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A good question, it involves importance of focus on non underlined portion to identify the right answer.

Moreover demonstrative that has a plural and singular "TO THAT OF ".but relative that
...EXPECTATION THAT ARE FULFILLED ----renaming or referring anything to start the that clause can
refer to any of the singular or plural

Problem 3
3
The first personal computers had severe hardware and software limitations similar to that of a modern wristwatch and so were unable to
perform the complex operations necessary for today's processor-intensive applications.

The first personal computers had severe hardware and software limitations similar to that of a modern wristwatch

The first personal computers had severe hardware and software limitations similar to a modern wristwatch's

The severe hardware and software limitations of the first personal computers were similar to those of a modern wristwatch

The first personal computers' severe hardware and software limitations were similar to those of a modern wristwatch

The severe hardware and software limitations of the first personal computers were similar to that of a modern wristwatch

Solution
Correct Answer: B

This sentence uses a compound predicate, with a single subject controlling two verbs. Answers (C), (D), and (E) all use the subject
"The...limitations", which does not connect to the second verb in the clause "were unable to perform". This creates a Sentence Construction
error, so these choices can all be eliminated. Answer (A) uses the relative pronoun phrase "that of a modern wristwatch", while (B) uses the
acceptable possessive case "a modern wristwatch's", which ends with an implied relative pronoun. Answer (A)'s use of "that", however, is
incorrect: the pronoun antecedent is the plural "limitations", and requires the relative pronoun "those". Thus, only answer (B) grammatically
expresses the intent of the original sentence.

A good question, it involves importance of focus on non underlined portion to identify the right answer.

The first personal computers had severe hardware and software limitations similar to that of a modern wristwatch and so were unable to perform the
complex operations necessary for today's processor-intensive applications.

A) The first personal computers had severe hardware and software limitations similar to that of a modern wristwatch -- no proper reference of that
available.

B) The first personal computers had severe hardware and software limitations similar to a modern wristwatch's -- comparison is ok also subject matches
with sentence in non underlined part.

C) The severe hardware and software limitations of the first personal computers were similar to those of a modern wristwatch -- comparison is ok -- but
limitations does not qualifies as logical subject of non underlined portion.

D) The first personal computers' severe hardware and software limitations were similar to those of a modern wristwatch -- similar to C

E) The severe hardware and software limitations of the first personal computers were similar to that of a modern wristwatch -- same as A
I am still confuse about - THAT.
Is that singular or plural..?
for eg: Expectations that are fulfilled ....<insert something>.. ..
Here that ----> expectations----->plural.

Someone plz clarify.

Hi smokering.
The two "that" are different. The one in the question is "demonstrative pronoun". The one that you mention is "relative pronoun".

* Demonstrative pronoun can function by themselves as substitutes for specific nouns / antecedents. ==> The parallel nature must be maintained.
For example:
WRONG: The books I borrowed at the library yesterday are similar to THAT of your. "books" - plural is not parallel to "that" which refers to singular
antecedent.
CORRECT: The books I borrowed at the library yesterday are similar to THOSE of your.

*Relative pronoun is used to introduce one type of subordinate clause called a relative clause
"that" modifies the preceding noun/noun phrase. It does not matter the preceding noun/noun phrase is singular or plural.
For example: The cars THAT have introduced in the auto show are very expensive.

Hope it helps.
______________

Stats

Average time: 01m 44s


Your time: 02m 09s

Do not get biased with being .concentrate on parallelism strictly and extra word in front of
any parallel element can spoil the things

Problem 4
4
In addition to the boom in tax revenue, the federal governments books are being helped by lower defense spending, a drop in outlays for
benefits like Medicaid, and proceeds from the sales of General Motors and Chrysler, the automakers that were taken over by Washington in
2009.

are being helped by lower defense spending, a drop in outlays for benefits like Medicaid, and proceeds from the sales of General Motors
and Chrysler, the automakers

have been helped by lower defense spending, a drop in outlays for benefits like Medicaid, and by proceeds from the sales of General Motors
and Chrysler, automakers

have been helped by lower defense spending, a drop in outlays for benefits like Medicaid, proceeds from the sales of General Motors and
Chrysler, and by the automakers

are being helped by lower defense spending, by a drop in outlays for benefits like Medicaid, and proceeds from the sales of General Motors
and Chrysler, the automakers

were helped by lower defense spending and a drop in outlays for benefits like Medicaid, also by proceeds from the sales of General Motors
and Chrysler, the automakers
Solution
A. In the list of items that have helped the government's books, the items must be parallel. Choice B violates that standard by adding
an additional "by" in front of "proceeds." C does it in front of "the automakers," and D does the same in front of "a drop". In each
case, either all items need "by" or only the first one needs "by," so all are incorrect. Choice E improperly connects the list, as "...,
also by" is not a valid connector after a comma. Only choice A properly connects the list and keeps it parallel.

In addition to the boom in tax revenue, the federal governments books are being helped by lower defense
spending, a drop in outlays for benefits like Medicaid, and proceeds from the sales of General Motors and
Chrysler, the automakers that were taken over by Washington in 2009.

(A) are being helped by lower defense spending, a drop in outlays for benefits like Medicaid, and proceeds
from the sales of General Motors and Chrysler, the automakers
(B) have been helped by lower defense spending, a drop in outlays for benefits like Medicaid, and by
proceeds from the sales of General Motors and Chrysler, automakers
(C) have been helped by lower defense spending, a drop in outlays for benefits like Medicaid, proceeds from
the sales of General Motors and Chrysler, and by the automakers
(D) are being helped by lower defense spending, by a drop in outlays for benefits like Medicaid, and
proceeds from the sales of General Motors and Chrysler, the automakers
(E) were helped by lower defense spending and a drop in outlays for benefits like Medicaid, also by
proceeds from the sales of General Motors and Chrysler, the automakers

After eliminating C, D,E base on their wrong appositive modifier. There are only A and B, B has present
perfect tense, which is unnecessary because there is no sign of that tense in this sentence. The remaining
correct answer is

Problem 5
5
The number of vehicles on the road classified as "light trucks" in the United States increased by more than twicefrom 1980 to 1992.

increased by more than twice

increased more than two times

more than doubled

was more than doubled

had more than doubled

Solution
Correct Answer: C

Explanation: In answer choice A, "twice," an adverb, is incorrectly used as the object of the preposition "by." Answer choice B
introduces ambiguity by implying that the number of vehicles increased on more than two separate occasions, which does not make very
much sense. Answer choice D uses the passive voice and suggests some unnamed agent (who did the doubling.) Answer
choice E incorrectly uses the past perfect tense (had). " Had" is only used when verbs within the same sentence refer to different
time periods. Because there is only one verb in this sentence, there is no use for the verb "had." The correct answer choice is C, which
succinctly expresses the growth.

Hey guys!

Choice C is correct and I knew that instinctively, but I has to think as to why. The "more than" is used as a adverb in this
sentence and can modify the verb "doubled."

You would certainly accept the sentence "The number (of vehicles) doubled last year." With "doubled" as the verb. And if
we said "the number quickly doubled" you would accept quickly as an adverb. "More than" is used in the same way.

If the amount doubled, we would say "doubled" but since it actually went to more than double, it "more than doubled."

Just for the reference to choice D, you would never say that a number or an amount " was more than doubled." For example
you would never say "My cat's weight was more than doubled over the past year." Since doubled is already the verb the
"was" actually gets in the way.

Does that help?

pokh:
SENTENCE 1.
The number of undergraduate degrees in engineering awarded by colleges and universities in the United
States increased by more than twice from 1978 to 1985.
(A) increased by more than twice
(B) increased more than two times
(C) more than doubled
(D) was more than doubled

The correct answer is C

Questions
1. what's wrong with option A ,B, D?
2. Why is option C better than A,B,D?
3. Is there any difference between more than twice and more than double?

