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TITLE PAGE

FACTORS AFFECTING DELIVERY OF LIBRARY SERVICES TO


USERS. A CASE STUDY OF BENUE STATE UNIVERSITY
LIBRARY, MAKURDI, BENUE STATE

BY

JENNIFER TERKIMBI

BSU/ED/LIS/12/16211

BEING A PROJECT SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF


LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE IN FULFILLMENT OF
THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF BACHELOR OF
SCIENCE (B.Sc.) DEGREE IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION
SCIENCE, FACULTY OF EDUCATION,
BENUE STATE UNIVERSITY, MAKURDI.

OCTOBER, 2017

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APPROVAL PAGE

This project has been read and approved by the undersigned as having met the
requirement for the award of Bachelor of Science (B.Sc) Degree in Library and
Information Science Benue State University, Makurdi.

-------------------------------------- -----------------------
Dr. David Aju Date
Project Supervisor

-------------------------------------- -----------------------
Prof. M. G. Ochogwu Date

Head of Department

--------------------------------------- -----------------------
Prof. Gbenda, Batur-Laha Date
Dean of Faculty

------------------------------------- -----------------------
External Examiner Date

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DEDICATION

This research work is dedicated to God Almighty

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

My deep appreciation goes to Almighty God for His guidance and protection through

the period of this research. I also give Him the glory for the inspiration to carry out

this research.

A good number of people deserve special appreciation for the assistance and

support they accorded me in the course of this work; prominent among them is my

supervisor Dr. David Aju for his untiring attitude to work which made it possible for

him to read thoroughly each chapter of my work and always made very useful

criticisms that helped the project come out this way.

My appreciation also goes to Prof. M. G. Ochogwu, the Head of Department of

Library and Information Science for his fatherly counsel, both spiritually and

academically. Also worth knowing is Dr. A. B. Abdulrahman, Examination Officer of

Department. The researcher is also indebted to Dr. S.S. Nyam, Dr. C. U. Udofot, Mr.

Akpoo Vanen, Mr. N. Tyonum and all the non-academic staff of the Department of

Library and Information Science for their willingness to assist me whenever they were

approached for guidance.

My special thanks goes to my entire family for their encouragement, support

and understanding during my programme.

Not forgetting my friends and class mates and all those who were of

encouragement and support to me but cannot be mentioned here due to lack of space I

sincerely appreciate you all.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page i

Approval Page ii

Dedication iii

Acknowledgement iv

Table of Content v

List of Tables viii

Abstract ix

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1. Background to the Study 1

1.2. Statement of the Problem 13

1.3. Purpose of the Study 14

1.4. Research Questions 14

1.5. Significance of the Study 15

1.6. Scope of the Study 16

1.7. Operational Definition of Research Concepts 16

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE


2.1. Introduction 18

2.2. Conceptual Framework 19

2.3. Empirical studies 37

2.4. Summary of Literature Review 46

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CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD

3.1. Introduction 48

3.2. Research Design 48

3.3. Area of the Study 48

3.4. Population of the study 48

3.5. Sample and Sampling Technique 49

3.6 Instrumentation 49

3.7. Validation of Instrument 50

3.8. Method of Data Collection 50

3.9. Method of Data Analysis 50

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSES AND PRESENTATION OF THE


FINDINGS

4.1. Introduction 51

4.2. Response Rate 51

4.3. Analysis of Data 52

4.4. Discussion of Findings 60

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CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATION
AND SUGGESTIONS

5.1. Introduction 64

5.2. Summary of Finding 64

5.3. Conclusion 66

5.4. Recommendation 67

5.5. Suggestions for Further Study 68

References 69

Appendix 74

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LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: Response Rate 51

Table 2: Types of library services 52

Table 3: Accessibility of library services 53

Table 4: Level of Utilization of Available Library Services 55

Table 5: Level of satisfaction users derived from library services provided 56

Table 6: Problems encountered by the library in providing library services 58

Table 7: Strategies to enhance the delivery of library services 59

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ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the factors affecting delivery of library services to users. The
study adopted descriptive survey research method and employed a structured
questionnaire as instruments for data collection. The entire population of 13
professional librarians was involved in the study. The study was guided by 6
research questions. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics
which include percentages, frequencies and mean rating. Findings revealed that
services such as lending services, online services, reference services, search
services reservation services among others are provided in the library for users. It
also revealed that, that most library services are accessible to the users.
Furthermore, the study showed that the users highly utilized most of the library
services provided. Problems militating against the delivery of library services to
users were identified to include lack of adequate funding, lack of qualified
personnel, lack of awareness of the existence of information systems, lack of basic
skills and solutions were proffered. It was recommended that more funds should be
made available to the library by parent organizations to enable the library provide
more effective and efficient library services, the university library should ensure
that all library materials and services are made accessible for users, library
materials should be well arranged on the shelves, and each shelf well labeled for
easy retrieval and accessibility as this will enhance the level of utilization, library
services should be given more attention by the library. This would promote the
level of satisfaction the users will derived from the services.

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the study

Libraries are the knowledge and information foundation of any

nation. A library collects, organizes and makes information resources

accessible to all kinds of users regardless of their ages, background and

interests. Islam (2004) defined library as a learned institution equipped with

treasures of knowledge, maintained organized and managed by trained

personnel to educate the children, men and women continuously and assist

in their self improvement through an effective and prompt dissemination of

information. There are different kinds of libraries and each performs

different kinds of functions to meet the determined purpose and needs of the

people they serve (Ode and Omokaro 2007). These libraries include the

following: academic libraries, public libraries, special libraries, school

libraries, and private libraries. Uwaifo (2010) stated that academic libraries

are the ones established and maintained by higher institutions of learning

such as universities, polytechnics, colleges of education, schools of nursing,

petroleum training institutes and schools of health technology. He also noted

that the essence of establishing an academic library is to enable it support

the curriculum of the tertiary institutions which established it. They are

essential part of the learning community. He went further to state that the

academic library is the information nerve centre of its parent body. Aina

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(2004) stated that the main purpose of academic library is to support the

objectives of an academic environment in the areas of learning, teaching and

research service. Jubb and Green (2007) observed that academic libraries

have for centuries played critically important roles in supporting research in

all subjects and disciplines within their host universities and colleges.

Libraries in universities are established to help in achieving their

primary objectives. According to Nok (2006), university libraries have

derived their objectives to include provision of materials for undergraduate

instruction, term papers and projects, support of faculty, external and

collaborative research, personal development, leisure and cooperation with

other academic libraries with the view to developing a network of academic

library resources that are at the disposal of all scholars. Therefore, services

provided by the academic libraries must be planned in relation to the other

faculties in the community they serve. The quality and effectiveness of

academic libraries is connected with services, products, as well as staff,

facilities and space (Pindlowa, 2002). Ugah (2011) is also of the opinion

that quality in the content of a library is often treated as the quality of

service and the quality of service which also affects the effectiveness of the

library is important for each library to survive.

The philosophy of librarianship according to Adeoye and Popoola

(2011) is based on the concept of effective library services and provision of

relevant resources to users. Libraries need to add value to their services

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because of competing online information now readily available. To provide

effective services, libraries must continue to undertake the acquisition,

storage, and dissemination of information in all forms to users in order to

satisfy their needs. Moreover, it is important that libraries organize and

make all forms of recorded knowledge convenient and easy to use. Libraries

must endeavour to interpret and provide adequate guides to the use of its

resources to enable as many readers as possible to use the record and

resources that are available to meet their information needs. The library

needs a supply of sufficient resources and staff in order to process

information delivery quickly and to make it a dependable source for users

most of the time. Lending credence to this, Adeoye and Popoola (2011)

stated that learners must have access to necessary information materials and

resources for learning to take place. University libraries therefore have to

provide the available learning resources continually in order to be able to

provide effective service to their numerous users.

The effectiveness of library services and resources is important and

vital to university libraries. In the opinion of Onuoha, Omokoje and

Bamidele (2013), the effectiveness of the library as a whole can be inferred

from its service provision. Harvey (2004) shares a similar opinion but adds

that it is the extent to which an activity fulfils its intended purpose or

function. A well stocked and efficient library act as eyes or pathfinder for

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researchers and provide them the inspiration to venture into new areas of

research (Leckie, Pettigrew and Sylvain, 1996).

Besides, effective library service and resources should be timely in

delivery, meet specific needs, be easy to understand/use and be delivered by

courteous and knowledgeable staff. Poll (2004) presents an interesting

example of quality of service and resources from the perspective of three

groups of stakeholders: users, financing authorities and library staff. She

pointed out that not all these issues may be aspects of quality, but they are

important for maintaining quality and effectiveness. One primary objective

of a library according to Ajala (1997) is to maximize the intensive use of its

resources and services. Oyewumi (2006) is also of the opinion that when a

library is provided in a school, the extent to which it is utilised is very

important. It is therefore necessary for libraries to examine the effectiveness

of service and resources provided to their users most especially in todays

changing environment and information communication technology (ICT).

Lending credence to this, Webb, Gannon-Leary and Bent (2007) stated that

libraries need to take stock of where they are now, list the services and

resources they currently provide, ask users what they want from the library

and combine the results of these investigation with new ideas and

developments in order to provide a comprehensive and effective service and

resources to users in order to meet their information needs.

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Libraries are essentially learning organisations stimulating academic

and research activities by providing access to world-class information

resources. Traditionally, the success of any library is measured in terms of

the size of its collection, staff, and budget. But in the present day

competitive world, the libraries need to go beyond the traditional modes of

assessments and apply marketing techniques for understanding customer

requirements. Customer focus in services delivery is essential for satisfying

the customers. The success depends on customers' perceptions or judgement

on the quality of products/services provided by the service personnel in

libraries.

