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Australians generally enjoy good health

05-06 $85 billion was spent on health based on results in epidemiology

Role of epidemiology
o What is it?
Study of disease in groups or populations through the collection of data and information to
identify patterns and causes
It is a key factor in providing valuable information about the health status of a nation and
identifying priority issues for improving Australias health

o What DOES it tell us?

Monitors the major causes of sickness and death to identify any merging issues and
inequalities between groups
Identifying areas of need so that specific prevention and treatment interventions can be
specifically targeted
Determining priority areas for the allocation of government funding
Monitoring the use of health care services and facilities
Evaluating the effectiveness of any prevention and treatment programs

o What DOESNT it tell us?

Shows little about the severity of illness and how this impacts upon a persons quality of life
Data is sometimes lacking or non-existent on certain health issues for gathering information is
difficult. E.g. mental illness
It doesnt address the reasons why health inequities exist
Information is gathered on incidence of disease and death and related risk factors but often
neglects other factors such as cultural and economic factors.
Disability Adjusted Life Years, Health Adjusted Life Expectancy, Quality Adjusted Life Years

o Who uses it?

Inform the decision making of groups in the community including:
Policy developers at all levels of government
The manufacturers of health products
The providers of health services
Individual consumers

o How is it used to improve Australian health?

To identify health inequalities between sub populations
To establish priorities, enabling efficient use of funds
To develop preventative programs and monitor heath care services
To monitor and evaluate programs

Measuring health status

- Role of epidemiology

Epidemiology is the study of patters of health and the distribution and frequency of disease, illness and injury in a

- Measures of epidemiology

Mortality The number of deaths from a condition and/or in a group during a specified time period.
Infant Mortality Death rates form children in their first year of life.
Morbidity Statistics about the incidence and prevalence of a disease.
Life expectancy An estimate of the number of years an individual has remaining at any given point in time.
Health indicators Measures used to compare the health of different or the same group over time.

Critique the use of epidemiology to describe health status by considering questions such as:
- What can epidemiology tell us?

Through the collection of data, epidemiology studies can identify specific factors relating to health, including:
Causes of death
Disease incidence and prevalence
Frequency and duration of contact with health providers e.g. doctors, hospitals
Money spent on health care

- Who uses these measures?

Epidemiological data is used by governments, in conjunction with health professionals, to target specific health trends
within particular groups or populations. It is used to develop policies and strategies aimed at promoting the health of
individuals within the population.
More specifically, users of epidemiology may include:
The Department of Health and Ageing use mortality and disease prevalence data to inform the development
of policies such as the National Chronic Disease Strategy.
NSW Health uses data on health expenditure, equity, demographic changes, community expectations and
health workforce shortages to identify challenges in its State Health Plan.
Pharmaceutical companies use data about life expectancy, application of medicines and attitudes to health to
develop and market pharmaceutical products.

The use of this data in relation to the Health status of Australians will assist in:
Controlling and preventing disease.
Identifying health care needs and allocate resources accordingly.
Allow health professionals and governments to establish health priorities.

- Do they measure everything about health status?

However, the use of epidemiological data is limited, as some things are difficult to measure with accuracy:
Reasons why people engage in risk-taking behaviours.
Reliability of health information that is self-reported or collected from uncontrolled, unmanaged or
unpredictable sources.
Poor comprehension of surveys by some and non-standardised questioning.
Incomplete data which does not give a full indication of the health problems within a population.
Use tables and graphs from health reports to analyse the current trends in life expectancy and
major causes of morbidity and mortality for the general population and comparing males and

Life expectancy:

As apparent above, life expectancy at birth is greater now than ever before, increasing from 57 years in 1907 to 81
years in 2007. Female life expectancy has consistently remained higher than males over this period and in 2007, life
expectancy at birth for females was 83.6 years, whilst for males it was 78.9 years. This is due to:
Mass immunisation and improvements in technology, leading to fewer deaths from infectious diseases.
Healthier lifestyles and living conditions.
Lower death rates from infant mortality, CVD, cancer and traffic accidents.
Increased education and public awareness of health risks e.g. smoking and lung cancer.
Increased levels of disease prevention and screening e.g. breast cancer.
Improvements in the management of health and aged care.

The leading causes of death in Australian include:

Male Female
Rank Cause of death Percentage of all Cause of death Percentage of all
male deaths male deaths
1 Coronary Heart Disease 17.2% Coronary Heart 15.8%
2 Lung Cancer 6.7% Cerebrovascular 10.4%
3 Cerebrovascular Diseases 6.4% Dementia and 7.3%
Alzheimers Disease
4 Chronic Obstructive 4.2% Lung Cancer 4.3%
Pulmonary Disease
5 Prostate Cancer 4.2% Breast Cancer 4.0%
6 Dementia and Alzheimers 3.4% Chronic Obstructive 3.3%
Disease Pulmonary Disease
7 Colorectal Cancer 3.1% Heart failure and 3.1%
complications and ill-
defined heart disease
8 Diabetes 2.7% Diabetes 2.8%
9 Unknown Primary Site 2.6% Colorectal Cancer 2.8%
10 Suicide 2.1% Unknown Primary Site 2.5%
Summary of Trends:
Disease/Injury/Problem Mortality Trend Prevalence Trend
CVD Decreasing Decreasing
Cancer Decreasing Relatively unchanged
Diabetes Relatively unchanged (as an Increasing
underlying cause of death)
Respiratory Disease Decreasing Relatively unchanged (Asthma is
declining in children + young people)
Injury Decreasing Decreasing
Mental Health problems and Decreasing Increasing

Infant Mortality Rate:

Australias infant mortality rate halved

between 1985 and 2005- from 10 to 5 deaths per
1000 live births:
- For males, the death rate is 5 per 1000
live births, which has remained consistently
higher than;
- Female death rate is 4 per 1000 live
Indigenous Infant mortality remains
around three times higher than for the whole
- 15/1000 for males and;
- 12/1000 for females.
Cardiovascular Diseases:

Was the number one cause of death in 2005- accounting for 35% of all deaths.
CVD is the most expensive health
condition, costing 11% of the total allocated health
system expenditure in 2000-01.
Incidence increases with age and is
predicted to increase in the future due to the
ageing population.
The prevalence of CVD is significantly
higher in females than males (55% versus 45%)


Collectively, cancer caused 30% of all deaths in Australia in 2005, making it the second most common cause
of death in 2007:
- Lung, prostate and colorectal cancers were the leading cause of death for males.
- Lung, breast and colorectal cancers were the leading cause of death for females.
The incidence rate for all cancers combined increased by 27% between 1982 and 2007.
Male deaths from cancer occurred at a rate of 1.3 for every female death.


Whilst the incidence of

diabetes increases, deaths in which
diabetes was the underlying cause
has gradually declined to 2.7% in
However, it was named an
associate cause in 6.4% of all deaths.

The prevalence of diabetes

increased with age with the
proportion of Type 2 Diabetes being
higher in older age groups than Type
4% of males and 3.2% of
females reported having diabetes
mellitus in 2004-05. In all age groups,
males had higher rates of reported diabetes.
The peak for both genders occurred in the 65-74 year age group.

Mental Illness:

of mental or
with age
until the 35-
44 year age
group before slowly declining.
Females are more likely than males to report a long-term mental or behavioural problem (11.4% versus 10%)
The incidence of deaths from mental and behavioural problems has decreased.


The most common form of injury was an open wound (49%). This is more common for males at 53% than
females at 44%.
The 0-14 Age groups was the most likely to sustain a recent injury, with a prevalence of 25%, with the
likelihood of sustaining injury steadily declining with age to 10% of those aged 65 and over.
Males reported a slightly higher prevalence of recent injury overall (19%) compared to females (18%),
although this pattern varied across the age groups.
Males were considerably more likely to die from injury than females at a ratio of 1.7 male deaths for every
female death.


Priority areas include:

- The health inequities experienced by certain groups within our society

- Our growing and ageing population
- The high levels of chronic disease and other health problems, evident in a society
Identifying priority health issues

Priority Health Issue Explanation Example

Social Justice Principles Diversity: cultural, religious and other differences Medicare: provide access to
are accepted, acknowledging all society members. healthcare for all Australians
Equity: balanced distribution of resources to ensure regardless of religion, SES, location
fair health outcomes. or cultural backgrounds.
Supportive environments: providing an environment
that encourages supportive behaviour to occur.
Priority population Identifying health issues that affect certain groups Elderly people (especially women)
groups specifically within the population. suffer from injuries and deaths from
falls more frequently than the rest of
the population.
Prevalence of condition The more common an illness, the more people will Cardiovascular diseases are
benefits from the funding. reported as the underlying cause of
35% of all deaths in Australia.
Potential for prevention The capacity to change health damaging The study of family history and use
and early intervention behaviours and many other modifiable risk factors of screening techniques can be used
provide greater potential for improving health to reduce deaths from breast cancer.
outcomes through educational and health
promotion strategies.
Costs to the individual Illness that can have a large burden on health Cancer is a more common long term
and community finances will be prioritised to try and reduce the total illness that requires extensive
cost. treatment and higher financial
support. In 2004-5, cancer made the
greatest contribution to the burden of
disease in Australia.

Argue the case for why decisions are made about health priorities by considering questions such
- How do we identify priority issues for Australias health?

Priority issues for Australias health are identified using the above criteria.

- What role do the principles of social justice play?

The principles of social justice play an integral role in ensuring that the Australias diversity is acknowledged to assist
in the establishment of supportive environments and the promotion of equity in Australias priority health areas.

- Why is it important to prioritise?

It is important to prioritise as resources are limited. All health issues are of importance, however it is not possible to
fund every suggested initiative.




Inequality- the unequal distribution of some illness or conditions throughout the population
Inequity- the unjust impact of social, economic and cultural factors such as income, education, availability of
transport and access to health services
Priority health issues include:
o Particular groups experiencing health inequalities
o High levels of preventable chronic disease, injury and mental health problems
o Our growing and ageing population
Fundamental differences in the level of health of particular groups, exist in terms of:
o Unequal distribution of some illnesses or conditions throughout the population
o Health inequities that is, the unjust impact on the health status of some groups due to the social,
economic, environmental, and cultural factors
Groups identified as suffering health inequities include:

Groups experiencing health inequities

- Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples

Nature and extent of Comprise approximately 2% of the Australian population.

Health Inequities Life expectancy is 17 years less than non-ATSI.
More susceptible to illnesses e.g. Diabetes, CVD, Cancer.
In general, ATSIs suffer levels of health significantly lower than non-ATSIs.
The health determinants
Sociocultural Discrimination
determinants Loss of culture
Beliefs/practices conflict with mainstream Australian society
Socioeconomic Less access to:
determinants - nutritious food
- education and health services
Environmental Location: rural, remote
determinants Housing standards
Role of Individuals, communities and governments in addressing the health inequities
Role of Individuals Initiative to access available health services, education and to monitor their and
familys lifestyle.
Role of Communities Provide services which will decrease the inequity
Create health-promoting environments
Provide opportunities for change
e.g. PCYC, NAIDOC celebrations
Role of Government Legislation
Address national issues
e.g. intervention, Anti-Discrimination Act, Closing the Gap, OATSIH

- People with disabilities

Nature and Disability: limitation restriction or impairment which has lasted or is likely to last for at least 6
extent of months. May be sensory, intellectual, psychological, and physical.
health 2003 SDAC estimates that 1 in 5 Australians had a disability.
inequities Labour force participation rate- persons with a disability was 53% and unemployment was 8.6%
Disability rate increases with age, reaching 92% for aged over 90.
Physical conditions were the most common main health conditions of persons with a disability
(84%); the remaining had a mental or behavioural disorder as their main condition.
The health determinants
Sociocultural Often subjected to discrimination, with members of some communities being repulsed by
determinants disables people and are therefore, unsure of how to treat them.
Have difficulty finding employment as they are unable to perform the skills required as well as a
person without a disability.
Are a minority group within society and hence, there needs are not often catered for e.g.
wheelchair access.
Socioeconomic Report by Australian Institute of Health and Welfare showed that disability among people aged <
determinants 65 was more prevalent in communities where residents had fewer economic resources.
E.g. In Sydney, 2.0% of people have disabilities: 0.7% in Mosman, vs. 4.0% in inner Parramatta.
2. Risk factors for many chronic diseases are higher among socioeconomically disadvantaged
people- working in lower status jobs, face greater occupational hazards e.g. workplace injury.
3. Often incur more costs e.g. cost or respite and treatment.
Environmental They may require aids and resources i.e. ramps, elevators, Seeing Eye dogs, homecare.
determinants May require specialised training and flexible work environments.
May be restricted by their level of independence and income.
Often live in poorer standards of living due to expense of care.
Less access to transport, employment, communication, care.
Role of individuals, communities and governments in addressing the health inequities
Role of Carers:
individuals - Provide medical and non-medical support
- Are experienced and qualified, often holding first aid certificates, hospital training and
home-based care certificates.
Family Members: provide emotional and financial support, care and love for the individual.
Medical professionals: provide accurate diagnosis information, treat, suggest options and
provide support.
Respite workers: care to alleviate pressure on carers and family.
Social workers: assist with families dealing with financial, legal etc.
Disabled themselves: depending in severity- learn to access health services, support similar
others, find new facilities and treatments.
Role of E.g. Disability Services Australia: provides employment solutions as well as community support for
communities disabled people. This includes:
Sporting centres which are disabled friendly e.g. wheelchair bball.
Respite centres.
Enhanced services program: help individuals learn skills necessary to maintain stability in life.
Adult education and parenting classes: offer a variety of educational classes to people with
developmental disabilities.
Role of Income support: disability support pension, carer allowance etc.
government Legislation:
- Disability Service Act 1986
- Disability discrimination act 1992
Centrelink: services for the ill, injured and disabled, including:
- Payments may be claimed if eligible
- Employment assistance: help find work and make decisions
- Creation of publications for use by disabled
Disability employment services:
- Disability Management Service
Employment support Service

Socioeconomically disadvantaged people


- Those who have:

o Poor levels of education
o Low income
o Poor housing
o Unskilled work
o Long periods of unemployment
- Can expect
o Higher infant mortality rates
o Lower life expectancy
o Higher blood pressure
o More likely to smokes
o More likely to suffer mental health problems
o Sick more often
o Less informed about health


