3 5 > 4
3 1 1 J
FGH . GI = 1 3 1 ==,> 3
1 1 3
3 5 4
3 1 1 3 96
FGH . GI = 1 3 1 0 42
1 1 3
1 3 M 2
1 O P O>P = O P
=
FGH . GI 0 4 2

M + 3> 2
Q R=O P
1 3 1 1 4> 2
= 1 3 1
4 1
1 1 3
M + 3> = 2 , 4> = 2 > =
2
3 3 1 1
Reduction method
2 1 M 5 3M > = 1 , 4M + > = 6
O PO P = O P
3 5 > 3
3 1 M 1
O PO P = O P
==,> 2 3 4 1 > 6
6 10 6 ==,> 3 4
6 315
0 7 21 12 3 18
12 44
2 1 M 5 0 7 14
O PO P = O P
0 7 > 21
3 1 M 1
2M + > O PO P = O P
Q R=O
5
P 0 7 > 14
7> 21
3M > 1
Q R=O P
2M + > = 5 , 7> = 21 > = 3 7> 14
5 2 M 4
Solution:
O PO P = O P
7 3 > 5
The given equations are
35 15 25 M + 3> + 4T = 13
35 1428
0 1 3 1 3 3 M 12
>
1 4 4 U V = 15
5 2 M 4 1 3 4 T 13
O PO P = O P
0 1 > 3
==,>
5M + 2> 4
Q R=O P
> 3 1 3 3 M 12
0 1 1 U>V = 3
5M + 2> = 4 , > = 3 0 0 1 T 1
5M + 23 = 4 5M 6 = 4 5M = 10 M M + 3> + 3T 12
=2 >+T =3
T 1
21. Solve the equations 2M + 3> = 9 , > M = 2
M + 3> + 3T = 12
> + T = 3 , T=1
using reduction method
>+1=3> =31> =2
Solution:
M + 3 2 + 3 1 = 12
The given equations
2M + 3> = 9 , > M = 2
M = 12 9 M = 3
2M + 3> = 9 , M > = 2
Required values are M = 3 , > = 2 , T = 1
2 3 M 9
O PO P = O P
1 1 > 2
M > T = 1 , 2M > = 1 and 3M 3> 4T = 2
23. Solve the following equation by method of reduction
==,> 2
2 2 4
2 39
Solution:
2M + 31 = 9 2M = 9 3 2M = 6 M = 3 2 1 0 1
2 2 22
0 1 21
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
19
3 3 4 2 1 2 3 M 8
3 3 3 3 0 5 5 U>V = 15
0 0 11 0 5 13 T 23
1 1 1 M 1
0 1 2 U>V = 1
0 0 1 T 1 0 5 1323
0 5 5 15
M>T 1 0 0 8 8
U > + 2T V = 1
T 1 1 2 3 M 8
0 5 5 U>V = 15
M>T =1 0 0 8 T 8
> + 2T = 1 , T = 1 T = 1 M + 2> + 3T 8
5> 5T = 15
> 2 = 1 > = 2 1 > = 1 8T 8
M11=1 M + 2> + 3T = 8 1
M+4+3= 8M = 87 M = 1
method
2M > + T = 1 , reduction
2 1 1 M 1
1 2 3 U>V = 8
The given equations are
3 1 4 T 1 M + > + T = 6 ,
1 2 3 M 8 1 1 1 M 6
2 1 1 U>V = 1 3 1 3 U>V = 10
3 1 4 T 1 5 5 4 T 3
==,> 2
3 ==,> 3
5
2 1 1 1 3 1 3 10
2 4 616 3 3 318
0 5 515 0 4 0 8
3 1 4 1 5 5 4 3
3 6 9 24 5 5 530
0 5 1323 0 0 927
1 1 1 M 6 M + 2> + T = 8 1
0 4 0 U>V = 8
0 0 9 T 27 > 3T = 5.........................2
M+>+T 6 16T = 16 T = 1
4> = 8
9T 27 =X. T = 1 > 3 1 = 5
M + > + T = 6 . .1
> 3 = 5 > = 3 5
4> = 8 > = 2
> = 2 > = 2
9T = 27 T = 3
M+22+1= 8M = 85 M = 3
M+2+3= 6M = 65 M = 1
27. Solve the equation M + 3> + 2T = 6
26. Solve the equations M + 2> + T = 8 , 3M 2> + 5T = 5 , 2M 3> + 6T = 7
M + 3> + 2T = 6
Solution:
3M 2> + 5T = 5 , 2M 3> + 6T = 7
1 3 2 M 6
The given equations are
M + 2> + T = 8 , 3 2 5 U>V = 5
2 3 6 T 7
2M + 3> T = 11 , 3M > 2T = 5
==,> 3
2
1 2 1 M 8
2 3 1 U>V = 11 3 2 5 5
3 9 618
3 1 2 T 5
0 11 113
==,> 2
3
2 3 6 7
2 3 1 11 2 6 412
2 4 216 0 9 2 5
0 1 3 5 1 3 2 M 6
0 11 1 U>V = 13
3 1 2 5 0 9 2 T 5
3 6 324
0 7 519 ==,> 11 9
1 2 1 M 8 0 99 2255
>
0 1 3 U V = 5 0 99 9 117
0 7 5 T 19 0 0 31 62
==,> 7 1 3 2 M 6
0 11 1 U>V = 13
0 7 519 0 0 31 T 62
0 7 21 35 M + 3> + 2T 6
0 0 16 16 11> T = 13
31T 62
1 2 1 M 8
M + 3> + 2T = 6 . .1
0 1 3 U>V = 5
0 0 16 T 16 11> T = 13 .2
62 M+2+3= 6M = 65 M = 1
31T = 62 T = T=2
31 The three numbers are 1, 2, 3
Put T = 2 H YX.HG 2
29. If three numbers are added the sum is 15. If the
11> 2 = 13 11> = 11
second number is subtracted from the sum of first
and third number then we get 5 and if twice the first
>=1
number is added to the second and the third
number is subtracted from the sum we get 4. Use
Put > = 1 , T = 2 H YX.HG 2 matrices to find the numbers.
M=1
M + > + T = 15 , M + T > = 5 , 2M + > T = 4
From the given condition
M + > + T = 15 , M > + T = 5 ,
2M + > T = 4
28. The sum of three numbers is 6. If we multiply third
1 1 1 M 15
number by 3 and add it to the second number we
1 1 1 U>V = 5
get 11. By adding first and the third numbers we get
a number which is double the second number. Use 2 1 1 T 4
==,>
2
this information and find a system of linear
equations. Find the three numbers using matrices
1 1 1 5
Let M , >
T be the three numbers 1 1 115
Solution:
0 2 0 10
M + > + T = 6 , > + 3T = 11 , M + T = 2>
From the given condition
2 1 1 4
M + > + T = 6 , 0M + > + 3T = 11 , 2 2 230
M 2> + T = 0 0 1 326
1 1 1 M 6
0 1 3 U>V = 11 1 1 1 M 15
1 2 1 T 0 0 2 0 U>V = 10
Apply 0 1 3 T 26
Apply
1 1 1 M 6
0 1 3 U>V = 11 0 1 326
0 3 0 T 6 0 1 0 5
Apply + 3 0 0 321
0 3 06 1 1 1 M 15
0 3 9 33 0 2 0 U>V = 10
0 0 9 27 0 0 3 T 21
1 1 1 M 6 M+>+T 6
0 1 3 U>V = 11 2> = 10
0 0 9 T 27 3T 21
M+>+T 6 M + > + T = 6 . .1
> + 3T = 11 2> = 10 > = 5
9T 27 3T = 21 T = 7
M + > + T = 6 . .1
Put > = 5 , T = 7 H YX.HG 1
> + 3T = 11 .2
M + 5 + 7 = 15 M = 15 12 M = 3
27
9T = 27 T = T=3
9
The three numbers are 3, 5, 7
=X. H YX.HG 2 > + 3 3 = 11
> = 11 9 > = 2
30. If three numbers are added their sum is 2. If two
third number we get 4. Find the number using Cost of one dozen erasers = [. T
matrices.
Let M , >
T be the three numbers 4M + 3> + 2T = 60 , 2M + 4> + 6T = 90
Solution:
6M + 2> + 3T = 70
M + > + T = 2 , M + T 2> = 8 , 3M + > + T = 4 4M + 3> + 2T = 60 , M + 2> + 3T = 45
From the given condition
2M + 5> = 110
6M + 8> = 190
revenue Rs. 21,500. Find the selling price of a From given conditions
2M + 5> = 110
3M + 4> = 95
television and a V. C. R.
2 5 M 110
O PO P = O P
Solution:
3 2 M 35000
O PO P = O P
the cost of 3 books and 4 note books is Rs. 31. Using
0 1 > 13000
matrices, find the cost of one book and one note
3M + 2> 35000
Q R=O P
> 13000
book.
3M + 2> = 35000
Solution:
> = 13000 > = 13000
3M + 2 13000 = 35000
Let
O PO P = O P
0 5 > 20
and 8 books. They both go to shop and buy them.
M + 3> 17
Q R=O P
When the shopkeeper gives them the pens and the
5> 20
books Nina pays him Rs. 110 and Mina pays him Rs.
M + 3> = 17 . .1
190. Find the prices of one pen and one book using
5> = 20 > = 4
matrices
=X. > = 4 H YX.HG 1
Solution:
Let M + 3 4 = 17 M = 17 12
M=5 M 6 + 6
O>P = O P
Cost of one book = [. 5 43
Cost of one note book = [. 4 M 0
O>P = O P
1
35. Solve the equations M + 2> = 2
Method of inversion
M = 0 , > = 1
2M + 3> = 3by method of inversion
36. Solve the equations 2M + 5> = 1
1 2 M 2
The given equations are
O PO P = O P 2M + 5> = 1
3M + 2> = 7
2 3 > 3
\ = ] .1 2 5 M 1
O P O> P = O P
3 2 7
1 2 2 M
Where = O P , ] = O P , \ = O>P \ = ] .1
2 3 3
2 5 1 M
Multiply equation 1 both sides from left by Where = O P , ] = O P , \ = O>P
3 2 7
\ = ]
Multiply equation 1 both sides from left by
\ = ]
\ = ]
\ = ] \ = ]
\ = ]
To find
\ = ] \ = ]
1 2
=O P To find
2 3
 = 3 4 = 1 0 2 5
=O P
3 2
 = 4 15 = 11 0
A is nonsingular matrix
exists
exists
E = 1K 2 = 2
E = 1K 2 = 2
E = 1K 2 = 2
E = 1K 3 = 3
E = 1K 1 = 1
E = 1K 5 = 5
1 3 2 3 2
= O P = O P E = 1K 2 = 2
1 2 1 2 1
M 3 2 2 1 2 5
O>P = O PO P = O P
2 1 3 11 3 2
M 1 2 5 1 E = 1K 1 = 1
O>P = O PO P
11 3 2 7
1 1 1
M 1 2 35 = O P
O>P = O P 3 2 1
11 3 + 14
M 1 1 1 4
M 1 33 O>P = O PO P
O>P = O P 3 2 1 5
11 11
M 1 4 5
M 3 O>P = O P
O>P = O P 3 8 + 5
1
M 1 9
M = 3 , > = 1 O>P = O P
3 3
37. Solve the equations M + > = 4
M 3
O>P = O P
2M > = 5by method of inversion 1
Solution: M = 3 , > = 1
M + > = 4
2M > = 5
1 1 M 4
O P O>P = O P
Solution:
\ = ] .1 2M + 6> = 8
M + 3> = 5
1 1 4 M 2 6 M 8
Where = O P , ] = O P , \ = O>P O PO P = O P
2 1 5 1 3 > 5
Multiply equation 1 both sides from left by \ = ] .1
2 6
=O P
1 3
A is nonsingular matrix
exists
 = 6 6 = 0
E = 1K 1 = 1
E = 1K 2 = 2
A is singular matrix
1 1
1 1
The given equations are
M + > + T = 1 , M > + T = 2
E = 1K L L = 1 1 = 0
1 1
M + > T = 3 1 1
E = 1K L L = 11 1 = 2
1 1
1 1 1 M 1
1 1 1 U>V = 2 E E E
1 1 1 T 3 Cofactor matrix= E E E
E E E
\ = ] .1
0 2 2
1 1 1 1 M Cofactor matrix= 2 2 0
Where = 1 1 1 , ] = 2 , \ = U>V 2 0 2
1 1 1 3 T
0 2 2 J
Multiply equation 1 both sides from left by
FGH . GI = 2 2 0
2 0 2
\ = ]
0 2 2
\ = ]
FGH . GI = 2 2 0
2 0 2
\ = ] \ = ]
1
=
FGH . GI
To find 
1 1 1 1 0 2 2
 = 1 1 1 = 2 2 0
4
1 1 1 2 0 2
exists
10
1 1 ' *
E = 1K L L = 11 1 = 0 M M & 4 )
1 1 1 10 6
U>V = 2 U>V = & )
1 1 T 4 T & 4)
E = 1K L L = 11 1 = 2 8
1 1 & 8)
% 4(
1 1
E = 1K L L = 11 + 1 = 2
1 1 5
M ' *
1 1 & 2 ) 5 3
E = 1K L L = 11 1 = 2 U>V = & 3) M = , > = , T = 2
1 1 2 2
T & 2)
% 2 (
5M > + 4T = 5 5 4
E = 1K L L = 25 8 = 17
2 5
2M + 3> + 5T = 2
5 1
5M 2> + 6T = 1 E = 1K L L = 115 + 2 = 17
2 3
5 1 4 M 5 E E E
2 3 5 U > V = 2 E
Cofactor matrix= E E
5 2 6 T 1 E E E
\ = ] .1 28 13 19
Cofactor matrix= 2 10 5
5 1 4 5 M 17 17 17
Where = 2 3 5 , ] = 2 , \ = U>V
5 2 6 1 T 28 13 19 J
FGH . GI = 2 10 5
Multiply equation 1 both sides from left by 17 17 17
1 4
E = 1K L L = 16 + 8 = 2
2 6
Solution:
\ = ] 1 2 3 1
0 3 5 \ = 3
1 2 0 1 0 0 1 2
O P\ = O P
1 3 2 4
Apply +
Apply
1 2 3
1 2 0 1 5 1
O P\ = O P
0 5 2 5 "0 1 # \ = 1
3 2
0 0 1
$
Apply 2
Apply
0 1
1 2
O P \ = 2 1 2 3
0 1 1 ^ 1
5 0 2 2
Apply 2 1 0 1
0 1 1
1 2 A '1 0 *
0 2 $ 2 3) 1
&
1 0 A 1 &0 5 )\ = 1
& 1 2
$
3 )
%0 0 1 (
4
1
1 0
O P\ = " 5 # Apply +
$
0 1 2
1
5
1 0 1
4
1 0 0
\ = " 5 0
#
2 1 0
1
5 1
0 1
$
^
4
1 0 0
$
\=" 5
_
# 0 1 0
2
1
5 1
1 0 0 ' *
1 2 3 & 3)
42. Find X if \ = ] where = 1 1 2 and 0 1 0 \ = & 7 )
1 2 4 0 0 1 & 3)
1 % 2 (
] = 2
1
3 ' *
& 3)
\ = & 7)
& 3)
Solution:
\ = ] % 2 (
1 2 3 1 1
' *
1 1 2 \ = 2 & 3)
1 2 4 3 \ = & 7)
& 3)
Apply +
% 2 (
4 5
43. If = O P then show that = B 5
2 1
MATHEMATICAL LOGIC
Logical Connectives:
Solution:
4 5
=O P
Sr. Connectives symbol
2 1
No.
 = L4 5L
1 And
2 1 ~
2 Or
3 Not
 = 4 10 = 6 0
4 If .then
5 iff
A is nonsingular matrix Truth table for conjunction:
exists = Y =Y
E = 1K 2 = 2
F T F
F F F
E = 1K 5 = 5
Truth table for disjunction:
= Y =Y
E = 1K 4 = 4 T T T
1 1 5
= O P
T F T
6 2 4
F T T
1 1 5
F F F
<. `. a. = = O P1
6 2 4
Truth table for conditional:
= Y =Y
1
. `. a. = 5
6
T T T
T F F
1 4 5 1 0
. `. a. = bO P 5O Pc
F T T
6 2 1 0 1
F F T
1 4 5 5 0
Truth table for Biconditional:
. `. a. = bO PO Pc = Y =Y
6 2 1 0 5
1 1 5
T T T
. `. a. = O P . .2
6 2 4
T F F
F T F
F F T
From equation 1 and 2 Truth table for negation:
<. `. a. = . `. a. = ~=
1
= 5
T F
6
F T
patternsg= Y Yh =
44. Prepare the truth table for the statement
Solution:
= Y i ~Y = ~Y i=
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
= Y = Y = Y Y g= Y Yh =
56
T T T F T T T
T T T T T T T F F T F F
T F F F T T F T T T T T
F T T T F T F F T T F F
F F T F T F T T F F F T
patterns= Y ~=
45. Prepare the truth table for the statement F T F F F F T
F F T T T F F
F F F T T F F
Solution:
= Y =Y ~= = Y ~=
= Y ~= ~Y
49. Using truth table prove that the logical equivalence
T T T F F
T F F F T
F T F T T Solution:
F F F T T
T T T F F T
Solution: T F F T T F
F T F F T F
= Y =Y ~= ~= Y
1 2 3 4 5 6 F F F T T F
35 From the above truth table it is clear that all the
T T T F T T corresponding entries in columns 3 and 6 are
T F F F F T
identical
= Y ~= ~Y
F T T T T T
F F T T T T
patterns= i Y =
47. Prepare the truth table for the statement
= Y = Y ~= ~Y
50. Using truth table prove that the logical equivalence
Solution:
Solution:
= Y i =i Y=
1 2 3 4 5 6
= Y = Y = Y ~= ~Y ~= ~Y 47
45 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
T T T T T T
T T F F F F T T T T F F F T
T F T T F F T F F F F T F F
T F F F T F F T F F T F F F
F T T F T F F F T F T T T T
F T F T F F From the above truth table it is clear that all the
F F T F F F corresponding entries in columns 3 and 8 are
F F F T T T identical
~= Y ~= ~Y
Solution: 51. Using truth table prove that the logical equivalence
Solution:
= Y = Y ~= Y ~= ~Y ~= ~Y = Y =Y =Y Y=
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6
45
T T T F F F F T T T T T T
T F F T F T T T F F F T F
F T F T T F T F T F T F F
F F F T T T T F F T T T T
From the above truth table it is clear that all the From the above truth table it is clear that all the
corresponding entries in columns 4 and 7are corresponding entries in columns 3 and 6 are
identical identical
~= Y ~= ~Y = Y = Y Y =
~= Y ~= ~Y
52. Using truth table prove that the logical equivalence
Solution:
= Y 12 ~= ~Y 1 5 ~6 2 4 ~8
Solution: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
79
= Y = Y ~= Y ~= ~Y ~= ~Y
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 T T T F F F T F T T
T F F F T T F F T F
T T T F F F F F T F T F F T T F F
T F T F F T F F F T T T F T F T T
F T T F T F F From the above truth table it is clear that all the
F F F T T T T corresponding entries in columns 3 and 10 are
From the above truth table it is clear that all the identical
~= Y ~= ~Y
~= Y ~= Y ~=
56. Using truth table prove the logical equivalence
= Y ~= Y ~Y ~=