University libraries are at the forefront of providing information

services to the different categories of user students, lecturers and

researchers in order to support their teaching, learning and research needs.

Singh and Kaur (2009) noted that preservation and access to knowledge and

information is the main mandate of academic libraries alongside supporting

the mission of their parent

The university libraries in playing their supportive role to the

university education provide necessary resources and services more so in

this information era. These enable the libraries to meet up the needs of their

teaming patrons. Such resources range from print to non-print and electronic

materials in line with what Yusuf and Iwu (2010) asserted that different

users of academic libraries utilize different materials provided by these

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libraries; such materials as reference materials, textbooks, journals,

newspapers, past projects, electronic journals etc. (Nwezeh and Shabi,

2011); also resources like books, journals, newspapers, government

publications, indexes and abstracts as common information materials

provided and utilized by academic libraries.

The services provided to users of individual libraries depend on the

objectives of the parent organization. The services provided in a library will

differ from one library to another but there are certain services that are

common to all libraries as identified by Aina (2004). These services include

but not limited to the following;

Lending services

This is perhaps the most important service provided by a library. It is

essentially a social service in which users of a library have the privilege of

borrowing library materials either for reading or consultation. To promote

equal and fair access to library holdings, lending out library materials is

considered to be very fundamental.

Reservation services

Reservation of library materials is very common in academic

libraries. There are some documents that merit being reserved for use only

in the library because clients heavily use them or they are high-risk

materials that could be stolen or mutilated if they are kept on the open

shelves. Such documents cannot be lent out like other books, such

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documents are kept in a restricted area where they could be loaned out for a

limited period of time. These documents are place in a special location

called reserve collections.

Reference services

Readers are provided this service on request. People have different

reference queries that need to be solved by the librarian. Hence it is

generally a person-to-person service. In many cases, reference processes

involve interviewing the reader to enable the reference librarian articulate

the problem of the user clearly.

Current Awareness Service (CAS)

Strauss et al (1964) defined current awareness service as the

establishment of a system for reviewing publications immediately receipt,

selecting information pertinent to the programme of the organization served

and recording individual items to be brought to the attention of those

persons to whose work are related. This is essentially to keep users up to

date with the happenings in their subject areas of interest. It is to ensure that

users are aware of recent developments in their fields of interest hence users

are informed of latest developments

User Education

The library provides user education in order to equip a user with

enough knowledge on the use of the library. This will enable the user to use

the library resources effectively and efficiently. This is because library

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processes could be so complex that an average user may not easily

comprehend.

Selective Dissemination of Information (SDI)

This type of service is very common in special libraries. The main

objectives of SDI are to provide users (especially in special libraries) with

information that will promote their research and other day-to-day activities.

It also relieves the user of the problem of sieving through a large number of

documents before getting the relevant documents. It is a customized service

which is very common in many academic libraries.

Inter-Library Loan and Documentary Delivery Service

This service involves essentially, transactions between two libraries.

A library which does not have a particular library material desired by one of

its clients will borrow the material requested from another library on behalf

of the client who needs the material.

The rapid growth in the volume of available information and the

continuing technological changes, which have radically affected the way

information is accessed, have already made a significant effect on libraries

and their services. Information is very important to the development of the

individual and of society, and information technology gives considerable

power to those able to access and use it. Despite its rapid growth it is not

available to the majority of the worlds population, and the gap between the

information rich and the information poor continues to widen. By providing

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quality services and satisfaction to users, academic and research librarians

can distinguish their services through friendly, helpful, and knowledgeable

advice and the best technological resources available. Because academic

library users have varying needs and expectations, it is the responsibility of

the library staff to know these needs and expectations and strive to meet

them.

In this regard, Millson-Martula and Menon (1995) maintain that one

of the elements of quality service is when users personal needs and

expectations are incorporated into the development of programs and services

of libraries. Whether this will lead to greater usage of library facilities is,

however, unclear given the options available to the users. This research,

therefore, addresses the usage of academic libraries. In particular, it

addresses the role of effective service delivery and other factors offered by

an academic library to explain library usage.

Libraries are service oriented organizations established for the

provision of relevant information resources and quality services to meet

their users information needs. Sowole (1995) noted that users are described

as the reason for existence of the library. Meeting the information needs of

users requires the provision of the actual information resources and services

that will satisfy the needs of users. Simmonds and Andaleeb (2001) argued

that providing quality services in academic libraries is now a major issue

among academic librarians; they see the library more in terms of the

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provision of and access to service quality than as just a physical place.

Technology and automation have also changed the way people perceive

libraries. As a result, the roles of libraries and librarians themselves have

been re-evaluating their role as reflected in many literatures. They

emphasize the provision of good library service as more important to the

users than the mere physical library building.

It is very important to harmonise the different departments and

functions of the library if the entire library must progress smoothly toward

its goals of unleashing its resources for effective provision of services to the

library users. This important activity is achieved by means of coordination,

which is a management function that is closely linked to the managerial

variable of organization. Coordination represents the process of integrating

all the parts and functions of an organization in order to enhance smooth and

mutual operation toward the attainment of organizational goals (Hartzell,

2006). The different departments of a university library like acquisition,

cataloguing, circulation and bindery, which make up the university library,

perform different but interrelated functions none of which, alone, is

sufficient to enable the organization achieve its set goals. The creation of

departments helps to enhance specialization and organized functioning for

the common good of all the parts.

Direction is yet another management function worthy of mention. It is

the totality of actions of managers relating to instructions to subordinates in

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the methods and procedures and to the supervision of the work of

subordinates to ensure that it is being performed properly. Although

directing is generally associated with line supervisors, every manager

undertakes it to some degree as he rises up within the organizational

hierarchy, assuming other management functions. To be effective, a

directive must be not only consistent with the overall goals of the

organization but also reasonable and clear. Clarity of directives relates to the

need for effective communication in the work place. Communication is a

flow of information that people use to pass messages from one person to

another. The crucial place of communication lies in the fact that it is the

basis of collaborative action which is the essence of organizational

performance where different departments and officials have to perform

different but interdependent tasks. When every staff has clear understanding

of the expectations of his office, and other relevant information relating to

the organization, this reduces ambiguity and the tendency to spread rumour.

Proper communication enhances the quality of supervision in the university

library because it promotes release of clear instructions and adequate flow of

information up and down the hierarchy (Tyons and York, 1996).

Observations by the researcher coupled with studies like the ones by

Ngalla (2007), Etuk (2008), and Akor (2009) provide an insight into the

management practices in university libraries on the African continent, and

particularly in Nigerian university libraries. Nigerian university libraries are

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plagued by various problems, one of which relates to problems of anti-

library policies. Such policies include management policies that restrict the

freedom of the university librarians to develop library services. Actions

regarding the library are dictated by the Vice-Chancellor or his deputy.

Added to these anomalies are inadequacies concerning the management of

funds, including haphazard allocations to the library. Moreover, the

university libraries are faced with lack of adequate staff development

policies. Etuk (2008) identified inadequate management practices relating to

planning, organizing, staffing and coordinating functions as key problems

plaguing Nigerian university libraries which hamper the availability of

information resources.

Thus, the availability of resources can have a significant influence on

user satisfaction. It is important to note, however, that the quality of the

resources may be judged from an overall perception as to whether the

library can provide access to materials (e.g., through interlibrary loans or

other document delivery services) when and where needed. It is this overall

perception of a librarys resources that contributes to user satisfaction.

Constant evaluation of the university libraries use is the surest way of

ensuring that information is obtained so as to ascertain whether the library is

meeting its expected goals, so that adjustments should be made where

necessary for effective information service delivery. In consonance with this,

the purpose of evaluation, as declared by Knighty (as cited in Ogunrobi, 2012)

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is to gather information on how the library is accomplishing its objectives with

a view to improving the delivery of library services.

1.2 Statement of the problem

There is no doubt that no academic system can achieve its educational

goals without sound library and information resources and services. The

mission of the academic library is to make information resources available

for use by students and researchers through utilization of appropriate means

and technology. Students are expected to maximally utilize the library as

their main source of information to support their learning and knowledge

acquisition activities. However, from observation it was established that

most students do not make use of the library for their academic work. Again,

during presentation of research projects by students, majority of them are

unable to provide adequate literature in support of their research. It was

understood that students are not making use of the library resources and

services to enhance their performance.

The success of any academic institution today is tied to a well

equipped library because the library is heart of any academic institution and

must strive to survive and grow their user base focusing on meeting their

users expectations by providing effective and efficient services to the users.

However the researcher observed during her regular visit to the library to

read that Benue State University Library is finding it difficult to deliver

effective services to her users.

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It is against this background that the researcher deemed it fit to

investigate the factors affecting delivery of library services to users; a case

study of Benue State University, Library.

1.3 Purpose of the study

The general purpose of the study is to establish the factors affecting

delivery of library services to users.

The following are the specific objectives of the study.

1. to find out the types of library services offered by the library.

2. to find out the level of accessibility of library services.

3. to find out the level of utilization of available library services by

users.

4. to ascertain the level of satisfaction of library services by users.

5. to find out the problems encountered by the library in providing

library services.

6. to identify the strategies for enhancing effective delivery of library

services.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions were formulated to guide the

researcher in the course of carrying out the research work.

1. What are the types of library services provided by the library?

2. What is the level of accessibility of library services?

3. What is the level of utilization of available library services by users?

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4. What level of satisfaction do users derived from library services

provided?

5. What are the problems encountered by the library in providing library

and information services?

6. What are the strategies to enhance effective delivery of library services?

1.5 Significance of the study

The findings of the study would be useful to the policy makers at the

Ministry of Education since it will provide a comprehensive analysis on the

factors that influence service delivery in the academic libraries. The findings

of this study will as well be of importance to the various stakeholders,

specifically the administration, the lecturers, the students and the librarians.

