Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 24

SULIT

4551/2
Chapter 4 : Chemical composition in the cell 2013

4.1 The chemical composition in the cell

No Marking scheme Marks


(a) There are two important groups of compound in the cells, the organic compound and the
inorganic compounds. the organic compound are protein , nucleic acids, carbohydrates and
lipid s. describe the presence and importance of organic compound , such as carbohydrate
and protein in a cells.

Carbohydrate
1
P1-It is a compound synthesized by plants through photosynthesis
1
P2-It is involved in the building of plant cell wall
1
P3-It is present in various forms including monosacharide, disaccharide and polysacharide
1
P4-Polycharide is storage carbohydrate
1
P5-Example: glycogen is storage carbohydrate

Protien
1
P1-It is the main component of cytoplasm an dplasma membrane
1
P2-protien is present as keratin in hair and nail
1
P3-Carier protein in the plasma membrane function in the transport of substances across
the plasma membrane 1
P4-Enzyme , antibody and many hormones are proteins 1
P5-Hormones function to regulate chemical process and cell metabolism , such as 1
digestion
P6-Enzyme act to catalyze metabolism reaction of the cell 1
P7-Antibody defends the body from pathogenic attack 1
P8-Protien also act as source of energy during starvation ANY 10 1 10

(b) How are the carbohydrates stored in plant and animal tissues?
Carbohydrate are stored as starch in glycogen and glycogen in animal tissue 1 1

(c) How are the delicate internal organs of animal protected by the lipids
Lipid form the adipose tissue lining around the delicate internal organsProtecting them
from physical injure 1 1

42

Module Biology Trail Paper Collection


4551/2All Right Reserved
SULIT
SULIT
4551/2
Chapter 4 : Chemical composition in the cell 2013

Nucleic acid
Trial perlis 2010 Trail kedah 2012 JUJ 2009
Figure below shows the structure of nucleic acid

No Marking scheme Marks


(a) Based on the figure 3, name the type of nucleic acid as shown
DNA 1 1
(b) Name another type of nucleic acid
RNA 1 1
(c) Explain the role of structure in 5.1 in determining the characteristic of organism
P1-carry genetic information 1
P2-direct protein synthesis 1
P3-determine the traits that are passed from parents to their children 1 3

(d)

Name the diagram S, T and U


1
S: Phosphate Group
1
T: Pentose/sugar/deoxyribose sugar
1 3
U: nitrogenous base
(e) Diagram shows apart of the structure of organic compound found in the cell
Cell structure: chromosomes 1
Organelle: nucleus 1 2
(f) What is the basic unit of molecule X called
Nucleotide 1 1

43

Module Biology Trail Paper Collection


4551/2All Right Reserved
SULIT
SULIT
4551/2
Chapter 4 : Chemical composition in the cell 2013

(g) Diagram below shows an incomplete structure of DNA at one polynucleotide chain
complete the structure below

1
Drawing 1m
1 2
Nitrogenous bases matched correctly : 1m
(h) Segment of structure in diagram 2.1 carry characteristic for each individual .describe the
application of genetics that be used for
Identification purposes in solving criminal cases
F1-DNA fingerprint 1
P1-(it is used) to examine DNA from tissue sample of hair/ saliva/blood/semen found at 1 2
the scene of the crime then compare it to suspects DNA

4.2 Carbohydrate

No Marking scheme Marks


(a) Name two type of disaccharides
Sucrose 1
Maltose 1 2
(b) Explain how the two disaccharide is formed
P1-Maltose is formed through the condensation of two glucose molecules 1
P2-sucrose is formed through the condensation of a glucose molecule and fructose 1 2
molecule

(c) Explain how glucose is considered a reducing sugar


P1- because it can reduce copper (II)ions 1
P2-which are blue in colour to a brick red precipitate of copper (I) oxide 1 2
(d) Explain how molecule X( polysaccharide) are formed form their basic unit:polyshacride
P1-Molecule is a polysaccharide which consists of many monosaccharide 1
P2-The monosaccharide are joined together by condensation to form a long chains of 1 2 44
polymer

Module Biology Trail Paper Collection


4551/2All Right Reserved
SULIT
SULIT
4551/2
Chapter 4 : Chemical composition in the cell 2013