- Sociocultural
o Family- single parents, family breakdowns, high levels of crime/drug use/violence
o Peers- social problems, resulting in a sense of depression
o Media- negative perception of Low SES as druggies or alcoholics
o Culture- underage pregnancy is higher in those of low SES

- Socioeconomic
o Employment- unemployment can lead to despair which can lead to various social issues (drugs/violence)
o Education- lack of knowledge on healthy eating and lifestyle can lead to bad habits and exposure to
unknown risks
o Income- reduced to primary health care and foods and less control over their life

- Environmental
o Access to health care- unable to afford necessary health care facilities (pap smears)
o Geographic location- living among other socioeconomically disadvantaged people results in lack of
knowledge and more social problems
o Technology- can be expensive however may be the treatment needed, therefore limited access to things
that can improve their health

- Individuals
o Taking part in schemes and services provide (funded immunisation programs)
o Empowering individuals to improve health and take advantage of the schemes
- Community
o Developing community based health workforce that focuses on prevention and management
- Government
o Aim at improving funding to low SES
o Implement more policies to sustain equity among low SES


- Chronic disease: are diseases of long duration and generally slow progression
- Can be defined as having a number of elements including:
o Complex and multiple causes
o Usually have a gradual onset although they can have acute stages
o Occur across the lifecycle although more prevalent in older age
o Can compromise quality of life through physical limitations and disabilities
o Long term leading to gradual deterioration of health
o Leading and most common cause of premature mortality however usually not immediately life threatening
Healthy ageing

- Refers to the description of the ongoing activities and behaviours that people undertake as they age to reduce the
risk of illness and disease and increase their physical, emotional and mental health.
- Specific support is needed for issues that primarily affect older people so that they can maintain a level of health
that allows them to be active in the community
- Focus is put on:
o Arthritis
o Musculoskeletal conditions
o Diabetes
o Dementia

Increased population living with chronic disease and disability

- 77% of Australians have a long term condition (2004-05)

- These conditions increased with age
- Most commonly reported conditions include
o Vision and hearing problems
o Back pain and disc problems
o Hay fever and allergic rhinitis
o Arthritis
- Many of these illnesses impact upon ones quality of life however do not contribute to mortality causes
- AIHW= Australia loses approx. 2.6 million years of healthy life annually due to premature death and injury

Demand for health services and workforce shortages

- Growing and ageing population = more strain on health services

- National level
o Plan to cut assessment waiting times and help people to access appropriate services
o Rapid response teams target areas= northern NSW and northern Sydney which have waiting times of up
to 13 months
- State level
o NSW department of health has found it difficult to keep up with the increasing demand for health services
o Some health services are finding it hard to pay its suppliers and are taking it upon themselves to locate
and purchase important medical supplies
o Managed to avert the crisis by restructuring the budget
o Suggested that the funding process should be streamlined

Availability of carers and volunteers

- Carer= any person who provides informal care or assistance to a person because of that persons age, illness or
- Role of carers
o Assist with tasks of daily living
o Supervise or help with finances and transport
o Provide emotional support
o Almost half of all carers spend 40 hours or more/week caring
o Some carers are eligible for Government benefits
o About 40% of primary carers have a disability themselves
- Role of volunteers
o Provide valuable support service that has minimal financial impact on the budget
o Provide opportunities for people to make a contribution to the community or to an individual
- Carers organisations
o Carers NSW- provide support, training and services to carers and represent the needs of carers
publically and politically
o it is a nongovernment organisation and receives its funding from both AUS and NSW Gov.

A growing and ageing population

Assess the impact of a growing and ageing population on:
- Healthy ageing

Healthy ageing occurs when individuals take a positive approach to their health as they age, enabling them to
maintain a better quality of life in the latter stages of life.

- Increased population living with chronic disease (the health system and services)

As the Australian population and life expectancy increase, so too does the burden associated with the treatment of
chronic disease and disability on the Australian healthcare system. Due to their deterioration of health and increased
susceptibility to diseases, elderly people access a greater percentage of health care services than the general
population. The will adversely affect admissions to hospitals, diagnostic equipment, prescriptions, transportation
(ambulances) and palliative care.

- Demand for health services and workforce shortages (health service workforce)

The growing and ageing population place a burden on the existing healthcare sector, particularly hospitals with
workforce shortages further exacerbates this burden. To address this increased burden, the government may place
more money into creating more services. However, this money must be taken from others areas which will adversely
influence the availability of health services to the rest of the population.
Despite the increase in Australias population, there is a substantial shortfall in the healthcare workforce. This further
exacerbates the substantial burned already placed on the system in addition to the predicted increased burden of the
ageing population.

- Availability of carers and volunteers (carers of the elderly, volunteer organisations)

A carer is any person who provides assistance in a formal paid or informal unpaid role to a person due to that
persons age, illness or disability. The ageing population will indefinitely place an increased burden on existing carers
and volunteer organisation. This may require more funding and incentives to encourage younger people to attain the
skills necessary for this work. It will also require an evaluation of the use of existing resources and if possible, make
changes to use existing resources more economically e.g. partnership between government and community-based
volunteer organisations to ensure services are provide.




Health care in Australia

The primary role of the health care system in Australia is to provide quality health care services and facilities to meet
the needs of all Australians. The fundamental roles include:
Care for people with illness or injury.

- Range and types of health facilities and services

Health facilities in Australia may be classified into two areas:
Institutional facilities:
Hospitals: provide general and specialised healthcare:
- Public: operated and financed by the government with healthcare services free of charge for patients.
- Private: owned and operated by individuals and community groups, offering services which must be paid
for by the patients, although Medicare and private health insurance refund part of the expense.
Nursing homes: provide care and long-term nursing attention for those who are unable to look after
themselves, including the chronically ill, the elderly and people with disabilities. Types include:
- Private charitable e.g. Anglicare
- Private for profit
- State government
Psychiatric hospitals: provide treatment for people with severe mental disorders, often using a system of care
which integrates hospital services and community settings.

Non-Institutional facilities:
Medical services: are services provided by doctors, specialists and other health professionals:
- General Practitioners are the most commonly used service and Medicare refunds patients payments for
these services.
- Specialists e.g. obstetricians, dermatologists, and orthopaedic surgeons are also commonly used.
Health-related services: include other services such as dentistry, optometry, nursing, ambulance services and
Pharmaceuticals: Drugs are supplied through prescription from doctors or hospitals or over the counter from
shops or pharmacies. The Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) drugs are subsided by the federal
government for people with special needs.

- Responsibility for health facilities and services

Australias health care system is three tiered:
Federal government are responsible for:
- Formation of national health policies
- Controlling funds obtained from taxes and allocating these to state or local government health sectors
- Operation of assistance programs such as Medicare and PBS
- Coordinate approved national health programs such as HIV/AIDS
- Support programs such as the National Heart Foundation and Royal Flying Doctor Service
State or territory governments are responsible for:
- Providing funding for health and community services e.g. public hospitals, medical practitioners
- Regulates private hospitals and provide immunisation services
Local governments are responsible for:
- Implementing state health policies
- Controlling local environment issues e.g. maintenance of recreational facilities
- Providing a range of personal, preventative and home care services e.g. waste disposal, meals on wheels

However, other groups are also responsible for health facilities and services within Australia, including:
Private Sector is responsible for providing:
- Private hospitals and alternate health services e.g. dental, physiotherapy, chiropractic services
Community groups are responsible for:
- Promoting health within a more concentrated or focused area of health e.g. Diabetes Australia, the
Asthma Foundation

- Equity of access to health facilities and services

Most health systems pursue equity of access to facilities and services. Equity may be divided into two dimensions:
Horizontal equity: equal treatment for equal needs- all people can access treatment regardless of their
socio-economic or socio-cultural status.
- For example, Medicare (Australias health insurance system) provides basic health care for all Australians
regardless of where they live or how much money they have. It also provides bulk billing which removes
cost as a barrier to receiving health care as the doctor directly bills the government for the service.
- The Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) is a government-funded service which provides prescription
medicines at an affordable price with excess costs covered by the Government.

Vertical equity: the priority treatment of the neediest groups in our community with health services,
particularly ATSIs and geographically isolated and people with cultural or linguistically diverse backgrounds
are recipients of this form of equity.
- The Royal Flying Doctors Service is a form of geographical vertical equity- takes medical facilities to
people in remote areas.
- Indigenous health services are funded at the Federal and State level through the Office for Aboriginal and
Torres Strait Islanders Health (OATSIH), which provides 151 services, 58 of which are in remote areas.
- Linguistically and cultural people have access to translator services through the NSW Multicultural Health
Communication Service which is designed to remove the cultural and language barriers which prevent
some people from accessing medical care.

Other access issues: although the above programs have addressed inequities faced by some population
groups, access issues still remain a problem for some, including:
- Extensive costs in time distance and travel borne by people living in rural or remote areas where
diagnostic or specialist treatment is required.
- Health funding limitations do not allow for health services such as dentistry to be subsidised and
therefore, remain inaccessible to some groups.

- Health care expenditure versus expenditure on early intervention and prevention

Health expenditure is the allocation of funding and other economic resources for the provision and consumption of
health services. The two types of health expenditure include:
Recurrent expenditure: regular ongoing costs e.g. salaries of healthcare professionals
Capital expenditure: infrequent costs e.g. buildings, equipment

Different illnesses have different patterns of expenditure by type of health service e.g. CVD, musculoskeletal diseases,
cancers and other neoplasms and injuries accounted for a relatively high proportion of total expenditure. However,
many of these diseases are preventable.

Public or preventative health interventions focus on prevention, promotion and protection rather than on treatment.
Public health strategies may be carried out by any level of government as well as non-government agencies such as
the Cancer Council and the Heart Foundation.
Arguments for a more preventative health approach include:
Cost-effectiveness of human and non-human resources
Improved quality of life
Maintenance of social equity
More economical use of existing structures
Reinforcement of individual empowerment in relation to health

Despite preventative health being generally cheaper, the benefits often take years to translate into a visible reduction
in illness or death. Hence, governments may feel pressure to achieve short-term results and fail to invest in
preventative health.

- Impact of emerging new treatments and technologies on health care e.g. cost and access, benefits
of early detection

There is a mixed impact of emerging new treatments and technologies on health care:
Positive Negative
Allowed new procedures to be performed where Often takes time for medical professionals to adapt
previously there was no treatment option e.g. work practices to make use of new technology, due to
provision of prosthetic hip rather than living with an lack of training or understanding or high
arthritic one. establishment or operating costs.
Savings on the patient length of stay in hospital Equity of access:
partially offset by increased cost of technology but - For rural: medical advances are of most
have increased capacity in public hospitals. benefit to those who live close to medical
Allows the elderly to live longer with managed facilities.
conditions (CVD). - Unequal distribution of technology (part.
More expensive items) does not allow equal
access to all the population.
Cancer Screening: aims to reduce mortality and morbidity of cancers through early detection:
BreastScreen Australia: uses mammography for screening
National Cervical Screening Program: using pap smear tests
National Bowel Cancer Screening Program: using faecal occult blood tests

Childhood vaccinations: National Immunisation Program Schedule covers immunisation for diphtheria, tetanus,
whooping cough, polio, measles, mumps, rubella, meningococcal type C disease, chickenpox, hepatitis B etc.

Describe the advantages and disadvantages of Medicare and private health insurance, e.g. costs,
choice, ancillary benefits
- Health insurance: Medicare and private

Public: in 1984, the Australian government introduced public health insurance known as Medicare. Its purpose was to
provide equal access to free or subsidised health services for all.
Advantages Disadvantages
Free, availability of choice Some important services not or only partially available e.g. dental care
Emergency health care Increased demand resulting in longer waiting times and additional strain
Availability of bulk-billing on hospitals
Covers 85% of scheduled fees Limitations to the level of choice available
Higher taxation
Redirecting resources and money away from other areas
Private: optional contributions to a private body to cover additional health services e.g. specialists and private
Advantages Disadvantages
More health areas covered e.g. physiotherapy, optical, dental, Costly
chiropractor Premiums to be paid regardless of use
Capacity to be treated in a private or public hospital Premiums do not always cover all
Degree of choice is available regarding hospitals, doctors and expenses
time of treatment
Generally much higher levels of health services
Government offers 30% rebate
Avoid the Medicare levy surcharge

Evaluate health care in Australia by investigating issues of access and adequacy in relation to social
justice principles:
- How equitable is the access and support for all sections of the community?
The idea of social justice has been important in dealing with the fair allocation of resources and money that facilitates
better health care. Both public and private organisations are being made more accountable for their spending and
deliver more efficient and effective health care services.

- How much responsibility should the community assume for individual health problems?

Individual health problems are the result of sociocultural, socioeconomic and environmental issues. So ultimately,
there is a substantial level of responsibility placed upon the community however; individuals must take responsibility
for the promotion of positive health changes for themselves and the community.

Complementary and alternative health care approaches

Alternative medicine is often referred to as holistic medicine as it not only treats the source of the problem but also
takes into account the individuals overall state of health. It recognises that there may be a number of imbalances
which have led to the disease or ill health of the individual. Quite often, alternative medicine practices deal with not
only the body but also the mind as they are thought to work in unison.