SENTENCE 2.
1. A survey by the National Council of Churches showed that in 1986 there were 20,376 female ministers,
almost 9 percent of the nation's clergy, twice as much as 1977.
sanjaylakhani wrote:

A survey by the National Council of Churches showed that in 1986 there were 20,376 female ministers, almost 9 percent of the nation's clergy, twice as much as 1977.

(A) twice as much as 1977


(B) twice asn many as 1977
(C) double what it was in 1977
(D) double the figure for 1977
(E) a number double that of 1977's

OA- D

Can somebody, pls summarize the difference between Double and Twice.
I came across number of questions, each with different logic. I know Double is an adjective and twice is an adverb and that "twice as many" is preferred idiom.

Apart from the above can any expert pls summarize the usage of twice and double.

Stuart...pls help..........................
A - Wrong - It should be "Twice as many as IN 1977"; Also, as MUCH as is wrong. It should be as many as - numbers

B - Wrong - It should be "Twice as many as IN 1977"

C - There is no proper reference for IT

D - Correct answer; We can use double based on the meaning.

Twise as much as 1:2

Double the figure for 1:3

Even though this answer is not clear, its the only option which sounds ok.

E - that of 1977's; It should be that of 1977 or 1977's

(A) twice as many as 1977

(B) double the figure for 1977

(C) a number double that of 1977's

The correct answer is B

Questions

1. what's wrong with option A ,C?


2. Why is option B better than A,C?

SENTENCE 3.

According to surveys by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, about 20 percent of young adults used
cocaine in 1979, doubling those reported in the 1977 survey.

(A) doubling those reported in the 1977 survey

(B) to double the number the 1977 survey reported

(C) twice those the 1977 survey reported

(D) twice the number reported in the 1977 survey

The correct answer is A.


AWEY wrote:
According to surveys by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, about 20 percent of young adults used cocaine in 1979, doubling those reported in the 1977 survey.

(A) doubling those reported in the 1977 survey


(B) to double the number the 1977 survey reported
(C) twice those the 1977 survey reported
(D) twice as much as those reported in the 1977 survey
(E) twice the number reported in the 1977 survey

Hello,

The OA is E.
Could someone explain me how we come to this answer.

Thanks a lot!

Can firstly eliminate three options: A, C, and D. What "those" refer to in those options? Only B and E left...

I think, there is no dout that "those" refer to "young adults"...no?


I would eliminate D because of "much". Since adults is countable, we must use many.

Then I would eliminate B because we are not looking for an infinitive

What about A, C and E? What is the reasoning behind?

E for me too..

A and B are out because of "Double"

twice should be used with percentages

(C) twice those the 1977 survey reported < Those refers to young adults but Young adults are not getting increased.. their number is getting increased

Try replacing Those with young adults and re read the sentence

(D) twice as much as those reported in the 1977 survey < Many should be used

(E) twice the number reported in the 1977 survey <= twice the number suits well

Questions
1. What is wrong with option B,C,D
2. Is infinitive phrase(option B) after comma always wrong?
3. Why is option A better than B,C,D?

SENTENCE 4.

The number of people flying first class on domestic flights rose sharply in 1990, doubling the increase of
the previous year.

A. doubling the increase of

B. twice as many as the increase in

C. twice as many as the increase of

The correct answer is A.

hey.....can any1 explain...in wat contexts v make use f d following phrases :

Twice..

Doubled..

Two times...

i believe der is subtle diff in use of des 3, but i don knw exactly hw to do tht...

Thats a nice question. I'm also looking for some explanations on this.
as far as i cud make it,...it's sumwat like this :

Twice - the stuff(noun)

eg:- Includes twice as many students.

Double - the number.

eg:- The number of students has doubled.

Two times - i don't know..

please corre

Questions
1. What is wrong with option B,C
2. What is the difference between increase in and increase of?
3. Why is option A better than B,C?

LIKE IS USED FOR SIMILAR STRUCTURE AND SUCH AS FOR EXAMPLE .. the Asian carp have not
announced plans to attack, so you cannot say they "have threatened"

Problem 22
22
There is generally agreement that feral swine are unwelcome - such as the Asian carp that are threatening to invade Lake Michigan, but that
are far larger, more vicious and mounted on four legs.

such as the Asian carp that are threatening to invade Lake Michigan, but that are far larger, more vicious and mounted on four legs

like the Asian carp that have threatened an invasion of Lake Michigan, but far larger, more vicious, and mounted on four legs

like the Asian carp that are threatening to invade Lake Michigan, but are far larger, more vicious, and are mounted on four legs

like the Asian carp that are threatening to invade Lake Michigan, but far larger, more vicious, and mounted on four legs

such as the Asian carp that threaten to invade Lake Michigan, but are far larger and more vicious, and mounted on four legs...here it should
have an extra are ...for an extra list ...."are mounted " .....if seperate list is there it shold have some lement and should be directlu connected

Solution
D. Because this structure is drawing a comparison and not giving an example (feral pigs are not Asian carp...but they're similar to Asian carp
in this respect), the structure "like" must be used, eliminating A and E. Choice B is illogical - the Asian carp have not announced plans to
attack, so you cannot say they "have threatened". And choice C breaks parallel structure for the list at the end, using "are" on terms 1 and 3
but leaving it off of 2. Only choice D is free of these errors, so choice D is correct.

First, "such as" vs "like".


The intended meaning is the FACT "feral swine are unwelcome" is like the FACT "Asian carp are unwelcome in Lake
Michigan".
Clearly, Asian carp is not an example of feral swine.
In addition, "such as" refers examples of the same category. For example: I love eating Asian fish such as catfish and
Asian carp.
So, A and E are out.

Second, Present perfect VS simple present/progressive.


B is wrong because present perfect tense is wrongly used. Because we want to mention two similar facts ==> simple
present / progressive is correct
C is also wrong because the usage of "are" is redundant. For example: She is tall and is smart ==> the
second "is" is not necessary and should be eliminated.

D is correct, the structure is "X are unwelcome BUT far larger......:


"feral swine are unwelcome but far larger, more vicious and mounted on four legs"

Hope it helps.
_________________

always take care of references its their etc ...sense of contrast if given by original senence ...which is
not there in the some options meaning is bible for sc

23
IDENTIFY THE SUBJECT ABOUT WHIC THE TALK IS ABOUTACCORDINGLY SET THE VERB AND THE
PRONOUN REFERENCE

"FOR".MEANING "BECAUSE" IS A PREFERRED STRUCTURE ............ALWAYS BE SURE OF IT


Problem 23

FOR

For all its financial troubles, never has the Wall Street Journal been read by more people: 32 million unique viewers online in the United States
alone every month .

For all its financial troubles, never has the Wall Street Journal been read by more people: 32 million unique viewers online in the United States
alone every month.

Considering all their financial troubles, the Wall Street Journal has never been read by more people, with 32 million unique viewers alone in
the United States every month.

With all its financial troubles, the Wall Street Journal has never been read by more people: 32 million unique viewers online in the United
States alone every month.

Given all their financial troubles, never has the Wall Street Journal been read by more people, nearly 32 million unique viewers online in the
United States alone every month.

Even considering their financial troubles, the Wall Street Journal has never been read by more people: 32 million unique viewers online in the
United States alone every month.