4.3 Proteins Trial Selangor 2008 Trial Melaka 2008

1. Diagram 2 shows a series of reaction process is the formation of molecules Q while process Y is the
breakdown of polypeptide
Process X
Molecule Q

Process Y
Molecule P

Molecule R
Molecule X

No Marking scheme Marks


(a) Name Molecule X
Protein 1 1
(b) Name Molecule P ,R, and Q
Molecule P: Amino acid 1
Molecule R: Dipeptide 1
Molecule Q: Polypeptide 1 3
(c) State the process X and Y
Process X: Condensation 1
Process Y: Hydrolysis 1 2
(d) Explain the process X and Y
Process X:
P1-Condensation of amino acid /(molecules ) P//(two unit of amino acid)/(molecule)P 1
combine/link and water (molecule) are release 1
P2-Peptides bond formed (between Amino acid /P)
Process Y:
P1-Hydrolysis of dipeptides/ (molecule) Q //Dipeptides /Q is broken by water(molecule) 1
P2-Peptides bonds are broken down 1 4
(e) The breakdown of poly peptides molecule to molecule Q through process y occurs in human
digestive system
State one organ wherer process Y occurs
45
Stomach/lieum/small intestine/duodenum 1 1
(f) Name one enzyme secreted by the organ which is needed in process Y
Pepsin/Erepsin/peptidase/trypsin.protease 1 1
Module Biology Trail Paper Collection
4551/2All Right Reserved
SULIT
SULIT
4551/2
Chapter 4 : Chemical composition in the cell 2013

(g) Explain how the complex molecule R are formed from their basic units
P1-Molecule R is polypeptide in which consist of amino acids 1
P2-The amino acids are joined together by condensation and arrange in a sequence to form a 1 2
long chain
(h) Explain the breakdown of molecule Y(Protein) Given basic units : amino acid
P1-Molecule is a polypeptide( which consist of many amino acids) 1
P2-Molecule Y is broken down by hydrolysis 1 2

2. Protein are large organic molecule which play diverse roles in living organism . Diagram 2.1 shows
four level of organization in protein structure JUJ 2009 Trail Kelantan 2008

Molecule P Molecule Q

P : Primary structure Q : Secondary structure

R : Tertiary structure S : Quartnetry structure


46

Module Biology Trail Paper Collection


4551/2All Right Reserved
SULIT
SULIT
4551/2
Chapter 4 : Chemical composition in the cell 2013

No Marking scheme Marks


(a) Draw the structure 1
(b) Name structure P;Q.R and S in diagram 1
(c) Name X
Peptide bond 1
(d) State the monomer of the structure shown in diagram
Amino acid 1
(e) Give one example of each protein P, Q R and S
Protein P: DNA/RNA 1
Protein Q: Hairs/nails/Feather 1
Protein R: Hormones. enzyme /antibodies / plasma protein 1
Protein S: Haemoglobin 1 4

(f) Amino acid is monomer of protein . There are two type o f amino acids which are essential
amino acid and non essential amino acid
Explain about essential amino acid
P1-canot synthesis by the body
P2-obtain from diet 2 2

(g) ESSAY ENCHANCEMENT CONER


Name the protein P ,Q and R.Describe the structure of each protein structure
P1- P is primary structure 1
E1-It refers ti the linear sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain 1
P2-Q is secondary structure 1
E2-It refers to the polypeptide chain that is coiled to form alpha helix chain o into beta 1
pleated sheet
P3-R is tertiary structure 1
E3-It refers to the way the helix chains or beta pleated sheets are coiled or folded into three 1 6
dimensional shape of a polypeptide chain
P+E

47

Module Biology Trail Paper Collection


4551/2All Right Reserved
SULIT
SULIT
4551/2
Chapter 4 : Chemical composition in the cell 2013

4.4 Lipids JUJ 2009 Trial Melaka 2009

X Y Z
Molecule P

No Marking scheme Marks


(a) Name molecule P
Lipid 1 1

(b) State two important product obtained from the hydrolysis of lipid
Glycerol/fatty acid 1 1

(c) Name X ,Y and Z


X: Glycerol 1
Y: Fatty acid 1
Z: Triglyceride 1 3

(d) State the process X and Y


Process X: condensation (state the reaction that lead to the synthesis of lipid) 1