53. Prove the following result
Solution:
= Y = Y ~= Y ~= ~Y 52
Solution: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
47
= Y = Y ~= ~Y ~= Y ~Y ~=
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 T T T F F F F F
T F T F F T F F
T T T F F T T F T T F T F T T
T F F F T F F F F F T T T F T
F T T T F T T From the above truth table it is clear that all the
F F T T T T T corresponding entries in columns 5 and 8 are
From the above truth table it is clear that all the identical
~= Y ~= Y ~=
corresponding entries in columns 3, 6 and 7are
identical
= Y ~= Y ~Y ~=
~= Y = Y ~=
57. Using truth table prove the logical equivalence
= Y = Y Y =
54. Prove the following result
Solution:
Solution:
= Y ~= ~= Y = Y = Y Y = is tautology
1 2 3 4 5 6
53
T T F F T F
= Y i Y i = Y 14 53 67
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
identical
~= Y = Y ~= T T T T T T T T
T T F F T F F T
TAUTOLOGY: All the entries in the last column of T F T T F T T T
the statement pattern are T it is called as tautology T F F T F T T T
CONTRADICTION: All the entries in the last column F T T T F T T T
F T F F F T T T
of the statement pattern are F it is called as
F F T T F T T T
contradiction
F F F T F T T T
CONTANGENCY: The entries in the last column of All the entries in the last column of the truth table of
statement pattern are T as well as F is called as given statement pattern are T. the given statement
= Y = Y ~= ~Y 35 61. = ~Y = Y
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
64
T T T F F F T Solution:
T F F F T F T
= Y = Y ~Y = ~Y 53
F T T T F F T 1 2 3 4 5 6
F F T T T T T
All the entries in the last column of the truth table of T T T F F F
given statement pattern are T. the given statement T F F T T F
= Y Y = is tautology
59. Using truth table show that the statement pattern given statement pattern are F. the given statement
= ~Y = Y is contradiction
62. ~= Y Y =
Solution:
= Y =Y Y=
1 2 3 4 5
34 Solution:
T T T T T
T F F T T
F T T F T
F F T T T
= Y Y= ~= ~= Y = Y i =Y =i
1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6
35 45
T T T F F F T T T T T T
T F T F F F T T F T T T
F T F T T F T F T T T T
F F T T F F T F F T T T
All the entries in the last column of the truth table of F T T T T T
given statement pattern are F. the given statement F T F T F F
~= Y Y = is contradiction
F F T F T F
F F F F F F
63. = Y = i
From the above truth table it is clear that the entries in
the last column are neither all T nor all F
Solution: = Y = i is contingency
66. g= = Yh Y
= Y i =Y =i
1 2 3 4 5 6
45
T T T T T T Solution:
T T F T F T
= Y =Y
T F T F T T 1 2 3 4 5
T F F F F F 13 42
F T T F F F T T T T T
F T F F F F T F F F T
F F T F F F F T T F T
F F F F F F F F T F T
From the above truth table it is clear that the entries in All the entries in the last column of the truth table of
the last column are neither all T nor all F given statement pattern are T. the given statement
= Y i = Y 43 Y i 16 57
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Solution:
= Y ~Y ~Y =
T T T T T T T T 1 2 3 4 5
T T F T T T T T 42
T F T T T T T T T T F F F
T F F T T F T T T F T T F
F T T T T T T T F T F F F
F T F T T T T T F F T F F
F F T F T T T T All the entries in the last column of the truth table of
F F F F F F F T given statement pattern are F. the given statement
~Y = Y is contradiction
All the entries in the last column of the truth table of
given statement pattern are T. the given statement
= Y =Y ~= = Y = ~= ~Y ~= = ~=
1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Y Y ~Y ~Y
34 3678
T T T F F
T F T F F T T T F F F F F T
F T T T T T F F F T F T F T
F F F T F F T F T F T F F T
From the above truth table it is clear that the entries in F F F T T F F T T
the last column are neither all T nor all F All the entries in the last column of the truth table of
= Y ~= is contingency
given statement pattern are T. the given statement
= Y i = Y = i
72. Using truth table verify that
= Y i =Y
1 2 3 4 5
43
T T T T T Solution:
T T F T F
= Y i Y i 14 = Y = i 67
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
T F T F T
T F F F T
T T T T T T T T
F T T F T
T T F T T T F T
F T F F T
T F T T T F T T
F F T F T
T F F F F F F F
F F F F T
F T T T F F F F
From the above truth table it is clear that the entries in
F T F T F F F F
the last column are neither all T nor all F F F T T F F F F
= Y i is contingency
The entries in column number 5 and 8 are identical
F F F F F F F F
70. = Y = ~Y
= Y i = Y = i is verified
Solution:
= Y i = Y = i
73. Using truth table verified that
= Y =Y ~Y = ~Y
1 2 3 4 5 6
35
Solution:
T T T F F F
T F F T T F
= Y i Y i 14 = Y = i 67
F T T F F F 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
F F T T F F
All the entries in the last column of the truth table of T T T T T T T T
given statement pattern are F. the given statement T T F F T T T T
= Y = ~Y is contradiction
T F T F T T T T
T F F F T T T T
= Y i = Y = iis verified
~= Y = Y =Y ~= Y ~Y = ~Y
Negation of conjunction: The negation of conjunction is 1 2 3 4 5 6
T T T F F F
~= Y ~= ~Y
Using truth table prove that T F F T T T
F T T F F F
Solution: F F T F T F
The entries in column 4 and 6 are identical
T T T F F F F
is ~= Y
Negation of Biconditional: The negation of biconditional
T F F T F T T
F T F T T F T
F F F T T T T
Using truth table prove that
~= Y ~= ~Y = Y =Y ~3 ~= ~Y
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
16 25 78
T T T F F F F F F
~= Y
Negation of disjunction: The negation of disjunction is T F F T F T T F T
F T F T T F F T T
~= Y ~= ~Y
The entries in column 4 and 9 are identical
~~=
Negation of negation: The negation of negation is
= Y = Y ~= Y ~= ~Y ~= ~Y
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
= ~= ~~=
F T T F T F F 1 2 3
F F F T T T T
From the above truth table it is clear that all the T F T
corresponding entries in columns 4 and 7are F T F
identical The entries in column 1 and 3 are identical
~= Y ~= ~Y ~~= =
= ~Y i ~= ~Y Negation of negation The negation given statement pattern is
~g= Y ih
= Y ~= igiving justification
75. From the negation of the statement pattern
~g= Y Y ~ih
following
80. Y = ~i
= ~= Y ~Y ~i Negation of conjunction
disjunction p q r ~i = ~i Y = ~i
Solution: Solution:
~g~= Y = ~Yh
The truth value of ~i = ~Y is T
T F T T F F T
conjunction p q r =Y = Y i
83. i Y ~=
= Y i giving justification
78. From the negation of the statement pattern
Solution: DUALITY
p q r ~= i Y i Y ~= Principle of duality:
84. = Y Y i ~= Y = ~= ~Y
Solution: ~= Y = ~= ~Y
85. = Y i 89. = Y i
Solution: Solution:
p q r =Y = Y i The dual of = Y i is = Y i
90. = Y i [
The statement = Y i is T
T T F T T
86. = i [
Solution:
The dual of = Y i [ H[ = Y i [
91. = Y i = Y i
Solution:
p r s rs = i [
Solution:
= Y i = Y iis= Y i =
87. = [ Y i
Y i
92. = Y i = Y = i
Solution:
p q r [ =[ Yi = [ Y i
Solution:
= Y i = Y = iis
88. ~= ~i ~Y [
= Y i = Y = i
93. = Y E
Solution:
p q r s ~Y ~i = ~i ~7 ~Y [
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
89 Solution:
The dual of given statement pattern = Y E is The symbol is called as existential quantifiers
=Y.
94. ~= Y E
Use quantifier to convert each of the following
open sentence defined on N into a true
statement
M+5=7
Solution:
~= Y .
solution:
This is a true M = 1 Gi 2 Gi 3 Gi 4 Gi 5 z
Solution:
M 3 = 11
98. Madhuri has curly hair and brown eyes
103.
Solution:
Solution:
M z such that M 3 = 11
The dual of the given statement pattern is
Solution: M 3 = 11
104. M + 1 5
The dual of the given statement pattern is
Solution:
Shweta is a doctor and Sheela is a teacher
M z Such that M + 1 5
Universal quantifier:
This is a true M = 1 Gi 2 z satisfied
The symbol is called as universal quantifier
M + 1 5
Existential quantifier:
105. M 3M + 2 = 0
M 3M + 2 = 0 Solution:
106. M+3<7 M = 4
6
8 satisfiesM 3
M+3<7
113.
M > 0
Solution:
107.
M + 3 = 10
No number belongs to A satisfies equation
Solution:
M , M + 2 < 9
This is a true because the square is non negative
Solution:
each of the following
M , M + 4 < 10
The given open sentence has truth value T
109. Solution:
M = 6
8 do not satisfies the equation
M + 4 < 10
The given equation has truth value T
116. M , M + 6 9
The given sentence has truth value F
M , M + 5 13
Solution:
Solution:
M = 3
4
6 do not satisfies M + 5 13
The given sentence has truth values F
Solution: Solution:
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
40
M , M 3  10
the following circuit
118.
Solution:
M = 7
9 do
do not satisfies the given
sentence
Solution:
M = 4 satisfiesM 5 9
Represent the following circuit symbolically and
The given sentence has truth values T write the inputoutput
output of switching table
Solution:
121. M , 2M } 17
Solution:
APPLICATION OF LOGIC
Solution:
Two switches a
a are connected in series in
the following circuit Y = switcha is closed
~= switcha is closed
~Y switcha is closed
= Y ~= ~Y
~= ~Y P q ~= ~Y
Y
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 124.
p q 56
1 1 0 0 1 0 1
1 0 0 1 1 0 1
0 1 1 0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1 0 1 1
123.
Solution:
Let
= =switcha is closed
Y = switcha is closed
i = switch a is closed
closed
Solution:
~= switcha is closed
Let
= =switcha is closed
Y = switcha is closed
The symbolic form of the given circuit diagram is
= Y Y i ~=
i = switch a is closed
~= switcha is closed
The switching table for the given circuit is as follows
~Y switcha is closed
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
p q r ~p 12 52 34 67
1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1
The symbolic form of the given circuit diagram is 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0
g= Y ~= ~Yh i
1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0
1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
The switching table for the given circuit is as 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1
follows
0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
p q r ~p ~q 12 45 67 83
1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1
1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0
1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1
0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0
cos sin 2n + , n Z
TRIGNOMETRIC FUNCTION
cos 0 for 2n + = 4n + 1
2 2
An equation which contain trigonometric function is
called as trigonometric equation
or = 2n + = 4n + 3 where n Z
Principal solution:
cos 0
unknown angle x, where 0 x < 2, are called
The solution of trigonometric equation of an
5 9
for , , , ,
2 2 2
as principal solution.
Or = , ,, ,
_
Theorem: The general solution of
sin 0 is n, n Z
cos 0
3 5 7 9
Proof:
= , , , , ,
2 2 2 2 2
We know that
By periodicity of sin x
cos 0 is 2n + 1 , n Z
2
sin 0 = sin2n + 0 and
sin sin2n + , n Z
Theorem: The general solution of
tan = 0 is n, n Z
sin 0 for 2n
or = 2n + = 2n + 1 where n Z
Proof:
sin
tan = where cos 0
sin 0 cos
Or = , 3, , 5, We know that
sin 0 for 2n
Proof:
or = 2n + = 2n + 1 where n Z
We know that
3
cos = 0 and cos =0 sin 0
2 2
Or = , 3, , 5,
cos = sin 2n + and
2 2
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
43
tan = 0 is n, n Z Apply
n 1: , n Z CD CD
2 sin sin
2 2
sin sin
2 sin sin =0
Proof:
sin sin 0 2 2
sin . sin =0
2 2
Apply
CD CD
sin C sin D 2 cos . sin
2 2 sin = 0 or sin =0
2 2
2 cos . sin =0 Apply
2 2
sin 0 is n , n Z
cos . sin =0
2 2 +
= n or = n , n Z
2 2
cos = 0 or sin =0
2 2 + = 2n or n, n Z
Apply = 2n or 2n + , n Z
= 2n , n Z
cos 0 is 2n + 1
2
Hence the general solution of cos cos is
sin 0 is n , n Z
2n , n Z
+
= 2n + 1 or = n , n Z
2 2 2 Theorem: If and are not multiple of then the
= 2n + 1 or 2n + , n Z = n +
tan = tan
n 1: where n is even integer
or
sin sin
Hence the general solution of sin sin is cos cos
2n , n Z sin 0
= n , n Z 1 cos 2 = 2 sin
= n + , n Z 1 cos 2
sin
2
Theorem: The general of cos cos is
n , n Z 1 cos 2
Similarly
sin
2
cos cos
1 cos 2 1 cos 2
Proof:
=
We know that 2 2
cos
2
2 = 2n 2 , n Z
1 + cos 2 1 + cos 2
= 2 = 2n , n Z
2 2
cos 2 = cos 2 n , n Z
We know that the general of cos cos is Theorem: The general of tan = tan is
2n , n Z = n , n Z
2 = 2n 2 , n Z tan = tan
n , n Z tan sec 1
n , n Z
sec 1 = sec 1
sec sec
Proof:
sin sin
1 1
We know that cos cos
a b c
cos sin
a b a b a b
We know that
cos 2 = 2 cos 1