- Reasons for growth of complementary and alternative health products and services

There are a number of reasons as to why alternative and complementary medicines have grown in Australia:
Incorporates a holistic view of health
Multi-culturalism brings various beliefs and traditions regarding the use of medicine e.g.:
- Western: synthetic medications
- Eastern: natural remedies
Failings of traditional services e.g. long waiting times
Regulations of alternative health services, offering consumer protection
Growth in private health cover for alternative and complementary approaches
Complimentary services can enhance the success of traditional services when used in conjunction with one

- Range of products and services available

Alternative health care Description What benefits does the therapy claim to
Reflexology Manipulation of certain parts of the feet Stimulation of parts of the feet affects certain
organs and glands of the body. Reflexology
gives energy, removes toxins and reduces
Meditation Relaxation of body parts and clearing Stress release, improved concentration,
the mind of thoughts happiness, contentment and improved
Shiatsu Body pressure, stretching and spinal Shiatsu helps the natural healing process by
manipulation working on weaknesses in the energy
systems- returning the balance of body and
Magnetic therapy Using a variety of magnetic products on They put the body in an optimum
various body parts e.g. magnetic environment to heal itself.
insoles, bedding etc.
Biofeedback Monitoring equipment gives people Healing and stress reduction by recognising
feedback on how their bodies are and managing their bodily responses to
responding to certain stimuli e.g. stress. stimuli.
Psychotherapy Regular sessions with a therapist to Psychotherapy aims to improve ones
discuss/express thoughts and feelings. control over their emotions and improve self-
Acupressure Applying pressure (using the thumb) to Pressure stimulates the corresponding
different pressure points on the body. glands of the body, restoring energy, and
relieving pain.
Acupuncture The insertion of fine needles into Restoration of correct functioning, pain relief.
pressure points to restore the bodys
flow of energy.
- How to make informed consumer choices

The wide range of alternative health services can confuse and mislead the consumer and potentially endanger their
health. Before using an alternative service, a consumer should:
Check the qualifications of the provider
See if the industry is endorsed by the Australian Health System
Research what is involved (ask provider, seek other methods)
Seek second opinions from others e.g. friends, family, GP




Health promotion based on the five action areas of the Ottawa Charter

The five action areas of the Ottawa Charter include:

Action Area Description Example
Developing personal skills Awareness and education increase Compulsory health education classes
peoples ability to make positive in schools
health decisions.
Reorienting health services An-ever increasing number of health Increased funding to health
services are becoming available. By promotion and research as resources
working together with a focus on are pooled together
health promotion, resources and
information can be pooled for the
greater good of all.
Strengthening community action Communities will respond more Sun Smart Sport Policies which
positively to initiatives which they involved input from staff, parents and
have played a role in developing. young players
Creating supportive environments It is easier for people to be healthy Healthy Schools Canteen Association
and to make healthy decisions when
they are in an environment that
supports them doing so.
Building healthy public policy Governments and other Legislation to restrict the advertising
organisations have a responsibility to of cigarettes, smoke-free public
promote health and make decisions places
that are health-enhancing.

- Levels of responsibility for health promotion

Federal Government:
Provide leadership and coordination
Interact with international agencies such as WHO

State and Territory Governments:

Deliver preventative health services
Prioritise health spending, establish healthy public policy
Work with other levels of government and non-government agencies

Private Sectors:
Work to protect the environment
Provide goods and services
Create working conditions that contribute to achieving healthy outcomes

Local Communities
Develop partnerships to provide safe environments and health services
Identifying the specific needs of local groups
Address the critical determinants of health

Take responsibility for their own health
Seek accurate health information to make informed health decisions
Support the health of others, participate in community activities
- The benefits of partnership in health promotion e.g. government sector, non-government agencies
and the local community

Intersectoral collaboration is a term used to describe the partnership of individuals, communities and the government
to achieve common goals. This has proved beneficial:
Increased participation when individuals and communities are included in the planning of health promotion
programs e.g. The NSW government used surveys to allow public input as part of their Fit for the Future
Empowerment of individuals and communities to take action to improve their health e.g. asking students to
design the school hat before introducing a compulsory hat rule
Increased sense of control over health decisions e.g. community forums where health problems are identified
and groups work together to develop solutions.
Improved capacity to address other health issues in the future e.g. individuals can apply similar skills to
address other health concerns

The benefits of health promotion based on:

- Individuals, communities and governments working in partnership
The Measure Up campaign was part of the Australian Better Health Initiative (ABHI, funded from 2006-2010), a
national program, supported by the Australian and state and territory governments, which aimed to reduce the risk
factors for chronic disease such as some cancers, heart disease, and type 2 diabetes. Phase two of the campaign
includes the Swap it, Dont Stop it campaign, which has extended the campaign to 2013. The success of the program
is greatly enhanced by individuals, communities and governments working together to reduce chronic disease:
Federal government: $500 million dollars over four years was allocated by the Council of Australian
Governments (COAG) to fund this program.
State governments: $18 million dollars was allocated to the states to implement activities which support the
measure up program. The NSW government implemented the "Get Healthy Information and Coaching
Communities: Workplaces can hold events such as Workplace Walkathons and communities can participate
in The healthy BBQ Challenge
Individuals: can assess their abdominal fat by measuring their waists and then seek information on healthy
eating and physical activity which can reduce their risk factors.

- The five action areas of the Ottawa Charter

The Ottawa Charter is a framework established by the World Health Organisation which focuses on improving health
through the prevention of disease. Accordingly, five actions areas of the Charter were established to addressing the
social, environmental and economic determinants which influence the health of individuals to prevent disease. This
holistic approach to health is the underlying reason for the success of numerous health promotion initiatives.
For Example, the Swap it, dont stop it initiative (see later on)

Investigate the principles of social justice and the responsibilities of individuals, communities and
governments under the action areas of the Ottawa Charter

Action Area Individuals Communities Governments

Developing Seeking access to health Providing facilities and Provide services which
personal skills information and services incentives to take part in health individuals can seek to enhance
services and behaviours their personal skills
Reorienting Informing the government Raising awareness of areas in Provide health funding or
health services and organisations on where need of skilled health services where it is most needed
health resources are most professionals
Strengthening Establishing or joining Creating community inspired Works with community groups to
community community health programs initiatives tailored to the needs guide and supply funding for
action and encouraging others to do of the particular group community initiatives
the same
Creating Being a positive role model Encouraging the community to Establish legislation which
supportive participate in health encourages healthy lifestyle
environments behaviours and providing choices
programs to do so
Building healthy Lobbying the government Working in conjunction with the Provides policies and legislation
public policy government to develop policies that promote healthy lifestyles
e.g. legal age for alcohol
consumption is 18

- How health promotion based on the Ottawa Charter promotes social justice
Prior to the Ottawa Charter (1986), health promotion tended to focus on the responsibility of the individual for their
level of health. Such an approach ignored the other factors affecting health that can be out of the individuals control
(socioeconomic, sociocultural and environmental). The action areas of the Ottawa Charter take these factors into
account when health promotion strategies are being developed. By addressing these factors, all individuals are given
a greater opportunity to improve their level of health despite their circumstances. Hence, health promotion based on
the Ottawa Charter promotes social Justice.
The Social Justice principles include:
Supportive environments: making it easier for individuals to make healthy decisions.
Equity: opportunities to improve health status are consistent in their provision to all.
Diversity: health promotion is tailored to the needs of various groups to increase its perceived value.

- The Ottawa Charter in Action

Critically analyse the importance of the five action areas of the Ottawa Charter through a study of
TWO health promotion initiatives related to Australias health priorities

Swap it, dont stop it!

D Provides information through various mediums including television advertisements, the internet, print media
and radio:
All Australian households have at least one radio, 99% have a television and an estimated 72% have
internet access, making this information readily accessible. Furthermore, the print media includes
magazine advertisements, transit billboards near major roads and on public transport, most of which are
available to the public free of charge.
The widespread and the minimal costs associated with accessing this information means that this
campaign is non-discriminatory in that it its information may be accessed by all, regardless of
socioeconomic status, promoting the social justice principle of equity.
The widespread nature and availability of information from this initiative effectively develops the health
knowledge and personal skills of individuals which enables them to make health promoting lifestyle
choices. These decisions will effectively prevent or delay the onset of chronic disease both now and in the

R Example of the health sector moving taking a more preventative approach to healthcare. Federal Health
Minister, Nicola Roxon announced the objective of the Swap it dont stop it initiative is to make healthy
changes desirable and achievable, an objective that has the potential to reduce the risk factors for chronic
disease in Australia.
The swaps promoted by the initiative reduce the likelihood of obesity and hence, the development of
chronic illnesses. This would ease the significant financial burden these treatment costs placed on the
government, with over $6 billion spent on diabetes and heart disease alone annually.
The Swap it dont stop it initiative supports the cultural diversity of Australia as apparent through the
factsheets on the Swap it, dont stop it website which are available in different languages.
Furthermore, rather than specifying what nutrition or physical activity is required for a healthier lifestyle,
this initiative focuses on the empowerment of individuals, forcing them to assess their lifestyle decisions,
and make positive changes.
This initiative successfully orientates health services towards the diverse Australian population as a whole,
rather than focusing on one group.

S The government has incorporated this action area into the Swap it dont stop it initiative through the
suggest a swap page on the campaigns website. The forum allows individuals to contribute their
swapping ideas which are published on the forum, establishing a sense of community.
The initiative has also recognised that specific groups in Australian society suffer greater inequity in
regards to health. This is evident through the development of Local Community Campaigns for Aboriginal
and Torres Strait Islander people as part of the Swap it dont swap it initiative. The program focuses on
the promotion of a healthy lifestyle and education about chronic diseases through activities developed by
the community. Part of the program is Healthy Community Days whereby local community health
campaigns are showcased to the community, encouraging members to become involved in local health

C Media campaigns promoting change in everyday environments. For example, posters in food courts
suggest swap greasy food for a healthier option. This form of media is highly effective as it encourages
individuals to make immediate health-promoting changes to their lifestyles.
The campaign furthermore advocates the importance of supportive social environments through the
television advertisements. The advertisements centre on the protagonist, Eric and his swapping to a
healthier lifestyle in different social contexts. For example, when out with friends, only having alcohol
sometimes rather than often. Placing the swaps in a familiar social context allow the Australian public
to connect with Eric and emphasise the importance of a supportive social environment.

B Federal Governments Swap it dont swap it initiative supports current government legislation as part of
the National Chronic Disease Strategy on compulsory physical activity. In 2007, the Federal Government
made it compulsory for students in Years One to Ten to complete a minimum of two hours of physical
activity per week. The then Health Minister, Mr McGowan noted that although the government has a role in
establishing legislation to promote healthier lifestyles for children, parents must play their bit as well,
after school and on weekends. In considering the socio-ecological approach to health, children are more
likely to develop healthy lifestyles if supported by both government legislation at school and by parents at
Also a part of the National Chronic Disease Strategy is BreastScreen Australia. This is part of the
population-based screening which focuses on groups which are at increased risk of developing breast
cancer. The preventative initiative provides free mammography screening and follow up for women aged
50-69 years. The costless nature of these screenings promotes the social justice principle of equity. The
screenings have been shown to reduce both the mortality and morbidity of breast cancer amongst
Australian women through the early detection of cancer.
The National Tobacco Strategy
Each year more than 4000 Australians aged between 35-64 years die prematurely due to smoking.
Tobacco use is the greatest contributing factor to the gap in life expectancy between those most advantaged
and those most in need.
The National Tobacco Strategy aims to improve the health status of Australians, promote healthy ageing and
reduce the social inequities intensified by Tobacco use. Its objectives include:
- Reduce uptake
- Increase cessation
- Reduce exposure for non-smokers
- Reduce harm associated with the use and dependence on tobacco and nicotine
- Promote equity
D Cessation services: provision of self-help materials in print or online to assist smokers to quit. Quit
plans provide tailored advice to smokers either electronically or by post.
Effective because smokers have access to information to help them quit irrespective of their location
Community support and education: give children information about smoking including short-term
effects. Help children develop skills to resist experimenting and to avoid addiction
Effective because education can deter young people from smoking irrespective of family environment.
Addressing determinants of health: Concentrate delivery of education materials for parents through
maternal and child health centres, playgroups and childcare centres in low income areas.
Effective because parents in disadvantaged areas would have access to information that would
encourage them not to smoke, both for their health and their childrens.
R Cessation services and treatment: doctors and other health providers offer advice to smokers about
the quitting process.
Effective because smokers are supported by health professionals during the quitting process in order
to improve existing health conditions such as CVD rather than just treating the disease.
Address the determinants of health: training multilingual health professionals and distribute media
releases in community languages
Effective because language barriers are broken down and quit messages are delivered to all members
of the community.
S Addressing determinants of health: ensure Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander organisations are
represented in expert decision making committees.
Effective because it ensures various cultural considerations will be acknowledged when making
Addressing determinants of health: The Centre for Excellence in Indigenous Tobacco Control has
been funded to develop culturally appropriate resources.
Effective because resources specifically target the ATSI community and ensure there are no cultural

B Regulation: laws banning the sale of tobacco to minors and limiting visibility of tobacco products.
Effective because it limits young peoples access to tobacco products and reduces the chances of
them taking up the habit
Regulation: increasing excise taxes on tobacco products
Effective because cigarettes become less affordable and therefore encourage smokers to quit
Research, evaluation, and monitoring and surveillance: provide funds to conduct research into nicotine
Research may uncover a breakthrough in regards to treating nicotine addictions
Research, evaluation, and monitoring and surveillance: develop legislation which requires tobacco
companies to provide data relating to sales figures on a state by state and regional basis.
Data could be used by the government to target Quit programs to those who would benefit the most.
- Definition of energy: The capacity or ability to perform work
- Energy in human movement:
o Human movements transfers chemical energy to mechanical energy (breaking of chemical bonds in
molecules releases energy for use by the body)
o The energy from food is used to make a chemical compound called adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
When this bond breaks, energy is released and the cell can perform its function. E.g. cell in in the
intestine has a digestive function.
o ATP is a high energy compound that stores and transfers energy to body cells, allowing them to
perform their specialised functions as muscles contract
o Phosphocreatine (PC) is a high-energy compound stored in muscles, which applies energy for short
duration, high intensity activity.
o Aerobic metabolism is the production of ATP in the presence of oxygen.