Process Y: hydrolysis 1 2

(e) Write a word equation to represent the biochemical process in diagram


Lipase
Glycerol +fatty acid triglyceride+ water 1 1

(f) Name the other product of this reaction besides lipid molecule
Water 1 1

48

Module Biology Trail Paper Collection


4551/2All Right Reserved
SULIT
SULIT
4551/2
Chapter 4 : Chemical composition in the cell 2013

No Marking scheme Marks


(g) Waxes are a type of lipid. it is found on the cuticles of epidermis of the leaves fruit and some
seeds of some plant . Explain another type of lipid in human
F1- phospholipids s 1
P1-component in the formation of plasma membrane 1 2

(h) What is the essential structural difference between a phospholipids molecule and the lipid
molecule shown in the figure
P1-A phospholipids molecule has two fatty acids and phosphate group attached to a molecule 1
of glycerol
P2-ipid molecule in the figure has three fatty acids joined to a molecule of glycerol
1 2

(i) Describe the behavior of phospholipids in the water


P1-One end of the phospholipids molecule , containing the phosphate group is soluble in the 1
water, while the other end , containing the fatty acids is insoluble in water
P2-When phospholipid are in water, they forma bilayered structure comprising of to back to 1
back layers of phospholipids molecule
P3-the water soluble (hydrophilic)ends point outwards while the water insoluble
1 3
(hydrophobic ) ends point inwards

(j)

Structure X
Molecule P is important to build the structure of membrane in the cell , including structure X
Name structure X
Plasma membrane 1 1
(k) Explain the arrangement of molecule P in X
P1-Molecule P consists of hydrophilic head and a hydrophobic tail 1
P2-the head part of faces the external surface of the membrane because it attract to water 1
P3-the tail part of P is in the enter of the membrane as there is water in the membrane 1
P4-Form a phospholipids bilayer ANY 3 1 3
(l) State the function of phospholipids in cells
Provide the structure basis for all cell membrane 1 1
49

Module Biology Trail Paper Collection


4551/2All Right Reserved
SULIT
SULIT
4551/2
Chapter 4 : Chemical composition in the cell 2013

Diagram shows two types of fats

No Marking scheme Marks


(k) State the type of fat s shown in diagram
P: Saturated fat 1
Q: Unsaturated fat 1 2

(l) Butter is saturated fat but corn oil is unsaturated fat . Explain briefly the differences between
saturated fat and unsaturated fat
P1- Saturated fat is solid (at room temperature) 1
P2-saturated fat without double bonds between carbon atoms where as unsaturated fat have at 1 2
least one doubled bond (between the carbon atoms)

(m) Compare and contrast fats and oils


S1-Both are good energy store 1
D1-At room temperature, fats are solid, whereas oils are liquid 1 2

4.5 Enzyme Trial Johor 2009 Trial Kedah 2012 Trial Kedah 2009 JUJ 2009

No Marking Scheme Marks


The general characteristic of enzyme
(a) List three characteristic of the enzyme shown Diagram 3/ state two characteristic of the enzyme
F1-Enzyme is highly specific//enzyme reaction follow the lock and key hypothesis 1
F2-Enzyme is not destroyed after the reaction // can be reused again //remain unchanged after 1
the reaction 1
F3-Enzyme has a specific site for its substrate 1
F4-Enzyme hydrolyses /breaks down substrate to form products 1
F5-Enzyme is needed in small quantity 1
F6-Enzyme can catalyzed a reversed reaction ANY 3 50
1 3

Module Biology Trail Paper Collection


4551/2All Right Reserved
SULIT
SULIT
4551/2
Chapter 4 : Chemical composition in the cell 2013

No Marking Scheme Marks


(b) The enzyme is highly specific. Explain this statement/Why enzyme is said to be highly
specific?
F1-Enzyme has specific sites called active site 1
F1-One enzyme only catalyzed one substrate 1
F2-the active site has a distinctive/ the active site ( of the enzyme )is specific to certain 1
substances
1
F3-the shape of the substrate must fit the enzyme precisely if a reaction is to catalysed
1 3
//complements its substrate
(c) The enzyme reaction can be slowed down or completely stopped by inhibitors
(i) Give one example of inhibitor
Heavy metal/leads / mercury 1 1