Solution
Solution: A....VERB INVERSION HAS BEEN USED ....TO SAY MEANING IN THE CORRECT MANNER ....BY SEPARATING "NEVER FROM READ
"...........WE DONT WANT TO SAY NEVER READ .BUT "NEVER HAS THE NUMBER OF PEOPLE READ "

Explanation: Verb inversion (when the verb is put before the subject) is a common trick used by testmakers to make sentences confusing. In
this example there is a good reason to invert the verb: Never has the Wall Street Journal been read by more peopleconveys clearly that at
no point in the past has it been read more. If you write The Wall Street Journal has never been read by more people it could mean the there
is a new record for the number of people who have never read it!!! (A) is thus correct it starts with a structure For all its financial
troubles and follows with the inverted structure to show that even though there are financial problems, lots of people are reading it . (B), (D),
and (E) are incorrect because the plural pronoun their has no logical antecedent. (C) is more difficult to eliminate but contains two distinct
errors. first, it does not invert the verb and thus suffers from the meaning ambiguity discussed previously . Secondly, there is not the
necessary contrast in the beginning. It would need to say Even with the financial problemslots of people are reading it Using with
suggests that people are reading it because of the financial troubles. Answer is (A)

never chooose an option alway eliminate the rest and percentages will always have a quantitaive answer becuz gmat is prcisely checking
that .....so do not scrwe it up with a QUALITAtive answer....that will be a trap ....read wording very nicely

26
INFORMATION IS SPRASED ................SO U MUST EXPECT A CONDITION PLUS A SOLUTION TO IT IN THE
OPTION TO BE CHOSEN
Problem 26

In a certain population, the two most heavily diagnosed diseases are schistosomiasis and malaria . Over the past five years, malaria has
accounted for more than half of all disease cases, and schistosomiasis, which accounted for 40% of all disease cases in the community five
years ago, accounted for 30% in the past year.

Which of the following must be true on the basis of the statements above?

There were fewer cases of schistosomiasis last year than five years ago.

The percentage of disease cases from malaria has increased over the past 5 years.

Some disease has experienced an increase in the number of its total cases, as long as the total number of disease cases went down by a
number less than 30%.

Each year over the past five, malaria has accounted for a larger percentage of disease cases than schistosomiasis.

If the total number of schistosomiasis cases increased over the past five years, then the total number of disease cases must have increased
by more than 30%.

Solution
For this inference question, the correct answer must be true based upon the data given in the stimulus. You learn in the stimulus that over
the past five years malaria accounted for more than half of all disease cases. IMPORTANTLY, this does not mean that malaria accounted for
more than half of all cases each year. You also learn that 5 years ago, schistosomiasis accounted for 40% of all cases but only accounted for
30% over the past year. IMPORTANTLY, you have no idea what percentage schistosomiasis accounted for during the intervening years. (A) is
not necessarily true because you do not know whether the total pie increased. If the pie increased dramatically, then 30% of the bigger
number could be larger than 40% of the smaller number. For (B), no evidence is given about what happened to the percentage data for
malaria over the 5 years. All you know is that, in total, malaria accounted for over 50% in that 5 year period. (C) is likely false, and certainly not
guaranteed. If the total number of disease cases went UP, then you would be sure of this. But if the total pie went down by 30%, then all
diseases could have experienced a decrease. For (D), you do not know what the percentages were for each of the intervening years, so you
cannot be sure of the statement. (E) must be true. If the total number of schistosomiasis cases increased, then you know that 30% of last
years total disease cases must be greater than 40% of the total disease cases 5 years ago. This guarantees a ratio of 4:3 for this year's
disease total to the total 5 years ago, assuring a 33.3% increase. Answer is (E).

27
SEE THE PARALLEL LIST REALLY CAREFULLY
Problem 27

Situated on a splendid Adriatic harbor and surrounded by hills, blessed with an average of 300 days of sunshine a year, a variety of
museums, great restaurants, and a vital, multicultural population, the city has just about everything a visitor could ask for.

Situated on a splendid Adriatic harbor and surrounded by hills, blessed with an average of 300 days of sunshine a year, a variety of museums,
great restaurants, and a vital, multicultural population

Situated on a splendid Adriatic harbor, surrounded by hills, blessed with an average of 300 days of sunshine a year, and a variety of
museums, great restaurants, as well as a vital, multicultural population

Situated on a splendid Adriatic harbor, surrounded by hills, and blessed with an average of 300 days of sunshine a year, a variety of
museums, great restaurants, and a vital, multicultural population

Situated on a splendid Adriatic harbor, as well as surrounded by hills, blessed with an average of 300 days of sunshine a year, a variety of
museums, great restaurants, and a vital, multicultural population

Situated on a splendid Adriatic harbor, surrounded by hills, as well as blessed with an average of 300 days of sunshine a year, and a variety of
museums, great restaurants, and a vital, multicultural population

Solution
This long sentence correction problem contains several issues relating to parallelism and sentence construction. The key is to figure out
from the different decision points what is supposed to be in the series. This is best accomplished with a very careful use of the slash-and-
burn technique to simplify the choices. Once you do that, you will see that only (C) gets the series correct: Situated on X, surrounded by Y,
and blessed with A, B, C, and D, the city. (A) is wrong as it says: Situated on X and surrounded by Y, blessed with A,B,C, and D, the city
This series has been bungled as there is an and first but then no and before the last element in the series. (B) also gets it wrong:
Situated on X, surrounded by Y, blessed with Z, and A, B, as well as D That leaves three ed participles linked with the noun A. This is not a
parallel structure. In (D) the as well as surrounded by hills in the middle of the series is not parallel and incorrect. For (E) it starts off fine:
Situated on X, surrounded by Y, as well as blessed with Z but then there are multiple and elements tacked on to the end that are clearly
incorrect. Only (C) contains the necessary structure linking three parallel elements and is thus correct.

right reference is always the culprit .....by the tyey can refer to non living nouns like action s

28
ALWAYS BEWARE OF APOSTROPHE AND THE REFERENCES
BASICALLY ASK WHO IS THE SUBJECT HERE IT IS THE ACTION OF CB.......SO ACCORDINFGLY
ALSO CHECK THE SUBJECTS IN THE PARALLEL STRUCTURE

ALWAYS TRY TO REASON WHY HAS THE "SPLIT" OCCURED AND TRY TO REASON THAT OUT
THEY CAN REFER TO NON LIVING ........BUT THAT CANNOT REFER TO LIVING
SO LIVING =LIVING
BUT NON LIVING HAS NO IMPORTANCE SO LIVING AND NON
Problem 28

The true danger in the central banks efforts to stimulate the economy is not that its actions will result in inflation of which there is little
evidence but that it will fail to revive the economy by any substantial measure, straining investor confidence and, in the process, the
financial markets.

result in inflation of which there is little evidence - but that it will fail to revive the economy by any substantial measure, straining investor
confidence and, in the process, the financial markets

result in inflation of which there is little evidence but that it will fail to revive the economy by any substantial measure and strain investor
confidence, and in the process the financial markets

result in inflation of which there is little evidence but that they will fail to revive the economy by any substantial measure, straining
investor confidence and, in the process, the financial markets

have the result of inflation of which there is little evidence but also that it will fail to revive the economy by any substantial measure and
strain investor confidence and, in the process, the financial markets

result in inflation of which there is little evidence but that they will fail to revive the economy by any substantial measure and strain
investor confidence, which will in the process strain the financial markets

Solution
C. Note the all-important pronoun decision point here it in A, B, and D and they in C and E. Because the actions are what will either
succeed or fail in reviving the economy, and because of the parallel structure not that its actions will ____ but that they will_____, the correct
pronoun must be they. And choices B, D, and E make another subtle but significant error by using the present tense and strain, these
sentences make strain parallel to revive. This means that the sentence reads (the actions) will fail to revive and (fail to) strain, which is
illogical, as the success of the actions is to do only one of those things (revive) and its failure to do so will cause the strain. To say that it
would fail to do both verbs, revive and strain, is illogical as the two actions are essentially opposite. Only choice C, which uses the proper
pronoun they and the proper verb usage straining (as a modifier) logically conveys the meaning of the sentence, so choice C is correct.