cos . cos sin . sin cos
1 + cos 2 = 2 cos
cos cos
1 + cos 2
cos
2 We know that the general of cos cos is
2n , n Z
1 + cos 2
Similarly
cos = 2n , n Z
2
1 + cos 2 1 + cos 2 = 2n + , n Z
=
2 2
Find the principal solution of cos x =
1 + cos 2 = 1 + cos 2
1.
cos 2 = cos 2
Solution: 
1
we know that
n , n Z 5 1
cos = cos = = cos x
3 3 2
Theorem: The general of sin sin is
5
The required principle solution is
n , n Z M =
M =
3 3
cos x =
Theorem: The general solution of 2. Problem : Find the principal solution of
2n + , n Z wherea, b, c R, 1
Solution:  we know that
EG[ =
3 2
a EG[ M = EG[ M
a 0, b 0, c 0, cos
a b EG[ + M = EG[ M
b c =X. M =
sin , cos 3
a b a b
EG[ = EG[
3 3
a cos b sin c
EG[ + = EG[
3 3
Proof:
3 2
3 + 1 Where 0 <
$
< 2
EG[ =
3 2
B
2 1 11
EG[ =
0< < 2
3 2 6
4 1
EG[ =
3 2 5 11
The required principle solution is
2 4 1 M=
M =
EG[ = EG[ = 6 6
3 3 2
4. Find the principal solution of sin x =
Where 0 < < 2
4
0< < 2 1
Solution:  we know that
3 [H =
5 1 4 2
EG[ = EG[ = = EG[ M [H M = [H M
3 3 2
=X. M =
2 4 4
The required principle solution is
M=
M =
3 3 [H = [H
4 4
3. Find the principal solution of cot x = 3 4
[H = [H
4 4
EG. M = 3 3 1
Solution:  the given equation is
[H = [H =
1 4 4 2
. M =
Where 0 < A < 2
3
3
0< < 2
4
We know that
1
. =
6 3 3
The required principle solution is
M =
M =
. M = . M
4 4
Find the principal solution of sin x =
. 2 M = . M
5.
3
Solution:  we know that
=X. M = [H =
6 3 2
[H M = [H M
. = .
6 6
=X. M =
3
. 2 = .
6 6 [H = [H
3 3
6 1 3
. =
[H = [H
6 3 3
3
2 3
12 1 [H = [H =
3 3 2
. =
6 3 Where 0 < < 2
5 1 0 < < 2
. =
3
6 3
11 1 2
The required principle solution is
. = M=
M =
6 3 3
3
6. Find the principal solution of sec x =
5 11 1
. = . =
6 6 3
Solution:  the given equation is
2 3 EG. M = 3
[E M = EG[ M = 1
3 2
. M =
3
3
we know that
EG[ =
6 2
We know that
1
EG[2 M = EG[ M . =
6 3
=X. M =
6
. + M = . M
EG[ 2 = EG[
6 6
12 =X. M =
EG[ = EG[ 6
6 6
11 3 . + = .
6 6
EG[ = EG[ = 6 + 1
6 6 2
. =
Where 0 < B < 2
6 3
7 1
0 < < 2 . =
6 6 3
11 3 7 1
EG[ = EG[ = . = . =
6 6 2 6 6 3
11
The required principle solution is
M=
M =
B
6 6
7. Find the principal solution of cosec x = 2 7
0< < 2
6
1
Solution:  The given equation is
EG[E M = 2 =2 7
The required principle solution is
[H M M =
M =
1 6 6
[H M = 9. Find the principal solution of . M = 3
2
1 . M = 3
We know that Solution:  the given equation is
[H =
6 2
[H M = [H M
We know that
=X. M = . = 3
6 3
[H = [H . + M = . M
6 6
6
[H = [H
6 6 =X. M =
5 1 3
[H = [H =
6 6 2 . + = .
3 3
Where 0 < B < 2
3 +
$
. = 3
3
0 < < 2 4
6 . = 3
3
5 4
The required principle solution is
M=
M = . = . = 3
6 6 3 3
8. Find the principal solution of cot x = 3
Where 0 < < 2
Solution: 
Thegiven equation is
4
0< < 2 tan = tan and
3 3 3
tan 2 = tan
4 3 3
The required principle solution is
M =
M = 3
3 3 tan = 3 and
3
6
[H M =
tan = 3
10. Problem : Find the principal solution of
3
2
tan = 3 and
1 3
Solution:  The given equation is
[H M = 5
2 tan = 3
3
1 2 5
tan = tan = 3
We know that
[H = 3 3
6 2
[H + M = [H M
[H 2 M = [H M
=X. M = 5
6 0< < 2
3
[H + = [H
6 6
2 5
The required principle solution is
[H 2 = [H x= and x =
6 6 3 3
6 + 12. Find the principal solution of tan x = 1
[H = [H
6 6
12
[H = [H tan x = 1
Solution:  the given equation is
6 6
7
[H = [H
We know that
6 6
11 tan =1
[H = [H 4
6 6
7 11 1 tan x = tan x and
[H = [H =
6 6 2
Where 0 < B < 2
_ tan2 x = tan x
11
0< < 2 put x =
6 4
tan = tan and
7 11 4 4
The required principle solution is
M=
M =
6 6 tan 2 = tan
4 4
11. Find the principal solution of . M = 3 4
tan = 1 and
4
. M = 3 8
Solution:  the given equation is
tan = 1
4
3
tan = 1 and
We know that
4
. = 3
3 7
tan = 1
4
. M = . M
3 7
tan = tan = 1
. 2 M = . M 4 4
=X. M = A
3
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
49
7 1
0< < 2 EG[ M =
4 2
3 7 1
The required principle solution is We know that
M=
M = EG[ =
4 4 4 2
13. Problem : Find the principal solution of 3EG[E M + EG[ M = EG[ M
3EG[E M = 2 EG[ = EG[
4 4
2
EG[E M = EG[ + = EG[
3 4 4
1 2 4 1
= EG[ =
[H M 3 4 2
3 4 + 1
[H M = EG[ =
2 4 2
3 1
EG[ =
3 4 2
We know that
[H = 5 1
3 2 EG[ =
[H + M = [H M
4 2
[H 2 M = [H M 3 5 1
EG[ = EG[ =
4 4 2
=X. M =
3 Where 0 <
< 2
A
[H + = [H
5
3 3 0< < 2
4
[H 2 = [H
3 3
3 + 3 5
The required principle solution is
[H = [H
M=
M =
3 3 4 4
6 15. Find the principal solution of 3[E M + 2 = 0
[H = [H
3 3
4
[H = [H
Solution:
3 3
3[E M + 2 = 0
The given equation is
5
[H = [H
3 3 3[E M = 2
4 5 3 2
[H = [H = [E M =
3 3 2 3
Where 0 < < 2
A 1 2
=
5 EG[ M 3
0< < 2 3
3 EG[ M =
2
4 5
The required principle solution is
M=
M = 3
We know that
3 3
EG[ =
14. Find the principal solution of 2EG[ M + 1 = 0 6 2
EG[ M = EG[ M
EG[ + M = EG[ M
2EG[ M + 1 = 0
Solution: The given equation is
2EG[ M = 1 =X. M =
6
M = 2 ,
EG[ = EG[
6 6
EG[ + = EG[ 18. Find the general solution of sec x = 2
6 6
6 3 1
EG[ =
6 2 [E M = 2 = 2
EG[ M
6 + 3 1
EG[ = EG[ M = EG[ M = EG[
6 2 2 4
5 3
EG[ =
6 2
We know that
$ A
7
0< < 2 M = 2 ,
6 4
.  i, [G,X.HG H[
5 7
The required principle solution is
x= and x =
6 6
M = 2 ,
16. Find the general solution of sin x =
4
3 EG[E M = 2
Solution: The given equation is 19. Find the general solution of
[H M = [H M = [H
2 3
Where 0 < < 2
Solution: 
1
The given equation is
EG[E M = 2 = 2
[H M
We know that
[H M = [H
We know that 4
5
M = + 1 , . = .
4 6 6
5
20. Find the general solution of EG[ M =
. = .
6 6
1 5
Solution: The given equation is
. M = 3
21. Find the general solution of
3
Solution: The given equation is
[H M = [H M = [H
2 3
Solution: 
[H + M = [H M
. M = 3
The given equation is
=X. M =
3
. M = .
3 [H + = [H
3 3
4
The general solution of . 2 = . is [H = [H
3 3
4
2 = + , [H M = [H
3
The general solution of . M = . is
We know that
The general of [H 2 = [H is
M = + ,
3
2 = + 1 ,
The general of [H M = [H
A
EG. M = 3
22. Find the general solution of
is
4
M = + 1 ,
Solution: 
3
EG. M = 3
The given equation is
. M = . 1
6
The given equation is
2
EG[ = EG[
3 3
We know that
= 2n , n Z
2M = + 1 ,
6
The general of cos x = cos
M= + 1 ,
is
2 12
2
M = 2 ,
3
2M
27. Find the general solution of
. = 3
3
. M = 1
25. Find the general solution of
Solution: 
2M
Solution:  The given equation is
. M = 1 . = 3
3
The given equation is
2M
. M = . . = .
4 3 3
. M = . M The general solution of tan = tan is
=X. M = 2 = + ,
4
The general solution of. = . is
. = .
4 4
2M
3 = + ,
. = . 3 3
4 4
3 2M = 3 + ,
. M = . 3
4
2M = 3 + ,
The general solution of tan = tan is
3
M= + ,
2 = + , 2 2
3 1
M = + ,
Solution: The given equation is
1 2 = 2 ,
The given equation is
[H 2M = [H 2M = [H
2 6
The general of EG[3 M = EG[ A is
Where 0 < B < 2
3M = 2 , =X. M =
4 3
2 EG[ = EG[
M= , 3 3
3 12 2
EG[ = EG[
3 3
2
cot4 x = 1 EG[ 3M = EG[
29. Find the general solution of
3
Solution:  We know that
. 4 M = 1
2 = 2 ,
. 4M = . The general of EG[3 M = EG[
4
is
. M = . M 2
3M = 2 ,
3
=X. M =
4 2 2
M= ,
3 9
. = .
4 4
31. Find the general solution of EG[E3 M =
3
. = .
4 4 2 1 2
Solution: The given equation is
EG[E3 M = =
3 3 [H 3M 3
. 4M = .
4 3
[H 3M =
2
The general solution of tan = tan is
[H 3M = [H
3
2 = + , [H + M = [H M
The general solution of =X. M =
3
. 4 M = .
[H + = [H
A 3 3
4
is
3 [H = [H
3 3
4M = + , 4
4
[H 3M = [H
3
3
M = + ,
4 16
We know that
1 The general of [H 3 M = [H
A
The given equation is
[E3 M = 2 = 2
EG[ 3M
is
1 4
EG[ 3M = 3M = + 1 ,
2 3
EG[ 3M = EG[ 4
3 M= + 1 ,
EG[ M = EG[ M 3 9
5M
EG[ = 0 H[
2
Solution: The given equation is
[H M + = 0
5
5M
= 2 + 1 ,
2 2
We know that
2
M = 2 + 1 ,
The general solution of
[H 2 = 0 H[ 2 = , 5 2
M = 2 + 1 ,
5
The general solution of
[H M + = 0 = 0 H[ 35. Find the general solution of EG[2M = 0
5
M+ = ,
Solution: 
5
EG[2M = 0
The given equation is
M = ,
5
We know that
[H = 0
2 The general solution of
EG[2M = 0 H[
We know that
2M = 2 + 1 ,
The general solution of
[H 2 = 0 H[ 2 = , 2
M = 2 + 1 ,
4
The general solution of
3M
[H = 0 = 0 H[ 36. Find the general solution of sin 3x = 0
2
3M
Solution: 
= ,
2 [H 3M = 0
The given equation is
2
M= ,
We know that
5M
Solution: The given equation is
EG[ = 0
The general solution of
2 [H 3M = 0 H[
3M = ,
We know that
The general solution of
M= ,
cos = 0 is = 2n + 1 , n Z 3
2
. 3M = 1
Solution: The given equation is
Solution: The given equation is
EG[ M + = 0
10
. 3M = .
We know that 4
The general solution of . M = . M
EG[ 2 = 0 H[ 2 = 2 + 1 , =X. M =
2 4
. = .
4 4
The general solution of
EG[ M + = 0 H[ 3
10
. = .
4 4
M+ = 2 + 1 ,
10 2 3
. 3M = .
4
M = 2 + 1 ,
2 10 The general solution of . 2 = . is
38. Find the general solution of cos2 x =
2 = + ,
4EG[ M = 1
tan x = 1
43. Find the general solution of the equation
Solution: 
4EG[ M = 1
The given equation is Solution: 
1 . M = 1
The given equation is
EG[ M =
4 . M = 1
1 . M = 1
EG[ M =
2
. M = .
EG[ M = EG[
4
3
. M = .
EG[ M = EG[ 4
3 We know that
The general of . 2 = . is
We know that
2 = ,
2 = ,
The general of . M = . A is
The general solution of
EG[ M = EG[ H[ M = ,
3 4
M = ,
3
EG[ 3M = EG[ 2M
44. Find the general solution of the equation
4[H M 3 = 0
42. Find the general solution of the equation Solution: 
EG[ 3M = EG[ 2M
The given equation is
EG[ 3M EG[ 2M = 0
Solution: 
4[H M 3 = 0 3M + 2M 3M 2M
The given equation is
2 [H [H =0
4[H M = 3 2 2
3 5M M
[H M = 2 [H [H = 0
4 2 2
5M M
[H [H = 0
3
[H M =
2 2
2 5M M
[H = 0 Gi [H = 0
EG[ M = [H 2 2
3
[H M = [H
We know that
3 The general solution of
[H 2 = 0 H[ 2 = ,
We know that
2 = ,
The general solution of
5M M
[H = 0 Gi [H = 0
The general of [H M = [H is
2 2
5M M
is = Gi = ,
M = , 2 2
3 5M = 2 Gi M = 2 ,
2
M= Gi M = 2 ,
5
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
57
4 [H M EG[ M + 2 [H M + 2 EG[ M + 1 = 0 . M = 0 Gi . M 3 = 0
4 [H M EG[ M + 2 [H M + 2 EG[ M + 1 = 0 . M = 0 Gi . M = 3
2 [H M 2 EG[ M + 1 + 2 EG[ M + 1 = 0
. M = 0 Gi . M = .
2 EG[ M + 12 [H M + 1 = 0 3
2 EG[ M + 1 = 0 Gi 2 [H M + 1 = 0 . M = 0 Gi . M = .
3
2 EG[ M = 1 Gi 2 [H M = 1 The general solution is
1 1
EG[ M = Gi [H M = M = Gi M = , ,
2 2 3
EG[ M = EG[ Gi [H M = [H
3 6
47. Find the general solution of the equation
[E M = 1 . 2M
EG[ M = EG[ Gi [H M = [H
3 6
Solution: 
EG[ M = EG[ Gi
3
The given equation is
[E 2M = 1 . 2M
[H M = [H +
6 1 + . 2M = 1 . 2M
2 7
EG[ M = EG[ Gi [H M = [H . 2M = . 2M
3 6
. 2M + . 2M = 0
. 2M . 2M + 1 = 0
The general solution of
EG[ 2 = EG[ Gi [H 2 = [H H[
. 2M = 0 Gi . 2M + 1 = 0
2 = 2 , Gi
. 2M = 0 Gi . 2M = 1
2 = + 1 ,
2
M = 2 , Gi . 2M = 0 Gi . 2M = .
3 4
7
M = + 1 , . 2M = 0 Gi . 2M = .
6 4
4
. 2M = 0 Gi . 2M = .
4
46. Find the general solution of the equation
. M 3 . M = 0
3
. 2M = 0 Gi . 2M = .
Solution:  4
The given equation is The general solution is
. M 3 . M = 0 3
2M = Gi 2M = + , ,
4
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
58
n m 3
x= or x = + , n, m Z
2 2 8
Solution: 
[H 2M + [H 4M + [H 6M = 0 [H M + [H 3M + [H 5M = 0
48. Find the general solution of the equation
M + 5M M 5M
2 [H EG[ + [H 3M = 0
2 2
The given equation is
[H 2M + [H 4M + [H 6M = 0
[H 3M + 2 [H 3M EG[2M = 0
[H 4M + [H 2M + [H 6M = 0
[H 3M + 2 [H 3M EG[ 2M = 0
2M + 6M 2M 6M
[H 4M + 2 [H EG[ =0 [H 3M 1 + 2 EG[ 2M = 0
2 2
[H 4M + 2 [H 4M EG[2M = 0 [H 3M = 0 Gi 1 + 2 EG[ 2M = 0
[H 4M + 2 [H 4M EG[ 2M = 0 [H 3M = 0 Gi 2 EG[ 2M = 1
[H 4M 1 + 2 EG[ 2M = 0 1
[H 3M = 0 Gi EG[ 2M =
2
[H 4M = 0 Gi 1 + 2 EG[ 2M = 0
[H 3M = 0 Gi EG[ 2M = EG[
[H 4M = 0 Gi 2 EG[ 2M = 1 3
1 [H 3M = 0 Gi EG[ 2M = EG[
[H 4M = 0 Gi EG[ 2M = 3
2
3
[H 3M = 0 Gi EG[ 2M = EG[
[H 4M = 0 Gi EG[ 2M = EG[ 3
3
2
[H 4M = 0 Gi EG[ 2M = EG[ [H 3M = 0 Gi EG[ 2M = EG[
3 3
3
[H 4M = 0 Gi EG[ 2M = EG[
3
The general solution of
2
3M = Gi 2M = 2 , ,
2 3
[H 4M = 0 Gi EG[ 2M = EG[
3
M= Gi 2M = 2 , ,
3 3
The general solution of
2 M= Gi M = , ,
4M = Gi 2M = 2 , , 3 3
3
M= Gi 2M = 2 , , [H M . M = . M [H M + 1
50. Find the general solution of the equation
4 3
M= Gi M = , ,
4 3
Solution: 
[H M + [H 3M + [H 5M = 0 [H M . M = . M [H M + 1
49. Find the general solution of the equation
[H M . M + [H M = . M + 1
[H M. M + 1 = . M + 1
[H M. M + 1 . M + 1 = 0
The general solution is
. M + 1[H M 1 = 0 M = Gi M = 2 + 1 , ,
2
. M + 1 = 0 Gi [H M 1 = 0
. M = 1 Gi [H M = 1
. M = . Gi [H M = [H
OR
4 2
. M = . Gi
The given equation is
4 cos x + sin x = 1
[H M = [H
2
4
. M = . Gi
4
[H M = [H
2 2
3
. M = . Gi
1
4
[H M = [H
2
1
The general solution of is
2 = + Gi 2 = + 1
HH