(ii) Explain how inhibitor inhibit the enzyme reaction


P1- inhibitor change the active sites of the enzyme 1
P2-substrate cannot fits to the active site 1
P3-cannot form enzyme substrate complex 1 3
Intracellular and extracellular enzyme Trail Kelantan 2010
(d) State the meaning of extracellular enzyme
P1-Enzyme which is synthesized in the cell 1
P2-Secreted out of the cell to work externally 1 2

(b) State the meaning of intracellular enzyme


P1-Enzyme which produced in the cell 1
P2-for use of itself 1 2

(c) Extracellular enzyme are enzyme which are produced in the cell but secreted from the cell to
function externally
Give one example of the cell
Pancreas//ileum //stomach epithelial cell //salivary cell 1 1

(d) Give one example of an extracellular enzyme produced by the cell


Lipase /Amylase /trypsin 1 1

51

Module Biology Trail Paper Collection


4551/2All Right Reserved
SULIT
SULIT
4551/2
Chapter 4 : Chemical composition in the cell 2013

Synthesis of enzymes Trail Johor 2011 Trail Kelantan 2010 Trial Pahang 2010 Trial MRSM 2011

Trail Perak 2012 Trial Perak 2009 Trial Selangor 2010 Trial Selangor 2008

R: secretory vesicles

P: Golgi apparatus

U : transport vesicles

T : Ribosomes

Q: nucleus
S: mitochondria

No Marking scheme Marks


Based on the Diagram 1, name P, Q, R, and S
Name correctly 4 4
State the function of organelle P
(a) Modifies and pack the enzyme 1 1
(b) State the function of organelles P(transport vesicles)
Transport protein synthesized by ribosomes to the Golgi apparatus 1 1

(c) State the function of T


P1 P contain respiratory enzyme 1
P2 P generate energy from cell respiration / oxidation of glucose 1
P3 Energy use by the cells for activities 1 3

(d) Explain the function of Q


P1 Q contain genetic material / DNA / gene 1
P2 which determine the type of protein synthesis by the ribosome 1
P3 determine the characteristics inherited by the offspring 1 3
(a) Synthesis of molecule y is very specific process. It depend on the information contained in
molecule X
Name X 1 1
In form of genes /DNA 52

Module Biology Trail Paper Collection


4551/2All Right Reserved
SULIT
SULIT
4551/2
Chapter 4 : Chemical composition in the cell 2013

No Marking scheme Marks


(b) Explain how information is carried out from the nucleus to organelle S
P1-DNA replicates/open /unwinds for the synthesis of RNA /messenger-RNA 1
P2-(genetic information) in DNA is copied to RNA 1
P3-RNA moves out of the nucleus and attaches itself on the ribosome 1 3
(c) Explain the role of x(chromosomes) in the production of an Extracellular enzyme
P1-information for synthesis enzyme is carried by /DNA 1
P2-Different sequences of bases in X / DNA are codes to make different enzymes 1
P3-RNA copies the information from DNA in the nucleus 1
P4-Messenger RNA is formed to translate codes into a sequence of amino acid// 1
P5-Ribosomes interprets the information carried by RNA 1
P6-the amino acid are bonded together to form specific enzyme ANY 4 1 4
(d) Explain how information is carried out from the nucleus to organelle S
P1-DNA replicates/open /unwinds for the synthesis of RNA /messenger-RNA 1
P2-(genetic information) in DNA is copied to RNA 1
P3-RNA moves out of the nucleus and attaches itself on the ribosomes 1 3
Predicting the absent of organelle
(e) Explain what will happen to the production of extracellular enzymes if Golgi apparatus
malfunctions.
F: The production of the extracellular enzyme is incomplete/ disrupted/affected 1
E1 (without Golgi apparatus), the protein cannot be modified into extracellular enzyme 1
E2-Protien cannot be sorted 1
E3-Extracellular enzyme cannot be released/ transported to the targeted cell /organ 1 3
(f) Explain what will happen if the rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus are absent in
the cell
P1 Protein cannot be sent to the Golgi apparatus 1
P2 Protein cannot be modified / processes 1
P3 No enzyme extracellular can be synthesis 1 3

Enzyme is made up of chains of polypeptides molecule. The Golgi apparatus in living cell are
(g) malfunction .explain the effect of the malfunction to the production of extracellular enzyme
P1-Processing /modifying/packing/sorting/transporting of the synthesized protein could not be
carry out
P2-Resulting the synthesized protein /carbohydrates/glycoprotein are not able to be carry
1
through the plasma membrane