Problem 29
29
The Roman Empire expanded to most of southern Europe and the Mediterranean region by the beginning of the first century C.E., bringing the
Latin language with it, from which were derived Romance languages, including Spanish, French, Italian, Portuguese, and Romanian.

the Latin language with it, from which were derived Romance
the Latin language with it, and from which deriving the Romance

with it the Latin language, from which derive the Romance

with it the Latin language, from which derives Romance

with it the Latin language, and deriving from it the Romance

Solution
Correct Answer: C

This sentence uses a relative clause construction with inversion, starting with "from which was derived..." The relative pronoun "which" refers
back to the nearest logical antecedent. In answers A and B, this is the word "it", which refers to "The Roman Empire". Since these sentences
incorrectly suggest that the Romance languages were derived from the Roman Empire, they can be eliminated. Answer E uses the same
pronoun "it" in two consecutive clauses. In both cases, it refers to the same antecedent "The Roman Empire". This creates the same illogical
relationship seen in answers A and B. Answers C and D correctly refer the relative pronoun "which" back to "the Latin Language", but only
correct answer C uses the proper plural form of the verb "derive" to match its plural subject "the Romance languages".

31 anyhting that coul completely reverse the trend ,...is what u want

...cocnluiosn is avoid ....weken most mean...realtor should rather prrefer ....


YOU CANNOT CONTRADICT FACTS IN THE PREMISE STEM
ALWAYS BREAK THE CONCLUSION ...AND SEE THE KEYWORD OF THE CONSLUION TO ATTACK THE
PROBLEM
Problem 31

Any realtor currently looking for a location in which to start an agency would be wise to avoid locations where the economy is dependent on
oil prices. When prices fall, some people connected to the oil industry will leave to invest in other markets. Office vacancies will increase and
shops that served members of the oil industry may have to close their doors before their leases have expired. Currently, the oil industry is
quite volatile.

Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the argument above?

Oil prices are currently less volatile than other factors that affect realtors.

Most cities whose economy is dependent on oil currently have a thriving real estate market.

Falling oil prices usually have some adverse affect on realtors in locations that don't have commercial space that is directly connected to the
oil industry.

Realtors located in towns whose economy is oil-dependent are often among the first to recognize that the local economy has been adversely
affected.
Some realtors benefit from being located in an area that has sudden drops in real estate
value.

Solution
Correct Answer: E

This argument concludes that any realtor currently looking for a location in which to start an agency would be wise to avoid locations where
the economy is dependent on oil prices. While the evidence seems to paint an unpleasant picture for realtors, if some realtors can benefit
from this scenario (how they benefit doesn't matter to us), then these realtors should consider locating in an oil-dependent location. The
conclusion says that any realtor should avoid these locations. According to choice E, some realtors should NOT avoid these locations, thus
weakening the argument. A is incorrect because other factors don't matter. The current situation is not important, since we're talking about
a volatile market, one that can change suddenly, making B incorrect. Choice C is wrong since we only care about locations that are directly
connected to oil. For answer D, whether realtors recognize the effect early or late is irrelevant.

Problem 32
32
Passage

Until the rise of powerful commodity computers, and perhaps more importantly until the development of a widespread awareness of the
importance of data security and the popularization of the encryption software it requires, there was little cause for a member of the general
public to possess any of the devices commonly associated with enciphering or deciphering secret communications. Such was never the
case, however, for agencies tasked with national security. Hence, the waning days of the Second World War and the early days of the Cold
War gave rise to a specialized class of cipher systems. Often called mnemonic ciphers, they distinguished themselves by requiring little, if
any, in the way of material that would arouse suspicion, and offered extremely high levels of security, but often at the cost of inordinate
amounts of time or precision to implement.

Since the province of these ciphers was intelligence, or more specifically that ultimate expression of the spy's game, the so called "humint"
that thrived for four troubled decades in Europe, this set of priorities was acceptable. A spy could have no possessions that might betray his
or her clandestine operations. If an agent were suspected or captured, any possessions would need to appear as innocent or explicable by
means of a cover profession. Ideally, to avoid compromising message security or leaving an evidentiary trail, any key information should be
memorized and never written in any documents not already destined for destruction.

From this highly specialized field came a range of mnemonic ciphers, some of the most clever ever developed, from the Soviet intelligence
apparatus. This family culminated in the VIC cipher which required no fewer than thirty complex steps to secure even a brief message. Using
a memorized "recipe," a Soviet agent would combine together an easily remembered date, a snippet of the lyrics of a popular song, a two-
digit personal "agent number," and a five digit number made up for each message into a nearly impervious key that would scramble the text
beyond the comprehension of the best Western intelligence and police agencies. Other than understanding the procedure of the cipher,
which would be well practiced during training, the spy needed only to remember three individual pieces of information, two of which could be
publicly verified should memory fail!

The ingeniously complex keying system with its chain addition and advanced arithmetic fed a complex pair of transposition tables that
provided the real security of the cipher. The tables modified the results of a simple straddling checkerboard that served little function beyond
turning the textual message into a more easily manipulated string of numerals. Once these steps were done, a communique home to
Moscow or instructions back from headquarters was disguised as a long string of numbers, ready for transmission by radio, dead drop, or
any other means. And while its nature as a secret communication was clear, the message contained within was as thoroughly obscured as
was then possible.

Question
According to the passage, which of the following was a requirement of an effective mnemonic cipher?

It must require few tools or files that could give away a spy's secret operations
It should include written records to ensure no data is lost

It must require an extensive and complex process for the agent to follow

It should disguise the secret nature of the message as commonplace communications

It need not offer extremely high levels of security

Solution
Correct Answer: A

The passage discusses at considerable length how the point of a mnemonic cipher is that it requires a minimum of items that could give
away an agent's secret work. This supports answer choice A, the correct answer. Answer choices B and E are the opposites of information
contained in the passage. Answer choice D is contradicted by the description of the VIC cipher in the final paragraph. Answer choice C is
attractive because of the complexity of VIC and the discussion of how complex procedures are acceptable for this class of cipher. However,
note that they are not described as required, and so answer choice C, therefore, is incorrect.

Problem 36
36
In June of 2009, the state legislature passed a series of laws designed to eliminate carbon emissions from coal-powered factories. The
Environmental Protection Administration commended the state on its groundbreaking legislation, noting that these laws would go further
than any other of their kind, and even the owners of several coal-powered factories expressed their appreciation of the state's care in
ensuring that the laws were fair and cost-effective for industry. Yet data for the fiscal year 2012 shows that the amount of carbon emitted by
coal-powered factories was actually a fraction of a percent higher in 2012 than it had been in 2009.

Which of the following, if true, best helps to explain the paradox highlighted above?

Some of the provisions in the legislation were scaled back due to budgetary constraints.

More than half the factories in the state are oil-powered plants and were not subject to the new legislation.

Factories subject to the law were provided with tax breaks and given up to two years to retrofit their facilities in order to ease the burden of
reaching compliance with the new legislation.

In anticipation of the 2012 elections, the legislature structured the package to take effect after the elections were completed rather than risk
loss of support from the coal industry.