To the administration, it will provide a feedback of the students need

for their required information services to support their various programmes.

To the lecturers, it will form the basis to shift emphasis of education from

instructing activities to learning activities.

Lecturers will be relieved of the burden of preparing notes by

adopting student-focused learning. To the students, the findings will form

the basis for self-directed learning process focused on goal-directed, in-

depth learning which is oriented to problem-solving, and decision-making;

learning embedded in real-life tasks and activities for thinking and

communicating, and learning that is built on students prior knowledge and

experiences that prepares them for life-long learning. To the librarians, the

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findings will form the basis for acquiring the needed information resources

that will develop students to be self-directed learners. This will relieve the

librarians the burden of repetitive tasks of assisting individual students in

information seeking tasks

Finally, this study will contribute to literature and form a base for

further studies on the factors affecting delivery of library services to users in

the libraries.

1.6 Scope of the Study

The content scope of the study will cover factors affecting delivery of

library services to users; a case study of Benue State University Library

under the following variables: the library services offered by the academic

library; the level of accessibility of library services; the level of utilization of

available library services by users; the level of satisfaction users derived

from the services; the problems encountered by the library in providing

library and information services and the strategies to enhance effective

academic library services delivery. While the geographical scope is limited

to the Benue State University Library.

1.7 Definition of Research Terms

Factors: Factors are constituents or elements that bring about certain

effects or results.

Service delivery: Is a component of business that defines the interaction

between providers and clients where the provider offers a service,

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whether that be information or a task, and the client either finds value

or loses value as a result.

Users: Users in case refers to those who use the library for one reason or

the other. Example students

Library Services: Library services are the services offered to library users

by the library. They include circulation services, charging and discharging

of information resources, reference services among others.

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CHAPTER TWO

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1 Introduction

The chapter presents review of literature under the following sub-

headings.

2.2 Conceptual Framework

2.2.1 The Concept of Library Services

2.2.2 Provision of Library Services in Academic Library

2.2.3 Accessibility of Library services in Academic Library

2.2.4 Utilization of Library services in Academic Library

2.2.5 Challenges hindering the Provision of Library Services by the Academy

library

2.2.6 Strategies to overcome factors affecting the provision of library services

2.3 Review of Empirical Studies

2.4 Summary of the Reviews

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2.2 Conceptual Framework

2.2.1 The Concept of Library Services

According to Aina (2004), library services are those services that are

provided by library and information centres through the assistance of library

staff and other information professionals. These services include; lending

services, inter-library loan service and document delivery, reference

services, current awareness service, selective dissemination of information,

referral services, extension and outreach services etc. The provision of

library and information services is one of the fundamental goal of any

library and information service. The provision of library services is very

crucial and indispensable to any form of education, elementary, tertiary and

eventually life long learning.

Odunsanya and Amusa (2004) concludes that a library provides an

atmosphere for self education and self development of individual students

and the general public. The provision of services in libraries should be based

on evaluation of users needs and all services should be within the reach of

every library user towards satisfying their information needs.

According to Ubogu (2006), the term library services and information

services are often used interchangeably to mean the something. Library

services are those services that are offered to library patrons or users with

the assistance of library staff in order to meet their information needs. Such

library services include: current awareness services (CAS), selective

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dissemination of information (SDI) reference services, referral services,

inter-library loan, etc. These services are usually offered to users to keep

them abreast, refer a user to specific item of information or where to find

such information as well as provide information based on request.

American Library Association ALA (2000) defines information

services as those services that are provided by libraries to support the

educational, recreational, personal and economic endeavours of members of

their respective communities. Information services in libraries take a variety

of forms including direct personal assistance, directories, signs, exchange of

information culled from a reference source, readers advisory service etc.

These information services should take into account the information seeking

behaviours, the information needs and the service expectations of members

of the community.

Information services in academic libraries are the various ways and

means by which information professionals provide, organize, store, retrieve

and disseminate information to researchers and or users generally. The

variety of information services offered by any library depends to a great

extent on the quality and experience of the librarians. It is in relation to this

analysis that Aju and Ape (2011) noted that a library is concerned with the

acquisitions, processing, storage, retrieval and dissemination of recorded

information for the purpose of reading, study and consultation.

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Conventionally, information services include bibliography

compilation, indexing, abstracting, selective dissemination of information,

current awareness service etc which makes it possible for researchers to

access required information without delay from the printed information

resources. With the availability of ICT in libraries, the above mentioned

services are provided with relative ease through the internet facilities. That

is why it becomes mandatory for all academic libraries to combine the

provision of both conventional and modern information resources so as to

meet todays information demand of the researchers.

2.2.2 Provision of Library Services in Academic Library

Providing services in academic libraries is now a major issue among

academic librarians; they see the library more in terms of the provision of

and access to service quality than as just a physical place. Technology and

automation have also changed the way people perceive libraries. As a result,

the role of libraries and librarians is also changing. Librarians themselves

have been re-evaluating their role as reflected in many discussions and

papers. They emphasize the provision of good library service as more

important to the user than the mere physical library building. Access to

information provided by libraries is seen as more important than the

materials physically available in a library.

The philosophy of librarianship according to Adeoye and Popoola

(2011) is based on the concept of library services and provision of relevant

30
resources to users. Libraries need to add value to their services because of

competing online information now readily available. To provide services,

libraries must continue to undertake the acquisition, storage, and

dissemination of information in all forms to users in order to satisfy their

needs. Moreover, it is important that libraries organize and make all forms

of recorded knowledge convenient and easy to use. Libraries must endeavor

to interpret and provide adequate guides to the use of its resources to enable

as many readers as possible to use the record and resources that are available

to meet their information needs. The library needs a supply of sufficient

resources and staff in order to process information delivery quickly and to

make it a dependable source for users most of the time. Lending credence to

this, Adeoye and Popoola (2011) stated that learners must have access to

necessary information materials and resources for learning to take place.

University libraries therefore have to provide the available learning

resources continually in order to be able to provide effective service to their

numerous users.

The provision of library services is important and vital to university

libraries. In the opinion of Onuoha, Omokoje and Bamidele (2013), the

patronage of the library as a whole can be inferred from its service

provision. Harvey (2004) shares a similar opinion but adds that it is the

extent to which an activity fulfils its intended purpose or function. A well

31
stocked and efficient library act as eyes or pathfinder for researchers and

provide them the inspiration to venture into new areas of research.

Libraries of today are in a situation where they face competition from

other information providers. Information Communication Technology (ICT)

has bought a revolution to search for new information (Barik, 2013) and

according to Pool (2009), ICT does not change information that users need,

but changes the way in which it is being delivered. Thus, libraries can only

distinguish themselves through service provision and availability of

adequate, qualitative and updated resources. According to Lancaster (1993),

the overall criterion of effectiveness is the proportion of user demands that

are satisfied bearing in mind that satisfaction is related to personal needs.

Effectiveness of library service is often associated with judgment on

how well a service is performing by the direct user of that service.

Therefore, accessing effectiveness of service from users perspective is

important to the university library. Nwalo (1997) in his contribution to the

subject also agreed that library effectiveness should be measured in terms of

the satisfaction expressed by library users. Buckland (1999) submits that

considering the effectiveness of library services in the absence of the user

would have little meaning and less benefit. Each user evaluates the quality

of services received and decides when there will be further interaction with

that organization, library inclusive (Altman and Hernon, 1998). In effect,

library service can best be judged in terms of personal satisfaction of the

32
user. Besides, effective library service and resources should be timely in

delivery, meet specific needs, be easy to understand/use and be delivered by

courteous and knowledgeable staff. Poll (2004) presents an interesting

example of quality of service and resources from the perspective of three

groups of stakeholders: users, financing authorities and library staff. She

pointed out that not all these issues may be aspects of quality, but they are

important for maintaining quality and effectiveness. One primary objective

of a library according to Ajala (1997) is to maximize the intensive use of its

resources and services. Oyewumi (2006) is also of the opinion that when a

library is provided in a school, the extent to which it is utilized is very

important. It is therefore necessary for libraries to examine the effectiveness

of service and resources provided to their users most especially in todays

changing environment and information communication technology (ICT).

Lending credence to this, Webb, Gannon-Leary and Bent (2007) stated that

libraries need to take stock of where they are now, list the services and

resources they currently provide, ask users what they want from the library

and combine the results of these investigation with new ideas and

developments in order to provide a comprehensive and effective service and

resources to users in order to meet their information needs. The ease with

which the user gets their required materials in the library is a reflection of

how adequate the resources of the library are to their needs. In meeting the

users needs, the personal public relation of the staff is a crucial factor,

33
which must not be overlooked. Evidence of willingness to help, and ability

to meet personal needs are part of parameters that determines if the user is

satisfied. The library therefore needs to satisfy its users and to prove to its

funding and accrediting bodies that it is worth investment.

2.2.3 Accessibility of Library Services in Academic Library

In each society there are facilities other than classrooms that can

contribute in no small measure to teaching and learning processes. For

learning to take place learners must have access to necessary information

materials, (resources) and services. They have to interact with tangible and

intangible resources and institution to ensure same levels of performance. In

an academic environment the library is the main source of information.

Accessibility of information resources is an important recurring theme in the

literature.

According to Aguolu and Aguolu (2002) resources may be available

in the library and even identified bibliographically as relevant to ones

subject of interest, but the user may not be able to lay hands on them. The

more accessible information sources are the more likely they are to be used.

Readers tend to use information sources that require the least effort to

access. Aguolu and Aguolu (2002) in date notes that availability of

information sources does not necessarily imply its accessibility, because the

34
source may be available but access to it prevented for one reason or the

other.