G. [H
[ > 2
, 1 1 1
EG[ M + [H M =
2 2 2
3 1
M = + Gi M = + 1 EG[ EG[ M + [H [H M =
4 2 4 4 2
, EG[ M = EG[
4 4
2 = 2 ,
The given equation is
EG[ M + [H M = 1 M = 2 ,
4 4
[YXiH G. [H
[
M = 2 + ,
4 4
EG[ M + [H M = 1
M = 2 + + Gi M = 2 +
[H M + EG[ M + 2 [H M EG[ M = 1
4 4 4 4
1 + 2 [H M EG[ M = 1 2
M = 2 + Gi M = 2
4
2 [H M EG[ M = 0
M = 2 + Gi M = 2 ,
2
[H M EG[ M = 0
EG[ M [H M = 1
52. Find the general solution of the equation
[H M = 0 Gi EG[ M = 0
Solution: 
EG[ M [H M = 1
3 2
1 2
1
HH

G. [H
[ > 2
HH

G. [H
[ > 2 3 1 1
EG[ M [H M =
2 2 2
1 1 1 1
EG[ M [H M = EG[ EG[ M [H [H M =
2 2 2 6 6 2
1
EG[ EG[ M [H [H M = EG[ M + = EG[
4 4 2 6 3
EG[ M + = EG[ The general of EG[ 2 = EG[ is
4 4
2 . M EG. M + 1 = 0
54. Find the general solution of the equation
3EG[ M [H M = 1
53. Find the general solution of the equation
Solution: 
Solution: The given equation is The given equation is
2. M 2 . M . M 1 0
2. M. M 1 . M 1 0 EG[ 5M [H 3M
56. Find the general solution of the equation
. M 12 . M 1 0
. M + 1 0 Gi 2 . M 1 0
Solution: 
. M 1 Gi 2 . M 1 EG[ 5M [H 3M
The given equation is
1
. M . Gi . M EG[ 5M EG[ 3M
4 2 2
. M . Gi The general of cos cos is
4
1
. M . .
2 2 ,
2
3
. M . Gi The general of
4
1 EG[ 5M EG[ 3M H[
. M . . 2
2
5M 2 3M ,
2
The general solution of is
3 1
M = + Gi M . 5M 2 3M Gi 5M
4 2 2
, 2 3M
2
5M 2 3M Gi 5M
3 2 3M
2 2
55. Find the general solution of
. M + EG. M = 2 EG[E M
5M 3M 2 Gi 5M 3M 2
2 2
Solution:
. M + EG. M = 2 EG[E M 8M 2 Gi
Gi 2M 2
2 2
[H M EG[ M 1
+ =2 M Gi M ,
EG[ M [H M [H M 4 18 4
[H M EG[ M 1
2
[H M EG[ M [H M
SINE RULE
3
i.
2 = 2 ,
M 2 ,
3
sin B
c sin A sin B sin C
AD c sin B . .1 Theorem: In any ABC prove that
C is obtuse a b c 2bc cos A
b c a 2ca cos B
ii. I.
c a b 2ab cos C
II.
III.
Proof:
a b + c 2bc cos A
I. To prove that
AD = AC
AD
=1
AC
AD
= sin
Draw triangle ABC by taking vertex A in standard position
AC 2
C C
From figure
1) A is acute
Similarly
L. H. S. = a
From figure
A c cos B , c sin B
b cos A c b sin A 0
In ABC
b cos A 2bc cos A c b sin A
3) B is acute
b cos A sin A 2bc cos A c
4) B is obtuse
a b c 2bc cos A L. H. S. = b
L. H. S. glACh
h
Also
2bc cos A b c a
Using distance formula
cos B a c sin B 0 P
L. H. S. Oc
b c a
cos A
2bc c cos B a c sin B 0
c cos B 2ac
ac cos B a c sin B
II. To prove that
b c a 2ca
ca cos B
c cos B sin B 2ac cos B a
b a c 2ac
ac cos B
Also
2ac cos B a c b
a c b
cos B
2ac
c a b 2ab cos C
c a b 2ab
ab cos C
Also
2ab cos C a b c
a b c
cos C
2ab
Projection Rule
a c cos B b cos C
b a cos C c cos A
i.
c a cos B b cos A
ii.
iii.
Proof:
To prove that
i. a c cos B b cos C
R. H. S. c cos B b cos C
Draw triangle ABC by taking vertex B in standard
position We know that
a c b
cos B
From figure
2ac
lBC a , lAC b , lAB c
a b c
C 0,0 , A b, 0 cos C
2ab
a c b a b c
R. H. S. c b
By definition of trigonometry
In ABC a c b a b c
2a 2a
1) C is acute
a c b a b c
2) C is obtuse
2a
L. H. S. = c
L. H. S. = glABh 2a
2a
R. H. S. a
Using distance formula
L. H. S. = Oa cos C b a sin C 0 P
R. H. S. L. H. S.
a cos C b a sin C 0 a c cos B b cos C
a cos C 2ab cos C b a sin c To prove that
a b c
= = = k say
a +b c
b +c a
sin A sin B sin C
= + a b c
2b 2b = k , = k , =k
sin A sin B sin C
a + b c + b + c a a = k sin A , b = ksin B , c = k sin C
=
2b
k sinB k sin C A
2b R. H. S. = cos
= k sin A 2
2b
sinB sin C A
R. H. S. = b R. H. S. = cos
sin A 2
R. H. S. = L. H. S B+C BC
2 cos 2 sin 2 A
= cos
b = a cos C c cos A A A
2 sin 2 cos 2 2
c = a cos B + b cos A
B+C BC
iii.
b + c a In ABC
cos A =
2bc
A+B+C=
a +c b
cos B =
2ac
Divided both sides by 2
a + c b b + c a A+B+C
R. H. S. = a +b =
2ac 2bc 2 2
A B+C
a + c b b + c a + =
= + 2 2 2
2c 2c
B+C A
a + c b + b + c a =
= 2 2 2
2c
A BC
cos 2 2 sin 2
2c R. H. S. =
= A
2c sin 2
R. H. S = c
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
66
A BC C AB
sin sin sin cos
R. H. S. = 2 2 R. H. S. = 2 2 2
A C
sin 2 cos 2
BC C AB
R. H. S. = sin = L. H. S. cos 2 cos 2
2 R. H. S. =
C
cos
58. ABC prove that 2
AB a+b C AB
cos = sin R. H. S. = cos = L. H. S.
2 c 2 2
a+b C
R. H. S. = sin
c 2 Solution:
A+B AB b = a + c b
sin 2 cos 2
= Divided both sides by 2ac
C
cos
2
b a + c b
In ABC =
2ac 2ac
A+B+C= By using cosine rule for angle B
a + c b
cos B =
Divided both sides by 2
A+B+C 2ac
=
2 2 Using sine rule
A+B C a b c
+ = = = = k say
2 2 2 sin A sin B sin C
A+B C a b c
= = k , = k , =k
2 2 2 sin A sin B sin C
a = k sin A , b = ksin B , c = k sin C
k sin B k sin B 3
= cos B =
2k sin Ak sin C ksin C 2
k sin B sin B 3
= cos B = .1
2 k sin A sin C sin C 2
sin B
= cos B
2 sin A sin C
The angles A, B, C are in A.P. then
BA=CB
Divided both sides by sin B
2B = A + C
sin B cos B
=
2 sin A sin C sin B In ABC
In ABC
A+B+C=
A+B+C= A+C=B
B = A + C 2B = B
sing A + Ch
= cot B 3B = B =
2 sin A sin C 3
sin = sin 180^
B = B = 60^
3
sinA + C
= 2 cot B
sin A sin C Put in equation 1
sin A cos C + cos A sin C
= 2 cot B sin 60 3
sin A sin C =
sin C 2
sin A cos C cos A sin C
+ = 2 cot B 3
sin A sin C sin A sin C
2 = 3
cot C + cot A = 2 cot B sin C 2
1 2
b: c = 3: 2 then find A, B, C
60. The angles of a triangle ABC are in A.P. and
=
sin C 2
1 2 1
Solution:
= = 2
b: c = 3: 2 sin C 2 sin C
b 3 1
= sin C =
c 2 2
A = 75^ a b
=
sin A sin B
61. In ABC , if A = 30^ and b: c = 2: 3 find B a 2a
=
sin 30^ sin B
1 2
=
1 sin B
Solution:
C = 75^
Put in equation 1
2k + 3k a
cos 30^ =
22k3k
Using sine rule
a b c
3 4k + 3k a = =
= sin A sin B sin C
2 43k
a b b c
= and =
7k a sin A sin B sin B sin C
3 =
23k a sin A b sinB
= and =
6k = 7k a b sinB c sinC
k=a 1 3
a: b: c = : : sin 75^
2 2
b = 2a and c = 3 a
To find sin 75^
1 + 3 a + b c + b + c a
sin 75 = L. H. S. = a + c
2b
^
22
2b
L. H. S. = a + c
2b
The required ratio of sides is
1 3 1 + 3 L. H. S. = a + c b
a: b: c = : :
2 2 22
L. H. S. = R. H. S.
2 a sin + c sin = a + c b
2 2 ab cos C c cos B = b c
Solution: Solution:
a + b c
Use half angle formula
1 cos cos C =
cos = 1 2 sin sin = 2ab
2 2 2
a + c b
C 1 cos C cos B =
sin = 2ac
2 2
a + b c
A 1 cos A L. H. S. = a b
sin = 2ab
2 2
a + c b
1 cos C 1 cos A c
L. H. S. = 2 a + c 2ac
2 2
a + b c a + c b
L. H. S. = a a cos C + c c cos A L. H. S. = a U V
2a 2a
b + c a
cos A = a + b c a c + b
2bc L. H. S. = a
a + b c 2a
cos C =
2ab
2b 2c
L. H. S. =
a + b c 2
L. H. S. = a a +c
2ab
2b c
b + c a L. H. S =
c 2
2bc
L. H. S = b c
a +b c
b +c a
L. H. S. = a +c L. H. S. = R. H. S
2b 2b
cos A cos B
=
a b
It is a right angle triangle
Solution:
a b
= = k say
i.e. To show that sin A sin B
A or B or C = 90^ a b
= k and = k
sin A sin B
cos A = sin B cos C
a = k sin A and b = k sin B
cos A + cos C = sin B
cos A cos B cos A cos B
= =
A+C AC B B k sin A k sin B sin A sin B
2 cos cos = 2 sin cos
2 2 2 2
cos A sin B = sin A cos B
A+B+C=A+B=C
sin A cos B cos A sin B = 0
sinA B = sin 0
Divided both sides by 2
A+B+C A+C B
= + = A B = 0 A = B
2 2 2 2 2
A+C B ABC is an isosceles triangle
=
2 2 2
67. In ABC if sin A + sin B = sin C
B AC B B
2 cos cos = 2 sin cos
2 2 2 2 2 Then show that it is right angle triangle
B AC B B
sin cos = sin cos
2 2 2 2
Solution:
A + A = 180^ 2A = 180^ a b c a + b c
+ = =
k k k k k
180^ a + b = c 1
A= A = 90^
2 a, b, c are the sides of the triangle ABC
C C
We know that the cosine rule
cos + sin = 1
b +c a
2 2
cos A =
2bc C C
c = a + b cos + sin
a + c b 2 2
cos B = C C
2ac 2ab cos + 2ab sin
2 2
a + b c C C
cos C = c = a cos + sin
2ab 2 2
C C
b + c a + b cos + sin
L. H. S. = 2 Ubc 2 2
2bc C C
a + c b 2ab cos + 2ab sin
+ ac 2 2
2ac
C C C
a + b c c = a cos + a sin +b cos
+ ab V 2 2 2
2ab C
+ b sin
2
b + c a a + c b C C
L. H. S. = 2 U + 2ab cos + 2ab sin
2 2 2 2
a + b c
+ R C C C
2 c = a cos 2ab cos + b cos
2 2 2
b + c a + a + c b + a + b c
= 2 C C C
2 + a sin + 2ab sin + b sin
2 2 2
L. H. S. = a + b + c C
c = a 2ab + b cos
2
L. H. S. = R. H. S.
C
69. In ABC prove that +a + 2ab + b sin
2
C C C C
a b cos + a + b sin = c c = a b cos + a + b sin
2 2 2 2
Solution: 70. In ABC prove that
a + c b b c + a
L. H. S. =
We know that the cosine rule
2
b + c a
cos A = 2a 2b
2bc L. H. S. =
2
a + c b
cos B = 2a b
2ac L. H. S. =
2
a + b c
cos C = L. H. S. = a b
2ab
b + c a a + c b L. H. S. = R. H. S.
L. H. S. = 2bc + 2ac
a b 72. In ABC prove that
a + b c
2ab AB
+ a b tan 2
c =
a + b tan A + B
b + c a a + c b a + b c 2
= + +
2abc 2abc 2abc
Solution:
b +c a +a +c b +a +b c
= ab
2abc L. H. S. =
a+b
a + b + c
L. H. S. = a b c
2abc = = = k say
sin A sin B sin C
L. H. S. = R. H. S. a b c
= k , = k , =k
sin A sin B sin C
71. In ABC prove that a = k sin A , b = ksin B , c = k sin C
sin A sin B
L. H. S. =
sin A + sin B
We know that the cosine rule
b + c a
cos A = A+B AB
2bc 2 cos 2 sin 2
L. H. S. =
A+B AB
a + c b 2 sin 2 cos 2
cos B =
2ac
A+B AB
a + c b cos 2 sin 2
L. H. S. = ac L. H. S. =
2ac A+B AB
sin 2 cos 2
b + c a
bc
2bc
a + c b b + c a
L. H. S. =
2 2
AB cos B
sin
2 L. H. S. =
cos C
AB
cos
L. H. S. = 2 L. H. S. = R. H. S.
A+B
sin 2
A+B 74. In ABC prove that
cos
2
a sin A b sin B = c sinA B
AB
tan
L. H. S. = 2
A+B
Solution:
tan
2 R. H. S. = a sin A b sin B
L. H. S. = R. H. S. a b c
= = = k say
73. In ABC prove that sin A sin B sin C
a b c
= k , = k , =k
c b cos A cos B sin A sin B sin C
= a = k sin A , b = ksin B , c = k sin C
b c cos A cos C
A+B AB A+B AB
We know that the cosine rule
= k Q2 cos sin R Q2 sin cos R
b + c a 2 2 2 2
cos A =
2bc AB AB A+B A+B
= k Q2 sin cos R Q2 sin cos
2 2 2 2
b + c a
cb
2bc AB A+B
L. H. S. = = k sin 2 sin2
b + c a 2 2
b c
2bc
= k sinA B sinA + B
b + c a
c 2c
L. H. S. = In ABC
b + c a
b
2b A+B+C=A+B=
2c b c + a = k sinA B sin
L. H. S. = 2c
2b b c + a = k sin C sinA B
2b
= c sinA B = R. H. S.
a + c b
L. H. S. = 2c 75. In ABC prove that
a + b c
2b cos 2A cos 2B 1 1
=
Divided numerator and denominator by a a b a b
a + c b Solution:
L. H. S. = 2ac cos 2A cos 2B
a + b c L. H. S. =
2ab a b
1 2 sin A 1 2 sin B b c a
L. H. S. = cos A
a b 2bc
1 sin A 1 sin B a c b
L. H. S. = 2 2 1 cos B
a a b b 2ac
a a c b b b c a
L. H. S.
c 2ac
2 c 2bc
We know that
a b sin A sin B
= =
sin A sin B a b a c b b c a
L. H. S.
2c 2c
a c b b c a
Squaring both sides
sin A sin B L. H. S.
= 2c
a b
2a 2b 2a b
L. H. S.
2c 2c
Put in equation 1
a b
sinA B
a b
a b
Solution:
L. H. S. sinA B L. H. S. from ig c a b
a b
B C
b c tan 2 tan 2
We know that the sine rule
a b c a B C
tan 2 tan 2
sin A sin B sin C
C bc
2
Solution:
L. H. S.
a
a b c
sin A sin B sin
2
We know that the sine rule
a b sin A sin B 1 a b c
c k say
sin A sin B a b c sin A sin B sin C
a b a b c
sin A , sin B k , k , k
c c sin A sin B sin C
a k sin A , b ksin B , c k sin C
a b k sin B k sin C
L. H. S. cos B cos A
c c L. H. S.
k sin A
We know that the cosine rule
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
75
cos cos
2 2 A+B+C= B+C=A
B C B C
sin 2 cos 2 cos 2 sin 2
B C = k sin A sinB C sin A
cos 2 cos 2
L. H. S.
B C B C = k sin A sin A sinB C
sin 2 cos 2 cos 2 sin 2
B C
cos 2 cos 2 = k sin A sinB C
B C B C
sin 2 cos 2 cos 2 sin 2 R. H. S. = a sinB C = L. H. S.
B C B C
cos 2 cos 2 cos 2 cos 2
L. H. S.
B C B C
79. With the usual notation show that
sin 2 cos 2 cos 2 sin 2 c a b tan A = a b + c tan B
B C B C
cos 2 cos 2 cos 2 cos 2
= b c + a tan C
B C
tan 2 tan 2
L. H. S. R. H. S.
B C
tan 2 tan 2
Solution:
a b c
a sinB C = b c sin A = = = k say
sin A sin B sin C
a b c
= k , = k , =k
sin A sin B sin C
Solution:
b + c a
cos A = and sin A = ak
2bc From equation 1, 2 and 3
b c = a cos C + c cos A
Equation 1 Equation 2
We know that
a + c b a cos B + b cos A
cos B = b c = a cos C + c cos A acos B b cos A
2ac
b c = acos C cos B b c cos A
a b + c tan B b c + b c cos A = acos C cos B
bk b c1 + cos A = acos C cos B
= a b + c
a + c b A
2ac 1 + cos A = 2 cos
2
A
a b + c tan B 2b c cos = acos C cos B
2abck 2
= a b + c A
a b + c acos C cos B = 2b c cos
2
a b + c tan B = 2abck .2 APPLICATION OF SINE RULE, COSINE RULE, AND
PROJUCTION RULE
Consider
Theorem: In any ABC , if a + b + c = 2s then we
HALF ANGLE FORMULAE
sin C
b c + a tan C = b c + a
cos C
have
sin =
775
5
i.
We know that
sin =
757
a + b c 5
cos C =
ii.
2ab
sin =
77
b c + a tan C
iii.
kc
= b c + a
a + b c
Proof :
A A
cos A = 1 2 sin sin >0
2 2
A
2 sin = 1 cos A A s bs c
2 sin =
2 bc
Using cosine rule
b + c a
To prove that
cos A =
2bc B s cs a
sin =
A b + c a 2 ac
2 sin =1
2 2bc
A 2bc b + c a
We know that the half angle formula
2 sin = B
2 2bc cos B = 1 2 sin
2
A 2bc b c + a
2 sin = B
2 2bc 2 sin = 1 cos B
2
A a b 2bc + c
2 sin =
2 2bc
Using cosine rule
A a b c a c b
2 sin
= cos B =
2 2bc 2ac
A a b + ca + b c B a c b
2 sin
= 2 sin =1
2 2bc 2 2ac
a + b + c = 2s B b a 2ac c
2 sin =
2 2ac
A 2s 2b2s 2c
2 sin =
2 2bc B b a c
2 sin =
2 2ac
A 2s b2s c
2 sin =
2 2bc B b a cb a c
2 sin =
2 2ac
A s bs c
sin =
2 bc B a b c 2aa b c 2c
2 sin =
2 2ac
a b c = 2s
Taking square root of both sides
A s bs c
sin = B 2s 2a2s 2c
2 bc 2 sin =
2 2ac
is an acute angle
B 2s a2s c
2 sin =
2 2ac
B sin =
sin >0 2 ab
2
B s as c
sin =
Taking square root of both sides
2 ac C s as b
sin =
2 ab
To prove that
is an acute angle
C s as b
sin =
2 ab C
sin > 0
2
C s as b
We know that the half angle formula
C sin =
cos C 1 2 sin
2 ab
2
C Theorem: In any ABC , if a + b + c = 2s then we
2 sin = 1 cos C
2 have
cos =
77
5
Using cosine rule i.
a b c cos =
77
cos C
2ab 5
ii.
cos =
775
C a b c
2 sin = 1
iii.
2 2ab
C 2ab a b c
Proof:
2 sin =
2 2ab We know that the half angle formula
C 2ab a b c A
2 sin = cos A = 2 cos 1
2 2ab 2
C c a 2ab b A
2 sin = 2 cos = 1 cos A
2 2ab 2
C c a b
2 sin =
2 2ab
Using cosine rule
b c a
cos A =
C c a bc a b 2bc
2 sin =
2 2ab
A b c a a c b
2 cos
=1 cos B =
2 2bc 2ac
A 2bc b c a B a c b
2 cos = 2 cos =1
2 2bc 2 2ac
A b c a B 2ac a c b
2 cos = 2 cos =
2 2bc 2 2ac
A b c ab c a B a c b
2 cos = 2 cos =
2 2bc 2 2ac
A a b c 2aa b c B a c ba c b
2 cos = 2 cos =
2 2bc 2 2ac
a b c = 2s B a b c 2ba b c
2 cos =
2 2ac
A 2s 2a2s
2 cos =
2 2bc a b c = 2s
B ss b
is an acute angle cos =
2 ac
A
cos >0 is an acute angle
2
B
A ss a cos >0
cos = 2
2 bc
B ss b
cos =
2 ac
To prove that
B ss b
cos =
2 ac
To prove that
C ss c
cos =
2 ab
We know that the half angle formula
B
cos B = 2 cos 1
2 We know that the half angle formula