Rather than invest in clean coal technology required by the legislation, several coal-powered plants converted their operations to run on oil
power, removing themselves from the jurisdiction of the new laws.HERE TIME FRAME IS NOT STRESSED ..........WHICH IS A MUST

Solution
D. Theres a subtle gap in logic at play in this question the legislature passed these laws to reduce carbon emissions, but the laws were not
necessarily implemented. And if the laws were not implemented by 2012, the 2012 carbon emission totals would not reflect the mission of
the laws. Choice D exploits that gap, noting that the laws did not take effect until well into 2012 (or afterward), in which case the laws could
still be groundbreaking but just not at work yet. Choice A is a trap answer even if some pieces of the legislation were scaled back, those
that werent scaled back should still be expected to produce some kind of negative pressure on emissions. Choice B is irrelevant as the
argument is only about coal powered plants and the emissions from them, oil powered plants do not matter. Choice C is the most popular
trap answer. That two-year implementation timeframe would still mean that the laws would be fully in place by the middle of 2011, and
should therefore have produced a reduction in 2012 emissions. And choice E should also help reduce coal-related emissions, as any coal
plant that became an oil plant would no longer emit coal-related emissions, causing a decrease in coal emissions.

37
do not just chooose and move there are better options waiting ....just have a loook at both and try to
compare th elanguage and u will reason out whyy...onee....also prethinkinh will help u a great deal
Problem 37

A car wash service has decided to discontinue its repeat customer coupons wherein customers who purchase 5 car washes get a 6th car
wash for free. This is a smart move for the car wash service, because it must pay its workers for every car washed. Because the coupons
forced the car wash service to give away numerous free car washes, the repeat customer coupons caused the companys profits to decline.

Which of the following is a reason the argument is most vulnerable to criticism?

The argument ignores the fact that another customer coupon initiative could take the place of this one.

The author neglects to take into account whether the profit earned by the company during the coupons initiative was greater than its costs.

The argument mistakenly believes the operating costs of the car wash service can be adjusted by removing the coupon program.

The author fails to consider the fact that the car wash service may be exaggerating the number of free car washes it was forced to give out.

The argument overlooks potential rewards from the customer coupons initiative while focusing only on its costs.

Solution
The correct answer is (E).

The conclusion here is that getting rid of the customer coupons is a smart move. Why? Because the company had to give away numerous
free car washes, and thus the profits declined. The author fails to take into account any benefits the initiative may have had on business. For
example, patrons may have returned for their 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th car washes solely based on the initiative. It may be that without the
initiative, the car wash services profits would have been much less than with the initiative.

38
always prethink to save time eliminate fast u know what u need
SO UNDERSAND THE CONCLSUOION.................SEE THE JULMP IN TERMS AND AY STRESS ON
NUMBERS .LIKE YEARS PERCENTAGES ...AND NUMERICS ETC
PREMISE ...CATCH THE NUMERICS ...AND SCOPE..WPRDS
( TRAP WILL BE SET BY ONLY 2 THINGS >>KEY WORD CHANG SCOPE FROM PREMISE TO
CONLUSION OR NUMERICS LIKE YEARS NUMBER PERCENTATGES ...OR THEIR COMBINATION )
IDENTIFY THE CONLSUION AND IT SKEYWORD WHAT ITS TRYING TO SAY ....JUST REMEBER
THAT ...
NOW SEE THE JUMP OF TERMS FROM THE THE PREMISE TO THE CONSLUION
U WILL CATCH IT
Problem 38

A recreational airplane manufacturer's advertisement states, "The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) reports that the AZ121
aircraft has the fewest fatalities per crash landing of any aircraft in its class." The advertisement goes on to claim that the AZ121 is one of the
safest planes available today.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument in the advertisement?

THE NTSB listed many planes in other classes that had more fatalities per crash landing than did the AZ121.

Despite its popularity, the AZ121 is a relatively new aircraft, only having been sold on the market for two years.

Recreational aircraft are more likely to be involved in crash landings than are other types of airplanes.

The rate of fatalities per crash landing of the AZ121 is more than five times lower than the next highest rate of fatalities per crash landing in
its class.

The NTSB issues its safety reports on a monthly basis.

Solution
Correct Answer: C

The correct answer to this question is (C). This is a Weaken question, requiring the test taker to choose the correct answer that provides
information that refutes, or casts doubt upon, the claim that the AZ121 is one of the safest planes currently available. (A) is incorrect
because it strengthens, rather than weakens, the conclusion. (B) is incorrect as is out of Scope; that the AZ121 is relatively new on the
market and is popular is not related to it being one of the safest on the market. (C) This is the correct answer, which properly recognizes a
weakness in the argument; specifically, simply because the AZ121 has the fewest fatalities out of a class of aircraft that has the most crash
landings does not make it the safest aircraft out of all classes. (D) is incorrect as is out of Scope; the rate within the class, already knowing
that it is the lowest in the class, does not weaken the conclusion; (E) is incorrect as is out of Scope; the frequency of reports has no effect on
the conclusion.

Problem 39
39
Passage

The phenomenon of college basketball's surging popularity remains a challenge to classify. What brings such appeal to the sport? Could it
solely be enthusiasm for the alma mater, of rooting for one's old team while reliving the carefree beer and pizza days of fraternity or sorority
life? Unlikely, nor can it strictly be the "fascination with watching overgrown man-children," as one pundit once described the NCAA finals.
It could, however, be a quest for a return to the purity of sport, to the days when competitors played for the love of the game, for the esprit-de-
corps of the team, and for the thrill of victory. Despite numerous recruiting scandals, the stories of star freshmen driving school owned
BMW's for example, comparing the compensation of an NBA superstar with that of even the most promising college player reveals a wide
gulf.

Nevertheless, large and lucrative contracts, as well as fame and fortune, loom large in the mind of a college athlete. Theirs is a thrill for the
future, and players put their hearts into every game, knowing that a demonstration of their skill on the court and commitment to the team
holds potential for fame, fortune, and heroism. And so they pound up and down the court, night after night, with no contract and no
endorsements.

The appeal is not unlike watching an undiscovered band play on a tiny stage at the back of a dark bar. The sound is rough, the amplifiers
second rate, but the performance is true and unspoiled by arrogance or ego. Here, as with the college athlete, inner passion drives the
performance. An albums and records representative might lurk in the audience, just as a recruiter might be up in the stands, taking notes and
shooting video. But hopes and dreams bring the soul to the surface in a way that no signing bonus and no signature footwear line can.

But as with any phenomenon, simple explanations rarely do the cause justice. It is ultimately likely that, while the college game's purity and
honesty may dominate the equation, all of the reasons described above along with others such as lower ticket prices play a role in the
growing popularity surrounding college basketball.

Question
Assuming that the information in the passage above is correct, which of the following can be most reasonably inferred about freshman
college basketball players?

Some of them are viewed as stars

Most can expect lucrative professional contracts

They play only for the love of the game

They are extensively and aggressively recruited out of high-school

They drive fancy cars

Solution
Correct Answer: A

The passage describes freshmen stars, lending support for answer choice A. Answer choices B and C are exaggerations of statements the
passage makes. D and E draw general conclusions about current situations from specific past events. Answer choice A is correct.

Problem 40
40
Passage

The phenomenon of college basketball's surging popularity remains a challenge to classify. What brings such appeal to the sport? Could it
solely be enthusiasm for the alma mater, of rooting for one's old team while reliving the carefree beer and pizza days of fraternity or sorority
life? Unlikely, nor can it strictly be the "fascination with watching overgrown man-children," as one pundit once described the NCAA finals.

It could, however, be a quest for a return to the purity of sport, to the days when competitors played for the love of the game, for the esprit-de-
corps of the team, and for the thrill of victory. Despite numerous recruiting scandals, the stories of star freshmen driving school owned
BMW's for example, comparing the compensation of an NBA superstar with that of even the most promising college player reveals a wide
gulf.