- The body requires energy for:

o Muscle contraction
o Glandular function
o Digestion
o Blood circulation
o Tissue building and repair

- Foods and the production of ATP

o Carbohydrates
Complex carbs- grans, cereals, breads, legumes, vegetables
Simple carbs- sugars (fruits)
Broken down by the body into glucose.
Stored in muscles and liver as glycogen (a ready source of energy)
Chemical reactions involving glucose and glycogen from ATP
1 gram of carbs provides 16kj of energy when broken down
Carbohydrates found in breads, pastas
o Fats
Broken down by the body into Triglyceride
Stored in the muscles and broken down during to produce glycerol and free fatty acids.
Fatty acids can be stored as adipose tissue (body fat) or they can travel around the body in
These substances can produce ATP but are usually only used at lower intensities over longer
periods of time
1 gram of fat provides 37kj of energy when broken down
Fats in oils
o Proteins
Proteins are broken down by digestion and absorption into amino acids
Under normal conditions protein is not used to produce ATP
In extreme conditions (starvations/prolonged exercise) protein will be used as a fuel source
for ATP
Only used when carbohydrate and fat stores have been exhausted
1 gram of protein provides 17 kj of energy when broken down
Meats, leafy vegetables

Alactacid system Lactic acid system Aerobic system


Source of fuel Phosphocreatine (PC) Carbohydrate Carbohydrates, then

Glycogen fats then proteins.
Very quick production Quick production of Slower production of
Efficiency of ATP of ATP ATP, but fatigue sets in ATP. Unlimited supply
production (1-10 seconds) as lactic acid for sub maximal
accumulates activities
(Over 2 minutes)
Duration that the 1-10 seconds 30 to 60 seconds, but Anything over 2-3
system can operate can be up to 3 minutes minutes

Cause of fatigue Depletion of PC stores Build up of lactic acid Depletion of glycogen

and fat stores
By products of energy Heat Lactic acid Water and carbon
production dioxide

Process and rate of PC stores are restored 30 minutes to 2 hours Up to 2 days

recovery within 2 minutes if depending on the
resting length of activity
Example of sports Shot put, 200m-400m sprint Soccer
100m sprint, 100m swim Cross country
Weight lifting 1km cycle Triathlon
Gym vault Marathon
- All systems work in fundamentally the same way to resynthesise ATP.
- The energy released during reactions is used to recombine ADP and P to form ATP
- The energy system used by the body is dependant on:
o How long the activity will take (e.g. 40 minute soccer game)
o The intensity of the activity (e.g. maximal- 100% or sub maximal 80% or steady state)
o How quickly the activity is performed (e.g. goalie in a soccer game would have short periods of work)
- The Role of oxygen in each energy system:
o ATP/PC= no oxygen is required to break down ATP
o Lactic acid system= no oxygen is required to break down glycogen
o Aerobic system= the body supplies oxygen to the working muscles. Oxygen can be used to break
down glycogen into ATP. This process can be continually repeated.


Type Frequency (Per Week) Duration (Per session) Intensity
Continuous 1-2 Race distance or Approximately 70%
longer (30-120 VO2
Fartlek 1 20-60 minutes Variable 70% VO2
max with bouts at or
above lactate threshold
Interval 1-2 3-5 minute interval Near VO2 max
(work rest ratio 1:1)

o Continuous
Sustained effort without rest/intervals for longer than 20 minutes
HR must rise above aerobic threshold and remain within target zone
Two types:
Long, slow distance training
High intensity work of moderate duration
E.G. jogging, cycling, aerobics

o Fartlek
Vary speed and terrain therefore engaging both aerobic and anaerobic
Can also be achieved through varying speeds
Beneficial for game players who have stops, starts and direction changes
E.G. variety of bursts of speed every 2-3 minutes. (30 secs jogging, 30 secs walking, 15 secs
jogging, 20 secs sprinting, 20 secs walking, 10 secs up hill)
Benefits team games

o Interval
Alternating sessions of work and recovery
Short rest period in the ratio 1:1
Develops aerobic endurance because:
Sustained effort and moderate intensity
Ensures there is stress but not fatigue
Overload principal applied (work intensity/work time)
E.G.400m run at 60% intensity, walk 100m repeat

o Circuit
Move from one activity/station to another
Develops aerobic, muscular endurance, strength, flexibility and sometimes anaerobic
depending on time spent at each station
Decreasing times=improving fitness levels
Progressive overload can be applied and achieved by:
Increasing number of stations
Increasing time at each station
Increasing reps and each station
Increasing reps of the circuit
Determining the reps at each station based on the individuals fitness level
Decreasing time allowed for each station
Greatest benefits achieved when?
Overload principal applied
Skills are game focused
All fitness components are developed, not just some
Record cards are kept to see progress
E.G. 20 power jumps 20 stretches 10 push ups 10 sit-ups 10 shuttle runs 1 min on
tramp 30 bench steps 10 shots in 100 skips 10 back extensions

o Short- less than 25 seconds- ATP/PC
o Medium-25 secs to 1 min- Lactic Acid
o Long- 1 to 2 mins- lactic acid/aerobic system
o Interval
Sprint training over short distances using max effort with long enough rest periods to allow for
lactate to disperse
Develops speed while focusing on technique
o With minimal recovery the athlete trains closer to their anaerobic threshold allowing an increased
tolerance of lactic acid
o Minimum of 2 minutes recovery allows for CP stores to replenish and thus allows full explosive activity
to occur again best through 1:3
o Lengthening muscles through eccentric contractions
Hopping and bounding help develop leg power which can be transferred into running and

o A flexibility program is essential for:
Prevention of injury
Improved coordination between muscle groups
Muscular relaxation
Decreasing soreness and tightness following exercise
An increased range of movement around joints, maximising performance potential
o Flexibility is affected by
o Stretch reflex a protective mechanism in the muscle to prevent injury while stretching a muscle
o Static
Safe form of stretching
Held for 10 to 30 secs
Holding heel to bottom for stretch in rectus femoris

o Ballistic
Repeated movements such as swinging and bouncing to gain extra stretch
Activates the stretch reflex which causes the muscle to contract-
Leg Swings

Progressive exercise incorporating static stretches, isometric contraction and a period of
relaxation in lengthened position
Lengthening a muscle against a resistance usually provided by a partner
Progressive sequence
E.G. hamstring stretch against partner, pushing, then lowering leg etc (RON)

o Dynamic
Moving parts of your body and gradually increasing reach and range of movement
E.G. lunges, leg swings

Strength training
Is a form of training where muscular contraction is rested by calculated loads, thereby building strength in the muscle.
Type of Resistance Repetitions Sets Exercise Rest Sports good
Strength speed for
Absolute 80-100% of 1-5 3-6 Fast 3-5 min Lifting, shot
1RM put
Power 70-80% of 6-10 3-6 Fast 2-3 min Sprinting,
1RM javelin
Endurance 30-50% 15+ 3-6 medium 1-3 min Rowing,
1RM martial arts

o Free weights
Used to develop all muscles in a group at the same time
Can be time consuming as you change the weight/ amount of resistance
Requires strict technique and form
E.g. barbells, dumbbells, and hand weights used for bicep curls, bench press

o Fixed weights
Resistance provided by stacked weights where users can adjust loads by changing pin
Better for beginners- less chance of injury and provides more stability and confidence
Good for isolating specific muscles for development.
E.g. leg press, hamstring curl, leg extension

o Elastic and hydraulic forces

Each movement is confronted by an opposing force
Gravity does not assist the return movement therefore making effort necessary in the full
range of movement
E.g. bicep curl- uses biceps to lift the weight, then triceps to lower the weight.

Type Of Training Training Method Sport Suitability Reason For Relevance

Aerobic Continuous Endurance events Helps build a solid aerobic fitness
such as marathon base, replicates significant portions
running/swimming, of endurance races
road cycling
Fartlek Team sports such The intensity of activity required at
as football, hockey, various times in a match will depend
basketball on proximity to the ball and teams
Aerobic Interval 1500m + in Increases the anaerobic threshold,
running, 800+ thus allowing the athlete to exercise
meters in swimming at a higher intensity for longer
Circuit Team sports such Enables cardio benefits to be
as football, derived while also improving muscle
basketball, hockey movements relevant to the sport

Anaerobic Anaerobic Interval Sprints, throwing Assists in the development of

events, football power/acceleration/agility
Flexibility Static All sports at all A relatively safe and effective form
levels of developing flexibility
Ballistic Gymnastics Can contribute to developing a very
high degree of flexibility which is
critical in many gymnastic events
PNF Team or group Partners are often needed to
activities effectively perform these stretches
Dynamic Sprinters and Flexibility at the hip is most
hurdlers (hip important for runners as it impacts
flexibility) stride length and swimmers require
Swimmers shoulder flexibility to maximise
(Shoulders) stroke length and power
Strength Free/Fixed weights Football, most Allows multiple muscle groups to be
sports involving targeted within the one exercise;
strength, power and exercises have been developed that
speed mimic sport specific movements
Elastic Athletes who are The resistance bands are portable,
recovering from affordable and easy to use
injury, who travel
seeking to develop
strength in a
particular muscle
Hydraulic Swimming The consistent resistance through
the full range of motion can mimic
the resistance that is experienced in

Progressive overload
o The body has two responses of homeostasis
1. Repair response
2. Adaptation response- ability for the body to adapt and respond better next time.
o This is when the body system or tissue is worked harder than it is accustomed to working, and as the
body adapts to the new levels, training should be progressively increased.
o Light regular training will NOT achieve this; the body must be under considerable stress so that
improvements can occur.
o However if there is too much overload, injuries could occur.
o Applied in running distances more times or longer distances with changing recovery times

o The type of exercise being used in training should be specific to the
Energy systems required in your sport
Muscle groups required in your sport
Skill and health related components required in your sport.
o E.g. marathon runners should develop their aerobic system and leg muscles while a shot putter needs
to develop their ATP/PC system and their shoulder/back and arm muscles.
o Cross training can be used as a supplement however should not be a substitute
o It helps with:
Recovering from injury
Maintaining aerobic base
Assisting with muscular balance

o If a person stops training the effects will be quickly lost and the persons performance will decline
o Physical and mental reductions can occur
o Maintenance programs can be developed to help maintain however not improve training levels.
o Many athletes use these in off seasons

o Involves changing training sessions and the activities that you do in each
o This will help to:
Maintain focus and interest in the sport
Decrease boredom
o However this principal of training is not absolutely necessary to improve performance (unlike
progressive overload)
o Throwers may vary sessions between venues, gym and track for developing different elements of the

Training thresholds
o Maximum heart rate in relation to the volume of oxygen uptake
o Three important products in relation to training thresholds that increase in proportion to intensity of
Heart Rate
Blood lactate
o ANAEROBIC threshold=
The point where lactic acid begins to accumulate
The maximum speed or effort that an athlete can maintain, and still have no increase in lactic
Blood lactic acid can be due to:
Lack of oxygen in the muscles
Accelerated conversion of glucose and glycogen to pyruvic acid
Increased use of fast twitch fibres
Reduced rate of lactic acid removal
o AEROBIC threshold=
The intensity at which an athlete needs to work to produce an aerobic training effect or
physiological improvement in performance
About 70% of max HR and 50-60% of max VO2
Is the training rate at which the baseline lactic acid level (level you can work before lactic acid
sets in) starts to rise
Warm up and cool down
o Warm up involves:
Warming up the body to prepare for the activity to follow
Increases blood flow to muscles
Increases body temp
Makes muscles, ligaments and tendons more elastic
Reduces risk of injury due to full range of movement able to be carried out
Three stages:
1. General warm up
a. Gentle use of large muscle groups
b. Raise HR
c. Progressive increase of intensity
2. Stretching
a. Slow stretching of major muscle groups
b. Dynamic stretching very helpful
c. Static stretching held for 30 seconds
d. Also stretch those muscles that are specific to the activity
3. Specific warm up
a. Practicing performance like activities that progressively increase HR and use
muscles and ligaments involved
b. Helps to activate motor neurons involved in the activity
o Cool down
Involves active recovery
Gives the body time to return blood to heart rather than let it pool in muscles
Flush out toxins and rebuild energy stores required for next performance
Should include stretching as this reduces muscle soreness and aids recovery
Aerobic Training

Reversibility Variety Training Thresholds

Prograssive Overload Fartlek, Interval, Continuous Warm Up/Cool Down
Specificity Avoid lengthy disruption to Training within the aerobic Groos motor increase blood flow
Increase distance, Same Duration program Cicuit training zone
Same distance, Shorter duration Muscle Group Different Traaining Stretch
Movement Pattern Structure phases of training Training around anaerobic Skill Specific Movements
Increase distance and duration apporiately environments threshold
Increase frequency Metabolic Different training partners
Decrease recovery time

Resistance Training

Specificity Body weight resistance Warm up/Cool down
Progressive Overload Reversibility
Muscle Strength (1-6 RM) Machines Training Thresholds Gross motor
Increase load Maintain program to avoid
Power (1-5 RM) Plyometrics Anaerobic energy production Stretch
Increase reps muscular atrophy
Muscular Endurance (>15RM) Vary type and order of Skill Specific movements
Increase Sets
Hypertrophy (8-12 RM) exercises


Adaptation Define Response Benefit
Muscle hypertrophy Increase in muscle size Immediate: increase - increased power &
Long: sustained muscle force for explosive
size movements
- increased muscular
Haemoglobin Oxygen carrying Increased about of RBC - increased efficiency
component of blood - delay onset blood
(RBC) lactate accumulation
- delayed fatigue

Oxygen uptake and lung OU: amount of oxygen OU: higher % of inhaled -slower to fatigue
capacity the body uses per min oxygen is used per min - perform better at high
LC: volume/size of the LC: pre-determined - greater use of full lung
lungs capacity per breath
Resting heart rate Heart beats per min Decreases as the heart - delay fatigue
whilst sedentary becomes stronger and - delayed onset of blood
hence more efficient at lactate accumulation
delivering and muscles - increased CR
become more efficient efficiency
at using oxygen

Stroke volume and SV: amount of blood SV: increases due to More oxygen around the
cardiac output pumped out of the heart increasing muscle size body, resulting in:
per beat of heart - higher performance
CO: amount of blood CO: increases due to - efficient release of
pumped out of heart per the increasing muscle energy
min size of the heart - quick recovery
- less waste
- slower to fatigue
Effect on fast/slow Fast: short/anaerobic Predetermined however Slower to fatigue-
twitch muscle fibres Slow: specific training can athlete is able to
long/aerobic/endurance improve efficiency perform at a higher
intensity for longer

Resting heart rate

o Indicator of how hard the heart is working (at rest compared to at work)
o Average resting heart rate is between 60 and 70 bpm
Decreases by 1bpm for each week of training
o The fitter the athlete the lower their resting heart rate due to the efficiency of the cardiovascular
system and a higher stroke volume
o A trained athletes heart rate will decrease at a faster rate after exercise

Stroke volume and cardiac output

o Stroke volume:
Amount of blood leaving the heart during one contraction (per beat)
Increase in SV is a long term affect of endurance training
Training allows more blood to enter the left ventricle, which stretches the walls. The enlarged
ventricle allows for more powerful contractions
SV can increase up to 20% as a result of training
Decreases as we get older
o Cardiac Output
Volume of blood ejected by the heart per minute
Untrained= 15-20 L/min
Trained = 20-25 L/min
Highly trained = up to 40L/min
Decreases as we get older

Oxygen uptake and lung capacity

o Oxygen uptake:
The ability of working muscles to use the oxygen being delivered
VO2 max- max oxygen uptake- regarded as the best indicator of cardiorespiratory endurance
as it indicates the maximal amount of oxygen that muscles can absorb and use at that level of
Expressed in mL of oxygen per Kg of body weight every minute (mL/Kg/min)
17 year old boy 45mL/kg/min 17 year old girl average = 40mL/kg/min
Influenced greatly by aerobic training
Decreases at about 1% /year after the age of 25
Mitochondria in muscles create a larger arteriovenus oxygen difference
o Lung capacity:
Amount of air that the lungs can hold
Lung volumes and capacities change little with training
Vital capacity amount of air expelled in a breath slightly increases
Residual volume- air that cant be removed from the lungs - lowers
Tidal volume air breathed in and out
Max ventilation can reach 180L/min for men and 130L/min for women

Haemoglobin level
o Best increased through training at altitudes and can result in up to 20% improvement
o Endurance training increases both total haemoglobin levels and blood plasma therefore a trained
person will have more blood volume and haemoglobin levels than an untrained person
o This enables the trained person to transport more oxygen-enriched blood from the lungs to the
working muscles therefore can work for longer without fatigue setting in.