B C
2 cos = 1 cos B cos C 2 cos 1
2 2
Using cosine rule
C
2 cos = 1 cos C
77
tan =
2 775
iii.
a b c A
cos C A sin
2ab L. H. S. = tan = 2
2 A
cos
C a b c 2
2 cos =1
2 2ab
C 2ab a b c
We know that
2 cos =
2 2ab A s bs c
sin =
2 bc
C a b c
2 cos =
2 2ab
A ss a
C a b ca b c cos =
2 cos = 2 bc
2 2ab
C a b c 2ca b c s bs c
2 cos = bc
2 2ab L. H. S. =
ss a
a b c = 2s bc
C 2s 2c2s
2 cos = s bs c bc
2 2ab L. H. S. =
bc ss a
C 2s c2s
2 cos =
2 2ab s bs c
L. H. S. = = R. H. S.
C s cs ss a
cos =
2 ab
C ss c
To prove that
cos =
2 ab tan
B
=
s as c
2 ss b
is an acute angle
B
B sin 2
L. H. S. = tan =
C 2 B
cos 2
cos > 0
2
B s as c
C ss c sin =
cos = 2 ac
2 ab
s as c ac
L. H. S. =
ac s b
ss
s as c
L. H. S. = = R. H. S.
ss b
To prove that
C s as b
tan = ADCis
2 ss c
is a right angle triangle
let C C
C
C sin
L. H. S. = tan = 2 AD AD
2 C sin C sin C
cos AC b
2
AD b sin C .1
C s as b
sin =
2 ab ii. C is obtuse
C ss c
cos =
2 ab
s as b
ab
L. H. S. =
ss c
ab
s as b ab
L. H. S. =
is a right angle triangle
In above fig.ADCis
ab ss
s c let C = C
AD AD
s as b sin C sin C
L. H. S. = = R.. H. S. AC b
ss c AD b sin C . .2
iii. C is right angle
Area of triangle
Proof:
cases of C
For the proof of this theorem we consider three
From above fig.
i. C is acute CD
AC = AD AD
= AC 1
AD AC sin C = ss as bs c
2 2 AABC = ab
a b
AD = b sin C
b + c a
Theorem: if a, b, c are the length of the sides BC, CA
and AB of ABC and a + b + c = 2s then cos A =
2bc
AABC = ss as bs c a = 18 , b = 24 and c = 30
1 cos A =
AABC = a b sin C 2 24 30
2
1152 576
cos A = =
Use half angle formula 2 24 30 24 30
C C 576
sin C = 2 sin cos logcos A = log
2 2 24 30
1 C C logcos A = log 576 log 24 + log 30
AABC = a b 2 sin cos
2 2 2
logcos A = 2.7604 1.3802 + 1.4771
C C
AABC = ab sin cos
2 2 logcos A = 2.7604 2.8573
s as b ss c
AABC = ab A s bs c
ab ab sin =
2 bc
Where 2s = a + b + c
a+b+c 18 + 24 + 30
s= s= A 12 6 A 1
2 2 tan = tan =
2 36 18 2 3
72
s= = 36
2 To find AABC
A 12 6 A 1 Where 2s = a + b + c
sin = sin =
2 24 30 2 10
a+b+c 18 + 24 + 30
s= s=
2 2
To find cos
72
s= = 36
2
A ss a
cos =
2 bc AABC = 3636 1836 2436 30
a+b+c 18 + 24 + 30 3
s= s= sin A =
2 2 5
72 To find tan A
s= = 36 3
2
sin A
tan A = tan A = 5
cos A 4
A 36 2436 30 5
tan =
2 3636 18
3
tan A =
4
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
84
1 3b
ga + c + a cos C + c cos Bh =
2 2
82. Show that
A B C gAABCh
sin sin sin =
2 2 2 abcs Using projection theorem
A B C a + b + c = 3b a + c = 3b b
L. H. S. = sin sin sin
2 2 2
a + c = 2b
s bs c s as c a, b, c are in A.P
L. H. S. =
bc ac
84. Show that in ABC
s as b
A B a+bc
ab tan tan =
2 2 a+b+c
A B
L. H. S. = tan tan
s as bs c 2 2
L. H. S. =
abc We know that
ss as bs c
L. H. S. = A s bs c
abcs
tan =
2 ss a
ss as bs c
L. H. S. = B s as c
abcs tan =
2 ss b
sc
L. H. S. =
s
To show that
b a = c b 2b = a + c
2s = a + b + c
a cos + c cos =
a+b+c
s=
K567 K567 2
a + c =
a+b+c
c
1 3b L. H. S. = 2
a + a cos C + c + c cos B = a+b+c
2 2
2
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
85
a + b + c 2c k sin B k sin C A
2 R. H. S. = cot
L. H. S. = k sin B + k sin C 2
a+b+c
2 sin B sin C A
R. H. S. = cot
a+bc sin B + sin C 2
L. H. S. = = R. H. S.
a+b+c B+C BC
2 cos sin
R. H. S. = 2 2 cot A
85. Show that in ABC B+C BC 2
2 sin 2 cos 2
C B
b cos + c cos = s B+C BC
2 2 cos sin
R. H. S. = 2 2 cot A
B+C BC 2
sin cos
2 2
Solution:
C B
L. H. S. = b cos + c cos In ABC
2 2
1 + cosC 1 + cos B A+B+C
L. H. S. = b + c A+B+C= =
2 2 2 2
B+C A
b + b cos C + c + c cos B =
L. H. S. = 2 2 2
2
A
b + c + b cos C + c cos B cos 2 2 BC A
L. H. S. = R. H. S. = tan cot
2 A 2 2
sin 2 2
A A
Use projection theorem
sin 2 B C cos 2
b cos C + c cos B = a R. H. S. = tan
A 2 A
cos 2 sin 2
a+b+c
L. H. S. =
2 BC
R. H. S. = tan = L. H. S.
a + b + c = 2s 2
2s
L. H. S. = = s = R. H. S.
INVERSE TRIGNOMETRIC FUNCTION
2
a b c
f) The principle value branch of
cosec x is O , P 0
= = = k say
sin A sin B sin C
87. Find the principle value of sin
a b c
= k , = k , =k
sin A sin B sin C
a = k sin A , b = ksin B , c = k sin C Solution:
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
86
1 1
sin = = sin EG[E M H[ O , P 0
6 2 6 2 2 2
The principle value branch of sin x is O , P
EG[E 2 =
< <
6 2 6 2
1 The principle value of EG[E 2 H[ B
sin = and < <
2 6 2 6 2
90. Find the principle value of . 1
The principle value of sin is B
We know that
. = 1
4
Solution:
1
[H =
6 2 . = 1 . = 1
4 4
Multiply both sides by 1
= . 1 . 1 =
1 1 4 4
[H = [H =
6 2 6 2
The principle value branch of . M H[ ,
1
= [H
6 2
. 1 =
< <
4 2 4 2
The principle value branch of [H M H[ O , P
1
[H =
< <
2 6 2 6 2 91. Find the principle value of . 3
1 1
= 1/2 EG[E 6 = 2 The principle value branch of . M H[ ,
[H 6
= EG[E 2 EG[E 2 = . 3 =
< <
6 6 3 2 3 2
1 1
[H = = [H 3
4 2 4 2 EG[ =
0 < <
2 6 6
1
[H =
2 4 The principle value of EG[ H[ B
1 1 1
=
Solution:
EG. =
We know that . 3 3 3 3
1
EG[ =
3 2
We know that
EG. M = EG. M
We know that the formula
The principle value branch of EG[ M H[ g0, h The principle value branch of EG.
H[
1 2 2
EG[ =
0 < <
2 3 3
96. Find the values of
1 1
The principle value of EG[ H[ . 1 EG[ [H
2 2
Consider . 1 1 1
. 1 + EG[ + [H
2 2
42 + 12
=
72
We know that
. = 1
4 1 1 54
. 1 + EG[ + [H =
2 2 72
. 1 = 3
4 =
4
The principle value branch of . M H[ ,
97. Find the values of
. 1 =
< < 1 1
4 2 4 2 EG[ 2 [H
2 2
The principle value branch of . 1 H[
A Solution:
1 1 1 1
EG[ = EG[ = EG[ = EG[ =
3 2 2 3 3 2 2 3
The principle value branch of EG[ M H[ g0, h The principle value branch of EG[ M H[ g0, h
1 1
EG[ =
0 < < EG[ =
0 < <
2 3 3 2 3 3
Consider [H Consider [H
1 1 1 1
[H = = [H [H = = [H
6 2 6 2 6 2 6 2
1 1
[H =
< < [H =
< <
2 6 2 6 2 2 6 2 6 2
1 1 1 1
. 1 + EG[ + [H EG[ + 2 [H = + 2
2 2 2 2 3 6
= + + 1 1 2
4 3 6 EG[ + 2 [H = + =
2 2 3 3 3
1 1 7
. 1 + EG[ + [H = +
2 2 12 6 98. Find the value of
Consider . 3 Solution:
. = 3
3
We know that
1
[H =
.
3 = 4 2
3
1
EG[ =
3 2 The principle value branch of
EG[E M H[ O , P 0
2 2
Taking reciprocal of both sides
1
= 2 [E 3 = 2
EG[E 2 =
< <
EG[ 3
4 2 4 2
[E M = [E M
Consider EG. 3
=X. M = [E = [E
3 3 3 We know that
2 2 2 1
[E = 2 = [E 2 = . =
3 3 3 6 3
1
2 2
[E 2
=
0 < < = 3 EG. 6 = 3
3 3 . 6
1
EG. 3 =
0 < < . = EG. M IGi M > 0
6 6 M
The principle value branch ofEG. 3H[
B
Proof:
1 [H > 1
PROPERRTIES OF INVERSE FUNCTION
= = . >
100. Prove that M EG[ > M
1 1 1
[H = EG[E M IGi M 1 Gi M 1 . = > . = EG. M
M M M
Proof: 103. Prove that
M = [H > M = [H >
Taking reciprocal of both sides
1 1
= [H > [H = >
M M M = [H > > = [H M
1 > = [H M [H M = [H M
[H = EG[E M
M
104. Prove that
. M = . M IGi M
101. Prove that
1
EG[ = [E M IGi M 1 Gi M 1
M Proof:
1 1
= EG[ > EG[ = >
105. Prove that
,. . M = >
107. Prove that
[H M EG[ M = IGi M g1, 1h
2
112. Prove that
M>
. M . > = .
Proof: 1 M>
HI M, > > 0
M> < 1 113. Prove that
M>
. M . > = .
1 M>
Proof:
. . ]
. ] = . .1
1 . . ] Proof:
,. . M =
. > = ] We know that
M = .
> = . ] . . ]
. ] = . .1
1 . . ]
M, > > 0 M = . > 0
>
= . ] > 0 ,. . M =
. > = ]
0<<
. .2
0 <]<
= . ] > 0
..3
A and B are acute angle that is they lie in the first
To show that + ] lie in the first quadrant
quadrant
0 < < . .2
0 < ] < ..3
Equation 1+ Equation 2
0+0< +] < +
2 2 ] H[ EX. HI > ]
M, > > 0
M> < 1 0 < 1 M>
<] <
1 M> > 0 2 2
M+>
114. Prove that
. + ] = +]
1 M> M>
. M . > = .
M+> 1 M>
= .
1 M>
HI M, > > 0
M> > 1
M+>
. M + . > = .
1 M> Proof:
M+>
. M + . > = + .
1 M>
We know that
. . ]
. ] = . .1
1 . . ] 115. Prove that
,. . M =
. > = ] 2M
2 . M = [H IGi M 1
1 M
M = .
> = . ]
= . ] > 0 2M
. `. a. = [H
1 M
A and B are acute angle that is they lie in the first
quadrant ,. . M = > M = . >
2 . >
. `. a. = [H
0 < < . .2
0 < ] < ..3
1 + . >
M+>
. + ] = . .4 2 . >
1 M> . `. a. = [H
[E >
M> > 1 0 > 1 M> 1 M> < 0 [H >
2 EG[ >
. + ] < 0 . `. a. = [H
1
EG[ >
+ ]lie in the second quadrant
. `. a. = [H 2 [H > EG[ >
<+] <
2
. `. a. = [H [H 2>
. `. a. = 2> . `. a. = 2 . M
Subtract from both sides
< + ] < . `. a. = <. `. a.
2
< + ] < 0
2
116. Prove that
1 M
Now . g + ] h = . + ] 2 . M = EG[ IGi M 0
1 M
. g + ] h = . g + ]h Proof:
. g + ] h = g . + ]h 1 M
. `. a. = EG[
. g + ] h = . + ] 1 M
5
1 1
117. Prove that
2M . . = . 6
2 . M = . IGi 1 < M < 1 2 3 1
1 M 16
5
1 1
. . = . 6
Proof:
2M 2 3 5
. `. a. = .
1 M 6
1
EG[ > 1 2 3
. . = .
2 11 4
[H >
2 EG[ >
. `. a. = .
EG[ > [H >
Solution:
[H 2> Put M =
> =
. `. a. = .
EG[ 2>
1 2
. .
. `. a = . . 2> 2 11
1 2
. `. a = 2> = 2 . M = .
2 11
1 2
1 2 11
. `. a = <. `. a.
11 4
1 2
.
. = . 22
2 11 1
118. Prove that
1 1 1 11
. . =
2 3 4
15
1 2 22
.
. = .
2 11 10
Solution:
Using property 11
1 2 15 11 [H M
. . = . EG[ M 1
2 11 22 10 <. `. a. = .
EG[ M
[H M
EG[ M 1 EG[ M
1 2 3
. . = .
2 11 4 1 . M
<. `. a. = .
1 . M
1 . M
120. Show that
2M 3M M <. `. a. = .
.
M .
= .
1 1 . M
1 M 1 3M
1 . . M
<. `. a. = . 4
IGi M
3 1 . 4 . M
Solution:
Using property
M>
. = . M . >
1 M>
Using property
X
. X . = .
1 X
<. `. a. = . . . . M
2M 4
=X. X = M , =
1 M
<. `. a. = M = . `. a.
4
2M
. M .
1 M
2M
M
122. Prove that
= . 1 M
1 EG[ M M
2M . =
1M
1 M 1 EG[ M 2
M1 M 2M
= . " 1 M #
1 M 2M
Solution:
1 M 1 EG[ M
<. `. a. = .
2M 1 EG[ M
. M .
1 M
M M 2M M
= . 2 [H 2
1 3M
<. `. a. = .
M
2 EG[ 2
2M 3M M
. M . = .
1 M 1 3M
M
<. `. a. = . .
2
M
121. Prove that
EG[ M [H M <. `. a. = . .
.
= M 2
EG[ M [H M 4
M
<. `. a. = = . `. a.
2
Solution:
EG[ M [H M
<. `. a. = .
EG[ M [H M
123. Express
2
1 3
Solution:
EG[ M [H M 2 .
= .
. 3 8
EG[ M [H M 9
[H M 1 2 9
EG[ M 1 2 . = .
= . EG[ M
[H M 3 3 8
EG[ M 1
EG[ M 1 3
2 . = .
1 . M 3 4
= .
1 . M
1 . M
125. Prove that
= . 1 1 31
1 1 . M 2 . . = .
2 7 17
. 4 . M
= .
1 . 4 . M
Solution:
1 1
<. `. a. = 2 . .
2 7
Consider 2 .
Using property
M>
. = . M . >
1 M>
= . . . . M
Using property
4 2M
2 . M = .
1 M
EG[ M [H M
. = M 1
EG[ M [H M 4 =X. M =
2
2
124. Prove that
1 3 1 2
2 . = . 2 .
= .
3 4 2 1
1 2
1 1
Solution:
2 . = .
2 1
14
Using property
2M
2 . M = .
1 M
1 1
1 2 . = .
2 3
=X. M = 4
3
1 4
2 2 . = .
1 3 2 3
2 . = .
3 1
1 3 1 4
2 . = .
2 3
4 1 1M 1
<. `. a. = . . . = . M
3 7 1M 2
1M
2. = . M
1M
Using property
M>
. M . > = .
1 M> Use the property
4 1 2M
2 . M = .
<. `. a. = .
3 7 1 M
4 1
1
3 7 1M
2 1 M
31 .
" # = . M
1M
<. `. a. = . 21
1
1 M
4
1 21
1M
2 1 M
31 =M
1M
<. `. a. = .
21 1 1 M
17
21
2 2M
31 1M
<. `. a. = . =M
17 1 M 1 M
1 M
2 2M1 M
=M
126. Solve the equation
EG[ 2 EG[E M
2 . M = . 1 2M M 1 2M M
2 2M 2M 2M
=M
4M
Solution:
1
2 2M = 4M 2 = 6M M =
Using property
2M 3
2 . M = .
1 M
1
M=
2 EG[ M 3
. = . 2 EG[E M
1 EG[ M
1
2 EG[ M IGi M > 0 M =
= 2 EG[E M 3
1 EG[ M
EG[ M 1
= EG. M = 1
128. Prove that
[H M [H M 1 1M
. M = EG[ IGi M g0 , 1h
2 1M
M = EG. 1 M =
4 Solution:
1 1M
. `. a. = EG[
127. Solve the equation
1M 1 2 1M
. = . M IGi M > 0
1M 2
,. . M = > M = . >
Solution:
Squaring both sides
M = . >
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
98
1 1 . >
. `. a. = EG[
2 1 . >
Using property
[H M + EG[ M =
[H > 2
1 1
EG[ >
. `. a. = EG[ <. `. a. = = . `. a.
2 [E > 2
1 EG[ > 1 3 3
. `. a. = EG[ [H 3 [H =
2 1 2 4
EG[ > 2
1
. `. a. = EG[ EG[ 2>
Solution:
2
1 3
<. `. a. = [H 3 [H
1 2 2
. `. a. = 2> = > = . M
2
. `. a. = <. `. a.
We know that
1 3
[H =
[H =
4 2 3 2
129. Prove that
3 4
EG[ EG[ = <. `. a. = [H [H 3 [H [H
5 5 2 4 3
<. `. a. = 3 <. `. a. =
4 3 4
Solution:
3 4
<. `. a. = EG[ EG[ 3
5 5 <. `. a. = = . `. a.
4
3
,. EG[ = M .1
5 131. Prove that
3 3 3 12 56
= EG[ M EG[ M = [H EG[ = [H
5 5 5 13 65
Using first fundamental identities Solution:
[H M = 1 EG[ M 3 3
,. [H = M [H M =
5 5
9 16
[H M = 1 [H M =
25 25
9
EG[ M = 1 [H M EG[ M = 1
4 4 25
[H M = [H M = [H M > 0
5 5
4 16 4
M = [H EG[ M = EG[ M =
5 25 5
3 4 12 12
EG[ = [H > Y . 1 ,. EG[ = > EG[ > =
5 5 13 13
4 4
<. `. a. = [H + EG[
5 5
144 1 1
[H > = 1 EG[ > [H > = 1 [H > = [H > =
169 4 2
169 144 25
[H > = [H > =
We know that
5 3 3 1 1
[H > = EG[M + > = +
13 2 2 2 2
3 1 2 1
EG[M + > = + = =
We know that
4 4 4 2
[H M + > = [H M EG[ > + EG[ M [H >
1
3 12 4 5 EG[M + > =
[H M + > = + 2
5 13 5 13
1
36 + 20 56 M + > = EG[
[H M + > = [H M + > = 2
65 65
1 3 1
56 [H + EG[ = EG[
M + > = [H
2 2 2
65
3 12 56
[H + EG[ = [H
5 13 65
133. Prove that
4 12 33
EG[ EG[ = EG[
132. Prove that 5 13 65
1 3 1
[H
EG[ = EG[
2 2 2
Solution:
4 4
,. EG[ = M EG[ M =
5 5
Solution:
1 1 16
,. [H = M [H M = [H M = 1 EG[ M [H M = 1
2 2 25
1 9 3
EG[ M = 1 [H M EG[ M = 1 [H M = [H M =
4 25 5
3 12 12
EG[ M = ,. EG[ = > EG[ > =
4 13 13
3 3 144
,. EG[
= > EG[ > = [H > = 1 EG[ > [H > = 1
2 2 169
3 169 144 25
[H > = 1 EG[ > [H > = 1 [H > = [H > =
4 169 169
5
[H > =
13
45 + 32 77
[H M + > = [H M + > =
85 85
We know that
33 A
M + > = EG[ of M
then find the value
65
4 12 33
EG[ + EG[ = EG[
Solution:
5 13 65
. 2M . 3M =
134. Prove that 4
3 18 77
[H
[H = [H
Use property
5 17 85 M>
. M . > = .
1 M>
2M 3M
Solution:
3 3 . =
,. [H
= M [H M = 1 2M 3M 4
5 5
5M
. = . 1
9 1 6M
EG[ M = 1 [H M EG[ M = 1
25
5M
=1
1 6M
16 4
EG[ M = EG[ M = 5M = 1 6M
25 5
6M 5M 1 = 0
8 8
,. [H = > [H > =
17 17 5 5 4 61
M=
26
64
EG[ > = 1 [H > EG[ > = 1
289 5 25 24
M=
12
289 64 225 5 49
EG[ > = EG[ > = M=
289 289 12
15 5 7
EG[ > = M=
17 12
5 7 5 7
M = Gi M =
12 12
We know that
136. If . . K =
K
A
Use property
value of M M>
then find the
. M . > = .
1 M>
1 1
Solution:
M1 M1
.
. = <. `. a. = .
5 7
M2 M2 4 1 1
1
5 7
1 1
. 3 8
Use property
M> 1 1
. M . > = . 1
1 M> 3 8
12 11
M1 M1 35
<. `. a. = . . 24
. M 2 M 2 =
1 1
M1 M1 4 1 1 24
1 M 2 M 2 35
12 11
M 2M 1 M 1M 2 35 24
M 2 <. `. a. = .
.
. "
# 34 23
M 2 M 1M 1
35 24
M 2
= . 1 12 11
<. `. a. = . .
34 23
M M 2 M M 2
. = . 1
M 4 M 1
Again Use property
M>
2M 4 . M . > = .
.
= . 1 1 M>
3
12 11
2M 4 <. `. a. = . 34 23
=1
3 12 11
1 34 23
2M 4 = 3 2M 3 + 4
325
1 1 <. `. a. = .
391
2M = 1 M = M= 66
2 1 391
2
1 325
M > 0 M =
2 <. `. a. = .
391
325
391
137. Show that
1 1 1 <. `. a. = . 1 = = . `. a.
. . . 4
5 7 3
1
. =
8 4
********************************************
Solution:
1 1 1
<. `. a. = . . .
5 7 3
1
.
8
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
102
M + 2M> + > = 0
passing through the origin
, ,
i EG [. . G. ,, TiG By case I and II
M 4M> > = 0
>2M + > = 0 represented by
HH