Information Access

In Library and Information Science Research, Information can be

seen as a consumable product that can only be consumed together with

certain information delivery systems and services. Access is used to describe

the degree to which a system is useable by a wide range of users as possible.

In other words, it is the degree of ease with which it is possible to reach a

certain location from other locations.

Ndagana (2000) in his opinion noted that the term access is used by

different people in relation to quite bits and piece of the whole as in subject

open access and knowledge system. However, each refers to one or more

aspects of providing means of access to information. According to Oxford

Dictionary Information Access can be defined as the ability, right or

permission to approach, enter or use particular information. It can also be

defined as the insurance of free and closed access to information. Board of

Trustees of the pikes library Districts respect and affirms the individual right

to access information in the library. According to American library

Association All libraries are forums for information ideas.

According to Abayode (2004) Information provides access to

knowledge and works of imagination through a range of resources and

35
services. And information should be equally available to all members of the

community regardless of race, nationality, age, gender, religion, language,

disability, employment status and educational attainment.

Any Library in the business of providing services to its users group to

be functional, the services provided should be easily accessible by the users.

The satisfaction of library user is a function of the quality of information

product(s) received, the quality of information system and Library provided

to access the information product. Therefore, satisfaction is a function of

three main sources; quality of information product, the information system

and the services that make the information product available. These three

levels of measure of satisfaction are defined by the information resources,

facilities and the services.

2.2.4 Utilization of Library Services in Academic Library

The academic library is the nerve centre or the hub around which

scholarship revolves. It is an indispensable instrument for intellectual

development. A well stocked academic library is a storehouse of

information, or a record of human experience to which users may turn to for

data or information. Oyesiku and Oduwole (2004) assert that in academic

communities, libraries are indispensable. Guskin (1996) notes that the use of

university libraries promotes active learning, thus contributing to students

ability to think critically and work well independently or in group. An

36
academic environment without a library is tantamount to a person without a

brain.

It would be pertinent to discover whether academic libraries are

indeed living up to their objectives. The effectiveness and efficiency of

services provided in academic libraries are mainly determined by library

users. Behling and Cudd (1967) assert that the library user is regarded as the

most logical source to determine whether the library is playing its role

satisfactorily or not. Perera (2005) submits that satisfying user needs is

essential to the management of libraries. The management staff of a library

should be aware of the current needs of their users, which may vary from

one library to another as well as from time to time. Therefore, carrying out

regular surveys on user needs at regular intervals on various aspects of

library usage will be an invaluable guide in determining the future directions

of library developments.

Popoola (2001) observes that information availability does not mean

accessibility and use and that academic libraries should stimulate primary

demand for their products and services. This view is upheld by Mason

(2010), who opines that librarians must be sympathetic and helpful to all

students on the one hand and that on the other hand, students must be aware

that librarians and faculty members are there to instruct and encourage their

intellectual odyssey and should be seen as facilitators.

37
Inazu (2009) suggested that libraries should produce and circulate

newsletters, which should contain information on new services and list of

tittles. Also in her opinion she regarded radio, television and readership

promotion campaign as a very effective strategy in marketing library

services. Libraries should have a slot or quiz in television and radio so as to

announce library issues especially on their products and services. Television

and radio is a very effective method to reach several users. The radio is very

effective because it is very cheap and cost effective. Some academic

institutions now have radio stations. Libraries can embrace this

opportunities and inform and educate users about their various products and

services.

Several authors have written on the use of academic library. Amkpa

(2000) in his study of the use of the University of Maiduguri Library

discovered that a majority of students did not use the library effectively

because they did not use the library catalogues.

In a study on students and faculty use of academic libraries in

Nigeria, with particular reference to Delta State University, Okiy (2000)

found that respondents used books more than other materials and that they

browsed the shelves to locate these materials.

A lot of studies have been carried out on library use. This is so

because it is the users that make the library and its services come alive.

Akinade (2000) observed that the expectation of people are high when

38
sourcing and retrieving information and when such information needs are

not met, frustration usually set in and this may drive the user away from the

library. In the sense of this, utilization of information resources means the

usefulness of information or making proper use of information resources in

order to achieve a desired result (BBC English dictionary, 2002). It is also

the extend of usage of the available information resources and services that

facilitate improvement in the standard of academic performance of the

clienteles. It therefore implies that information resource utilization is a

function of how proper the resources are organized and made available for

use.

Utilization of information resources and services is usually

determined by the library statistic which shows the number of materials

consulted and those actually borrowed for home reading, which constitutes

the statistics of consulted resources which represents the actual utilization of

the resources. Akande (2003) noted that the use of library information

resources is uppermost in the minds of the university libraries as this will

enable the management know how best they can serve their users.

Therefore, Benue State University Library has to market their resources and

services to attract users. Osinulu (2008) also confirmed in her study that low

use of the library resource is due to lack of awareness on the parts of users.

Ozoemelem (2009) on the other hand, stated that informed library users

know that libraries have resources that are more comprehensive and

39
scholarly than most websites provide, but the problem is that these resources

are not straightforward like that on the webs. Oyesika and Oduwole (2004)

studies on the use of academic libraries revealed that students use the library

mostly during examination period.

In a study conducted by Igun and Adogbeji (2007) among university

students, many of them claim that their main purpose of using the library

information resource is to update their knowledge and skills. The use of

information resources and services is thus indispensable to the users in order

to achieve their academic objectives. As a result, Olofinsawe and Oyeniyi

(2010) affirmed that academic libraries have to build strong collection of

information resources in physical and digital format to cater for knowledge

requirements of their users.

2.2.5 Challenges hindering the Provision of Library Services by the Academy

library

Poor funding: Money is the tendon that attaches the academic library to

effective information service provision. Money is needed for the acquisition

of information and communication technology equipment, for internet

subscriptions, staff training, emolument and maintenance. The strength of a

library lies in its information resources both print and online. Funds are

needed to cater for a whole range of services in the library of the 21st

century yet government subventions in the education sector are not

adequate. Nwalo (2000), states that problems inhibiting IT applications by

40
African libraries include apathy and inadequate government funding.

Funding is essential to excellent library services. Suffice it to say that,

scarcity of funds has always been a primary hindrance to several noble

pursuits.

Lack of competency: Some librarians in Nigeria are not competent to take

on the challenging role of the 21st century information service delivery.

They are averse to technology and perceive the application of computers to

library work as an aberration. This being the case, they are reluctant to

embrace new technology. Tanawade (2011) asserts that many librarians lack

confidence in the face of increasing information technology. This slows

service delivery and retards productivity. Hayati and Jowkar (2008) opine

that the most problematic factors which slow down the adoption of

information technologies stem from unfamiliarity of academic librarians and

users with computers and searching databases.

Lack of technology literacy: Some professional librarians lack the requisite

technological literacy needed for a 21st century library service.

Technological literacy can be viewed as the ability to responsibly use

appropriate technology to communicate, solve problems, access, manage,

integrate, evaluate, design and create information to improve learning in all

subject areas and acquire life long knowledge and skills in the 21st century.

Edem (2008), states that the major challenge facing the 21st century library

is not only underfunding but the poor performance of librarians and

41
information professionals in the developing countries as a result of poor ICT

skills. Lack of basic skills in the use of information technology has become

a clog to better library services. Anyira (2011) adds that librarians without a

well developed ICT skill cannot render effective library services, thus, lack

of skills among librarians constitute a major obstacle to service delivery in

the 21stcentury.

Poor internet connectivity: In a digital library, the internet plays a primary

role in digital information but equitable access to the internet in Nigerian

academic libraries is yet to be realized. The existing internet connections for

most people are slow. Olabude (2007) states that there are many constraints

that led to the poor internet development in Africa, one of this is the initial

capital outlay to install internet facilities. This is because almost all the

African countries are experiencing huge debts and foreign exchange

required to purchase the facilities are lacking. Chigbu and Dim (2012)

further asserts that there is no efficient telecommunication and power supply

base to serve as spring board for the development of internet services in

Africa. Where they are available, the expensive nature of the services is

another huge factor.

Inadequate power supply: The Nigerian power situation is in deplorable

condition. There is constant power outage which has frustrated effective

provision of information services. Most libraries rely on alternative source

of electricity such as power generating machines to function. However,

42
these machines are fraught with problems of maintenance, high cost of

diesel and petrol. The resultant effect has been the provision of epileptic

services. According to Adepetun (2012), the pangs of power supply crisis in

the country have found expression in the expenditure profile, as most

organizations expend huge amount of money providing alternative power

supply. These alternatives include generators, solar system, green

technology, turbine gas among others. The library as an organization is not

divorced from this anomaly. Effective information service delivery cannot

thrive in this type of scenario.

2.2.6 Strategies to overcome factors affecting the provision of library services

It is a known fact that libraries have witnessed significant changes in

recent years. This change which is brought about by information and

communication technologies has impacted on the mode of providing

information services. The traditional methods of information dissemination

have given way to electronic means of communication. While the

developments and application of ICT in library operations have improved

and facilitated the dissemination of information and access, it has equally

provided new roles in information provision, dissemination and transfer.

The librarian no longer plays a passive role rather he assumes an active role.

He is no longer a custodian of books but the gate way to a myriad of

information sources. Haber (2011) posits that while providing books was a

standalone function for libraries throughout the last few centuries, their

43
offerings have evolved with the digital age to meet the changing needs of

their patrons.

Academic libraries in Nigeria are not divorced from this technology

revolution. As information providers, they are constantly under pressure to

provide relevant sources of information to their immediate communities.

Technology enables change and technology enforces change. According to

Bales (1999), librarians, staff and patrons must make a number of

adjustments as a result of any library automation project, whether it is an

original implementation or a migration. One key area is the relationship

between people and technology. People have to change the way they behave

and think to work effectively in an automated environment.