Nevertheless, large and lucrative contracts, as well as fame and fortune, loom large in the mind of a college athlete. Theirs is a thrill for the
future, and players put their hearts into every game, knowing that a demonstration of their skill on the court and commitment to the team
holds potential for fame, fortune, and heroism. And so they pound up and down the court, night after night, with no contract and no
endorsements.

The appeal is not unlike watching an undiscovered band play on a tiny stage at the back of a dark bar. The sound is rough, the amplifiers
second rate, but the performance is true and unspoiled by arrogance or ego. Here, as with the college athlete, inner passion drives the
performance. An albums and records representative might lurk in the audience, just as a recruiter might be up in the stands, taking notes and
shooting video. But hopes and dreams bring the soul to the surface in a way that no signing bonus and no signature footwear line can.

But as with any phenomenon, simple explanations rarely do the cause justice. It is ultimately likely that, while the college game's purity and
honesty may dominate the equation, all of the reasons described above along with others such as lower ticket prices play a role in the
growing popularity surrounding college basketball.

Question
This passage was most likely written as part of which of the following works:

"Grown Man Playing," the autobiography of a star college freshman

"Whither the Talent?" an editorial in a sports magazine about the decline of play in the NBA

"BMW's on the Boards," an indictment of corrupt recruiting policies at several major colleges

"Shotmakers," a biographical dictionary of the best 200 professional basketball players

"Why We Cheer," a collection of essays on the appeal of sports since World War I

Solution
Correct Answer: E

The correct answer is E. Based on the tone of the article, B and C are incorrect. The passage also goes well beyond the stories of a single
freshman player, so A is incorrect. The passage does not address professional basketball except in passing, so D is incorrect.

Problem 41
41
Passage

The phenomenon of college basketball's surging popularity remains a challenge to classify. What brings such appeal to the sport? Could it
solely be enthusiasm for the alma mater, of rooting for one's old team while reliving the carefree beer and pizza days of fraternity or sorority
life? Unlikely, nor can it strictly be the "fascination with watching overgrown man-children," as one pundit once described the NCAA finals.

It could, however, be a quest for a return to the purity of sport, to the days when competitors played for the love of the game, for the esprit-de-
corps of the team, and for the thrill of victory. Despite numerous recruiting scandals, the stories of star freshmen driving school owned
BMW's for example, comparing the compensation of an NBA superstar with that of even the most promising college player reveals a wide
gulf.

Nevertheless, large and lucrative contracts, as well as fame and fortune, loom large in the mind of a college athlete. Theirs is a thrill for the
future, and players put their hearts into every game, knowing that a demonstration of their skill on the court and commitment to the team
holds potential for fame, fortune, and heroism. And so they pound up and down the court, night after night, with no contract and no
endorsements.

The appeal is not unlike watching an undiscovered band play on a tiny stage at the back of a dark bar. The sound is rough, the amplifiers
second rate, but the performance is true and unspoiled by arrogance or ego. Here, as with the college athlete, inner passion drives the
performance. An albums and records representative might lurk in the audience, just as a recruiter might be up in the stands, taking notes and
shooting video. But hopes and dreams bring the soul to the surface in a way that no signing bonus and no signature footwear line can.

But as with any phenomenon, simple explanations rarely do the cause justice. It is ultimately likely that, while the college game's purity and
honesty may dominate the equation, all of the reasons described above along with others such as lower ticket prices play a role in the
growing popularity surrounding college basketball.

Question
The author's attitude towards college athletics could best be summarized in which of the following ways:

A valuable source of income to schools.

A breeding ground of inequity and greed.

An engaging and compelling source of entertainment.

A distraction from academics.

A place for athletes to display their skills and receive appropriate compensation.

Solution
Correct Answer: C

The correct answer is C. This answer choice is in line with the overall tone of the passage. Answers A and D are out of scope, and B and E
generally oppose of the author's thesis

Problem 4
4
If each of the sides of a triangle satisfies the equation

x2+18=9x

, the perimeter of the triangle CANNOT be:

12

15
18

Any of the four values above is possible

Solution
If x - 9x + 18 = 0, then (x - 3)(x - 6) = 0 and x = 3 or x = 6, so each side of the triangle is 3 or 6. A 3-3-6 triangle violates our law of triangles,
however: remember that the two shorter sides must have a sum greater than the length of the longest side!

Problem 5
5
Yesterday, an automobile dealership sold exactly 15 vehicles for a total of $225,000. Did at least one of the vehicles sell for more than
$16,500?

(1) The median price for the 15 vehicles was $13,000.

(2) The range for the price of the 15 vehicles was $4,000.

Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) alone is not sufficient to answer the question asked

Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) alone is not sufficient to answer the question asked

Both statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are sufficient to answer the question asked; but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient

EACH statement ALONE is sufficient to answer the question asked

Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient to answer the question asked, and additional data specific to the problem are needed

Solution
In the question stem, you learn that the total price for the 15 vehicles was $225,000, so the average price per vehicle was $15,000. You must
then analyze the statements to decide if enough information is given to prove that at least one of the cars was sold for more than $16,500.
Statement (1) tells you that the median price was $13,000, guaranteeing that 7 of the vehicles sold for $13,000 or less, 7 for $13,000 or more,
and one for exactly $13,000 in the middle. At this point, you should harness the Min/Max approach taught in the Word Problems book. Since
$13,000 must be in the middle, you should maximize the lower priced vehicles all at $13,000 (remember that if the lowest 8 are all $13,000
then the median is still $13,000) giving 8 vehicles at $13,000 accounting for $104,000 of the $225,000. That leaves $121,000 that must be
accounted for by the remaining 7 highest priced vehicles. If you divide 121 by 7 (or just estimate) you see clearly that the average price of
those 7 vehicles is slightly above $17,000. This guarantees that at least one vehicle is above $16,500 because if all 7 vehicles were below
$16,500 then it would be impossible to meet that total of $121,000. It is important to note that if any of the lower priced vehicles were less
than $13,000 (which of course they could be), then the higher priced vehicles would have to account for even more money and the average
price required on those highest priced vehicles would be even greater (this is why you wanted to maximize the lower priced vehicles).
Statement (1) is thus sufficient. In the second statement, you are given the range but this information combined with the average given in the
question stem is not sufficient. For instance you could have 11 vehicles at $16,000, 1 at $13,000, and 3 at $12,000 giving the proper range
and average with no vehicles over $16,500. Or you could easily make more than one be over $16,500 with the same range for instance 5
vehicles at $17,000, 5 vehicles at $13,000, and 5 vehicles at $15,000 giving the proper range and average with multiple vehicles over $16,500.
Statement (2) is thus not sufficient. Answer is (A).

Problem 10
10
For nonnegative integers

,
y

, and
m

, what is the greatest value of


m

for which
xm

is a factor of
y!

?
(1)

y=x1

(2)

is a prime number

Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) alone is not sufficient to answer the question asked

Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) alone is not sufficient to answer the question asked

Both statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are sufficient to answer the question asked; but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient

EACH statement ALONE is sufficient to answer the question asked

Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient to answer the question asked, and additional data specific to the problem are needed

Solution
C. This question is essentailly asking "how many times can y! divide by x?", so your goal is to find how many factors of x are contained within
y!.
Statement 1 tells you that y = x - 1. Because this is a relatively abstract concept, you can pick a few numbers to get a feel for the setup. If x =
6, for example, then y = 5. And 5! has factors 5, 4, 3, 2, and 1. Since 3*2 = 6, 5! can divide by 6 once, so m = 1. But if x were 5, then y would be
4. And 4! is not divisible by 5, so m = 0. Because statement 1 provides two different values of m, it is not sufficient.