1 2

53

Module Biology Trail Paper Collection


4551/2All Right Reserved
SULIT
SULIT
4551/2
Chapter 4 : Chemical composition in the cell 2013

The production of extracellular enzyme


No Marking scheme Marks
(a) Explain the role of P and Q in transportation of extracellular enzyme
P1-The nucleus /RNA instruct ribosome to synthesized protein 1
P2-the synthesized protein is transport in the rough endoplasmic reticulum /Q 1
P3-to the transport vesicles 1
P4-then the Golgi apparatus/P packages./modifies/sorts/transports the synthesized proteins 1
P5-to the secretary vesicles to be transported 1
P6-out of the cell through the plasma membrane 1 3

(b) Based on the organelle shown in diagram, explain how extracellular enzyme are
produced starting at ribosome
P1-Protien are synthesized in the ribosome 1
P2-Rough endoplasmic reticulum transport the protein to the Golgi apparatus (by 1
transport vesicles)
P3Golgi apparatus modifies/repackage/transport protein to become enzyme 1
P4-which are secreted out from the cell 1 3
(b) Explain how the protein form at the ribosome is transform into the extracellular enzyme,
so that it can be secreted from the cell
P1-Protien enter lumen Rough Endoplasmic reticulum(RER) 1
P2-Modified in RER into extracellular enzyme 1
P3-Carried to the Golgi body by transporting vesicles 1
P4-Processed/packed in the Golgi body for excretion 1 3

54

Module Biology Trail Paper Collection


4551/2All Right Reserved
SULIT
SULIT
4551/2
Chapter 4 : Chemical composition in the cell 2013

Essay enhancement corner


Diagram 8.1 shows the involvement of different cellular component P, Q and S in the secretion of
extracellular enzyme in animal cell

Based on the diagram, describe the production of extracellular enzyme

Marking scheme Marks


E1-The information for the synthesis of enzyme is carried by DNA in structure Q / nucleus 1
E2-The information is copied and carried/transferred to ribosome/ structure P via RNA /mRNA 1
E3-The information is used to synthesize protein in the ribosome /structure R/rough endoplasmic 1
reticulum
E4-protien that are synthesized in the ribosome/structure P are transported vesicles/ S that buds 1
off / from the side of structure R/ rough endoplasmic reticulum
E5-protien depart from structure R /RER wrapped in transport vesicles /S that buds off / form the
1
side of structure R/RER
E6-These transport vesicles /S fused with the membrane of structure T / Golgi apparatus to be
sorted and modified 1
E7-Modified protein is packed into secretory vesicle/ U 1
E8-Secretory vesicles/ U buds off from structure T / Golgi apparatus membrane and travel/sent
to the plasma membrane 1
E9-Secretory vesicles / U will Release the modified protein /enzyme outside the cell (as
extracellular enzyme 1 6

55

Module Biology Trail Paper Collection


4551/2All Right Reserved
SULIT
SULIT
4551/2
Chapter 4 : Chemical composition in the cell 2013

The mechanism of enzyme action Trial Kedah 2012 Trial Kedah 2009 JUJ 2009

Substrate X
Q:substrate

Substrate Y

P: enzyme R: Enzyme S: Product


substrate complex

No Marking scheme Marks


(a) What is the definition of enzyme?
P1-enzyme is an organic catalyst 1
P2-enzyme is a protein which speed up biochemical reaction in living thing 1 2

No Marking scheme Marks


(b) Name the structure
Name P ,Q, and S if the enzyme used is lipase
P:lipase 1
Q:fats 1
S:fatty acid and glycerol 1 3

(c) Name P ,Q, and S if enzyme used is sucrase


P: sucrase 1
Q: sucrose 1
S; glucose/fructose 1 3

(d) Explain why substrate Y, but not Substrate X, can combine with the enzyme
1
P1-substrate x does not have a specific active sites to fit into tha enzyme
1 2
P2-only Substrate Y , has shape which exactly fits into the enzyme
56
(e) State the principle of enzymatic reaction as shown in Figure
key and lock
1 1

Module Biology Trail Paper Collection


4551/2All Right Reserved
SULIT
SULIT
4551/2
Chapter 4 : Chemical composition in the cell 2013