This means that academic libraries are compelled to incorporate

digital sources in order to remain at the fore of information provision and

dissemination. Nowadays, students and faculty have developed greater

preference for electronic information than manually driven systems. The

increased availability of digital information has caused students to find

alternative means of study and research with the aid of laptops and cell

phones. Digital technology has reduced the importance and usage of

libraries in developing countries. Ugah (2007) asserts that the acquisition of

information online using PCs such as laptops and palmtops and even

phones is proving to be detrimental to academic libraries in terms of

patronage. Patrons no longer depend on the academic library as an essential

44
part of their learning and research rather they are beginning to see the library

as one of those facilities a university or college should have. Libraries must

of a necessity strive to retain their patrons and be at the peak of providing

information sources that suit the demands of present day information

seekers. There is need therefore to ensure that the academic library

continues to soar high in information generation, provision and

dissemination. The library cannot function effectively without the librarians

who are the human resources that determine effectiveness in service

delivery.

The 21st century is the millennium of information. It is also seen as

the era of explosion of information output and information sources. In the

21st century academic library, the emergence of ICT has redefined the

librarys role. Print materials are no longer sufficient to store information.

CD-ROM, databases, electronic document delivery, automated cataloguing,

circulation systems and online information retrieval (OPAC) have become

the order of the day. Eguavoen (2011) citing Ostrow (1998) admits that the

advent of the internet, digitization and the ability to access library and

research materials from remote locations have also created dramatic changes

by the end of the 20thcentury.

Nigerian academic libraries in the 21st century must gradually change

to fit into their clients information seeking patterns. As the traditional

custodian of information, librarians in the 21st century need to be aware of

45
these significant changes and as such employ their technological know-how

and intellectual masterpiece in order to retain the leading role of the

academic libraries in supporting teaching, learning and research. This means

that the 21st century librarian will have to be armed with competent skills

that will enhance the provision of effective library services to meet clients

changing information needs. Literature abound on the competencies and

skills needed for the 21st century library professional. Omekwu (2003),

mentions basic knowledge of computers and their capabilities; Competency

with search engines; internet facilities; e-mail; internet navigator tools, web

browsers and web file formats; database software; internet development and

management know-how. Also, some of the 21stcentury skills according to

Krishnan (2011) include communication and collaboration, creativity and

innovation, critical thinking and problem solving, media literacy, ICT

literacy, flexibility and adaptability. The skills aforementioned are familiar

with us; the challenge is how to harness these skills for effective library

services.

2.3 Review of Empirical Studies

This subsection is centered on the review of some related empirical

studies to this research work. A number of research work and studies have

been conducted which are related to the present study both in Nigeria and

other parts of the world. The following empirical studies were considered

relevant.

46
Idachaba (2005) examined the effectiveness of library and

information system effectiveness: a user satisfaction approach. The aims of

the study were (1) To determine the availability of library materials (2) To

determine which library services/ products adequately meets the information

needs of library users. Survey designs were employed and were collected

from two hundred and fifty (250) respondents comprising students and

lecturers. Questionnaire was used as instrument for data was collection.

Analysis of data collected was done using percentage and the frequencies.

The result showed that more than half (60%) of the respondents indicated

that important library materials in their fields were available and reference

services were also satisfactory. She however noted that this would suggest a

very low threshold of satisfaction since an insignificant (25.5%) number of

the respondents used the library most frequently. A result from the study

also shows that both the services of circulation and reference of the library

remain deficient and unfavorable. 60% of the respondents were of the

opinion that acquiring current journals and internet services could improve

the system.

The study reviewed above relate to the present study in the sense that

it also dealt with a similar subject matter. The study employed the use of

questionnaire as the instrument for data collection this study too will use the

questionnaire to collect data and the same design which is survey design.

The study employed direct delivery in collecting the data which were

47
analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies this present study will

also employ the same methods. However there are dissimilarities in sample

population the study reviewed above sampled 250 respondents while this

present study intends to use the whole population.

A study was conducted by Ajileye Laogun (2015) on the link

between students perception of librarians and the rate at which they

approach them for their services at Obafemi Awolowo University in Ile-Ife,

Nigeria. A questionnaire survey was used for data collection from the

students in nine out of the eleven faculties of the university. The survey

shows that there is a strong link between the librarians attitudes towards

Students rate at which they consult them for services and information.

From the above finding, it is vindicated that the librarians attitudes to

a very great extent, determines the patronage of users in the library. When

librarians are friendly and welcoming including being helpful, users are

encouraged into the library, while in a library where the librarians are

unfriendly and lazy, users are driven away. The personality of the librarian

determines the rate of utilization of the library by its users. She or he should

be friendly, humorous, intelligent and professionally good. Then, the user

will be convinced that there is an approachable and reliable information

expert in that library. If they are so drawn to the library by the mien of the

librarian, they will then be able to browse through the books and thus

48
become aware of the availability of materials relevant to their studies and

research. Thus, the use of the collections increases.

A study conducted by Francesca Irene Ofodile and Goodluck I. Ifejeh

(2013) on current trends in library patronage by faculties in Nigerian

Universities: A Study of Ladoke Akintola University, Ogbomosho,

Nigeria. A questionnaire survey investigates library patronage by faculties

of Ladoke Akintola University, Ogbomosho, Nigeria. Three hundred and

fifty (350) respondents were selected using stratified random sampling out

of a total population of 700 from six facilities.

The study revealed that there was significant relationship between

library patronage of lecturers and level of awareness. The study also found

that majority of respondents used the library very frequently and most of the

respondents used the library daily for class preparation, to seek information

for general knowledge and specific interest. The study identified

unavailability and inaccessibility of current information materials, poor

reference and document delivery services etc as barriers to library

patronage.

The above study finally concluded that stocking a balanced collection

of information materials has been the major concern in Nigerian

universities. This has been as a result of low budget allocation by the

government as well as fluctuations in exchange rate. It is vital that librarians

49
match the needs of patrons specifically lecturers to the available information

materials and services. It is believed that these materials and services are the

major components of the library system upon which the library services are

hinged. The visitation of these available materials indicates how effective a

library is, hence its extent of patronage. The respondents were fully aware of

the available materials and services, and those materials were utilized for

different purposes.

For university libraries to continue to meet up with the expectation of

facilities in the face of the current wave in technological advancement there

is the need for increased funding of university libraries in order to cope with

modern day academic challenges. Libraries should endeavor to stock current

and relevant materials especially journals and electronic media resources.

The study reviewed above is akin to the present study in the sense

that it also dealt with a similar subject matter. The study employed the use

of questionnaire as the instrument for data collection in this present study

too the researcher intends to use the questionnaire as instrument for data

collection. The study employed direct delivery in collecting the data which

were analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies this present study

will also employ the same method of data collection and analysis. However

there are dissimilarities in the sample population the study reviewed above

sampled 350 respondents from a total population of 700 while this study

intends to use the whole population. The above study used stratified random

50
sampling while they will be no sampling in the present study since the

whole population is going to be used.

In a similar study conducted by Nnamdi Emmanuel Onyekweodiri &

Amaoge Dorathy Agbo (2015) titled Utilization of Library Resources by

Veterinary Medicine Students in Two Federal Universities in South-East

Zone of Nigeria. The study investigated the extent of library utilization by

students of veterinary medicine in two federal universities in south-east zone

of Nigeria. It sought to find out the library resources required by veterinary

medicine students, the library services available for veterinary medicine

students and extent of library resource utilization by the veterinary medicine

students. A descriptive survey design was used for the study with a

population of 1250 undergraduate students of veterinary medicine. Sample

size of 250 (20%) of the population was used for the study. The instrument

for data collection was structured questionnaire and observation checklist.

Percentages, mean scores and frequency tables were used in analyzing the

data. The result obtained from the findings revealed that library resources

required by the students ranges from newspapers, magazines, current

awareness services, journals, online resources related to veterinary medicine

to many more. The result also revealed that Library services in both

institutions under study are inadequate resulting in students apathy to the

library.

51
The study reviewed above relate to the present study in the sense that

it also dealt with a similar subject matter. The study employed the use of

questionnaire as the instrument for data collection which were analyzed

using simple percentages and frequencies this present study will also

employ the same instrument (questionnaire) and the same research design

which is survey design. The study employed direct delivery in collecting the

data the present study will also employ same. However there are

dissimilarities in sample population the study reviewed above sampled 250

respondents from a total population of 1250 while this present study intend

to use the whole population hence they will be no sampling.

In another study carried out by Nkamnebe, E.C; Udem, O.K; and

Nkamnebe, C.B "Evaluation of The Use of University Library Resources

and Services By The Students Of Paul University, Awka, Anambra State,

Nigeria" (2014). The study adopted descriptive survey research method and

employed a structured questionnaire and observations as instruments for

data collection. The entire population of 276 students of Paul University

Awka was involved in the study. The study was guided by 6 research

questions. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics

which include percentages, frequencies and mean rating. Findings revealed

that students fairly use the library for their studies. Observation shows that

they use the library most during examination periods. It also revealed that

52
resources currently available are fairly adequate and fairly accessible to the

students.

Furthermore, the study revealed that users are satisfied with the

services and facilities provided by the library. Problems militating against

effective use of the University Library by the students were identified and

solutions were proffered. It was recommended among others that the habit

of using the Library should be inculcated into students through avenues such

as organizing library display, library exhibition, library orientation, and

inclusion of use of library as a course in the Universitys curriculum so as to

attract students to the Library.

The study reviewed above is related to the present study in the sense

that it also dealt with a similar subject matter. The study employed the use

of questionnaire and observations as the instruments for data collection this

study too intends to use the questionnaire and the same research design

which is survey design. The study employed direct delivery in collecting the

data which were analyzed using simple percentages, frequencies and mean

rating this present study will also employ the same thing. Also the whole

population was involved and this present study too will use the whole

population.