Muscle hypertrophy
o Refers to muscle growth and the increases of size of muscles
o Length remains the same while size and cross section increases
o Can be improved by overload training that stimulate activity in the muscle fibres causing them to grow
o Decrease in training results in atrophy
o The extent of hypertrophy depends on:
Muscle type- white muscle fibres (fast twitch) generally larger than red (slow twitch) . Training
will increase cross section but cannot change from red to white
Type of stimulus- as hypertrophy is enhanced through progressive overload, resistance
training with low repetitions of high resistance
Regularity of training- regular= hypertrophy, while irregular= muscle atrophy (reduced size of
Availability of body hormones- more easily achieved in males due to higher concentration of

Effect on fast/slow twitch muscle fibres

o Different fibres respond to stimulus in different ways
o Slow twitch fibres= red fibres
Contract slowly and release energy gradually
Efficient in using oxygen to generate fuel making them resistant to fatigue but unable to
produce the power of fast twitch fibres.
Aerobic training causes the following adaptations to occur in muscle fibres
Hypertrophy endurance activity recruits slow twitch fibres which experience some
Capillary supply- improves gaseous exchange and availability of oxygen to muscles
Mitochondrial function- increases the number and size of mitochondria, which are
energy factories of cells
Myoglobin content- transports oxygen from cell membrane to mitochondria. Making
the process more efficient. Some training can increase myoglobin content up to 80%
Oxidative enzymes- abundance of oxidative enzymes increase making the production
of energy more efficient

o Fast twitch = white fibres

Contract quickly but fatigue rapidly
Fast twitch A fibres- exert high output for lengthy time as they can draw on both aerobic and
anaerobic metabolism to support contraction
Fast twitch B fibres- produce high amounts of enzyme activity only from anaerobic sources
Anaerobic training causes the following adaptations in fast twitch fibres
ATP/PC supply
Glycolytic enzymes (improves function within cells)
Hypertrophy- depends on type of training, frequency and intensity
Lactic acid tolerance- increases the ability of FT fibres to tolerate lactic acid allowing
anaerobic performance to be sustained for a longer period of time.


Critical factors in developing a positive state of mind:

- Motivation
- Reinforcement
- Arousal levels
- Anxiety
- Behavioural Goals
- Mental rehearsal
- Aspiration

Positive and negative

o Positive- is the recognition, praise and possibility of a reward for good performance
E.g. trophy/medals, self satisfaction, words, applause

o Negative- is the feedback received by an athlete when a particular behaviour is perceived by

coaches, friends or parents, as being acceptable or sub standard.
E.g. Relegation to a lower division in the EPL

Intrinsic and extrinsic

o Intrinsic
Occurs from within the individual e.g. self talk.
Is personally concerned with their performance wand is motivated through internal
o Extrinsic
Arises form behaviours that result in some kind of reward for the effort e.g. trophies, positive
talk from coaches
Feel they need to demonstrate their ability to others

** Those who practice in order to improve performance are likely to stay motivated longer than those who perform in
order to gain rewards from external sources.
**Anxiety = a mainly psychological process that is characterised by fear or apprehension in anticipation of a
confronting situation that is perceived to be potentially threatening.
**Someone experiencing anxiety may:

- Feel threatened
- Not be able to think clearly
- Seize up

A boxer may be aware training is insufficient but must go an indefinite number of rounds with a superior opponent

- Suffer from choking syndrome (lay down sally-rower at the Olympics)

Trait and state anxiety

o Trait (A-trait)
Is the athletes general predisposition to perceive a wide range of situations as threatening
Is a personality trait
E.g. nervous throughout the WHOLE game and EVERY game

o State (A-state)
Refers to the emotional response of the athlete to a particular situation
Certain levels may be beneficial where aggression is an outlet - rugby
E.g. nervous just before a cricketer goes to bat, or just on grand final day
Sources of stress
o Come from either internal or external
o Can experience
Too much stress (hyper stress)
Too little stress (hypo stress)
Bad stress (distress)
Good stress (eustress)

Sources of stress placed on a performer.

UNDER ATHLETES CONTROL - Self esteem/self - Skills
confidence - Reactions to opposition
- Fear of success/failure - Aspects of environment
- A-state - Planning
- Mental rehearsal
- Coping style
- Personal expectations
NOT UNDER ATHLETES - Injury - Audience/spectators
CONTROL - Illness - Media
- A- trait - Environment
- Previous (whether/field/ref)
success/failure - Expectations from
- The opposition

o Methods used to cope with stress

o Practice
o Planning
o Refocusing
o Blocking out
o Concentration
o Anxiety and arousal control
o Mental rehearsal

Optimum arousal
o Definition-
Arousal can be defined as the emotional, mental or physiological activation required to
produce a response
Sport performance arousal- refers to the degree of energy released and the intensity of the
readiness of the performer.
o Can be measured by (symptoms)
Muscle tension
Increased heart rate
Skin temps increase (sweat)
Breathing increases (respiration)
Brain wave activity
o Inverted U hypothesis
Under aroused- performance may suffer due to:
Lack of motivation
Lack of intensity
Poor concentration
Inability to cope with distractions

Optimal arousal performance is optimal due to:

Interest heightened
Working in the arousal zone
Balanced level of motivation
Ability to control tension
Desire to perform well
Over aroused performance decreased due to
Apprehension reflecting their concern about their performance
Increased muscular tension
Possible mental confusion as the athlete tries to process messages during skill
execution = poorer performance
To increase arousal
Increase rhythm and rate of breathing
Focus on the task at hand and distract yourself from fatigue
Stretch and exercise more prior to play
Listen to upbeat music prior to play
Visualise powerful forces
Draw energy from the crowd
To Lower Arousal
Breathe deeply and slowly from the diaphragm
Engage in a popular form of meditation
Repeat key words or phrases to yourself
Engage in progressive muscular relaxation
Dictate own pace


Concentration/ attention skills (focusing)

o Is the ability to focus and maintain attention on the appropriate cues for the duration of the event
o External distractions- weather, noise in the crowd, movement in peripheral vision, unwelcome
o Internal distractions- own thoughts (worrying about mistake, anger at referees decision, overanalysing

Internal- thoughts and feelings

Narrow focus Hockey player Basketball player Broad
on one cue taking penalty deciding what multiple cues
shot play to run
Pistol shooter Rugby player
aiming at a target deciding to kick a
goal or take a tap
External focus outwards

o Four types of attention focus include:

o Strategies to regain focus include:
Associative- refers to the athlete focusing on bodily functions or feelings e.g. heart rate,
breathing and muscle tension)
Dissociative refers to the athlete concentrating on external cues (people, music, the course)
o Specific strategies
Cues- can be visual or physical and have specific meaning to the athlete- can be a coach
saying a word that reminds the athlete of what to do.
Set routines- helps the athlete feel more comfortable and increase concentration and reduce
anxiety levels. E.g. tiger woods- preparation phase (back from ball, deep breath) focus phase
(visualisation) execution phase (take shot on cue word)
Distraction training- deliberately introducing carious types of distractions into training and
working hard to stay focused so when game time comes, the athlete will be used to the
distractions and be able to concentrate more
Positivity focus on the things achieved in the game as this way the athlete can move on and
focus on what is yet to come in a positive mind frame rather than dwelling on the negatives
that have occurred.
Changing focus- addressing the distraction and learning to change focus and think about
something else. E.g. a diver focusing on the scoreboard and the results rather than the
technique of the dive

Mental rehearsal/ visualisation/ imagery

o Techniques used that involve creating a mental picture of an upcoming event or experience.
o Allows the athlete to experience the event before it happens
o Beginners will focus n he skill, goal and performance in the competition whereas athletes who use
mental rehearsal a lot will be able to focus on all their senses o recreate the event or experience.
o Can be used as another training session especially when recovering from injury
o When?
Before sleep
During training
Immediately before competition
o Types:
Internal having a camera on your head, you see what you would normally see when
executing the skill. BETTER for overall performance
External you watch yourself complete the task as if on a video recording BETTER for
learning new skill or technique

o Developing skills in mental rehearsal

Physical skills- perfecting practice, correcting errors in technique
Perceptual skills- tactics, decision making
Psychological skills- confidence, control, commitment and concentration

o Tips for optimum mental rehearsal

Vivid detail
Control (ensuring they picture the images how they want them to turn out)
Real time
Setting (rehearse with no distractions until feel comfortable doing it anywhere)
Realistic expectations
o How coaches can help
Give athletes a couple of minutes prior to practice
Have athletes mentally rehearse the skill before executing it
When teaching a new skill give them time to see and feel it

Relaxation techniques
o Progressive relaxation
Involves the systematic tensing and releasing of muscles.
Usually starting from feet and working up the body
Ensures all muscles are in a relaxed state and therefore reducing any tension or stress
After a while may be able to relax in a shorter period of time or without contracting at all. May
even use trigger words calm during competition to relax.
o Autogenic training
Relies on using self suggestion to generate feelings of heaviness (lack of muscle tension) and
warmth (dilation of blood vessels) in the muscles
Composed of three basic parts
Creation of the feeling of heaviness and warmth
Use of imagery of relaxing scenes
Use of specific themes to assist in bringing about the relaxation response.
o Meditation
Involves the total concentration on a word, phrase or image.
Frees the mind from distracting thoughts that may have caused stress
Gives the body time to relax and recuperate after stress or physical exercise

o Biofeedback
Uses instruments that measure changes in bodily functions.
Gives the athlete better control of these changes as they are aware they have occurred
E.g. heart rate monitor- enables the athlete to concentrate on lowering heart rate by relaxing
Main disadvantage is the expense of the item

o Hypnosis
Is the creation of a sleep-like condition in co-operation with another person
Induces a state of deep relaxation. Similar to autogenic training and meditation

Goal setting
o Short term goals
Goals that can be achieved over a short period of time that lead the athlete to certain points
that are linked to their long term goals
E.g. train 4 times per week for the next 6 weeks, increase weights by 10% every three weeks,
get 6 rebounds in the game today.

o Long term goals

Should reflect where the end point of training might be.
Could be accomplished within a few months, or years
E.g. represent Australia at the next Olympic games, receive the most valuable player award

o Successful goal setting

Specific- Make goals specific to what you want to achieve
Measurable- establish criteria and specific targets
Accepted- coach and athlete should both agree
Realistic- challenging but within reach
Time- indicate a specific date
Evaluate- adjust and modify goals based on progress
Recorded- write goals down, prioritise and share them with your coach


Average requirements Athlete requirements
Daily energy needs 8700 kJ 8700 kJ + training requirements
Carbohydrates 60% 70%
Fats 25-30% 20%
Protein 10-15% (0.8g/kg of body weight per 10-15% (1-1.2g/kg of body weight per day)
Water 2L Potentially need 4-5L

Pre performance
o Fuelling up-
should focus on increasing their carbohydrate (glycogen) stores, as this is
the primary fuel for the body
E.g. A boxer should ensure they consume carbohydrates just like marathon
runner, even though their activity requires more strength, agility and fast
movements rather than pure aerobic endurance.
o Carbohydrate loading-
Changes to training and nutrition that can maximize muscle glycogen stores
prior to an endurance competition.
Muscle glycogen levels are normally in the range of 100-120 mmol/kg BUT
after carb loading they can increase to around 150-200 mmol/kg.
Carbohydrate loading consists of a 3-4 day 'depletion phase' which involves
involving hard training plus a low carbohydrate diet which was thought to
have stimulated an enzyme (glycogen synthase) which is responsible for
converting glucose to glycogen which can then be used to fuel the body. This
was then followed immediately by a 3-4 day 'loading phase' involving rest
combined with a high carbohydrate diet, which boosts carbohydrate stores.
Research has shown that the depletion phase was not necessary. It is
generally more accepted now that 1-4 days of exercise taper while following
a high carbohydrate diet is sufficient
Allows athletes to exercise at their optimal pace for a longer time.
Can improve performance by 2-3%
Breakfast - 3 cups of low-fibre breakfast cereal with 1 cups of reduced
fat milk
- 1 medium banana
- 250ml of orange juice
Snack - Toasted muffin with honey
- 500ml sports drink
Lunch - - 2 sandwiches (4 slices of bread) with filling as desired
- 200g tub of low fast fruit yoghurt
- 375ml can of soft drink
Snack - Banana smoothie made with low-fat milk, banana and honey
- Cereal bar
Dinner - 1 cup of pasta sauce with 2 cups of cooked pasta
- 3 slices of garlic bread
- 2 glasses of cordial
Late snack - Toasted muffin and jam
- 500ml sports drink

o Tapering-
Refers to a period of time where the volume of training is reduced and the athletes dietary
intake is slowly reduced and adjusted in the days or weeks leading up to an event.
This helps to prevent fatigue from impacting your performance on the day.
E.g. taper week for a marathon runner (1 week prior to competition)
o Day 1 Exercise Duration 60 minutes, Carb intake 60%
o Day 2 Exercise Duration 40 minutes, Carb intake 50%
o Day 3 Exercise Duration - 30 minutes, Carb intake 40%
o Day 4 Exercise Duration 20 minutes, Carb intake 70%
o Day 5 Exercise Duration Rest, Carb intake 70%
o Day 6 Exercise Duration Rest, Carb intake 70%
o Day 7 Race Day
Ensures the body is not experiencing any fatigue on race day as a result of training.
Increase muscle glycogen stores
Lead to an increase in oxygen uptake, an increase in muscle glycogen levels and an increase
in an athlete's strength and power.
3% increase in power, and an increase in sustained endurance, compared to those who did
not taper.