(f) The enzyme reaction is referred as the key lock hypothesis. Explain about hypothesis
P1-enzyem has active site where inly certain molecules can fit in
1
P2-substrate represents the key and enzyme represent the lock
P3-when the substrate fit into (active sites of ) enzyme forming enzyme-substrate be 1
complex 1
P4-enzyme catalyst the substrate to form products ANY 3 1 4

(g) A student carried out and experiment using enzyme X. he replaced lipid with maltose as
the substrate. At the end of the experiment, he observed that there was no reaction
1
P1-active site of the enzyme X is not complement to the shape of maltose
P2-maltose cannot bind to enzyme X 1
P3-no enzyme substrate complex is formed 1
P4-maltose is not hydrolysed /broken down 1 4
(h) A student carried out and experiment using enzyme X. he replaced lipid with maltose as
the substrate. At the end of the experiment, he observed that there was no reaction
1
P1-active site of the enzyme X is not complement to the shape of maltose
P2-maltose cannot bind to enzyme X 1
P3-no enzyme substrate complex is formed 1
P4-maltose is not hydrolysed /broken down 1 3

57

Module Biology Trail Paper Collection


4551/2All Right Reserved
SULIT
SULIT
4551/2
Chapter 4 : Chemical composition in the cell 2013

No Marking scheme Marks


(a) Name organ X and organ Y

Organ X : Small intestine //ileum


1
Organ Y : liver 1 2

(b) Name molecule K , molecule M and enzyme L


Molecule K ; starch
1
Molecule M : glucose 1

Enzyme L : (pancreatic ) Amlyase 1 3

Factor affecting the activity of enzyme Trail perils 2011

No Marking scheme Marks


(a) State two factor affecting activities of enzymes/state two other factor affecting the enzyme
activity
P1-temperature 1
P2-pH 1
P3-substrate concentration 1
P4-enzyme concentration 1 2

58

Module Biology Trail Paper Collection


4551/2All Right Reserved
SULIT
SULIT
4551/2
Chapter 4 : Chemical composition in the cell 2013

The effect of temperature on the activity of enzyme Trial Johor 2011 Trial Kedah 2012 Trail Kelantan

No Marking scheme Marks


Enzyme activity at high temperature

Each enzyme has an optimum temperature at which its reaction rate is the fastest.
(a) beyond the optimum temperature an enzyme is said to be denatured

Explain the above statement.


E1: High temperature alter/changes the( three dimensional) shape of the active site of the 1
enzyme molecules
E2-Substrates thus can no longer fit into the active sites of the enzyme 1
E3-the reaction cannot be carried out // substrate cannot be hydroylsed 1 3
Explain the reaction of sucrose if the temperature of medium is 60oC
P1-60oC is high temperature
1
P2-At very high temperature the chemical bond that hold enzyme molecule together begi to
break 1
P3-Thus altering three dimensional shape of enzyme 1
P4-Destroying active site of enzyme site of enzyme /enzyme denature MAX 3 1 3
(b) Suggest what would happen if brand P washing powder is used with hot water (60oC-80oC) 1
P1-Enzyme are protein
1
P2-enzyme are denatured by the high temperature
P3-Cleaning is less effective 1 2
Compare the enzyme activity at high and low temperature
Diagram shows the results of an experiment in which two similar shirts P and Q with same

blood stain. the shirts were washed by using enzyme-containing washing powder at tow
different temperature, 35oCand 65oC

Explain the result of washing the shirt in the diagram


35oC : (shirt P Does not have blood satin remaining)
F:the rate of enzymatic activity is the highest 1
P:35 oC is the optimum temperature 1

65oC: (shirt Q has the larger amount of blood satin remaining)


F: the rate of enzymatic reaction is lower 1
P:the enzyme must have been denatured at the high temperature 1 4 59

Module Biology Trail Paper Collection


4551/2All Right Reserved
SULIT
SULIT
4551/2
Chapter 4 : Chemical composition in the cell 2013

(d) Explain why washing of shirt in P is more effective when used with warm water 30oC-40oC
than cold water
1
P1-Enzyme are less active at low temperature
P2-Many enzyme have an optimum temperature range between 30oC-40oC 1 2
(e) Enzyme activity at low temperature
Explain the rate of enzyme reaction at low temperature and at the optimum temperature
1
P1-At low temperature , the enzyme is inactive and the rate of reaction Is slow
P2-at the optimum temperature, the enzyme is very active and the rate of enzyme reaction is at 1 2
maximum