Also Eze J.U. and Uzoigwe C.U (2013) carried out a study titled The

place of academic libraries in Nigerian University Education: contributing to

53
the Education for All initiative. The objectives of the study were to find

out the different services offered by the university library in support of

university education; library and information resources provided by the

libraries; factors that pose problems to these libraries; and strategies for

enhancing these library and information services. In the descriptive survey,

about 132 librarians in seven university libraries three federal and four

state universities in the South-east Nigeria were used for the study. Multiple

choice questionnaires was used to collect data. 122 copies of the

questionnaire were correctly filled, returned and used for analysis. Data

were analyzed using frequencies and percentages and presented in tables.

Findings showed that most of the university libraries provided a variety of

services reference, internet, interlibrary loans in support of university

education; a variety of library and information resources textbooks,

newspapers and magazines and others. Findings further showed that factors

like poor funding, poor infrastructure and low level of computer literacy

amongst librarians etc. posed problems while strategies like adequate

funding of the libraries, training of librarians in electronic skills and

improved infrastructural facilities could alleviate these problems and

enhance these libraries support for the target Education for All.

The study reviewed above relate to the present study in the sense that

it also dealt with a similar subject matter. The study employed the use of

questionnaire as the instrument for data collection this study too intends to

54
use the questionnaire and the same research design which is survey design.

The study employed direct delivery in collecting the data which were

analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies this present study will

also employ the same methods of data collection and analysis. However

there are dissimilarities in sample population the study reviewed above

sampled 250 respondents from a total population of 1250 while this present

study intend to use the whole population hence they will be no sampling.

2.4 Summary of the Reviews

The review of the literature is based largely on documentary sources,

a great deal of which comprised of books, journal articles mostly published

abroad with very few books, journal; articles of African and Nigerian origin.

Research evidence from this review of literatures shows that the library

resources and services have not been satisfactory delivered to the majority

of the users. Research works carried out identified several problems facing

library resources and service delivery to users which include lack of

qualified librarians, modern reference and documentation services lacking;

inter-library loans and cooperation efforts are lacking and inadequate. In

addition to these factors that affect effective library service delivery, staff

responsiveness, an important element of service quality is inadequate. The

review also points out that, there is interest and need towards a competency

performance based library service system and that library services should be

critically examined and effective library services characteristics critically

55
identified. The literature reviewed have identified the concept of library

resources and services in academic library, provision of Effective Services

in Academic Library, Accessibility of Information resources and services in

Academic Library, Utilization of information resources and services in

Academic Library, Challenges to Effective Information Service Delivery in

Academy library, Strategies to overcome factors affecting effective service

delivery in academic library.

Finally, the review of literatures covers works of other scholars that

are related to the present study. The empirical studies captures the research

design, population, sample size, instruments used, method of data collection

and analysis, findings of the studies and how they relate to the present study

It is evident that there have been some previous related studies carried

out in the area of factors affecting effective delivery of library services to

users, but from the researchers best of knowledge none of these studies has

x-rayed the current status of the effective service delivery in Benue State

University Library. This is the perceived gap in knowledge which the

present study intends to fill.

56
CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHOD

3.1 Introduction

This chapter presents the procedure that will be adopted in carrying

out this study. These include: research design, area of the study, population,

sample and sampling technique, instrument for data collection, validity of

instrument, procedure for data collection and method of data analysis.

3.2 Research Design

The design for this study is descriptive survey. According to Nworgu

(2006) descriptive survey is aimed at collecting data on something and

describing it in a systematic manner, the characteristics, and facts about a

given population. The descriptive survey design will be used to investigate

the factors affecting effective delivery of library services to user. The work

seeks to find out the opinions held by the population by collating and

analyzing data from the sampled population.

3.3 Area of the Study

The area of study is Benue State University Library. Benue State

University Library is located in the middle wing of the University.

3.4 Population

The target population for this study was professional librarians of the

library with the view of getting adequate information regarding the library.

57
The population comprised of the University Librarian (UL), the

deputy university librarian (DUL), five (5) Heads of Departments (HODs),

six (6) professional staff: The departments are Technical services,

Acquisition, Readers services, Serial services and E-library bringing the

total number of staff to thirteen (13). (Source: Library Register, 2017).

3.5 Sample and Sampling Technique

The population of the study was easily accessible and manageable by

the researcher. As such, there was no need to adopt any sampling technique

as the entire population was used.

3.6 Instrument for Data Collection

The researcher used structured questionnaire as instrument of data

collection.

A self designed questionnaire titled Factors Affecting Delivery of

Library Services to Users Questionnaire was developed for the

respondents. The questionnaire was divided into six (6) sections. Section A

elicited information on types of library services offered by the library;

Section B elicited information on the level of accessibility of library

services; Section C seek to find out the level of utilization of available

library services by users; Section D seek to find out the level of satisfaction

of library services by users; Section E found out problems encountered by

the library in providing library services and Section F seek to find out

strategies for enhancing delivery of library services.

58
3.7 Validation of the Instrument

To ascertain the validity of the instruments, the researcher subjected

the questionnaire to content and face validity. The researcher gave a copy of

the draft questionnaire to his supervisor; he was requested to look at the

content of the questionnaire, whether it was in line with the research

questions and statement of problem. He was requested to look at the format

of the questionnaire, the appropriateness of the questionnaire title, the clarity

of items contained therein, as well as correct any grammatical errors in the

questionnaire. His correction and comments were reflected in the final copy

of the instrument.

3.8 Method of Data Collection

The researcher used questionnaire to gather the necessary data for the

study. The questionnaire was personally distributed to the respondents by

the researcher and was collected after two days.

3.9 Method of Data Analysis

The data collected for the study was analyzed using descriptive

statistics, to generate frequencies, percentages and mean scores to answer

the research questions that are guiding the study.

59
CHAPTER FOUR

DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

4.1 Introduction

This chapter deals with data presentation, analysis, interpretation and

discussion of findings. In this chapter, the collected data will be presented in

tables. The responses will be tabulated using frequency tables and then

treated by computing the weighted mean for each item in the questionnaire

on a 4-point rating scale. To arrive at a decision, the mean response for each

item will be computed and results compared with the criterion mean of 2.50

and where it was either equal or greater then, the item was accepted and

where it was less than the item was rejected.

4.2 Response Rate

Table 1: Response Rate


Respondent No of questionnaire No of useable %o f useable
group administered return return
Professional 13 13 100%
Library staff
Source: field survey, 2017.

Table 1 above shows the response rate of the respondents. The table

shows that 13 copies of the questionnaire were administered to library staff

and all of them were returned and found useable representing 100%.

60
4.3 Data Analysis

Research Question One

What are the types of library services provided in the library?

Table 2: Types of library services


S/N Items SA A D SD Mean Decision
1. The library provides 13 4.00 Accepted
lending services 100%
2. Reservation services 13 4.00 Accepted
are also provided 100%
3. Interlibrary loan and 9 4 1.69 Rejected
document delivery 69.54% 30.77%
services are provided
in the library
4. Selective 13 1.00 Rejected
Dissemination of
Information Services
(SDI) is also
provided
5. User education 9 3 1 3.62 Accepted
services are provided 69.54 23.08% 7.69%
as in the library as
well
6. Current Awareness 2 7 4 1.85 Rejected
Service (CAS) is also 15.38% 53.85% 30.77%
provided
7. Reference services 5 8 3.38 Accepted
are available in the 38.46% 61.54%
library
8. Reprographic 3 6 4 2.92 Accepted
services are available 23.08% 46.15% 30.77%
9. Electronic/Online 13 4.00 Accepted
services are also 100%
available
10. The library provides 8 5 3.38 Accepted
referral services 61.54% 38.46%
11. The library provides 8 5 3.38 Accepted
search services 61.54% 38.46%

The table above shows the types of library services; from the table above the

respondents accepts that The library provides lending services, Reservation, User

61
education services, reprographic service, electronic/online services, Reference

services, search services are available in the library as shown in the mean scores of

above 2.49 and decision rating.

Research question two

What is the level of accessibility of library services?

Table 3: Accessibility of library services


S/N Items HA MA FA NA Mean Decision
1. Lending services are 13 4.00 Accepted
accessible in the library 100%
2. Reservation services are 6 7 3.46 Accepted
also accessible in the 46.15% 53.85%
library
3. Interlibrary loan and 10 3 1.77 Rejected
document delivery 76.92% 23.08%
services are accessible in
the library
4. Selective Dissemination 13 1.00 Rejected
of Information Services 100%
(SDI) is also accessible
in the library
5. User education services 9 4 3.69 Accepted
are accessible in the 69.54% 30.77
library
6. Current Awareness 2 4 7 1.62 Rejected
Service (CAS) is also 15.38% 30.77% 53.85%
accessible in the library
7. Reference services are as 8 5 3.62 Accepted
well accessible in the 61.54% 38.46%
library
8. Reprographic services 7 6 2.54 Accepted
are accessible 53.85% 46.15%
9. Electronic/Online 10 3 3.78 Accepted
services are also 76.92% 23.08%
accessible in the library
10. Referral services are 5 8 3.38 Accepted
accessible 38.46% 61.54%
11. Search services are also 10 3 3.78 Accepted
accessible 76.92% 23.08%

62
Table 2 above shows the accessibility of library services; the table indicates

that lending services, reservation services, user education services, reference

services, reprographic services, electronic/online services, referral services and

search services are accessible as shown in the mean scores of above 2.49 and

decision rating. While services like interlibrary loan and documentary delivery

services, selective dissemination of information and current awareness service are

not accessible as shown in the mean scores of below 2.50 and decision rating.

63
Research Question Three

What is the level of utilization of the available library services by users?