o Types of food to eat and when to eat them:

o Varies greatly
o Depends on preference and type of exercise to be undertaken
o For example a shot putter would focus less on eating carbohydrates (a slow releasing form of
energy) as opposed to a marathon runner who will need a considerable amount of this.
o Most meals should consist of complex carbohydrates e.g. cereal, bread, pasta as these
produce slow energy release which is beneficial to many athletes using the aerobic system,
like a marathon runner as they need a consistent release of energy to last a long period of
time (throughout the whole race).
o If solid foods are hard to digest liquid meals are recommended. E.g. up & go.
o Never eat anything that you havent had before
o Example: pre-performance meals leading up to an event for a marathon runner:

Time Types of food to eat

1 week before In the week leading up to an important event, a marathon runner should
exercise ensure that their diet consists largely of carbohydrates and minimal fats.
This will ensure the athlete remains at optimal running weight, while
maximising glycogen stores. Some suggested foods that are high in
carbohydrates include:
- Whole grain breads, brown rice, oatmeal, sweet potatoes, bananas
and apples

3-4 hours before The athlete should eat a high carbohydrate meal. This will ensure their
exercise glycogen stores are topped off and their body is fuelled up, ready to
produce a slow release of energy that will last them the length of the race.
This is the last big meal before the race as it allows time for digestion and
will reduce the likelihood of stomach upsets during the race. The athlete
should also consume around 300ml of water at this stage to ensure
adequate hydration before the competition. Examples include:
- 2 cups of plain pasts or scrambled eggs on toast.
- Baked potato and cottage cheese filling and a glass of milk
- Baked beans on toast
- Fruit salad with flavoured yoghurt
- Pasta or rice with a sauce

1-2 hours before The athlete should consume a smaller meal consisting of complex
exercise carbohydrates They should also continue to keep up fluids by consuming
another 300ml of water. Examples of foods include:
- Milkshake or fruit smoothie
- Breakfast cereal with milk
- Cereal bars
- fruit

1 hour or less The athlete could consume a light snack if they wish. This will supply their
body with more complex carbohydrate to ensure optimal glycogen stores.
The athlete should also ensure they are remaining hydrated and are
consuming more water or Gatorade. However at this stage it should be
smaller sips to ensure there is no bloating or stomach upset during the
race. Examples include:
- One piece of fresh fruit such as a banana or an orange.
- Jelly lollies
- Sports bars
- Cordial/sports drinks
- Carbohydrate gel

o Hydration-
refers to the athlete supplying fluid to their body to restore or maintain a fluid balance and
avoid dehydration (loss of water and salts essential for normal bodily functions)
dehydration will reduce exercise performance, increase fatigue, increase heart rate and
increase the potential for heat stress.
Indicator of dehydration = colour of their urine.
Some sports drinks contain electrolytes that help with the reabsorption of water
E.g. A marathon runner will lose a lot of water through sweating and respiration during the
exercise, and therefore to optimise performance the athlete should be well hydrated before
they begin to ensure optimum performance and escape the symptoms of dehydration. These
include dry sticky mouth, headache, dizziness, dry skin and tiredness.
Example: A marathon runner should ensure they are constantly hydrated; however it is even
more important in the few days before and the day of a major event, to ensure optimum
performance. About 3 days before the event the athlete should be drinking on average 2-3 L
of fluid each day. This will ensure they are fully hydrated before their event. On the day of
competition the athlete should consume about 300-500ml 30 mins prior to the event

o Glycaemic index-
Refers to the measure of effects of carbohydrates on blood sugar level. That is how quickly
the fuel acts on the body to produce energy and how much of an effect it has.
High GI include: Glucose, Cornflakes, Potato, Sports drinks, White bread, Weetbix, Honey,
White rice. Therefore dramatic increase in energy levels.
o Taken by sprinters and throwers to enhance ATP and lactic acid stores
Low GI include: Milk , Yoghurt, Apples, Pasta, Baked beans, Grain bread. Beneficial to those
wanting to sustain their energy
o Taken by distance runners and people playing team sports to enhance long supplies
of energy

During performance
o Refuelling-
30-60g of carbohydrate per hour is recommended for marathon runner
benefit from high GI foods. E.g. energy bars, energy gels and sports drinks. Liquid and gel
forms of carbohydrate
Example: a marathon runner should carry liquid and/or gel forms of carbohydrates with them
during the race, or have them organised at certain stations along the way. This is to ensure
they are receiving enough fuel to last the entire race and prolong fatigue of the aerobic
o Rehydration:-
Dehydration can severely decrease an athletes performance.
Constantly losing fluids through sweating and respiration
Athletes should already be well hydrated before the event and throughout the event should
plan to drink small amounts regularly. This will minimise the chance of a full, uncomfortable
stomach and decrease risk of hydration.

Post performance
o Refuel carbohydrate (energy) stores-
consume carbohydrates 30 mins after completing exercise
The amount of carbohydrate that should be consumed depends on the type of activity
undertaken. E.g. a sprinter wont need to consume as much as a marathon runner due to the
difference in energy systems used.
examples of carbohydrate rich recovery snacks include:
o 700-800ml sports drink
o 2 sports gels
o 500ml fruit juice or soft drink
o 300ml carbohydrate loader drink
o 2 slices toast/bread with jam or honey or banana topping
o 2 cereal bars 1 cup thick vegetable soup + large bread roll
o 115g (1 large or 2 small) cake style muffins, fruit buns or scones
o 300g (large) baked potato with salsa filling
o 100g pancakes (2 stack) + 30g syrup
carbs after exercise will reduce the disturbances to the immune system and therefore decrease
the risk of athletes catching infections illnesses, such as the common cold.
The carbohydrate reduces the stress hormone response to exercise, which as a result,
minimizes its effect on the immune system, as well as also supplying glucose to fuel the activity
of many of the immune system white cells.

o Rehydrate to replace fluids and electrolytes lost-

Fluids lost to respiration and sweating must be replaced
aim to consume 125-150% of their estimated fluid losses in the 4-6 hours after exercise.
Replace lost electrolytes as well. In the form of sodium in foods or in sports drinks and will
reduce urine losses therefore returning the fluid balance to normal after exercise.
For accurate fluid intake after exercise: the athletes can weigh themselves before the exercise
and after to see how much weight they have lost in fluid. This should then be multiplied by 1.5 to
know how much fluid the athlete needs to consume after an event.
Example -a marathon runner that weighs 55kg pre-event and their post-performance weight is
53kg means that the athlete has lost 2L of fluid during the exercise. 2 x 1.5 = 3L. therefore the
marathon runner should consume 3L of fluid within the few hours after completing the event to
ensure adequate hydration and replacement of electrolytes.

o Repair and regenerate damaged muscle tissue-

o During the recovery - reduction in the breakdown processes and a gradual increase in the
rebuilding processes, which continues for at least 24 hours after exercise.
o intake of essential amino acids from good quality protein foods within an hour of completing
exercise helps to promote the increase in protein rebuilding.
o About 10-20g of protein should be consumed within the couple of hours after completing
exercise and ideally should be consumed with carbohydrate rich foods.
o Example a marathon runner will need to consume protein in the 2 hours following
performance to rebuilt muscle protein that has been depleted due to a prolonged period of high
intensity activity. Some examples of protein snacks that could be consumed by a marathon
runner that has just completed exercise include:
o 40g of cooked lean beef/pork/lamb
o 40g skinless cooked chicken
o 50g of canned tuna/salmon or cooked fish
o 300 ml of milk/glass of Milo
o 200g tub of yoghurt
o 300ml flavoured milk
o 1.5 slices (30g) of cheese
o 2 eggs
Boxing Marathon
Pre Require high GI foods for fast energy Would require more low-GI foods and may
supply undertake carbo-loading
Hydration is important Hydration more important
During Would not consume food during event Would require carbohydrate rich fuels, including:
(less than 60 mins) - Sports drinks
- Sports gels
- High GI foods
Post Protein for muscle recovery and tissue Protein for muscle recovery and tissue repair
repair Mixture of high and low GI foods
High and low GI foods


Vitamins and minerals

o Vitamins

For Against
Athletes with high energy demand may not be able to get Pass all excess stores as the body can only hold so
all they need from a balanced diet: much of each vitamin or mineral.
Vitamin B: release energy from food A balanced diet should cover all requirements and
Vitamin C: helps absorb iron assist in the absorption of nutrients.
Iron: haemoglobin formation No fibre in tablets.
Calcium: strong bones
o Minerals
Found in haemoglobin
Diminished haemoglobin levels affect performance as the muscles are not gaining
enough oxygen
Preferred intake= balanced diet
Sports anaemia early stages of heavy training programs (lack of energy and
general fatigue) thought to be caused by lower iron intake in relation to boost in
Iron found in : lean meat, grain products, dark leafy green veggies (spinach)
Those most at risk of iron deficiency include:
o Endurance athletes (sweat loss)
o Females (menstrual blood loss)
o Vegetarians (lack of red meat)
o Adolescent males (growth spurt)
Vital for bone structure and preventing osteoporosis
Preferred intake= balanced diet
Can be found in: leafy green veggies, dairy products, fish (salmon and sardines)
Those most at risk of calcium deficiency include:
o Females (insufficient intake of dairy)
o Females whose menstrual cycles have ceased (leads to loss of calcium from
bone tissue)

o Responsible for holding cells together and in the growth and repair of muscle tissue
o Composed of various types of amino acids
o Supplements found in liquid, and powder forms
o Average person needs to consume 1g of protein for each kilogram of body weight
o Preferred intake = balanced diet
o Found in: fish, chicken, red meat, cheese breads, cereals and some types of beans
o 12-15% of recommended intake should consist of protein
o Thought to be beneficial for strength athletes (weightlifters, body builders)
o Too much protein
Can increase amount of calcium excreted in urine
Cannot be stored therefore must be excreted and can affect with kidney function
o It assists metabolic processes through ergogenic properties
o Promotes glycogen sparing which prolongs the point of exhaustion
o Proven that is does NOT improve short term high intensity activities such as sprinting
o High levels are not recommended but can be beneficial for endurance activities in small doses

Creatine products
o Found in the muscles in the form of creatine phosphate, which provides a ready source of ATP to the
working muscles in times of high demand (anaerobic activities)
o In lower intensities creatine it is resynthesised into creatine phosphate to be used later
o Average person = 2g of creatine a day
o Main source is animal products, e.g. meat
o Body has a max amount of creatine it can store. When this is reached it will break down the excess
and excrete it though urine
o Does to extend the amount of time a performance can be maintained but can increase the efficiency
of ATP production
o Will benefit those who do many sets of high intensity activity with short rests
o Shown benefits more if taken in conjunction with carbohydrates as it aids absorption
o NEGATIVE= weight gain


- Ensures athletes are able to resume training within an allocated time

- Active rest is the most beneficial form of recovery
- During rest muscles; repair, rebuild, restore energy levels
- Short Term recovery- Active recovery and replacement of fuel
- Long Term Recovery off season (after grand final and preparation for next year) involves balanced diets and

Features Benefits
Cool down: returning the body back to its resting state. Disposes lactic acid out of body
An active warm down includes stretching: passive and Restore muscle length and range of movement
static. Decreases muscle tension and relaxes muscles
Hydration: water volume must be replaced as well as Essential for bodily functions
electrolytes such as sodium lost through sweat. Can prevent cramps
Hydrotherapy: recovery involving water, including: Decreases muscle soreness
- Deep water running Delays onset of muscle soreness during recovery
- Ice baths sessions
- Spas
Massage: manipulation of superficial and deeper layers Reduce lactic acid levels attained through
of muscle and connective tissue to enhance function and repetitive activities
aid in the healing process. Rehabilitation: returns neural pathways to working
order as soon as possible
Speeds the recovery of soft tissue injuries
Cryotheraphy: cooling which decreases the amount of Decreases inflammation after injury
blood and scar tissue build up at the injured site: Realigns muscle fibres, removes lactic acid from
- RICE working muscles
- Ice massage
Relaxation: can include: Lowers blood pressure, decreases motor neuron
- Flotation tanks response to everyday stresses.
- Music, sleep Allows injuries and body to heal/replenish.
- Warm baths, showers and meditation Decreases Heart Rate
Relaxes muscles

Physiological strategies
o Cool down
slowly and actively decreasing the intensity of activity until the body has adjusted to the
It also includes stretching which, will help reduce the occurrence of delayed-onset muscle
soreness (DOMS).
It is proven that an appropriate, active cool down recovery will improve performance by about
5-10 minutes slow easy exercise followed by static stretching
Helps rid the body of waste (lactic)
Example a marathon runner in training will be experiencing fatigue at each session, therefore
it is vital that they partake in an active cool down, to rid their muscles of any excess lactic acid
and to gradually lower their core body temperature. This ensures that they are performing at
their optimum level each session and each competition.

o Nutritional Plan
Fluid Recovery
Refers to the athlete supplying fluid to their body to restore or maintain a fluid balance
and avoid dehydration
Following exercise the athletes body temperature remains high, therefore causing
further dehydration and decreasing performance for next time.
A good monitor = weight. Following exercise if the athlete is lighter by 2kg, this
means that they will have a deficit of 2L of fluid.
Example- a marathon runner will lose a significant amount of fluid during competition,
due to the nature of the race. It is a long period of time, working the body at a medium
intensity, which will result in a large amount of water loss through sweating especially
if the temperature and humidity are high. Therefore it is essential that the athlete
should consume enough water to replace what has been lost.
Fuel Recovery
Replenish depleted glycogen 30min -2 hours after exercise
After 2 hours 50% less glycogen is absorbed
50-100 grams of carbohydrates within 2 hours necessary for recovery also consume
protein but only in ratio 4:1

Neural strategies
o Hydrotherapy
Involves the use of water to relax, sooth pain and assist metabolic recovery
Methods include:
Underwater massage
Swimming pools
Active exercise can be incorporated
Two common strategies
1. Contrast water immersion
o Alternating hot water (39-40C) approx. 4-4 mins with cold water (10-15C)
plunge repeated 3 times
o Increase blood flow through vasoconstriction and vasodilation
o Improves waste removal and nutrient delivery

2. Even temperature immersion

o Showers or baths often with hot water
o Accelerates recovery of lactates and reduces metabolic fatigue
o Together with stretching and light active movements in pools will help
Decrease pain
Increase muscle strength
Improvement in swelling
Enhanced balance and stabilisation
Muscular relaxation
o Massage
Assists in reducing training fatigue
Reduces localised muscle tension with can lead to overuse injuries
Waste removal and increased nutrient delivery
Inducing calm and mental relaxation
Reducing muscle tension
Increase muscle elasticity
Realignment of collagen fibres after injury leading to flexible, stronger scar tissue

Tissue damage strategies

o Cryotherapy
Is the cold-water immersion commonly known as ice baths. It requires the athlete to immerse
themselves in water around 10-15 C for about 5 minutes.
This will decrease the heart rate and cardiac output as well as core temperature and as a
result reduce inflammation, pain and muscle spasms.
The blood vessels vasoconstrict which forces blood away from the muscles, taking with it by
products of energy systems, such as Carbon dioxide and lactic acid.
Example: a marathon runner who participates in an ice bath after a training session will be
able to rid their muscles of the unwanted by products of energy production, including lactic
acid and therefore, allowing their muscles to recover at an increased rate and not hinder
future performance as opposed to someone who did not take part in one.

o Compression garments
Are garments that use compression to improve circulation around the body
Accelerate the inflammatory and repair response
Example a marathon runner will benefit from wearing compression garments to bed the night
after a hard training. This is because they will improve circulation and encourage the
dispersion of lactic acid, which will increase the rate of recovery. Athletes also choose
compression garments due to their convenience. This recovery process does not require time
or concentration to complete and as a result they are largely popular within the sporting world.