(f) All enzyme are protein .enzyme are sensitive to temperature


Explain why food is kept in refrigerator?
( 1
F: temperature of the refrigerator is low
P1: Enzyme ( in bacteria) is inactive 1
P2- food cannot be decomposed 1 3
(g) Enzyme activity at optimum temperature
A branded washing machine is provided with temperature regulator
A Housewife uses the detergent containing enzyme at 40C to wash the clothes .using the
information given, explain why
F:40C is an optimum temperature 1
P1-enzyme activity is maximum 1
P2-the cleaning is more effective 1 3
(h) Enzyme is used to wash away the blood stain on a shirt .explain how the enzyme acts on
the blood stain at a maximum rate.
F1-Use (warm) water with temperature of 37oC 1
P1-optimum temperature for enzyme (activity)//enzymes work best this temperature 1 2

(i) Draw a graph to show the effect of temperature on the activity of enzyme

Draw 1m(/) 1
Label 1m(/) 1 2
(ii) what is the optimum temperature for this reaction 1 1
37oC
60

Module Biology Trail Paper Collection


4551/2All Right Reserved
SULIT
SULIT
4551/2
Chapter 4 : Chemical composition in the cell 2013

The effect of pH on the activity of enzyme

No Marking scheme Marks


(a) Explain the effect of pH on the mechanism of enzyme,in an acidic medium /Explain the
reaction of sucrase if the pH value medium is 3 1
P1-excess hydrogen ions attach to the active site of the enzyme 1
P2-Cause ionic vharge on the activity site are altered 1 3
P3-substrate is unable ti bind to the enzyme /reaction cannot take place
(b)

Starch ,protein and peptone can be hydrolyzed by enzyme amylase, pepsine and trypsin
respectively
Diagram shows the effect of pH an the rate of enzyme activity
Based on the diagram , explain how the changes in pH affect the enzyme activity 1
P1-Enzyme are denature by changes in pH level of the reaction medium 1
P2-Each enzyme function actively at its optimum pH 1
P3-he enzyme salivary amylase functions at the optimum pH 7.0. 1
P4-it will become inactive when its reaction medium is too acidic or alkaline 1
P5-the optimum pH for pepsin is 1.5-2.0and trypsin is pH 8.5 1
P6-the changes in pH will cause the changes in the concentration of hydrogen ion (H+)or
hydroxyl ions (OH-) 1
P7-the excess hydrogen ions or hydroxyl ions destabilize enzymes by changing the shape of 1
the active site
1
P8-enzyme stop functioning
1
P9-the effect of pH changes on the enzyme activity are reversible
1 10
P10-An enzyme which is inactive in a high pH will become active again when it is at its
optimum pH

61

Module Biology Trail Paper Collection


4551/2All Right Reserved
SULIT
SULIT
4551/2
Chapter 4 : Chemical composition in the cell 2013

(c) Enzyme is used to wash away the blood stain on a shirt


Explain how the enzyme acts on the blood satin at a maximum rate
1
P1-Add a little vinegar/acid ( in the water)
P2-Enzyme /pepsin work best at this temperature 1
OR
P1-Add more soap/ alkali solution (in the water) 1
P2-Enzyme/trypsin protease work best in an alkaline medium 1 2

The effect of substrate concentration on the activity of enzymes Trial Melaka 2008 Trial perils 2011

No Marking scheme Marks


Diagram show how the amount of an enzyme substrate and product change during seed
germination

(a) State which curve represents the amount of substrate 1


Curve P
(b) Explain your answer
If the enzyme involved in the reaction is amylase, continue curve P in the box diagram 2.2 to
shows what would happen when photosynthesis begins
P1-curve P is plotted downward 1
P2-this shows the amount of substrate is decreasing 1
P33-this due to the substrate being hydrolyzed by the enzyme MAX 2 1

62

Module Biology Trail Paper Collection


4551/2All Right Reserved
SULIT
SULIT
4551/2
Chapter 4 : Chemical composition in the cell 2013