Table 4: Level of Utilization of Available Library Services


S/N Services HU MU FU NU Mean Decision
1. Lending services are 13 4.00 Accepted
utilized 100%
2. Reservation services are 3 10 3.23 Accepted
also utilized 23.08% 76.92%
3. Interlibrary loan and 13 1.00 Rejected
document delivery 100%
services are utilized
4. Selective Dissemination 13 1.00 Rejected
of Information Services 100%
(SDI) are utilized
5. User education services 5 8 3.38 Accepted
are also utilized 38.46% 61.54%
6. Current Awareness 10 3 1.77 Rejected
Service (CAS) are 76.92% 23.08%
utilized by users
7. Reference services are 9 4 3.69 Accepted
utilized by the users 69.54% 30.77%
8. Reprographic services 13 2.00 Rejected
are also utilized 100%
9. Electronic/Online 13 4.00 Accepted
services are utilized 100%
10. Referral services are 8 5 2.62 Accepted
utilized 61.54% 38.46%
11. Search services are 4 9 3.31 Accepted
utilized 30.77% 69.54%

Table 3 above shows the level of utilization of the available library services

by users; the table indicates that lending services, reservation services, user

education services, reference service, electronic/online services, referral service,

search service are been utilized by users as shown in the mean scores of above 2.49

64
and decision rating. While interlibrary loan and documentary delivery services,

selective dissemination of information, current awareness services and

reprographic services are not utilized as shown in the mean rating of below 2.50

and decision rating.

Research Question Four


What is the level of satisfaction do users derived from the library services
provided?
Table 5: Level of satisfaction users derived from library services provided
S/N Items VGE GE LE VLE Mean Decision
1. I am satisfied with 12 1 3.92 Accepted
lending services to a very 92.31% 7.69%
great extent
2. I am satisfied with 11 2 3.85 Accepted
lending services to a 84.62% 15.38%
great extent
3. I am satisfied with 7 6 3.54 Accepted
lending services a little 53.85% 46.15%
extent
4. I am satisfied with 5 8 3.38 Accepted
reservation service to a 38.46% 61.54%
very great extent
5. I am satisfied with 3 9 1 3.15 Accepted
reservation services to a 23.08% 69.54% 7.69%
great extent
6. I am satisfied with a 4 9 1.31 Rejected
interlibrary loan services 30.77% 69.54%
to a very great extent
7. I am satisfied with 3 2 8 1.62 Rejected
Selective Dissemination 23.08% 15.38% 61.54%
of Information Services
(SDI) to a very great
extent
8. I am satisfied with 2 8 3 2.92 Accepted
Selective Dissemination 15.38% 61.54% 23.08%
of Information Services
(SDI) to a little extent
9. I am satisfied with user 9 4 3.69 Accepted
education services 69.54% 30.77%
10. I am satisfied with 3 9 1 2.15 Accepted
Current Awareness 23.08 69.54% 7.69%
Service (CAS)

65
11. I am satisfied with 5 8 3.38 Accepted
Reference services 38.46% 61.54%
12. I am satisfied with 3 7 3 2.00 Rejected
reprographic services 23.08% 53.85% 23.08%
13. I am satisfied with 2 11 3.15 Accepted
Electronic/Online 15.38% 84.62%
services
14. I am satisfied with 3 9 1 3.38 Accepted
referral services 23.08% 69.54% 7.69%
15. I am satisfied with search 2 8 3 2.92 Accepted
services 15.38% 61.54% 23.08%

Table 4 above shows the level of satisfaction users derived from library

services provided; the table shows that users are satisfied with lending services,

reservation services, selective dissemination of information, user education

services, reference services, electronic/online services, referral services and search

services as shown in the mean scores of above 2.49 and decision rating. While

users were not satisfied with interlibrary loan services, selective dissemination of

information, current awareness service and reprographic service as shown in the

mean scores of below 2.50 and decision rating.

66
Research Question Five

What are the problems encountered by the library in providing library and

information services?

Table 6: Problems encountered by the library in providing library services


S/N Problems SA A D SD Mean Decision
1. Lack of adequate 13 4.00 Accepted
funding inhibits delivery 100%
of library services to
users
2. Lack of qualified 10 3 3.78 Accepted
personnel militates 76.92% 23.08%
against the provision of
library services to users
3. Poor user education 3 8 2 2.08 Rejected
programme in the library 23.08% 61.54% 15.38%
inhibits provision of
library services to users
4. Low level of education 8 4 1 3.54 Accepted
of the library personnel 61.54% 30.77% 7.69%
is also constraint to
provision of library
services to users
5. Obsolete library 9 4 3.69 Accepted
resources also constitute 69.23% 30.77%
a challenge militating
against the delivery of
library services to users
6. Poor reading habit 5 8 3.38 Accepted
among users is also one 38.46% 61.54%
the challenge
7. Lack of awareness of the 13 4.00 Accepted
existence of information 100%
systems militates against
the delivery of library
services to users
8. Lack of basic skills also 10 3 3.78 Accepted
hinders the delivery of 76.92% 23.08%
library services to uses
9. Erratic power supply 9 4 3.69 Accepted
hinders the delivery of 69.54% 30.77%
library services to users

67
Table 5 above shows the problems encountered by the library in providing

library services; the table indicates that encounters problems such as lack of

adequate funding, lack of qualified personnel, low level of education of the library

personnel, obsolete library resources, poor reading habit among users, lack of

awareness of the existence of information systems, lack of basic skills and erratic

power supply hinders the delivery of library services as shown in the mean scores

of above 2.49 and decision rating.

Research Question Six


What are the strategies to enhance effective delivery of library services?
Table 7: Strategies to enhance the delivery of library services
S/N Strategies SA A D SD Mean Decision
1. The staff should be well trained 13 4.00 Accepted
in handling diverse users 100%
problems
2. Materials on the shelves should 12 1 3.92 Accepted
be well organised to save the 92.31% 7.69%
time of the users
3. There should be effective library 9 4 3.69 Accepted
guide to direct users to sections 62.23% 30.77%
of the library
4. Generally, the library should 13 4.00 Accepted
collect more resources in all 100%
subjects
5. Provision of a standby generator 13 4.00 Accepted
to power the library when there 100%
is power outage
6. The library should be automated 13 4.00 Accepted
to improve provision of library 100%
services
7. User education programmes 8 5 3.62 Accepted
should be 61.54 38.46%
strengthened/encouraged in the
library
8. The library should be made 11 2 3.85 Accepted
conducive and friendly for 84.62% 15.38%
reading all the time
9. Creation of awareness on the 10 3 3.78 Accepted
existence of information systems 76.92% 23.08%

68
Table 6 above shows the strategies to enhance the delivery of library

services; the table indicates that the staff should be well trained in handling

diverse users problems, materials on the shelves should be well organized to

save the time of the users, there should be effective library guide to direct

users to sections of the library, generally the library should collect more

resources in all subjects, provision of a standby generator to power the

library when there is power outage, the library should be automated to

improve provision of library services, user education programmes should be

strengthened in the library, the library should be made conducive and

friendly for reading all the times and creation of awareness on the existence

of information systems as shown in the mean scores of above 2.49 and

decision rating.

4.4 Discussion of Findings

The findings of the study shows that services such as lending

services, online services, reference services, search services reservation

services among others are provided in the library as they were rated above

the mean score of 2.49 and decision rating. This finding conforms with the

studies of According to Aina (2004); The general library and information

services include; lending Services, Inter-Library Loan, Reservation Service,

Provision of Seating and Study Facilities, Reference Services, Current

Awareness Service (CAS), Exhibition and Displays, Library Publications,

User Education, library Orientation and Information literacy programme.

69
The findings also shows that most library services are accessible for

the users. This also conforms with Aguolu and Aguolu (2002) resources

may be available in the library and even identified bibliographically as

relevant to ones subject of interest, but the user may not be able to lay

hands on them. The more accessible information sources are the more likely

they are to be used. Readers tend to use information sources that require the

least effort to access.

The findings further showed that the users highly utilized most of the

library services provided and this is in conformity with Akinade (2000) who

observed that the expectation of people (users) are high when sourcing and

retrieving information and when such information needs are not met,

frustration usually set in and this may drive the user away from the library.

Akande (2003) noted that the use of library information resources is

uppermost in the minds of the university libraries as this will enable the

management know how best they can serve their users

Further findings revealed that the users were also satisfied with most

of the library services provided. However, some services like Selective

Dissemination of Information, interlibrary loan, current awareness services

were not provided.

The findings went further to show that the library encountered a lot of

problems in providing library services such major problems include lack of

70
adequate funding, lack of qualified personnel, lack of awareness of the

existence of information systems, lack of basic skills, erratic power supply

and others. The findings collaborates the studies of Nwalo (2000), who

stated that problems inhibiting IT applications by African libraries include

apathy and inadequate government funding. Funding is essential to excellent

library services. Suffice it to say that, scarcity of funds has always been a

primary hindrance to several noble pursuits; and Adepetun (2012), who

stated that most libraries rely on alternative source of electricity such as

power generating machines to function. However, these machines are

fraught with problems of maintenance, high cost of diesel and petrol. The

resultant effect has been the provision of epileptic services.

Finally, the findings revealed the strategies to overcome the problems

encountered in providing library services such strategies include automation

of the library services, training of staff, user education programmes should

be strengthened, creation of awareness on the existence of information

systems. This findings collaborates with the findings of Bales (1999), who

stated that librarians, staff and patrons must make a number of adjustments

as a result of any library automation project, whether it is an original

implementation or a migration. Also Ugah (2007) asserts that the acquisition

of information online using PCs such as laptops and palmtops and even

phones is proving to be detrimental to academic libraries in terms of

patronage. Patrons no longer depend on the academic library as an essential

71
part of their learning and research rather they are beginning to see the library

as one of those facilities a university or college should have. Libraries must

of a necessity strive to retain their patrons and be at the peak of providing

information sources that suit the demands of present day information

seekers. There is need therefore to ensure that the academic library

continues to soar high in information generation, provision and

dissemination.