G. [H
[ > M
through the origin.
4M> >
Case II: let 0 0 , 0
1 + =0
M M
> >
Multiply equation I both sides by a
H. . 4 1 = 0
M M
M + 2M> + > = 0
>
.H[ H[ . .
M + 2M> + > = 0
M
.
[X.iE. >
> 4 4 4 1 1
=
M 21
M + 2M> + > > + > = 0
> 4 16 4
M + > > = 0
=
M 2
M + > O> P = 0
> 4 12
=
M + > > M + > M 2
+ > = 0
> 22 3
These are the separate equation of the lines
=
M 2
140. Find the separate equations of the lines
>
= 2 3 M 2M>EG[E > = 0
represented by
> = M2 3
Solution: 
2 + 3M + > = 0 ; 2 3M + > = 0
The given homogeneous equation is
M + 2M>EG[E + > = 0
HH

G. [H
[ > M
These are the separate equation of the lines
2EG[EM> >
139. Find the separate equations of the lines
1+ + =0
2M 3M> 9> = 0 M M
represented by
> >
Solution: H. . 2EG[E 1 = 0
M M
>
.H[ H[ . .
M
The given homogeneous equation is
2M 3M> 9> = 0
> 2EG[E 2EG[E 4 1 1
HH

G. [H
[ > M =
M 21
3M> >
2 9 =0 > 2EG[E 4EG[E 4
M M =
M 2
> >
H. . 9 3 2 = 0 > 2EG[E 2EG[E 1
M M =
M 2
>
.H[ H[ . .
M > 2EG[E 2EG.
=
M 2
> 3 3 4 9 2
=
M 29 > 2EG[E EG.
=
M 2
> 3 9 + 72
= > >
M 18 = EG[E + EG. ; = EG[E EG.
M M
> 3 81 > >
= = EG[E EG. ;
M 18 M M
> 3 9 = EG[E + EG.
=
M 18 > = EG[E EG. M ; >
> 3 + 9 > 3 9 = EG[E + EG.M
= ; =
M 18 M 18
> + EG[E EG. M = 0
1 2
>= M ; >= M > + EG[E + EG.M = 0
3 3
EG[E EG. M > = 0 These are the separate equation of the lines
EG[E EG.M > = 0 142. Find the separate equation of the lines
3M 10M> 8> = 0
represented by
These are the separate equation of the lines
11 M 8M> > = 0
represented by
The given homogeneous equation is
3M 10M> 8> = 0
M> >
The given homogeneous equation is
3 10 8 = 0
11M 8M> > = 0
M M
HH

G. [H
[ > M > >
H. . 8 + 10 3 = 0
M M
8M> >
11 = 0 >
M M .H[ H[ . .
M
> >
H. . 8 11 = 0 > 10 10 4 8 3
M M =
M 28
>
.H[ H[ . .
M > 10 100 + 96
=
M 16
> 8 8 4 1 11
=
M 21 > 10 196
=
M 16
> 8 64 44
= > 10 14
M 2 =
M 16
> 8 20
= > 25 7
M 2 =
M 16
> 8 25
= > 5 7
M 2 =
M 8
> 24 5
= 8> = M5 7
M 2
> 8> = M5 + 7 ; 8> = M5 7
= 4 5
M 8> = 2M ; 8> = 12M
> = M4 5 M 4> = 0 ; 3M + 2> = 0
> = 4 5M ; > = 4 5M
3M 23M> 3> = 0
represented by
3M 7M> 4> = 0
represented by
M 3> = 0 ; 3M + > = 0
M 2M> . > = 0
represented by
The given homogeneous equation is
M + 2M> . > = 0
M> >
37 + 4 =0
M M
Divided both sides byM
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
106
> >
H. . 4 7 3 = 0
> 21 2
M M M
=
2
>
.H[ H[ . .
M
> = M1 2
8> = M7 1
Solution:
M 4> = 0 M 2> = 0
8> = 8M ; 8> = 6M
M + 2>M 2> = 0
M > = 0 ; 3M 4> = 0 M + 2> = 0 ; M 2> = 0
5M 3> = 0
represented by
M + 2M> > = 0
represented by
Solution:
Solution:
The given homogeneous equation is
5M 3> = 0 5M 3> = 0
The given homogeneous equation is
M + 2M> > = 0
5M + 3>5M 3> = 0
Divided both sides byM 5M + 3> = 0 ; 5M 3> = 0
149. Find the separate equation of the lines
M> >
1+2 =0
3M 7M> = 0
represented by
M M
> >
H. . 2 1 = 0
M M Solution:
>
.H[ H[ . .
The given homogeneous equation is
5M 3> = 0
represented by
> 2 4 + 4
=
M 2
> 2 8 > 2 22
Solution:
= =
M 2 M 2 The given homogeneous equation is
5M 3> = 0 5M 3> = 0
M> >
2+2 =0
5M 3>5M 3> = 0
M M
6M 5M> 6> = 0
> 2 12 > 2 23
= =
M 2 M 2
Divided both sides byM >
= 1 3
M
M> >
65 6 =0
M M > = M1 3
M 2M> > = 0 1
2M 3> = 0 ; 3M + 2> = 0
Let > = M be the equation of one of the line
152. Find the separate equation of the lines
represented by equation I
2M 2M> > = 0 M 2MM M = 0
represented by
Solution: M 2M M = 0
The given homogeneous equation is
HH

G. [H
[ > M
2M 2M> > = 0 2 = 0
Divided both sides byM 2 = 0
2
[X GI iGG.[ = = 3M 43M> 3> = 0
the lines represented by
=iG
XE. GI iGG.[ = . =
Solution:
4 . 2 =
= 33
2 212 9
= . 2 =
6
2
3
. 2 = . 2 =
1 3
1
. 2 =
2 3
. 2 =
1
2 = . =
3 6
2
. 2 =
154. Find the measure of the acute angle between
2M 7M> 3> = 0
the lines represented by
. = 1
(I) If the lines are perpendicular to each other then
= 1 ; =
Solution:
=0
The given homogeneous equation is
= 0 = 2 , 2 = 7 , = 3
2
=0
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
109
7
= 2 , = , = 3 . 2 = .
2 2
2 2 = . O. P =
. 2 = 2 2
156. Find the acute angle between the lines
7 M 4M> + > = 0
2 2 2 3
. 2 =
23 Solution:
49
2 4 6
The given homogeneous equation is
M 4M> > = 0
. 2 =
5
EG=iH H. M 2M> > = 0
249 24 = 1 , 2 = 4 , = 1
. 2 = 2
5 = 1 , = 2 , = 1
2
25 . 2 =
. 2 =
5
22 1 1
. 2 = 1 . 2 =
11
2 = . 1 =
4 24 1
. 2 =
2
. 2 = 3
155. Find the acute angle between the lines
M + 2M>EG[E + > = 0
represented by
2 = . 3 2 = . . =
Solution: 3 3
M + 2M>EG[E + > = 0
= 1, 2 = 2EG[E, = 1
The given homogeneous equation is
3M 2M> > = 0
= 1 , = EG[E , = 1
EG=iH H. M 2M> > = 0
2EG[E 1
. 2 = = 3 , 2 = 2 , = 1
2
= 3 , = 1 , = 1
. 2 = LEG. L
2
. 2 = EG.  . 2 =
. 2 = EG.
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
110
21 3 1 = 3 , 2 = 4 , = 3
. 2 =
31
= 3 , = 2 , = 3
24 2
. 2 = . 2 =
2
. 2 = 2
22 3 3
. 2 =
2 = . 2 33
Solution: . 2 = 
2 = . 2 = . .
2
The given homogeneous equation is
2M 6M> + > = 0
2=
EG=iH H. M + 2M> + > = 0
2
= 2 , 2 = 6 , = 1
M 2M> > = 0is equal to the acute angle
160. Show that , if the acute angle between the lines
2 . 169 = 108
. 2 =
+
23 2 1
Solution:
. 2 =
2+1
The given homogeneous equations are
M 2M> > = 0 1
29 2
. 2 = 4M 24M> 9> = 0 2
3
,. 2
2 i . angles between the lines
27
. 2 =
3
represented by 1 and 2 then
2 = 2
27
2 = .
3 . 2 = . 2
2 2144 36
=
Solution:
4 4 108
=
169 3M M> > = 0 differ by 4
162. Find k, if the slopes of the lines given by
108
=
169
Solution:
169 = 108
The given homogeneous equation is
3M M> > = 0
M 2M> > = 0is equal to the acute angle EG=iH H. M 2M> > = 0
161. Show that , if the acute angle between the lines
2 2
= = 2
1
The given homogeneous equations are
M 2M> > = 0 1
=
2M 5M> 3> = 0 2
= = 3
,. 2
2 i . angles between the lines
represented by 1 and 2 then = 4
2 = 2 [YXiH G. [H
[
. 2 = . 2 = 16
25 4 = 16
2 2 4 6
=
5 43 = 16
12 = 16
25 24
2 2 4
= 4 = 2
=
5
1
2 22
=
5
Solution:
M 5M> > = 0
2 1
= EG=iH H. M 2M> > = 0
5
= , 2 = 5 , = 1
[YXiH G. [H
[
5
4 1 = , = , = 1
= 2
25
5
2 22
100 = = =
1
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
112
= 5 3M + M> + 2> = 0
= =
1
Solution:
= 1
The given homogeneous equation is
3M + M> + 2> = 0
[YXiH G. [H
[
EG=iH H. M + 2M> + > = 0
= 1
= 3, 2 = , = 2
4 = 1
25 4 = 1 = 3, = , = 2
2
25 1 = 4 4 = 24 = 6 . YX.HG GI H ,H  H[ 2M + > = 0
[,G= GI ,H  = = 2
6M M> > = 0 H[ 2M > = 0
164. Find the value of k, if one of the line given by
2
+ =
=
Solution:
22 3
+ =
=
The given homogeneous equation is
6M M> > = 0 2 2
3
EG=iH H. M 2M> > = 0 + =
=
2 2
= 6, 2 = , = 1 = 2
3
= 6, = , = 1 2 + =
2 =
2 2 2
. YX.HG GI H ,H  H[ 2M > = 0 3
= + 2
=
2 4
[,G= GI ,H  = = 2
3 3 11
2 = +2 = +2, =
=
= 4 2 2 4 2 4
11
=
2
=
;
=6
=
=6
3M M> 5> = 0is perpendicular to the line
166. Find k if one of the line given by
= 2 5M 3> = 0
2 =
2 =6 Solution:
= 2
= 3 The given homogeneous equation is
3 = 2 , = 5 3M M> 5> = 0 1
165. Find the value of k if 2M > = 0 is one of the EG=iH H. M 2M> > = 0
line given by
= 3, 2 = , = 5 We know that
= 3, = , = 5 2 2
2 = 0= 2
1
. YX.HG GI H ,H  H[
=0
5 M 3> = 0 2
[,G= GI ,H  =
3
1 3 2M M> 3> = 0
= =
5/3 5
2
Comparing with
=
= M 2M> > = 0
= 2 , 2 = , = 3
3 2 2 3 3
=
=
5 5 5 5
= 2, = , = 3
2
3
=
= 1
5 5 We know that
3 2
1= =
=
5 5
8
=
5 5 =
It is given that
=8
2 22 2
= = = 2
3 3
167. Find the value of k if the sum of the slope of the
= 3 , 2 = , = 1 M 2M> > = 0
= 3 , 2 = 4, =
= 3, = , = 1
2
= 3, = 2 , =
Solution: = 2 H
2
= = 2
3 3
The given homogeneous equation is
3M 4M> > = 0
M 2M> > = 0
other by 8
= 3 , 2 = 4, =
Solution:
M 4M> > = 0
= 3, = 2 , =
EG=iH H. M 2M> > = 0
= , 2 = 4 , = 1
We know that
2
=
=
= , = 2 , = 1
= 1 H = 8 H
2 2 3 2 22
1 =
1 = 8 = =
1
4 3 8 2 = 4 2 = 4 = 2
1 =
=
3 4 4 3 1
1 = 1= 1= =
=1
8 + = 8 22 =
1
represented by M M> 3> = 0 is twice
171. Find k if sum of the slope of the lines
their product = 12 = 12
Solution:
8
= 2 8 = 2 = 4
M 2M> > = 0is three times the other
5 5
173. If the slope of one of the lines given by
Let
be the slope of the lines given by
2M > = 0
3M 5> = 0
175. Find the joint equation of the pair of lines
2
Solution:
=
=
The required joint equation is
4 4
16 = 16 =
3 M 2> 1 = 0
176. Find the joint equation of the pair of lines
2M 3> 2 = 0
4
= 3 = 4
3
Solution:
Let
be the slope of the lines given by
2M 3M> 2M 4M> 6> 4> 2M 3> 2 = 0
M 8M> 5> = 0
2M M> 6> 7> 2 = 0
= , 2` = 8 , ] = 5
ordinate axes
= , ` = 4 , ] = 5
Solution:
2`
Since the lines are parallel to the coordinate axes
=
=
] ]
then their equations are
> = 3
M = 2 M 2 = 0
> 3 = 0
24
=
=
5 5
8
The required joint equation is
=
= M 2> 3 = 0
5 5
M> 3M 2> + 6 = 0
= 2 H
Let
be the slope of the lines one is parallel to
M 3> 1 = 0 and other is perpendicular to the
Solution:
Let
be the slope of the two lines line 2M 3>= 0
perpendicular to 3M 2> 1 = 0 and M 3> 2 =
0 = [,G= GI ,H  M 3> 1 = 0
1 1
= =
[,G= GI ,H  3M 2> 1 = 0 3
1
1 2 =
= = [,G= GI ,H  2M 3> 1 = 0
3 3
2
1 3
= =
1 2 2
= 3
[,G= GI ,H  M 3> + 2 = 0
1
= = 3
Use the formula
1 > > = M M
3
> > = M M
= is
1 3
the point 2 , 3 and having slope = and > 2 = M + 1
> 2 = M + 1
The equation of line first and second line passing through
3 2
= 3 is
3> 6 = M 1
2> 4 = 3M 3
2
> 3 = M 2
> 3 = 3M 2 M + 3> 5 = 0
3M + 2> 1 = 0
3
3> 9 = 2M 4
> 3 = 3M + 6 The required joint equation is
2M 3> + 5 = 0
3M + > 9 = 0 M + 3> 53M + 2> 1 = 0
8 5
M M> > = 0
3 3
Solution:
Let
be the slope of the lines given by
3M 8M> 5> = 0
5M 8M> 3> = 0 .1
181. Find the joint equation of the pair of lines
M 2M> > = 0
= 5 , 2 = 8 , = 3
Solution:
Let
be the slope of the lines given by
= 5 , = 4 , = 3
5M 2M> 3> = 0 .1
We know that
2
=
=
Comparing with
M 2M> > = 0
24
= = 5 , 2 = 2 , = 3
3
8 = 5 , = 1 , = 3
= 2
3
5
We know that
= 3 2
3 =
=
21
=
The slope of the lines perpendicular to equation 1 is
1 1 3
2
= 2
3
5
They passing through the origin their equations are
1 1 = 3
>= M
> = M 3
> = M
> = M
The slope of the lines perpendicular to equation 1 is
1 1
M > = 0
M > = 0
Their joint or combine equation is They passing through the origin their equations are
M >M > = 0 1 1
>= M
> = M
MM > >M > = 0
> = M
> = M
M M> M> > = 0
M > = 0
M > = 0
M M> > = 0
Their joint or combine equation is
M >M > = 0
Use equation 2 and 3
M M> > = 0
182. Find the joint equation of the pair of lines
4 1
M M> > = 0
5 5
5M 4M> > = 0
Solution:
Let
be the slope of the lines given by
M 4M> 5> = 0 .1
183. Find the joint equation of the pair of lines
= 1 , 2 = 4 , = 5 Let
be the slope of the lines given by
= 1 , = 2 , = 5 2M 3M> 9> = 0 .1
2 M 2M> > = 0
=
=
= 2 , 2 = 3 , = 9
22
= 3
5 = 2 , = , = 9
2
4
= 2
5 We know that
1 2
= 3 =
=
5
3
2 2
=
The slope of the lines perpendicular to equation 1 is
1 1 9
1
= 2
3
2
They passing through the origin their equations are
1 1 = 3
>= M
> = M 9
2
=
=
The slope of the lines perpendicular to equation 1 is
1 1
1
2
= 2
1
= 1 2
They passing through the origin their equations are
1 1
>= M
> = M
= 1 3
> = M
> = M The slope of the lines perpendicular to equation 1 is
M > = 0
M > = 0 1 1
Their joint or combine equation is
M >M > = 0
They passing through the origin their equations are
1 1
MM > >M > = 0 >= M
> = M
M M> M> > = 0
> = M
> = M
M M> > = 0
M > = 0
M > = 0
Use equation 2 and 3
1 2
Their joint or combine equation is
Let
be the slope of the lines given by
lines represented by M 2M> > = 0
through the origin which are perpendicular to the
M M> > = 0 .1
Solution:
Let
be the slope of the lines given by
Comparing with
M 2M> > = 0
M 2M> > = 0 .1
= 1 , 2 = 1 , = 1 2
=
=
1
= 1 , = , = 1
2 The slope of the lines perpendicular to equation 1 is
We know that
1 1
[,G= GI ,H  ] . 30
2
They passing through the origin their equations are [,G= GI ,H  ] EG. 30 3
1 1
>= M
> M
The equation of line OA and OB is
3M >3M > 0
Their joint or combine equation is
M >M >
> 0
3M > 0
MM > >M > 0
2
M M> > 0
Solution:
M 2M> > 0
Let OA and OB be two lines passing through the
origin makes an angle of /6 with the line
[,G= GI ,H  3
with the line > = 3
through origin making an n equilateral triangle
Let slope OA or OB is m
Solution :
. YX.HG GI Gi ] H[ >
M 1
We know that
. 2
1
2 , ,
3
6
3
.
The line OA and OB passing through the origin form
6 1 3
an equilateral triangle with line y=3
1 3
The inclination of line OA is 600
3 1 3
[,G= GI ,H  . 60 3
[YXiH G. [H
[
[H
[
The inclination of the line OB is 1200
1 3
[,G= GI ,H  ] . 120^
3 1 3
1 3 = 3 3 1 2 3
=
3 2 3
1 6 9 = 3 6 9
[YXiH G. [H
[
1 6 9 = 3 18 27
1 2 3
6 24 26 = 0
=
3 2 3
>
IiG YX.HG 1 = 2 3 = 32 3
M
4 12 9 = 34 12 9
> 24>
6 26 = 0
M M 4 12 9 = 12 36 27
6> 24M> 26M = 0
3 48 23 = 0
HH

G. [H
[ > 2 >
IiG YX.HG 1 =
M
3> 12M> 13M = 0
> 48>
13M 12M> 3> = 0
3 23 = 0
M M
3M 2> 11 = 0
Solution:
3
[,G= GI ,H  =
The given homogeneous equation is
2 M 4M> > = 0
Let slope OA or OB is m
HH

G. [H
[ > M
. 2 =
1 4E
M=
2
3
2 = 30^ , = , =
2 > 4 16 4 1 1
=
3 M 21
2
. 30 =
^
> 4 16 4
3
1 2 =
M 2
> 4 12 4 23 33 1
= = . 2 = = 3
M 2 2 3 1
>
= 2 3 . 2 = 3
M
2 = 60^
> = 2 3M ; > = 2 3M
The two angles of triangle are 600
2 3M > = 0 ; 2 3M > = 0
M 4M> > = 0and the line M > = 10 form
[,G= GI ,H [ = 2 3 an equilateral triangle
1
YXH,.i, .iH , = =
3
The slope of given equation of line
M > = 10is
= 1
Where p is a perpendicular distance from origin to
M > = 10
the line
Let 1 be the angle between the lines having slope
1 0 0 10
YXH,.i, .iH , = Q R
3 2
. 2 =
1
1 100
YXH,.i, .iH , =
2 3 1 3 2
. 2 = 50
1 2 31 = [Y. X H.
3
3 3
. 2 = 190. Show that the lines M 4M> > = 0 and the
1 3
line M > = 6 form an equilateral triangle find
31 3
. 2 = = 3
its area
1 3 Solution:
HH