Statement 2 is also not sufficient, but be careful - because statement 1 required quite a bit of work, a common trap on this question is for
test-takers to carry over some of what they learned from statement 1. But in testing for answer choice B, you have to look at statement 2 by
itself. And just knowing that x is prime is not helpful, as you don't know what y is. If y is 1, then it doesn't matter which prime number is, as 1!
isn't divisible by any prime numbers. But if y = 10 and x = 2, then y! can divide by 2 many times. Accordingly, statement 2 is not sufficient on
its own.

Taken together, however, the information is enough. For any prime number, there is no other factor but itself and one. And so unless that
exact factor appears in the written-out factorial, it cannot be created by any other items in it. So, for example, for x = 5, y! is (4)(3)(2)(1), with
no 5s. For x = 7, y! = (6)(5)(4)(3)(2)*(1), with no 7s. The statements together guarantee that y! will not be divisible by x, so the answer is m = 0.

Problem 18
18
A group of Republicans and Democrats was surveyed and each member was asked whether they liked apple pies or eclairs. 80% of the
Republicans liked apple pie, 55% of the Democrats liked eclairs, and 20% of the Republicans who liked apple pie also liked eclairs. If the
number of Republicans who liked both desserts is equal to the number of Democrats who liked eclairs, what is one possible value for the
number of members of the group?

81

88

160

550

710

Solution
Correct Answer: (E)

Start by setting up an equation. Call the number of Republicans r and the number of Democrats d. 80% of r like apple pie, or .8r. 20% of these
also like clairs, so .2(.8r) = .16r, so 16% of the Republicans like both desserts. If 55% of Democrats like clairs, thats .55d, and if the two
subgroups are the same size, .16r = .55d. Now we just need potential values for x and y that make the equation true. Remember that you can
always use the opposite coefficient to make such an equation true, so .16(.55) = .55(.16), but in this case r cant be .55 and d cant be .16,
since we cant have fractional people. But if we multiply each of these numbers by some power of ten, we can leave the equation essentially
unchanged were just multiplying each side by 10 while finding an integer solution for x and y. .16(55) = .55(16) seems like it might work,
but were still stuck with decimal solutions (each side then has 8.8 people). If we go up one more power of ten the equation works: .16(550) =
.55(160), so r can equal 550, d can equal 160, and r + d can equal 550 + 160
Problem 21
21
Events A and B are independent and have equal probabilities of occurring. What is the probability that event A occurs?

1. The probability that at least one of events A and B occurs is .84.


2. The probability that event B occurs and event A does not is .24.

Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) alone is not sufficient to answer the question asked

Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) alone is not sufficient to answer the question asked

Both statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are sufficient to answer the question asked; but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient

EACH statement ALONE is sufficient to answer the question asked

Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient to answer the question asked, and additional data specific to the problem are needed
Solution
Correct answer: (B)

Solution: Lets take an example to understand the question better.

Example:
The numbers on the right hand side of the equation are restricted to 22, 333, 4444, 55555, 666666, 7777777, 88888888, and 999999999. We
have a limited set of possible options. Looking at the example, we can try to find the 3 digit number, A, by dividing 4444 by 5. But since 4444
is not divisible by 5, there is no such positive integer.

Similarly, all we have to do is, using divisibility rules, divide each of these 9 numbers and see if it is divisible by its respective (n + 2). 22 is not
divisible by 3; 333 is not divisible by 4; and so on. (Note: An odd number will never be divisible by an even number so we dont need to check
for odd numbers.)

We find only 666666 is divisible by 7 giving 95238 as A. So there is only one such A.

Problem 28
28
If x, y, and z are positive integers, what is the greatest prime factor of the product xyz?

(1) The greatest common factor of x, y, and z is 7.

(2) The lowest common multiple of x, y, and z is 84.

Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) alone is not sufficient to answer the question asked

Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) alone is not sufficient to answer the question asked

Both statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are sufficient to answer the question asked; but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient

EACH statement ALONE is sufficient to answer the question asked

Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient to answer the question asked, and additional data specific to the problem are needed

Solution
The goal of the question is to determine the greatest prime factor of the product xyz from the information given. As a review (unrelated to the
specifics of this question), if x was 5 and y was 15 and z was 26, then the greatest prime factor of that product would be 13 (the largest
prime number that is a factor of any of those numbers). Statement (1) tells you that the greatest common factor of the three numbers is 7.
This guarantees that each number contains a 7 as a factor and also guarantees that the three numbers have no other factors in common.
This information is not sufficient because you do not know what other prime factors x, y, and z might contain. For instance from statement
(1) the three numbers could be 7, 21, 28 in which case the greatest prime factor of the product would be 7 or the three numbers could be 7,
14, and 77, in which case the greatest prime factor of the product would be 11. Statement (1) is not sufficient. For statement (2) you should
first break down 84 into its prime parts to see that the LCM of x, y, and z, is 2 x 2 x 3 x 7. This statement by itself guarantees that the largest
prime number that exists in any one of those numbers is 7. If a larger prime number did exist, then it would have shown up in the prime
factorization of 84. These types of reverse engineering LCM problems are very confusing for students and are best understood by
considering numbers and then conceptualizing from that. Answer is (B).
Problem 30
30
The following table gives some data collected about the population of a town by age:

What is the ratio of the number of people whose age is 18 or greater but less than 25 to the number of people whose age is 25 or greater but
less than 40?

6:7

23:17

17:23

18:19

Cannot be determined

Solution
Correct answer: (A)

Solution: The easiest way to solve this question may be to visually present the given information using a number line:

Since we know number of people who are less than 18 yrs old (420), and also those who are 18 yrs and more (690), we know the total
population would be the sum of the two groups, i.e., 420 + 690 = 1110.

Using this, we can determine the number of people who are less than 25 yrs is 1110 510 = 600. So to find number of people who are
between the ages of 18 and 25, we simply subtract the number of people below age 18. 600 420 = 180.

The number of people of age 40 yrs or more is 1110 810 = 300. We subtract this from the number of people age 25 years or more to find
the group older than 25 and younger than 40, i.e., 510 300 = 210. The ratio between these two groups is 180:210, or 6:7.
Problem 34
34
The function f(x) represents the number of ways that prime numbers can be uniquely summed to form a certain number x such that x = a + b
+ c + d where those summed variables are each prime and a b c d ... For instance f(8) = 3 and the unique ways are 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 and 2 +
3 + 3 and 3 + 5. What is f(12)?

8
37
Problem 37

In 2008, a certain factory produced 30% more widgets than it did in 2007, and its production in 2009 was 130% of its production in 2008. By
approximately what percent would its production need to decrease the following year for the factory to produce the same number of widgets
it did in 2007?

30%

39%

41%

69%

169%

Solution
Solution: C.

Pick numbers to simplify. Say the factory produced 100 widgets in 2007. If it produced 30% more in 2008, then it produced .3(100) or 30
more widgets, for a total of 130. If its 2009 production was 130% of its 2008 production, then it produced 1.3(130) or 169 widgets. (Note that
130% of a number is the same thing as that number increased by 30%.)

Now here's the tricky part. If we want percent change, we need to use our percent change formula: (New Value - Old Value) / Old Value. The
new value for 2010 is 100 widgets -- the same number as was produced in 2007 -- and the old value is our current 2009 production level of
169 widgets.

This gives us (100-169) / 169 = -69/169 = approximately -41%, or a 41% decrease. Since this number is so close to 39%, you may want to
determine whether 69 is greater or less than 40% of 169 - you can figure that out by taking 10% of 169 (or 16.9) and multiplying it by 4 (for
about 68). Since 69 is greater than that, the number is slightly greater than 40%. C.