(c) Explain the shape of curve that you have drawn


P1-when photosynthesis occur , shoot will start to produce sugars which is later store as starch
1
P2-this increase in tha amount of substrate
1

Table 1 shows the enzyme substrate complex molecule at Q where the concentration of the
substrate is X%

P-1 1 2
R-1 1

Based on the graph in diagram 3.1, complete Diagram 3.2 by drawing the substrate molecule
(e) at region P and R

(f) Based on your drawing in diagram 3.2, explain the relationship of the substrate and enzyme
molecule at region P and R
1
P- P1-when the concentration of substrate increase, more substrate molecule bind to active
sites of the enzyme 1
P2-more product will be produced// the rate of reaction is directly propotional to the substrate
concentration 1
R: P3-after the maximum rate , all active sites of the enzyme molecule are filled/engaged 1
P4-the rate of reaction become constant
P5-the concentration of enzyme become the limiting factor 1 5

63

(g) If the concentration of enzyme increase, draw a line to show the enzyme activity in diagram
3.3
Module Biology Trail Paper Collection
4551/2All Right Reserved
SULIT
SULIT
4551/2
Chapter 4 : Chemical composition in the cell 2013

1 1
D-1
(h) Explain your answer in (c)
P1-When the enzyme concentration increases, more substrate will bind to the active site of
1
enzyme
P2-the rate of reaction increase 1 2

(g) Which curve has a higher concentration of enzyme


Curve P
1 1
(h) Explain curve Q
P1-Q has lower concentration of enzyme than P
1
P2-when concentration of substrate increase, the rate of enzyme reaction increase until a
limiting factor, where no enzyme substrate complex is form 1 2
(i) What is the limiting factor of both curve P and Q
How can we increase the rate of enzyme reaction?
P1-concentation of enzyme is the limiting factor

The use of enzyme in daily life and industries Trial Johor 2009 Trial Kedah 2012 Trial Penang 2012

No Marking scheme Marks

Biological enzyme are added to the washing power to boost its effectiveness

(a) Give one example of a biological enzyme of biological enzyme that can be added to washing
powder
Explain the action of this enzyme
F1-Protease/Lipase/Amylase 1
P2-to breakdown//dissolve/hydrolyses protein stain /fat stain / starch stain 1 2
(b) Name the enzyme present in washing powder to remove blood stain
Amylase/protease/lipase
1 1
(c) Suggest one type of enzyme would need to be present in a washing powder design to remove
blood stain
1 1
lipase/protease
64

Module Biology Trail Paper Collection


4551/2All Right Reserved
SULIT
SULIT
4551/2
Chapter 4 : Chemical composition in the cell 2013

(d)

Give two example of enzyme present in biological washing powder that helps in the removal
of food stain from the clothing. State one function of each of the named enzyme 1
F1-Amylase- 1
P1-to hydrolyse starch stains
F1-Lipase 1
P2-to break down oily stains 1
F3-Protease 1
P3-to hydrolyse protein stain ANY 4 F+P 1 2
(e) Enzyme is widely used in daily life and in industries. explain the use of enzyme in the
process of extracting agar from seaweed
1
P1- Cellulase is added
P2-to digest the cell wall of the seaweed to extract agar 1 2
(f) A chef marinate meat with pineapple for 30 minutes before he cook the meat. Explain why
P1-protease/bromelian in fresh pineapple
1
P2-can be used to hydrolyse /tenderize the protein in the meat 1
P3-the meat is marinated with pineapple slices fro 30 minutes to give time for enzyme react 1 3
with protein in the meat ANY2

(g) Enzymes are widely used in our daily life and industries.
Explain how enzymes act in :
To get rid of stains on cloth:
F1- biological detergents contain proteases, amylases and lipases 1
P1- proteases acts on stains containing proteins / blood / saliva 1
P2- amylases acts on stains containing starch / sauces / ice cream/ gravy 1
P3- lipases are effective in removing oil and grease 1
Helping to cook meat:
F2 Protease acts on protein in meat 1 4
P4 tenderize / softens meat 1
(h) Explain example of the application of enzymes in cereal grains product industry
P1-lipase 1
E1-Ripening cheese OR 1
P2-Rennin 1
E2-Solidify milk potien MAX 2 1 2

65

Module Biology Trail Paper Collection


4551/2All Right Reserved
SULIT