G. [H
[ > M
and
Let 2 be the angle between the lines having slopes
> >
14 =0
. 2 = M M
1
> >
4 1 = 0
2 3 1 M M
. 2 =
1 2 31
4E
M=
3 3 2
. 2 =
1 3 > 4 16 4 1 1
=
M 21
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
123
> 4 16 4 3 3
= . 2 =
M 2 1 3
> 4 12 4 23 33 1
= = . 2 = = 3
M 2 2 3 1
>
= 2 3 . 2 = 3
M
= 2 3
an equilateral triangle
1
YXH,.i, .iH , = =
The slope of given equation of line
M > = 10is 3
= 1
Where p is a perpendicular distance from origin to
M > = 10
the line
Let 1 be the angle between the lines having slope
1
0 0 6
YXH,.i, .iH , = U V
. 2 = 3 2
1
1 6
2 3 1 YXH,.i, .iH , =
. 2 = 3 2
1 2 31 3
= [Y. X H.
3
3 3
. 2 =
1 3 YXH,.i, .iH , = 3 [Y. X H.
31 3
. 2 = = 3
1 3
191. Find the joint equation of the pair of lines
. 2 = 3
2 = 60 ^
Solution:
and
Let 2 be the angle between the lines having slopes
2 3 1
. 2 =
1 2 31
2
.
3
1 2
[,G= GI = . 30^ 3
3
1 [YXiH G. [H
[
[H
[
.
YX.HG GI ,H 
H[ > M
3
2
3> M ; M 3
3> 0 3
3 4
The line OB makes an angle of 1500
[,G= GI ] = . 150^
3 2 4
4 4
[,G= GI ] . 60^ 3 6 3 4
4 4
2
1 3 10 3 4
[,G= GI ] EG. 60 ^
3
3 9 3
4
3
3 3 3 4
The equation of line OB is
1
> M ; 3> M 33 4
4 0
3
M 3> 0
GENERAL EQUATION OF STRAIGHT LINE
M 3>M 3> 0
Represented a pair of lines if
M 3> 0 I 0
I E
If the line given by M 2M>
M> > 0 form
an equilateral triangle with the line ,M > 1
192. 193. Show that the equation
then show that 3 3 4 0 3M 8M> 5> 2M 4> 1 0represent pairs of
lines . Find the angle between them
Solution:
Solution:
= 3, 2 = 8, = 5, 2 = 2, 2I = 4 E = 1 1 1
= 2, = , = 1, = , I = 2, E = 3
2 2
= 3, = 4, = 5, = 1, I = 2, E = 1
To show that equation 1 represented pair of lines
To show that equation 1 represented pair of lines
H. . .G [G .. I = 0
H. . .G [G .. I = 0 I E
I E
<. `. a. = I
<. `. a. = I I E
I E 1 1
3 4 1 2
2 2
<. `. a. = 4 5 2 1
1 2 1 <. `. a. = 1 2
5 2 4 2 4 5 2
<. `. a. = 3 L L 4L L 1L L 1
2 1 1 1 1 2 2 3
2
<. `. a. = 35 4 44 2 18 5 1 1
<. `. a. = 27 24 3 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 1
<. `. a. = 27 27 = 0 <. `. a. = 2 L L
2 3 2 1 2 1
<. `. a. = . `. a. 3 2
2 2
YX.HG 1 i=i[ . =Hi GI ,H [ 1 3 1 1
<. `. a. = 23 4 1 1
2 2 2 2
5 3
2 <. `. a. = 2
To find the angle
. 2 = 4 4
<. `. a. = 2 2 = 0
24 3 5 <. `. a. = . `. a.
. 2 =
35 YX.HG 1 i=i[ . =Hi GI ,H [
216 15
. 2 = 2
8
To find the angle
. 2 =
1 1
. 2 = =
4 4 1
1 22 21
2 = . . 2 =
4 21
. 2 = 3
194. Show that the equation
= 12, 2 = 2, = 2, 2 = 11, 2I = 5, = 2, 2 = 1, = 3, 2 = 4, 2I = ,
E=2 E = 6
11 5 1
= 12, = , = 2, = ,I = ,E = 2 = 2, = , = 3, = 2, I = , E = 6
2 2 2 2
the equation 1 represented pair of lines The equation 1 represented pair of lines
I = 0 I = 0
I E I E
11 1
12 2 2
2 2
5 1
2 =0 3 =0
2 2 2
11 5
2 2 6
2 2 2
5 5 1
2 2 3 1 3
12 2 2 11 11 5 2 2 1 2
5 11 2 2 2 2 2
=0
2 2 2 2 6 2 6 2
2 2 2 2
=0 1
2 18 3 2 6 = 0
25 55 11 2 4 2 4
12 4 2 11 5
3
4 4 2
2 2 36 12 = 0
=0 2 2 2 2
2 99 = 0
9 8 55 11 5
12 11 = 0 11 9 = 0
4 4 2 2
108 8 55 55 242 = 0 11 = 0 Gi 9 = 0
= 11 Gi = 9
8 110 350 = 0
HH

G. [H
[ > 2 1
= 23
4 55 175 = 0 2
1 25
4 20 35 175 = 0 = 6= 0
4 4
4 5 35 5 = 0 G ,H [ i G. =i,,,
4 35 5 = 0
<H [ i H .i[E.H
4 35 = 0 ; 5 = 0
35
= Gi = 5 2M 4M> => 4M Y> 1 = 0represents a
197. Find p and q, if the equation
4
pair of lines perpendicular to each other
2M M> 3> 4M > 6 = 0 represents pair
196. Find the value of k if the equation
Solution:
The given equation is
aG,X.HG : 
parallel or intersecting
2 = = 0 ; = = 2
Comparing with
1 2 1 2
2
Y
of lines perpendicular to each other
2 2 22 Y 2Y 4 = 0
4
Solution:
Y
The given equation is
Comparing with
= 2, 2 = 4, = =, 2 = 4, 2I = 8, E=Y
The given equation is
8Y 8 = 0
The given equation is
= 2, 2 = 3, = 2, 2 = 5, 2I = 5,
Solution:
E = 3
The given equation is
Y 24 = 0 ; Y = 24
To show that the lines are perpendicular to each
other
<. `. a. = 2 2 = 0 = 0 , 2 = , = 0 , 2 = 10, 2I = 6, E = 4
<. `. a. = . `. a.
= 0 , = , = 0 , = 5, I = 3, E = 4
2
he equation 1 represent pair of perpendicular lines.
0 5
Solution:
2 =0
0 3
The given equation is
3 5
0 = 0
0 2
Comparing with
15 = 0
I = 0
I E = 0
15= 0
3 5 0 = 0
= 15
5 3 8 = 0
0 8 X. 0 = 15
3 8 5 8 5 3 204. Find the value of k if the equation M 3M>
3L L 5L L 0L L=0
8 0 0 8
2> M > = 0 represent pair of lines
33 64 55 0 0 = 0
9 192 25 = 0 16 = 192
Solution:
192
The given equation is
= = 12
16 M 3M> 2> M > = 0 1
= 1 , 2 = 3 , = 2 , 2 = 1, 2I = 1, E =
Solution:
3 1 1
= 1 , = , = 2 , = , I = , E =
The given equation is
Y
2 4
I = 0 2
4 8 1 0
I E Y
1 15
3 1 2
1
2 2 4 1 Y Y4 8
3 1 8 1
2L L 4 Y 15
1 0
2 0 1 15
2 2 2
2 2
1 1
Y Y
2 2 60 4 4Y 0
2120 1 4 60
2 2
1 3 1 3
2 3 1 2 242 240 2Y 2Y
2 2Y 0
1 2 2 2 2 0
1 2 1 2 1 1
2 4Y 2Y 0 2Y 2Y 1 0
2 2 2 2
1 3 3 1 1 3 Y 2Y 1 0 Y 1 0
2 1
1 0
4 2 2 4 2 4 Y1
1 9 3 3 1
2 0 ] is formed by the lines
4 4 8 8 2
206.
Solution:
Comparing with
16 2= = 8
By mid point formula
M M > >
,
2 2
Since equation 1 represent pair of lines if
I 0
To find the coordinate of point P
2M 3> 1 = 0 3> = 1 2M
The required equation of the median of triangle
drawn from the origin is
1 2M
>= .2
3
Using two point form
> > > >
=
Put in equation 1 M M M M
1 2M 1 2M 7
M 4M + =0 > 0 37 0 > 7
3 3 = =
M0 8
0 M 8
4M 8M 1 4M + 4M 37
M + =0
3 9 8> = 7M 7M 8> = 0
9M 4M 8M 1 4M + 4M
3 + =0
9 9 9
**********************************************
9M 12M + 24M + 1 4M + 4M
=0
9
37M 16M + 1 = 0
Sum of roots =
VECTORS
16 16
SENCTON FORMLA FOR INTERNAL DIVISION
M + M = =
37 37
vectors a and b and C divides seg. AB internally
If A and B are two points having positions
K:
in the ratio m:n, then c = where c is the
Divided both sides by 2
M + M 1 16 M + M 8
K:
= =
2 2 37 2 37
position vector of the point C
Mcoordinate of point = = _
K ; @ Proof:
M + M
> + > 1 2 2 acb
>= =
2 3
8
1 2 37 21
>= >=
3 3 37
O
7
>=
Since point C divided segment AB internally in the
37
ratio m:n then
,  = ]
 
=
,]
= ]
, = ,]
]
 G==G[H.
HiE.HG
 = ]
 
E = E
= ]
E = E
]
 [
HiE.HG
E E =
E = E
E =
E = E
HH

G. [H
[ >
E E =
E
=
E =
HH

G. [H
[ >
E =
E
= H[ H[ [E.HG IGiX, IGi M.i ,
HH[HG
E =
MIDPOINT FORMULA
If a and b are position vector of points A and B, then
This is section formula for internal division
the position vector of the midpoint of C is
a + b
SENCTON FORMLA FOR EXTERNAL DIVISION
c =
2
vectors a and b and C divides seg. AB externally
If A and B are two points having positions
:
Proof: Since C is midpoint of segment AB then m=n
in the ratio m:n, then c = where c is the
:
+
E =
+
position vector of the point C
Proof: =X. =
E =
A B C
E =
2
E =
O
, = ,]
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
133
K5
K
of the triangle is given by g =
i E .iGH
[ GI ]
Proof: ]> E .iGH
IGiX,
Aa E
1
3
= Y i
2
Gg
= 2
3
1 ]
To prove that
= 3
Bb D d Cc
]
<. `. a =
Let , ]
E are the vertices of ]
<. `. a = = Y i E
Let
be the midpoint of side BC
<. `. a = = Y i E
By midpoint formula
E
From equation 1 and 2
= Y i = 3
2
E = 3
The centroid divided segment AD internally in
the ratio 2:1 then by section formula for internal <. `. a = 3
3
<. `. a = 3
division
2
1
=
<. `. a = 3
21
E L. H. S = R. H. S.
2 2 1
=
21 208. If D,E,F are the midpoints of the sides BC, CA,
E
and AB respectively of triangle ABC and if G is
=
3
= 0
the centroid of triangle ABC then prove that
let, ]
Eare the vertices of ].
This is centroid formula Solution:
,
Eare midpoint of sides BC,CA
PROBLEM ON MIDPOINT FORMULA AND
and AB of ]
CENTROID FORMULA
]> H
=GH . IGiX,
E E
, I =
207. If G1 and G2 are the centroids of the triangles
,  =
]
= 3
2 2 2
ABC and PQR then prove that
H[ . E .iGH
GI .iH , ] .
E
Solution:
= 1
3
To prove that = 0
210. Show that, If P, Q, R, S are the midpoint of the
<. `. a. =
sides of a quadrilateral ABCD. then prove that
<. `. a. =
 I
PQRS is a parallelogram by vector method.
, , , a i H
=GH . GI [H
 ], ],CD
E E
<. `. a. = 3
2 2 2
and DA.
2 2 2E
<. `. a. = 3
By using midpoint formula
2
=
= ,
2
2 E E E
<. `. a. = 3 Y = , i = , [
2 2 2
<. `. a. = 3 E =
2
IiG YX.HG 1 E = 3
<. `. a. = 3 3 = 0
To show that PQRS is a parallelogram
<. `. a. = . `. a.
i.e. to show that the opposite side of parallelogram
are equal
, = ,a
,a = ,
the plane such that ] = 0 then
209. If A,B,C and D are four noncollinear points in
prove that the point D is the centroid of G =iG .. , = ,a
= a
H. . .G =iG ..
the].
Solution: Let , , E
i . position
= Y =
E
=
Vectors of the points A, B, C and D respectively
]
= 0
2 2
E E
E = 0
= =
2 2
3
E = 0 E
= 1
2
3
= E
= i [
a
HH

G. [H
[ > 3
E
=
a
E 2 2
=
3
E
=
a
This is the centroid formula 2
H[ E .iGH
GI ] E
=
a 2
2
From equation 1 and 2 We know that points Q, P and G are collinear then
PQ = SR
point G divides QP internally in the ratio 1:2by
section formula for internal division
lPQ = lSR 1= 2Y
similarly lPS = lQR 3
3 = = 2Y
PQRS is a parallelogram
To show that
= 3
<. `. a. =
211. If ABC is a triangle whose orthocenter is P and
PA
PB
PC
2PQ <. `. a. = = Y
the circumcentre is Q then prove that
<. `. a. = 3 2Y Y
<. `. a. = 3 3Y
letAa, Bb and Ccare the vertices of ABC. let
Solution:
<. `. a. = 3 Y
p
and q are the position vector of the points P
<. `. a. = 3
and Q <. `. a. = . `. a.
We know that points Q, P and G are collinear then 213. Using vector method Prove that, a quadrilateral
point G divides QP internally in the ratio 1:2by is a rectangle if and only if the diagonals are
section formula for internal division congruent and bisect each other.
1= + 2Y
=
3
Solution:
3 = = 2Y
Given: a quadrilateral ABCD is a rectangle
To show that
] = 2 To prove that : The diagonals AC and BC bisect each
<. `. a. = ] other
<. `. a. = = = E = YX
iH,.i, ] H[ iE. ,
<. `. a. = E 3=
H[ E .iGH
GI ]
E equal and parallel. Let , , E
are the
We know that the opposite sides of a rectangle are
, 3 = E
3
<. `. a. = 3 3=
position vectors of the points A, B,C and D
,] = ,
<. `. a. = = 2Y 3=
<. `. a. = 2Y 2=  = 
] 
<. `. a. = 2Y =
<. `. a. = 2 =
]
<. `. a. = . `. a.
= E
= E
212. If P is orthocenter, Q is cicumcentre and G is
= 3
centroid of triangle ABC then prove that
HH

G. [H
[ > 2
let, ]
Eare the vertices of ]. let
Solution:
E
=
Y are the position vector of the points P = =  [>
2 2
and Q
vector .
have the same midpoint say E having position
r
Conversely: 
p = QR
H. . .
HG ,
]  . [ H
= = i = 1 2 1 1 2 3
=GH .
= 4 ,
 = 16 = 4

E
= 
i = 
2 2
E =
= Y = = 1 1 3 1 2 1
E
= = 3 4 ,
 = 9 16 = 5

= ] h
31 2 1k 41 1 3k 51 2 3k
are parallel
] =
345
From the above equation
Solution: Let = , Y
i are the position vectors of
INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL DIVISION
2
4 2 respectively. Find the
the points P,Q and R 215. The position vectors of the points P and Q are
= = 1 2 1
position vector i and coordinate of the point R
Y = 1 1 3 which divides the line segment PQ internally in
i = 1 2 3
the ratio 2:1
let=
Y are the position vectors of the points P
== YY ii
=Yi
and Q respectively
= = 2 , Y = 4 2 Let p
, q and r are the position vectors of the points
: = 2: 1
P,Q and R
= a + 2 1k
p
q = 5 + b + 2k
By using section formula for internal division
Y =
i =
r = 3 + + ck
2 4 2 1 2
i = let Oobe the centroid of triangle PQR.
21
By centroid formula
3 6 3
i =
3 p
+ q + r
o =
3
i = 2
1,2, 1
o
a + 2 1k + 5 + b + 2k + 3 + + ck
=
216. Find the coordinates of the point which divides
3
4, 2,5
]2,3,7 externally in the ratio
the line joining the points
a + 2 + 3 + b + 1 + ck
0 + 0 + 0k =
3
8:5
Solution: let
are the position vectors of the
0 + 0 + 0k
a+2 3+b
points A and B respectively
= +
= 4 2 5 , = 2 3 7 3 3
1+c
+ k
: = 8: 5 3
a+2 3+b 1+c
0= , 0= , 0=
3 3 3
Let point C divided segment AB externally in the ratio
8:5
a + 2 = 0 , 3 + b = 0 , 1+c=0
By using section formula for external division
a = 2 , b = 3 , c = 1
mb na
c =
mn
3,1,4
]4, 5, 3 and the centroid of
82 3 7k 54 2 5k
218. If two vertices of a triangle are
c =
3 Solution:
34 31 Let , ]
E are the vertices of ]
C 12 ,
3 3
To find the coordinate of the vertex C
,. , , E
217. If the origin is the centroids of the triangle
= 3 + 1 + 4 , = 4 + 5 3
E = + + E , = + 2 +
values of a, b and c
Solution:
H[ . E .iGH
GI ] 5 8 0
Y 4 2 5
=
1 1
4 =
By using centroid formula
E
= 1
3
Y 4 2 5 4 =
3 1 4 4 5 3 E 1
= 5,
1
= 8,
1
=0
=
3
Y 4 = 5 5 1
2
1 6 1 E 2 5 = 8 8 2
=
3
4 = = 0 3
2
1 6
=
From equation 3
3 3 3 1
1E 2 8 = 8 5 ; 6 = 3; = =
6 2
3
1
1 6 1E =
= 1, = 2, =1 2
3 3 3
1 = 3, 6 = 6, 1E =3
The value of k is negative therefore the point C
= 2 , = 0, E=2
divides the line AB externally in the ratio 1:2
EG Gi
H . GI .Hi
i.M 2, 0, 2
To find the value of p and q
1
=X. = H YX.HG 1
219. If three points 4, 5, =, ]Y, 2, 4
2
5, 8, 0arecollinear then find Y 5
H The ratio in which the point C divides the line AB 4= 5
2 2
HH The values of p and q
Y 5
4=
Solution: Let , ]
E are the three 2 2
Y 5
= 4
2 2
collinear points
= 4 5 = , = Y 2 4
Y 3
E = 5 8 0 , = , Y = 3
2 2
1
=X. = H YX.HG 3
2
Let the point C divide segment AB in the ratio k:1
1
4 = = 0 , 2 = = 0
Then by section formula
Y 2 4 14 5 = 2
E =
1
==2
5 8 0
Y 4 2 5 4 =
=
220. Find the coordinates of the point which divides
1
3, 4, 1
]6, 2, 4
the line segment joining the points
= 3 4 , = 6 2 4 Solution: 
Where
are position vectors of the points A the given vector equation is
2 3E = 0
and B respectively By section formula for internal
2 = 3E
division
E =
HH

G. [H
[ > 2
26 2 4 33 4
E = 3E 3E 1
23 = =
2 31
21 8 5
E = point A divides line BC externally. Hence points A, B
5
21 8 5
and C are collinear
E =
5 5 5
Point A divides line BC externally in the ratio 3:1
2 8
E =
5 5
Collinear vectors: One of the vector can be
expressed as a scalar multiple of other then the
= 3 4 , = 6 2 4
Where
are position vectors of the points A
Proof: If part:
= =
and n such that = 0
To prove that: if there exist a nonzero scalar m
26 2 4 33 4
= = Two nonzero vectors
are collinear.
23
= 0 We choose O as a origin
that = 0
Given: if there exist a nonzero scalar m and n such We complete the parallelogram by drawing the lines
parallel to OA and OB through the point R
=
collinear
IiG IH.
=
if there exist a nonzero scalar m and n such that
= 0
=
=
and lie along the same line
0
HH