Problem 6
6
The attached graph displays the percent of Australian households with owner-occupier household debt for the years of 1993-94 and 2003-04,
broken down by the age group of the debtholder. Based on the graph, please answer the questions that follow.

From 1993-94 to 2003-04, _______ of the age groups graphed saw a greater than 15% increase in the proportion of households with owner-
occupier housing debt.

Within the 45-54 age group, the proportion of households with owner-occupier housing debt ______________ from 1993-94 to 2003-04.

Assuming that Australia had no homeowners who were less than 15 years old, it can be concluded from the graph that the overall percentage
of Australian households with owner-occupier housing debt in 2003-04 was _______.

Solution
1. Four. Because the question asks for the percent increase IN THE PROPORTION of households, this is not simply a subtraction
problem along the y-axis. The increase in the youngest demographic, for example, goes from about a 14% rate to about a 20% rate, for a
percent change of

201420100

or about a 30% increase. Therefore, four years see an increase of over 15%.
2. More than 50%, less than 75%. In this age group, the percent jumps from just about exactly 30% to a little over 45%, meaning it
grew by slightly more than half for a >50% (but certainly <75%) increase.

3. Less than 55% but greater than 2.5%. While it might not seem possible to draw a conclusion from the graph - wouldn't we need to
know the number of people in each category to calculate a weighted average? - we can at the very least conclude that the weighted average
will be between the extremes of the group averages, as the categories include all homeowners. The highest that the weighted average could
be is within a whisker of the 35-44 group's ~54% total and the lowest it could be is within a slim margin of the 65+ group's ~3% total.

5. Problem 8
4. 8
6. A teacher handed out apples, bananas and cherries to her students during snack time. Each student received aapples, b bananas
and c cherries. Additionally, we know the following information:

7. Statement 1: The teacher handed out apples, bananas and cherries in the ratio of 1:3:7, respectively.

8. We are to determine how many bananas each student received. In the table, under column A,
select one statement that would be sufficient with Statement 1 to determine the number of
bananas each student received (but would not be sufficient alone). Under column B, select one
statement that would be sufficient alone to determine the number of bananas each student
received. Make two selections, one in each column.

Sufficient with Sufficient


Statement 1 alone
The total number of fruits received by each student is divisible
by 3 but not divisible by 8.
The teacher distributed a total of 12 apples, 36 bananas and 84
cherries.
The teacher distributed 3 times as many bananas as apples and
distributed more than 2 apples per student but less than 10
bananas per student.
The teacher distributed more than 120 fruit items in total.
Each student received no more than 40 cherries but no less than
15 bananas.

9. Solution
10. Sufficient with Statement 1 - E. Each student received no more than 40 cherries but no less than 15 bananas.

11. Sufficient alone - C. The teacher distributed 3 times as many bananas as apples and distributed more than 2 apples per student
but less than 10 bananas per student.

12. Solution:

13. The key to this problem is recognizing the exact question being asked how many bananas did EACH STUDENT receive, not how
many were handed out total. This makes answer choice B a trap it only provides total data, not per-student data.

14. Choice C is sufficient alone, as it allows you to set up this equation/inequality pairing:
3A = B (three times as many bananas as apples means that one would have to multiply the number of apples by 3 in order to set
them equal)

15. B < 10 and A >2 ---> the only numbers that work are A =3 and 3A = 9.

16. Choice E is sufficient along with Statement 1. Because statement 1 gives the ratio of bananas:cherries as 3:7, you can fix the
number at a minimum of 15, or 3 * 5. And you know that the number of cherries maxes out at 35, or 7 * 5. And because the times
5 in each of the above refers to the multiplier in the ratio, you can ensure that the multiplier is 5, as its the minimum for bananas
and maximum for cherries. Accordingly, the multiplier in that ratio is 5, so each student received 5 apples, 15 bananas, and 35
cherries.

18. Problem 10
17. 10
19. Over a period of 2 years from 2010 to 2012, Stock A and Stock B have changed in value. In 2010, a share of Stock A and a share of
Stock B were, together, worth a total of N dollars. Also, in 2010, the ratio of the price of Stock A to Stock B was 0.8. A and B
represent the percent change in value of stocks A and B, respectively from 2010 to 2012. The percent change in a quantity X is
calculated using the formula:

20. 100(XnewXold)/Xold

21.

22. In the table, select the expression that represents the v alue
of Stock B in 2010 and the expression that
represents the ratio of Stock A to Stock B in 2012. Make only two selections, one in each column.

Value of Stock B in 2010 Ratio in 2012


N/0.8

N/1.2

N/1.8

A/0.8+B/1.25N

0.8((1+A)/(1+B))

1.25((1+A)/
(1+B))

23. Solution
24. Value of Stock B in 2010:

25. N/1.8

26.
Ratio in 2012:
27. 0.8((1+A)/(1+B))

28. Solution: Because of all of the variables in the answer choices, this problem provides an excellent opportunity to pick numbers.
Considering the parameters, you know that Stock A in 2010 must be 4/5 the value of Stock B, and you will need to take percent
changes for each. So choose numbers that will provide easy calculations, such as: Stock A = 80 and Stock B = 100, and the %
increase for A is 25 and for B is 20. This also means that N is 180.

29. With this, you can see that the value of stock B, 100, can be obtained by using N/1.8, so that is the correct answer in the left-hand
column.

30. For the right-hand column, recognize that the percent changes must be involved, so you only need to test the last three choices.
And you will find that the new ratio should be 100, Stock A plus 25%, to 120, Stock B plus 20%. This is 5/6, which checks out with
the fifth answer choice, 0.8 ((1+A)/(1+B) .
The mayor's welcome note that appeared at the conference states that Ketner Springs is the ideal place
to locate a business as Ketner springs offers renowned transportation systems and award winning parks
and recreation departments. Moreover the mayors claims that Ketner springs offers perfect locale for
any business office or factory .The argument is likely to fail due to unconvincing logic and illogical
assumptions.Moreover the argument does not substantiate the claims with relevant data to draw the
conclusion from the given premise .

First , the mayor assumes that renowned transportation and award winning parks and recreation
department are the sole factors which make a place ideal for the business.There are several factors such
as the market accessibility , transporation cost as well as customer preferences which could account for a
place to be an ideal one for business .The argument does not take into account any of these and thus
ignores the possibility of these playing a major role in the success of business in Ketner Springs .The
argument could have been strengthened if the author had mentioned relevant statistics pertaining to the
other contributing factors to support his claim.

Second, Mayors claims families love living at Ketner Springs as Ketner's schools have the lowest student
to teacher ratio in the state and its restaurants boats more kiddie menu options than anywhere else in
the country . In this claims the mayors fails to consider the possibility that despite some of the positives
there may be glaring negatives factors affecting the life of Ketner springs such as criminal activities and
safety of citizens, cost of living etc .In case Ketner springs is highly unsafe for its citizens , the families
would not prefer living in the city .Moreover if the cost of living is extremely high as compared to
suburban areas ,families may prefer the suburban areas to Ketner Springs .Clearly Mayor need to
elaborate more on the various factors concerning the families preference for the city to add credibility to
his claims .

Finally , The mayors concludes that if one needs to locate a business or a office , one would find perfect
locale in Ketner springs but fails to corroborate his claims with supporting evidences . The mayor should
address what constitutes a perfect locale and present relevant data with concrete examples to support
his claims .I the absence of the supporting evidences this this claims sounds weak and unconvincing

In conclusion the argument is flawed due to above mentioned reasons .The mayors claims that Ketner
springs will provide the perfect locale for any business is weak and unconvincing as mayor does not
substantiate his claims and makes rash assumptions to draw the conclusion. It could have been
strengthened if the author had mentioned relevant details of all contributing factors to support his
claims .