72
CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATION AND SUGGESTIONS

5.1 Introduction

This chapter presents the summary, conclusion, recommendations and

suggestions for further studies.

5.2 Summary

This study was designed to investigate the factors affecting the

delivery of library services to users, in Benue State University Library,

Makurdi.

The study adopted a survey research design and questionnaire was

used to collect data for the study. The collected data was analyzed using

descriptive statistical analysis in answering the research questions.

Specifically, the research questions were answered using mean scores.

The study revealed that services such as lending services, online

services, reference services, search services reservation services among

others are provided in the library for users. This finding conforms with the

studies of Aina (2004); according to him the general library and information

services include; Lending Services, Inter-Library Loan, Reservation Service,

Reference Services, Current Awareness Service (CAS), Exhibition and

73
Displays, User Education, library Orientation and Information literacy

programme.

The study also revealed that, that most library services are accessible

to the users. This also conforms with Aguolu and Aguolu (2002) resources

may be available in the library and even identified bibliographically as

relevant to ones subject of interest, but the user may not be able to lay

hands on them. Library services are of no value to the user until they have

been utilized. The quality of teaching and research, depends to some extent

on accessibility and utilization of library services available in the library.

The findings further showed that the users highly utilized most of the

library services provided and this is in conformity with Akande (2003) who

noted that the use of library information services is uppermost in the minds

of the university libraries as this will enable the management know how best

they can serve their users

Further findings revealed that the users were also satisfied with most

of the library services provided. Library services are of no value to the user

until they have been utilized.

The findings went further to show that the library encountered a lot of

problems in providing library services such major problems include lack of

adequate funding, lack of qualified personnel, lack of awareness of the

74
existence of information systems, lack of basic skills, erratic power supply

and others. Funding is essential to excellent library services.

Finally, the findings revealed the strategies to overcome the problems

encountered in providing library services such strategies include automation

of the library services, training of staff, user education programmes should

be strengthened, creation of awareness on the existence of information

systems.

5.3 Conclusion

The university library with its resources and services is at the heart of

the university educational system. Without sound and adequate provision of

library and information services, the core objectives of the university;

teaching, learning and research may not be realized. Although the university

libraries are supposed to provide a variety of adequate library and

information resources and services, certain factors such as inadequate

funding, poor infrastructural facilities and skills etc. pose problems to these

libraries in the Nigerian setting.

Certain strategies as adequate funding which will facilitate a lot of

things, training and retraining of librarians etc. could help to curb these

problems and enhance the provision of information services and resources

by the academic libraries. It is therefore recommended that the government

and governing bodies of the universities should readdress the issue of

funding and library budgets since a lot of improvements depend on funds

75
available and how they are managed. The librarians and library

managements on their own should seek best practices as obtainable in more

advanced places so as to provide quality library and information services

and resources to the contemporary users in line with the current trend of this

information era.

All these will enable the university library in particular and the university

system generally to contribute their own quota in the attainment of the goal

of education for all.

This study without doubt has led to the establishment of facts as

regards the factors affecting delivery of library services in Benue State

University Library, it has shown that variables such as lack of funding, lack

of qualified personnel, poor user education, lack of basic skills, low level of

user education, obsolete library resources and poor reading habit have

significant effects on the delivery of library services in Benue State

University Library. It has equally shown that the staff should be well

trained, there should be effective library guide to direct users, the library

should be automated, awareness should be created on the existence of

information systems among others to enhance the delivery of library

services.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of this study, the following recommendations

are made.

76
1. More funds should be made available to the library by parent organizations

to enable the library provide more effective and efficient library services.

2. The university library should ensure that all library materials and services

are made accessible for easy retrieval by users.

3. In addition, books, journals and other library materials should be well

arranged on the shelves, and each shelf well labelled for easy retrieval and

accessibility as this will enhance the level of utilization.

4. Library services should be given more attention by the library. This would

promote the level of satisfaction the users will derived from the services.

5. More funds should be made available to the library by parent organizations

to enable the library address the problems encountered in the course of

providing services.

6. Finally, the library staff should be sponsored to on-the-job training,

workshops, seminars and conferences as this will keep them up-to-date in

order to delivery effective library services.

5.5 Suggestions for Further Studies

Based on the findings of this study, the following suggestions are

made for further studies.

1. The effects of job satisfaction of the professional librarians of the Benue

State University Library, Makurdi.

2. The impact of age on service delivery of professional library staff in Benue

State University Library, Makurdi.


77
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APPENDIX

Department of Library and Information Science,


Faculty of Education,
Benue State University, Makurdi,
Benue State,
11th, April 2017

Dear Respondents,

I am a final year student of the above named institution currently carrying out a

research on Factors Affecting Delivery of Library Services to Users: A case Study

of Benue State University, Library Makurdi.

Kindly respond to the questions as accurately and objectively as possible. The

information you will provide will be treated with strict confidentiality and will be

restricted only to the purpose of the study.

Yours Faithfully,

Jennifer Terkimbi

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QUESTIONNAIRE

Factors Affecting Delivery of Library Services to Users: A Case Study of Benue State

University, Library Makurdi

Section A: Types of library services

Question 1: What are the types of library services provided in the library?
S/no Item SA A D SD
1 The library provides lending services
2 Reservation services are also provided
3. Interlibrary loan and document delivery
services are provided in the library
4. Selective Dissemination of Information
Services (SDI) is also provided
5. User education services are provided as in the
library as well
6. Current Awareness Service (CAS) is also
provided
7. Reference services are available in the library
8. Reprographic services are available
9. Electronic/Online services are also available
10. The library provides referral services
11. The library provides search services

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Section B: Accessibility of Library Services
Question 2: What is the level of accessibility of Library Services?

Key: HA=highly available, MA=Moderately available, FA=Fairly available, and NA=Not


available
S/no Item HA MA FA NA
1 Lending services are accessible in the
library
2 Reservation services are also accessible
in the library
3. Interlibrary loan and document delivery
services are accessible in the library
4. Selective Dissemination of Information
Services (SDI) is also accessible in the
library
5. User education services are accessible in
the library
6. Current Awareness Service (CAS) is also
accessible in the library
7. Reference services are as well accessible
in the library
8. Reprographic services are accessible
9. Electronic/Online services are also
accessible in the library
10. Referral services are accessible
11. Search services are also accessible

Section C: Level of Utilization of Available library Services


Question 3: What is the level of utilization of the available library services by users?
KEY: HU=Highly utilized, MU=Moderately utilized, FU=Fairly utilized and NU= Not
utilized
S/no Item HU MU FU NU
1 Lending services are utilized
2 Reservation services are also utilized
3. Interlibrary loan and document delivery
services are utilized
4. Selective Dissemination of Information
Services (SDI) are utilized
5. User education services are also utilized
6. Current Awareness Service (CAS) are
utilized by users
7. Reference services are utilized by the
users
8. Reprographic services are also utilized
9. Electronic/Online services are utilized
10. Referral services are utilized
11. Search services are utilized

85
Section D: Level of satisfaction users derived from library services provided
Question 4: What is the level of satisfaction do users derived from the library services
provided?
KEY: VGE=very great extent, GE=great extent, LE=little extent and VLE=very little extent

S/no Item VGE GE LE VLE


1. I am satisfied with lending services to a
very great extent
2. I am satisfied with lending services to a
great extent
3. I am satisfied with lending services a
little extent
4. I am satisfied with reservation service to
a very great extent
5. I am satisfied with reservation services to
a great extent
6. I am satisfied with a interlibrary loan
services to a very great extent
7. I am satisfied with Selective
Dissemination of Information Services
(SDI) to a very great extent
8. I am satisfied with Selective
Dissemination of Information Services
(SDI) to a little extent
9. I am satisfied with user education
services
10. I am satisfied with Current Awareness
Service (CAS)
11. I am satisfied with Reference services
12. I am satisfied with reprographic services
13. I am satisfied with Electronic/Online
services
14. I am satisfied with referral services
15. I am satisfied with search services

86
Section E: Problems Encountered by the Library in providing library and information
services
Question 5: What are the problems encountered by the library in providing library and
information services?
SA=strongly agree, A=Agree, D=disagree and SD= strongly disagree
S/no Item SA A D SD
1. Lack of adequate funding inhibits
delivery of library services to users
2. Lack of qualified personnel militates
against the provision of library services
to users
3. Poor user education programme in the
library inhibits provision of library
services to users
4. Low level of education of the library
personnel is also constraint to provision
of library services to users
5. Obsolete library resources also constitute
a challenge militating against the
delivery of library services to users
6. Poor reading habit among users is also
one the challenge
7. Lack of awareness of the existence of
information systems militates against the
delivery of library services to users
8. Lack of basic skills also hinders the
delivery of library services to uses
9. Erratic power supply hinders the delivery
of library services to users

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Section F: Strategies to enhance the delivery of library services
Question 6: What are the strategies to enhance effective delivery of library services?
SA=strongly agree, A=Agree, D=disagree and SD= strongly disagree
S/no Item SA A D SD
1. The staff should be well trained in
handling diverse users problems
2. Materials on the shelves should be well
organised to save the time of the users
3. There should be effective library guide to
direct users to sections of the library
4. Generally, the library should collect
more resources in all subjects
5. Provision of a standby generator to
power the library when there is power
outage
6. The library should be automated to
improve provision of library services
7. User education programmes should be
strengthened/encouraged in the library
8. The library should be made conducive
and friendly for reading all the time
9. Creation of awareness on the existence of
information systems

88