G. [H
[ >
are collinear then there exist nonzero
scalar M [XE .. = M
= M
=
and lie along the same line
]
= i =
]
are collinear then there exist nonzero
E  M=i[[ [ [E,i X,.H=, GI scalar > [XE .. = >
= >]
.
are collinear >]
= M
i = M > is unique
any vector r coplanar with them can be uniquely
collinear vectors, lying in the same plane then
B M > = M >
Q R M M = > >
r M M = > >
M M > >
=
P
O A
M M M M
> >
=
M M
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
141
TE M >
nonzero non collinear vectors.
combination of
. E
vectori can be uniquely expressed as a linear
, , Eare coplanar
Proof:
Eccan
an be express as a linear combination of
[E,i[
[XE
[XE ..
E
E 0
Let .
= i , = E
,
0]
H M, >, 1 T
M > TE 0
Since the lines OA, OB, and OC are noncoplanar
non they
determine three planes AOB,BOC and COA.
Conversely: Only if part:
= Vector can be expressed as a linear combination of
E. Therefore , , E
are coplanar
<
= <
Which is contradiction to the fact that , , E
are non
]X. IiG IH.
< =
= <
zero noncoplanar vectors.
<
are collinear then there exist nonzero combination of ,
E .
vectori can be uniquely expressed as a linear
= M
scalar M [XE .. < = M
Show that the points 5, 5, 2, ]1, 3, 0
and lie along the same line
]
222.
]
are collinear then there exist nonzero
= >
= >]
scalar > [XE .. Solution: let , , E
are the position vectors of the points
= 5 5 2
z
are collinear then there exist nonzero
scalar T [XE .. z = TE
= T = 3 0
i = M > TE . E = 2
i.e. to show ] lie along the same line
If possible that i = M > T E where =
]
M , >
T are scalar
= 3 0 5 5 2
]
We show that M = M , > = >
T = T
= 3 0 5 5 2
]
M > TE = M > T E
= 4 2 2
]
M M = > > T E TE
= 22 1
]
M M = > > T TE
= E
Suppose M M , divided both sides by M M
= 2 5 5 2
M M > > T TE
=
M M M M M M = 2 5 5 2
> > T T
= E = 6 3 3
M M M M
> > T T = 32 2
= E i = , =
M M M M
1 1 Where M, >
T i [E,i[
=
]
2 3
3
2
=
] = M4
3
>3 3 5
can be expressed as a scalar multiple of
] T2
] are collinear. A is the common point 3 = 4M M M 3> 3> 5>
4M 3> 2T = 3 1
points A and B respectively then
= 0 5
M 3> T = 1 2
= 2 4
M 5> T = 1 3
=
]
= 2 4 0 5
]
Using Cramers solve equation 1,2 and 3
4 3 2
= 2 4 0 5
] = 1 3 1
1 5 1
= 3
]
= 43 5 31 1 25 3
 = 9 1 1 = 11
] = ]
= 32 6 4 = 30
Let be the unit vector along the direction of ] 3 3 2
= 1 3 1
] 1
= = 1 5 1
 11 3
]
= 33 5 31 1 25 3
224. Express the vector 3 as a linear = 24 16
combination of the vectors 4 ,
= 40
3 3 5and2
4 3 2
= 1 1 1
1 1 1
Solution:
leti = 3
= 41 1 31 1 21 1
= 4 ,
= 6 4 = 10
= 3 3 5 ,E = 2
4 3 3
= 1 3 1
1 5 1
Consider
= 32 6 6 = 20 4M 3> 2T = 4 3
40 4
M= = =
30 3
Using Cramers solve equation 1,2 and 3
2 2 3
10 1 = 1 1 1
>= = =
30 3 4 3 2
Solution: = 18
leti = 3 4 2 1 3
= 1 3 1
= 2 4 4 4 2
= 4 2 24 = 18
2 2 1
Consider
i = M > TE
= 1 1 3
Where M, >
T i [E,i[ 4 3 4
3 4 18
>= = =2
= 2M M 4M 2> > 9
3> 27
T= = = 3
3T T 2T 9
2M 2> 3T = 1 1 Solution:
, , E
are the position vectors of the points A, B and C 2E = M 2> 2M 3>
3M 4>E
= 3 0
M 2> = 0 , 2M 3> = 1, 3M 4> = 2
= 2 5 0 ,E = 4 2 0
M = 2> 4> 3> = 1 , > = 1 , > = 1
E = M >
M =21=2
4 2 0 = M 3 0 >2 5 0
i = 2= 1Y
4 2 0 = M 3M 2> 5>
i can be expressed as a linear combination of
4 2 = M 2> 3M 5> =
Y
M 2> = 4 1 = , Y
i are coplanar
3M 5> = 2 2 228. If = 2 , = 2
Y . 1 3 3M 6> = 12
E =
3M 5> = 2
Solution:
3 = 2 2
3 = 2 2
 
> = 10
3 = 2 2
=X. > = 10 H YX.HG 1
2 = 3 , = 0 , 2 = 1
M 20 = 4 ; M = 4 20
= , 2 = 3, 3 = 3, =1
M = 16
=1
227. If , , E
are nonzero, noncoplanar vectors,
show that the vectors 2 3E ,
2 3 4E
2Eare coplanar
APPLICATION OF VECTORS
Solution: let = = 2 3E , Y = 2 3 4E
Using vector methods prove that the angle
in a semicircle is a right angle.
i = 2E Proof:
To show that = , Y ,
i are coplanar i.e. to show Draw the circle with center at origin and radius is r.
[E,i M
> [XE .. i = M= >Y
2E = M 2 3E
>2 3 4E
Proof
 = ]
  = 
 = i 
 = = E = i 
]
To show that
of the trapezium ABCD respectively
Let  ,
I are the position vectors of the mid
]
EG [H
i
mid
points of the sides AD and BC of trapezium ABCD
= E E By midpoint formula
; =
]
X. IiG IH. 0
E
 , I =
2 2
E E
E E E
To prove that
]
E E E E
i.
E
iii.
= I 
Consider
i  i 
E
i i
=
2 2
0 1
E
AC
BC = 0 2
1
g] h 1
2
By property of dot product
AC BC
IiG IH.
IiG ]
mACB 90^ E  M=i[[ [ [E,i X,.H=, GI
]
1
= g h
2
Now ABCD is a parallelogram therefore the opposite
1
side are parallel and equal
=
]
] =
2
 = 
] 
=
.
HiE.HG GI ] i YX,
Where = , that is
can be express as a
K
=
]
scalar multiple of
= E
]
HH

G. [H
[ > 2
] +
E +
= =  [>
2 2
To prove that , = g,] + ,h
Therefore the diagonals AC and DC have same mid

, = 
point E. the diagonals AC and DC bisect each
1
other
+
, = ] 
2 Conversely: Only if part:
1
 + 
, = g] h
2
Given: Suppose that the diagonals of quadrilateral
ABCD bisect each other
1
, = g,] + ,h
2
To prove that: The quadrilateral ABCD is a
parallelogram
A quadrilateral is a parallelogram if and only Since the diagonals AC and DC bisect each other
if its diagonals bisect each other. That is they have same midpoint say E.
+
E +
 = =
2 2
Given: A quadrilateral is a parallelogram
+
= E +
To prove that: The diagonals of a quadrilateral bisect
= E
each other
]
A B
E
Therefore the opposite sides of the quadrilateral
ABCD are parallel and equal
p
c p a c a b 0
b
concurrent.
+
Proof:
p
a p b
b c a c 0
b
b a
p a 0
cb
b a p c 0
0
AB CP
i. e. CP AB 0
Let ABC is a triangle. Let , , E are the position Hence the altitudes of a triangle are concurrent
vectors of the vertices of the triangle ABC
Prove that the medians of a triangle are
respectively
concurrent.
Let AD, BE and CF are the altitudes of triangle ABC
], ]
]
Proof:
Let
,  ,
I are the position vectors of the points
D , E and F respectively. Let P be the point of
intersection of the altitudes AD and BE.
]
]
To show that
]
]
Let ABC is a triangle. Let a , b , c are the position
]
vectors of the vertices of the triangle ABC
= E 0
respectively
= E = E 0 1
point formula
BP AC b + c c + a a b
d = , e , f
2 2 2
0
BP AC
2d b + c , 2e c a , 2f = a b
b c a 0
p
2d a a b
c , 2e b = c a b,
c a b c a 0
p
2f + c a b
c
p a b c a b 0 2
c p
divided both sides by 3
equation 2 equation 1
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
149
2d a a b c 2e b a b c
zc yb
;
= d 1
3 3 3 3 zy
2f + c a b c xa zc
similarly e 2
3 3 xz
2d a 2e b 2f c a b c yb xa
f 3
3 3 3 3 yx
a b c
let g =
3
From equation 1
dz y zc yb
y
2d 1a 2e 1b 2f 1c
g add xa to both sides
sides
21 21 21
dz y xa xa
x zc yb
the ratio 2:1. That is G is the point of
concurrence of all the medians of triangle ABC
.Hence the medians of triangle are concurrent xyz xyz
ex z yb xa zc yb
similarly
Prove that the angle bisectors of the triangle are
xyz xyz
concurrent.
f y x zc xaa zc yb
xyz xyz
Proof:
dz y xa ex z yb f y x zc
xyz xyz xyz
xa yb zc
h
xyz
a 3 k , b
5 2k
internal division
a + c + 2 k + 5 4 + k
By centroid formula
e = =
3 3 k 2 2
3 k 5 2k a b ck 6 2
3 e =
2
= 3 1
4a b + d 8 3 4k + 2 + + 4k
3 , 4 a 9 , a 9 4 , a 5 f = =
3 2 2
6b f =
6 2
= 3 2
= 3 , 6 + b = 9 , b = 9 6, b = 3 2
3
1+c
1, 1 c 3, c 3 1, c 2
3
From equations 1 and 2
e = f
the co ordinate of vertex C 5, 3, 2
The diagonals AC and BD have the same midpoint
c = 5 + 3 + 2k
the diagonals AC and BD bisect each other.
Let Dd be the midpoint of side BC. Then by mid Therefore the quadrilateral ABCD is a
point formula parallelogram.
b + c
B2, 4, 1, C1, 3, 2 and D5, 1, 6. Using
231. The vertices of the quadrilateral are A(1, 2, 1)
d =
2
vector method, prove that
+ 5 + 2k + 5 + 3 + 2k
d = I. The line segment joining the midpoints E and F
2 of the sides AD and BC respectively is parallel to
d = 3 + 4 + 2k
. EF = AB CD Is the quadrilateral ABCD is a
the sides AB and CD.
II.
D 3, 4, 2
trapezium?
a = 2 k ; b = 2 4 k
Solution:
a + d + 2 + k + 5 + 6k EF
CD
e = =
2 2
6 + + 7k
This show that EF is parallel to AB and CD
e =
2 9
 = + 3 + 3
EF = EF
b + c 2 + 4 k + + 3 + 2k 2
f = =
2 2
81 153 9 17
3 + 7 + k EF = + 9 + 9 = =
f = 4 4 4
2
= f e 3
consider EF EF = 17 4
2
3 + 7 + k 6 + + 7k
=  = 3 + 2 + 2
AB = AB
2 2
EF
9 + 6 6k AB = 9 + 4 + 4 = 17
EF
=
2
 = 6 + 4 + 4
CD = CD
3
= 3 + 2 2k 1
2 CD = 36 + 16 + 16 = 68 = 4 17
EF
= b a = 217
consider AB
Consider AB + CD = 17 + 217
AB = 2 + 4 k + 2 + k
AB + CD = 317
AB = 3 + 2 2k 2
put in equation 4
From equation 1 and 2
1
3 EF = AB + CD
=
AB 2
2
EF
EF
AB Hence the quadrilateral ABCD is a trapezium.
= 6 4 + 4k
CD
the circumference of the circle.
From equation 1 and 3
AC = c a
3 1
= CD
2 2 = 5 + 6 k 3 2 + 2k
EF
AC
3
=
EF CD AC = 5 + 6 k 3 + 2 2k
4
Prof. P. D. Wasankar Model Solution Of M. S. Board Book Part I
152
AC = 2 + 8 3k
Let AB = b
= a , AD
BC = c b
We have
= 5 + 6 k 2 + 9 + 5k
BC lAB = lBC = lCD = lAD
= 5 + 6 k 2 9 5k
BC a = b
BC = 3 3 6k
BC
from ig. AB = AC
Now AC = 2 + 8 3k 3 3 6k
BC AC = a + b
= 6 24 + 18 = 24 24 = BC
BD + DC
AC BC
= 0 BD DC
= BC
AC BC
BC
= b a
BD
AC
mACB = 90^ = a b a + b b a
AC BD
BD
AC = a + a
circle.
= 0
AC BD
Using vector method, prove that a quadrilateral
is a rhombus if and only if diagonals bisect
each otheat a right angles.
AC BD
a + c b + d
A B
a + c = b + d
position vectors of the vertices of the
quadrilateral ABCD respectively
DC =
AB = a + b + c k
b c b c
DC AB
a c c a
Therefore the opposite sides of quadrilateral ABCD + ka b b a h
= a b c b c b a c c a
are parallel and equal
a b c
a b c =. abc = a b c
Scalar triple product
a b c
a = 3 2 + 7k
1) In scalar triple product or box product vectors
Since
are interchange in cyclic order then the value of
b = 5 + 2k
i. e. abc = bca = cab
box product remain unchanged
3 2 7
i. e. abb = bcc = gcaah=0 a b c =. abc = 5 1 2
the value of box product is zero.
a b c = 3 6 + 28 = 25
Expression for S. T. P. or box product
a b c =. abc
234. If a = 2 k, b = 2
3k and
Let a = a + b + c k c = 3 4 5kthen find a b c. Interpret the
b = a + b + c k
result
c = a + b + c k
Solution:
a = 2 + k
k
Since
a b c = a + b + c k a b c b = + 2 3k
a b c
c = 3 4 + 5k
2 1 1
a b c =. abc = 1 2 3
Solution:
3 4 5 leta = 2 + k
a b c b = 2 5 + pk
2 3 1 3
= .2 L L+ 1L L
4 5 3 5 c = 5 9 + 4k
1 2
+ 1L L
3 4 a , b and c are coplanar
a b c
i. e. a b c =. abc = 0
= 210 12 + 15 + 9
+ 14 6 1 2 1
2 5 p = 0
a b c = 4 + 14 10 = 14 14 = 0 5 9 4
a b c =. abc = 0 5 p 2 p 2 5
1L L + 2L L +1L L=0
9 4 5 4 5 9
a , bandc are coplanar 20 + 9p + 28 5p + 18 + 25 = 0
235. Show that the vectors 6k , 3 4k
and 2 5 3k are coplanar 20 + 9p + 16 10p 18 + 25 = 0
Solution: p + 3 = 0
leta = 6k p = 3 , p = 3
leta = + + k
i. e. to show that a b c =. abc = 0
b = + k
1 1 6
L. H. S. = 1 3 4 c = 2 + 3 + k
2 5 3
a , b and c are coplanar
3 4 1 4 1 3
L. H. S. = 1 L L+1L L 6L L
5 3 2 3 2 5 i. e. a b c =. abc = 0
L. H. S. = 19 + 20 + 13 8 65 + 6
1 1 1
L. H. S. = 11 5 6 = 11 11
1 1 1 = 0
2 3
L. H. S. = 0 1 1 1 1 1 1
1L L 1L L+ 1L L=0
3 2 2 3
L. H. S. = R. H. S
3 1 2 + 13 + 2 = 0
a , b and c are coplanar
3 + 2 + 5 = 0
236. Find the value of p if the vectors 2 k,
2 5 pk and 5 9 + 4kare coplanar 2 + 4 = 0
2 = 4 , = 2 =
]
= 2 4
238. If the origin O,A1, 2, 3, B2, 3, 4 and
2 0 2
Px, y, zare coplanar show that x 2y + z = 0
= 4 6
]
= E = 4 2 2 0 2
Solution:
= 4 0
since O is the origin then
OA = a = 1 + 2 + 3k
= b = 2 + 3 + 4k =
OB
= 2 2
= x + y + zk
OP = p 2 0 2
a , b and p
are coplanar = 3 2 4
abp
= 0 4 1 6
g]
h = 1 4 0
1 2 3 3 2 4
2 3 4 = 0
4 0 1 0 1 4
x y z = 4 L L 1L L 6L L
2 4 3 4 3 2
3 4 2 4 2 3
1
y z
2L
x z
L + 3
x y
=0 = 416 0 14 0 62 12
3z 4y 4z + 8x + 6y 9x = 0 g]
h = 0
M 2> T = 0
2, 1, 1, ]4, 0, =,
240. Find the value of p if the points
M 2> T = 0 1,1, 1
2, 4, 3are coplanar
239. Show that the pointsA2, 0, 2, B2, 1 4,
C1,4, 2 and D1, 2, 2are coplanar
Solution:
let = 2 1
= 4 0 =
Solution:
let = 2 0 2
E =
= 2 4
= 2 4 3
E = 4 2
= 2 2
Since the four points A, B, C and D are coplanar
H. . g]
h = 0
= = 4 0 = 2 1
]
Show that the four points A, B, C and D are coplanar
H. . .G [G .. g]
h = 0
= 2 = 1
]
= E = 2 1
a , b , care three noncoplanar vectors. If
b c c a a b
242.
= 2 0
p
= , q = , r =
abc abc abc
=
= 2 4 3 2 1
a p
= b q = c r = 1
Prove that
= 0 5 2
a p
+ b q + c r = 3
i.
a b p
+ b + c q + c + a
ii.
2 1 =1
g]
h = 1 2 0 =0
iii.
r = 3
0 5 2 Solution:
2 0 1 0 1 2
2L L 1L L = 1 L L=0 a p
= b q = c r = 1
To prove that
5 2 0 2 0 5
= b q = c r = 1
a p
Solution:
X = 2 + +
+
+ b q + c r = 3
To prove that
a p
= + 0
X +
L. H. S. = a p + b q + c r
k L. H. S. = 1 + 1 + 1 = 3
u v = 1 2 1 L. H. S. = R. H. S.
3 0 1
a + b p + b + c q + c + a r = 3
To prove that
u v = 2 0 1 3 k0 6
L. H. S. = a + b p + b + c q + c + a r
u v = 2 4 6k F. T. = a + b p = a p + b p
b c b c
k = a + b
v w
= 3 abc abc
0 1
0 1 1 abc bbc
= +
abc abc
= 0 1 3 0 k3 0
v w
=1+0=1
= 3 3k
v w S. T. = b + c q = b q + c q
c a c a
1 1 0 = b + c
abc abc
u w
gu v v w
h = 2 4 6
abc gccah
1 3 3 = +
abc abc
= 112 18 + 16 + 6 + 0 =1+0=1
=6 T. T. = c + a r = c r + a r
a bb cc a = 2abc
243. Prove that
L. H. S. = a 3b a 0
Solution: L. H. S. = a 3b a = 0
L. H. S. = a bb cc a L. H. S. = R. H. S.
L. H. S. = a b b + c c + a To find c2
L. H. S. = a + b b c + a + c c + a c = c = c c
L. H. S. = a + b c = 3a 2b 3a 2b
b c + b a + c c + c
c = 3a 3a 2b 2b 3a 2b
ah
c = 9a a 6a b 6a b + 4b b
L. H. S. = a + b b c + b a + 0 + c a
c = 9a 12a b + 4b
L. H. S. = a b c + b a + c a + b
b c + b a + c a
c = 9a 12ab cos + 4b
3
L. H. S. = a b c + a b a + a c a
1
+ b b c + b b a + b c = 9a 12ab + 4b
2
c a
c = 9a 6ab + 4b
L. H. S. = abc + 0 + +0 + 0 + 0 + bca
L. H. S. = 2abc = b , OC
= a , OB
Proof: let OA = c represented the co
L. H. S. = R. H. S.
terminus edges of parallelepiped
a and b is
find c2 when the measure of the angle between
Solution:
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