Psychological strategies
o Relaxation
Can remove anxiety and negative thoughts can arise after over thinking a performance.
Involves a decrease in breathing rate, heart rate, muscle activity and oxygen consumption,
however brainwave activity and skin responses are increased.
can help lead to a faster and more complete recovery which as a result will help the athlete in
their preparation for the next training or competition.
Example- a marathon runner may replay a bad performance in their mind over and over
again which can cause anxiety and increased stress levels. Also the detailed analysis after a
positive performance can create excitement and over arousal in the athlete.
Debrief = Effectively evaluating performance can be a useful way to provide emotional and
psychological recovery.

o Sleep
Sleep deprivation = condition of not having enough sleep and is one of the major reasons
athletes have high levels of fatigue.
The athletes ability to focus, concentrate and make decisions is hindered when sleep
Some recommended ways to promote sleep include:
Maintaining a regular sleep-wake cycle (going to bed each night at the same time and
waking up at the same time)
Create a comfortable, quiet, dark and temperature controlled bedroom
Avoid alcohol, caffeine, large meals and large volumes of fluid prior to bed time
Ensure you are organized and relaxed, to promote no unnecessary overthinking while
trying to sleep.

o Is the early identification and understanding of the skill
o Activities in the mind (watching, thinking, analysing, reasoning, judging and visualising)
o The learner is developing an in depth understanding of the skill to be acquired.
o Generally view live demonstrations of the skill, analyse photos an videos and take in written and
spoken information about what makes the skill achievable.
o Common dangers:
Is when teachers not allowing student enough time to practice
Teaching the wrong skill
Not giving key clue instructions
Moving on to early before mastering the skill

o Focuses on the idea of practice
o Increase the learners ability to perform the skill or task.
o The more practice the learner undertakes accompanied by clear and positive feedback from the
coach or teacher the more successful the learner will be.
o Constructive criticism is a key ingredient, as it will pinpoint areas of improvement while also
enhancing the learners confidence.
o Characteristics:
The more you grasp the skill the higher your confidence will be.
Errors will be fewer and smaller than cognitive.
The learner will start to recognise their own mistakes rather than relying on feedback from
Less feedback given, more internal feedback

o Revolves around executing the skill automatically without having to stop and think about what to do
next or how to do it.
o Good consistency of performance
o Most of skill is performed without thinking and more attention is given to high order cognitive
activities e.g. game tactics
o Athlete can detect and adjust errors themselves


Characteristic Influence on learning
Heredity Inherited factors such as height somatotype, fast: slow twitch muscle
ratio, coordination, balance etc. e.g. Cathy freemans muscle fibres, Ian
Thorpes feet. Jessica Fox, Kieran Jack.
- Body types
- Muscle fibres
- Gender
- Ability to visualise
Personality Some people prefer individual to team sports. Some enjoy high
adrenaline sports. Some enjoy pressure/competition. E.g. Leyton Hewitt
loves pressure matches
- Driver: know what they want, get to the point and driven, high
energy, do not shy away from conflict
- Expressive: enthusiastic, good motivators and communicators,
known to talk about things rather than do them
- Amiable: kind and sympathetic, avoid conflict, difficulty making
decisions, very sensitive and quiet
- Analytical: detail orientated, have all the facts, overly critical,
Self-confidence and self If an athlete achieves some level of success they are more likely to
esteem continue. Self-esteem and self-confidence increase as a result of
success and positive feedback. Can be linked to media e.g. Tatiana
Gregoriava- high jumper

Ability level Some athletes have a natural ability. They can quickly pick up a skill
and apply it to relevant situations. It is often due to a combination of
other factors. E.g. Anthony Mundine basketball, league, boxing
Shelly Oates Wilding Netball to kayaking
Prior experience If an athlete has had prior experience in other sports, some of the skills
may be able to be transferred. E.g. passing a netball passing a

Motivation level An athlete needs to set realistic goals in order to keep motivated. E.g. to
achieve a personal best in each competition


Nature of skill
Open skills - Externally paced - Batting in cricket
- Timing depends on factors - Tackling player in soccer
external to the performer - Executing a set play in
Closed skills - Internally paced - Archery
- Performer is in full control - Weight lifting
of the timing of movements - Ten Pin Bowling
Gross motor skills - Involve large body parts or - Walking
the movement of the whole - Running
body - Throwing

Fine motor skills - Involve movements of - Writing

small muscle groups - Spinning a ball when
- Throwing darts
Discrete skills - Distinct beginning and end - Throwing a ball
- Performing a dive
Serial skills - No distinct beginning or - Swimming
end - Running
- Said to be continuous - Walking

Continuous skills - String together several - Dance routine

discrete skills to form an - Bowling a cricket ball
apparently continuous - Tennis serve
- The order of the discrete
elements is important

Self-paced skills - Movements which the - Archery

performer determines the - High jump
timing and speed

Externally paced skills - External source controls - Centre pass in netball

the timing - Sprinting 100m

The performance elements

Athlete centred approach: involves the coach to
- Provide athletes with choice within specific rules and limits
- Provide opportunities for initiative taking and independent work
- Provide informational feedback to promote problem solving continually ask questions
- Avoid controlling behaviour
- Encourage the athlete to take responsibility for acquiring the skill by increasing their awareness
- Make athletes accountable for their performance
o Decision making
Guided discovery
Includes incorporating activities that require athletes to become more independent
In this response the coach asks in depth questions to guide the athlete

Problem solving
The coach can: establish the problem, accepting that there are a variety of solutions
Encourage the athlete to be responsible for the process of finding the solution
Implements individualised or group based work
Works on the cognitive process of the learner
Provides a debrief at the end of each session so that the athlete can review what has
been learnt
Examples include:
o Practicing skills while the athlete is fatigued to mimic game conditions
o Playing a small sided game allows players to become more involved and
make more decisions
o Video sessions
o Strategies and tactics
Strategy is the overall goal the players are trying to achieve
Tactics are the plans on how to put the strategies to work
Factors must be considered when preparing strategies and tactics
The athlete or teams strengths and weaknesses
The strengths and weaknesses of the opponents
Any external factors that may place a role in the game plan

Practice method

Method Definition Advantages Disadvantages Examples

Massed Occurs when a - Can be - Fatigue - Swimming
skill is practiced quickly and quickly - Golf
until it is learnt efficiently - Frustration if - Basketball
without taking a learnt cant do it free throws
break - Injury if wrong
- No feedback

Distributed Is interspersed - Keeps - Slow learning - Anaerobic

with rest breaks interest process activities like
- Beneficial for shot put,
those with low diving, High
fitness Jump
- Good for

Whole Whole skill is - Better - Hard to - Golf swing

practiced at the transferred comprehend - Swimming
same time rather into comp - Mistakes and - Running
than being broken - Able to see injury are - Cartwheel
down whole picture likely
- Not disjointed

Part Parts of a skill are - More - Problematic - Gymnastics

practiced comprehensiv putting it routine
individually e together - Dance
practise each part understanding - Hard when - Archery
in isolation. of the skill get one part - Tennis serve
Broken into but not the
components other

o Sources of feedback
Internal intrinsic- received through bodys mechanisms (senses)
External- extrinsic- information that is provided from outside the performers natural sensory
awareness of the immediate action. This might include the coaches voice, the scoreboard, the

o Timing of feedback
Augmented- given much later after the game to illustrate a point. E.g. video footage
Concurrent- given during the performance as it occurs simultaneously with skill execution e.g.
feel of the ball as it hits the racquet
Delayed- given after the skill has been performed therefore too late to produce a response.
E.g. coaches comment at half time

o Types of feedback
Knowledge of results (KR)-
Is information received externally after the completion of the action.
It is based upon the outcome of the performance
Allows the learner to correct the action next time, be reinforced when the attempt is
partially correct, and remain motivated to try again
E.g. a score of 9.8, the ball hitting the ring but not quite going in

Knowledge of performance (KP)

Information provided externally concerning the movement executed.
Does not inform about the success of the movements results but rather the success
of the movement itself
E.g. coach telling a gymnast she has a good body position during a movement


Characteristics of skilled performers

o Kinaesthetic awareness and proprioception ability to utilise the sensory information gained from
within their body concerning body position and limb awareness
o Anticipation- ability to guess what might happen next and generate an appropriate response to it.
o Timing of responses- have quick and efficient responses
o Limb coordination- hold limbs steady and have good coordination
o Consistency- make few errors during an activity
o Technique- maintain correct technique despite fatigue or game situation
o Response to cues- able to respond to many cues and recognise and respond only to those cues that
are relevant
o Mental attitude- more aggressive, competitive, ambitious, self-assured, adventurous, confidant,
determined and committed. Have better concentration, self regulate anxiety and arousal, can
understand and use complex skills and patterns.

Objective and subjective performance measures

o Measurement:
Measurement= the act of assessing, usually by the assigning of numbers to whatever is being
assessed. A TEST is used to make measurements
Appraisal (evaluation) is a dynamic process in which a conclusion is made about the value or
quality of what is being measured. E.g. a sit up test as a number doesnt give information
about the quality of performance.
The appraisal of a skill can involve three types of measurement
1. Information processing capacity (memory/reaction time)
2. General motor ability (speed/power)
3. Specific sports skills (kicking/passing)
o Types:
Subjective depends on he observers personal judgement of how well the skill was
performed. It is biased on personal feelings, and is affected by the mind of the observer.
E.g. dance or gymnastics routine
Objective- involves an impartial measurement based on certain indisputable facts about the
performance. It occurs without bias or prejudice and means that all observers will give the
same result for the same performance
E.g. batter bowled out in cricket or final score in a netball game

Basketball S= Umpires decision if the athlete travels or if the ball goes out
O= scoring a basket
Gymnastics S= judges opinion as to what score the routine achieved
O= criteria for each routine (if drop the ball)
Swimming S= if under water at dive for more than 15m
O= time touchpad for a 50m swim

Validity and reliability of tests

o Validity-
The degree to which a test measures what it is designed to measure.
E.g. a sprint test does not measure aerobic endurance
Techniques used to enhance validity
Judgements about the test items
Using already validated but similar tests as an indicator
Accuracy in prediction
Ensuring test items contain the component being validated.
Factors that affect validity include:
Type of measurement tool chosen
Characteristics of the individual (age/gender/novice or expert)
o Reliability-
Is the ability of the test, and the test results to be repeated.
E.g. different results from a 40m sprint on grass, concrete and on sand
Must keep a constant variable (do the sit up the same way for everyone)
Unreliable test = the beep test on sand and on gym floor.

Personal versus prescribed judging criteria

o Personal judging criteria- are the ideas and expectations an individual holds about how to measure a
performance. Is used at a more novice level
o Prescribed judging criteria- are measurement standards established by a governing body or
organisation for a sport. Is used at a more elite level.
Training is the fundamental ingredient that sustains physical performance because it improves energy production, skill
execution and muscle stress tolerance

- Refers to increasing the maximum force that a particular muscle group can generate
- When training athletes train specifically to improve their strength performance in a particular sport
- Reasons for training can influence
o Muscle groups targeted
o Types of training completed
o Overload principles applied

- Begin a strength program to:

o Develop muscular strength endurance
o Develop power
o Lose weight
o Gain muscle definitions

- Can take different forms including:

Resistance training Where each muscle effort is opposed by a specific

hydraulic and elastic resistance
resistance Muscle develops as resistance is increased
Use of oil filled cylinders to provide resistance
Provide resistance throughout entire
Faster the movement performed the greater the
Provides resistance in both phases of a
E.g. gym equipment/ water
Safe, smooth range of motion, tones muscles,
variable resistance
Unfortunately costly, impractical
Offer resistance towards end of the movement
and are
Versatile. Portable, and adaptable
Resistance depends on the type of band, at
least 7 varieties and how far it is stretched
A single band can train the whole body through
both compound and isolation exercises
Mimic sport specific movements
Eliminates cheating
Weight training- plates Uses sets and reps and specific units of weight to create
and dumb-bells progressive overload
Can use, free weights, weight training machines or Body
weight e.g. push ups, pull ups
Preferred form of strength to develop absolute strength,
body building and lean muscle tissue
Uses both concentric and eccentric muscle contractions
Increasing loads means more motor units are used to
perform actions, this causes hypertrophy in muscle
- When anchored to barbells comprise free weights
- Weight can be set exact to requirements of athletes
and encourages the progressive overload principal
to be implemented easily
- Two discs attached to a short bar, made for lifting
with one hand
- Provide versatility in weight training programs
- Used in exercises that develop small muscle groups
and can isolate certain muscles (biceps)
- Good for rehabilitation where specific muscles need
to be strengthened e.g. tennis elbow recovery
- Do not fully lock elbows and knees at each end of
movement as this places stress on the joints and can
cause injury
Isometric training Resistance is fixed and remains so, regardless of the
static force amount of effort
- E.g.. plank Force is exerted and tension in the muscles increase
but muscle length remains the same (pushing against a
Isometric gains can not be measured therefore need for
alternative programs like free weights
Best strength gains= 6-8 reps each lasting 6 seconds
- Limited equipment needs
- Helpful to overcome weak points in the muscle
- Little time, easy to learn and perform
- Valuable in rehab of injury e.g. Muscle tear
- Does not increase strength through full range of
motion unless applied at all respective angels
- Causes a rise in blood pressure
- Speed is reduced through strengthening in static
- Other methods must be used to measure progress
- Does not produce muscular endurance
- Most benefits occur early in training
Plank Bridge, Side Bridge, Hundred Breaths Exercise,
Isometric Push ups
Overload Techniques
Blitzing Same muscle worked from different angles
o Bench/Pectorals Incline and Flat Bar/Dumbell
Forced Repetitions Partner helps begin the repetition, help where muscle is at its weakest
o Maxing out on Bench
Cheating Using other muscles to overcome weakness in movement range
o Use of back to bring up arms in bicep curl
Negative Repetitions Up to 120% of 1RM where the spotter helps lift weight and athletes lower it using
eccentric contractions
o Downward phase of bench press
Pre-exhaustion Athlete isolates one muscle group
o Bicep Curls to Chins or 21s
Rest Pause Athlete fatigues a muscle so only 1RM can be done alternated with 10 seconds rest
Pyramid Training Athlete starts on a low weight with few reps. Then increases the weight and the reps
before being reversed
Up and Down the rack increase weights but does as many reps as possible
Compound training Set of exercises targeting one muscle group then does antagonist muscles
o Curls to dips (bicep to tricep)
Hybrid Training Athlete does compound exercises working more than one joint
Triple Drop Athlete decreases weight 3 times during the set to increase the amount of reps that can be

- Comparing types of strength training

- Weight training vs Resistance Training
Resistance training involves the application of elastic or hydraulic resistance to muscle contractions rather than
gravity. Weight training provides the majority of the resistance at the beginning, initiation joint angle of the movement,
when the muscle must overcome the inertia of the weights mass. After this point the overall resistance alters
depending on the angle of the joint. In comparison, hydraulic resistance provides a fixed amount of resistance
throughout the range of motion, depending on the speed of the movement. Elastic resistance provides the greatest
resistance at the end of the motion, when the elastic element is stretched to its greatest extent.

- Weight training vs Isometric Training

Isometric exercise provides a fixed amount of resistance based on the force output of the muscle. This strengthens
the muscle at the specific joint angle at which the isometric exercise occurs, with some lesser gains in strength also
occurring at proximal joint angles. In comparison, weight training strengthens the muscle throughout the range of
motion the joint is trained in, cause an increase in physical strength from the initiating through to terminating joint

- 3 different types of contractions

Types Of Resistance Explanation Advantages Disadvantages
Isotonic muscle Concentric- muscle Easy Does not maintain
fibres produce tension, shortens to pull on the Cheap constant load
the muscle length bones and bring them Accessible to many
changes closer together
Eccentric- muscle
Isometric Tension develops in Cheapest Doesnt mimic most
muscles but it neither No Equipment competition
shortens nor lengthens Good for variety and movements
They produce energy rehab Limited range of
although there is no Overload Tool motion and can
movement increase Blood
Isokinetic Muscle contracts and Load constant through Expensive Machinery
shortens at a constant entire range of motion required
rate of speed. Develops strength
Requires special most effectively
training equipment that
increases the load as
it senses that the
muscle contraction is
speeding up

- Types of strength training dependant on the demands of the sport

o Maximum or absolute strength- the max weight that can be lifted just once (e.g. weightlifting)
o Elastic strength (power) the ability to exert maximum force in a short period of time. It is the product of
strength and speed, common in explosive sports involving sprinting, jumping, throwing
o Endurance training- the capacity to exert a force repeatedly over an extended time, required in
swimming, rowing cross country skiing

- Ensuring the strength training is effective and safe by:

o Warm-up and cool-down
o Completing large muscle exercises before small muscles
o Using progressive overload
o Shaped to athletes level and requirements
o Using correct form and technique
o Allowing appropriate recovery period
o Monitoring progress

Exercise Type of Main Muscle Other Muscles

Movement Group
Bench Press Compound Chest Latissimus
dorsi, deltoid,
biceps, triceps
Upright rows Compound Shoulders Biceps,
Bicep Curls Isolation Bicep
Sit-Ups Isolation Rectus
Squats Compound Quadriceps & Gluteus
Hamstrings Maximus
Heel Raises Isolation Calves

Training goal Repetition Repetitions Sets Speed Rest

Absolute Very Heavy 4-6 5-6 Slow Long 3-5min
Strength 80-100%
Power 60-80% 5-10 3-6 Fast Long 3-5 min
Lean Body Heavy 70-90% 3-6 Slow-Medium Short 1-3 min
Mass 6-12
Muscular Light-Medium 20-30 3-6 High Short 1-3 min
Endurance 40-60%

Benefits include decreasing the arteriovenus oxygen difference, increasing levels of oxidative enzymes, increasing
cappiliarisation and effectiveness of vasodilation along with increased hypertrophy of the left ventricle

- Continuous/Uniform
o 50-60% of MHR or 20-36% of VO2 Max. Very easy pace metabolises fat aerobic 60 minutes plus
o Running at 60-70% of MHR or 36-52% of VO2 max. Slightly faster burns glycogen and fat aerobic
45-90 min Improves cardio endurance and capillarisation
- High Intensity Continuous Training
o 70-80% MHR or 52-68% VO2 Max. 10 km pace burns glycogen aerobic 30-45 min
o 80-90% MHR or 68-83% VO2 Max. 5km pace burns glycogen anaerobic 10-20 min
o 90-100% MHR or 83-99% VO2 Max. 800/1500m pace burns glycogen anaerobic 1-5 min
- Provides a foundation for most other methods of training
- Sustained, enduring and low to moderate intensity
- Improves cardiorespiratory endurance, local muscular endurance and overall aerobic capacity
- Ways of adapting continuous training to performance needs see table 12.3 in notes
- Develops both glycogen and fat utilisation in the provision of energy
- Improves cardiorespiratory efficiency and stroke volume which reduces heart rate
- Progressive overload is used which enables investigation of adaptations and maintaining the highest level of
- High intensity continuous training= 80-100% of max heart rate and significantly deplete energy stores and
contribute to muscle fatigue
- Those who benefit from continuous training include:
o Runners
o Cross country skiers
o Joggers
o Cyclists
o Triathletes
o Footballers
o Tennis players


- Speed play
- Covers diverse terrain, uses variable interval distances and encourages pace judgement based on feelings
rather than specific time requirements
- Provides cardiorespiratory benefits
- Pace and terrain variations ensure full benefits are gained from this training technique
- During the recovery period, ventilation rate should return to where it was prior to exercise
- Overload principal can be applied (increase intensity each set or rep)
- Should monitor feelings and be aware of physiological responses such as higher levels of lactic acid and
modify effort appropriately

- Types of fartlek training

Fartlek type Target activity Specific features
Watson Fartlek 3km, 5km, 10km (Stride hard for 4 minutes with 1` minute jog recovery) x8
and cross country
Saltin Fartlek 3km, 5km, 1500m (stride hard for 3 minutes with 1 minute jog-run recovery)
Astrand Fartlek 800m (Max effort for 75 seconds then 150 second jog-run +
Max effort for 60 secs then 120 secs jog-run ) x3
Gershler Fartlek General fitness and (Stride hard for 30 secs, jog 90 secs, repeat with 15 secs
steady state decrease in recovery jog) x3
Hill Fartlek General Fitness 2 mile hilly course sprint up hills twice before jogging to
next hill. Repeat 3 times
Whistle Fartlek General fitness, Run hard between whistle blasts. Pyramid session [4
provides variety mins, 3mins, 2 mins, 1 min, 2 mins, 3 mins, 4mins] with
60 sec jog-run between each
Fartlek for game Games, genera Incorporate running, jogging, walking change of direction,
players fitness backward running, sprinting into creative patterns and

Long interval

- Precisely measured intervals that match an athletes sport, event and current level of conditioning
- Uses repetitions of high speed intensity work followed by periods of recovery
- On flat ground
- Interval distances are longer than anaerobic interval training
- work phases range from 2-5 minutes of submaximal pace of 4-8 sets. Work rest 1:1
- Variety can be added by mixing up the work: rest ration each time
- Able to be tightly monitored while providing variety within the workout
- Improves energy supply and performance of the aerobic system
- Karp 2011
o 5 x 3min @ VO2max pace (95-100%MHR) 2.5-3min recovery
o 3 x 4min @ VO2max pace (95-100%MHR) 3.5-4min recovery

Area Effect How this improves training

fuel storage Increased More oxygen is carried to the working muscles
and haemoglobin
utilisation Increased More oxygen is delivered from cell membrane to
myoglobin the mitochondria where furl is burnt
Increased ability The reserve fuel can be used earlier in endurance
to use fat
Increased Immediate fuel storage is increased up to 25%
storage of ATP
and CP
Increased Fuel for lactic acid and aerobic systems is
glycogen increased
Increased ability Increased enzyme activity enables faster
to use glucose breakdown of glycogen
Oxygen Increased heart Increased size in left ventrical enabling more blood
transport size to be pumped each beat
system at Decreased Increased heart efficiency as it is able to supply
rest heart size required blood with less bpm
Increased More blood is available per stroke
stroke volume
Increased More blood is available to tissues
cardiac output
Oxygen Increased There is an increased ability of muscles to extract
transport oxygen uptake and use the oxygen being delivered in the blood
system at Increased More blood available to tissues
maximal cardiac output
exercise Increased More blood availbale per stroke
stroke volume
Respiration Increased More oxygen is extracted from air to alveoli and
efficiency delivered to muscles
Other Increased This produces more strength
muscle size
Decreased There is less excess to carry in endurance events
body fat
Increased Produces faster, more forceful movements
strength and
Increased There is increased muscle power and less
muscle likelihood of injury
Increased There are more sites on muscle fibre for burning
mitochondria fuel

Developing power through resistance/weight training

- High intensity movements over a short duration Sprinters and Throwers

- Increasing anaerobic system will increase the amount of fast twitch fibres
- Develops power through recruiting and enlarging muscle fibres
- Power = force x distance /time
o Power can therefore be increased by manipulating one of these three variables while keeping the other
2 constant
- Strength dominated power refers to power in which is the dominant ingredient
o Starting strength- Where inertia must be overcome and momentum generated before residual ATP
stores are depleted
E.g. weight lifting
o Explosive strength the application of force at a rapid rate and seen in acceleration of the body or
object. Muscle fibres contract quickly as the resynthesising of ATP is completed
E.g. shot put/javelin/ high jump
- By developing power and speed you are increasing fast twitch fibres
- If the resistance is too heavy the activity will be performed slowly., recruiting slow twitch fibres as opposed to
fast twitch

- Speed- the resistance is medium to high and the actions are executed quickly
- Movements must be rhythmical
- Specificity is important
o Discus/jav require higher resistance and fewer repetitions
o Basketball/ soccer require moderate resistance and more repetitions
- Speed needs to be developed/modified and learned training has the ability to enhance speed in the following
o Achieve max speed
o Maintain max speed
o React to a signal
o Accelerate
o Adjust rapidly and rebalance
o Choosing the correct option
- Development of speed relys on the characteristics of the athlete:
o Muscle elasticity
o Muscle fibre type
o Biochemical responses
o Use of energy
o Nervous system responses
o Willpower


- Refers to a special range of exercises in which a muscle is lengthening using an eccentric contraction. This is
rapidly followed by a shortening or concentric contraction
- Used for gains in strength that can be converted to power
- Preloading the muscle and then reacting
- Normally using own body weight as resistance
- Fast, powerful movement using a pre-stretch or counter- movement that involves the stretch shortening cycle.
E.g. jumps, hops, bounds, med ball exercises
- Sudden explosive activity
- Stretch shortening cycle is the underlying mechanism of plyometrics
- Individual considerations for a plyometric programming include
o Size of the athlete
o Athletes injury profile
o Fatigue factor
o Maturation level of the athlete
o The person is training purely for health benefits, plyometric are not recommended
o Fitness level should have adequate fitness base
- Should be performed when an athlete is non fatigued therefore should be programmed into the early part of
the training session
- 1-2 sessions per week for team sports is sufficient with at least 48 hours recovery between each session
- Must consider intensity and specificity when choosing activities
- Commonly used in athletics, weight lifting
- Examples
o Running up stairs
o Hopping
o Standing long jumps
o Hurdle hopping
o Bounding
o Box jumps
o Skate bounding (skip for distance and height. The objective is to achieve longer hand time)
o Tuck jumps

Short interval

- Similar to long interval training but with short intervals, long recovery aloowing for replenishment of ATP.
- Alternate work rest to replenish oxygen debt
- Short periods of high intensity work
- Manipulation of duration, intensity and rest period will determine what is being trained (the lactic energy
system, alactic energy system or speed)
- Varying the duration will change the training effect
o Up to 6 secs alactic power
o 6- 25 secs Improves alactic capacity
o 25 40 secs incorporates lactic power
o 40 60 secs improves lactic capacity
- Recovery rates influenced by the training state of the athlete
o Elite athletes will recover faster and still stay in the correct training zone
o Work to Rest ratio = between 1:1.5 and 1:5
o 30 secs effort will be followed by 45 140 seconds of rest
- Training is performed at max effort therefore low volume
- Over speed training is employed to increase stride frequency
o E.g. running down hill, bungee cord
- Resisted training improves stride length
o E.g. pulling sled, using harness, running uphill


- Stretch reflex/deep tendon reflex/myotatic stretch reflex is the response to stretching acting as a safety
- When the muscle is stretched spindles also stretch
- The stretch reflex is a protective response to avoid injury and assists in maintaining muscle tone (position and
- Reciprocal Inhibition the process by which muscles on one side of a joint relax to accommodate contraction
on the other side
- Refers to the ability to move a muscle through a complete range of motion
- Tight muscles = limited range of movement, increased chance of musculoskeletal injury and reduction in
- Benefits of flexibility include:
o Less tension in muscles
o Increased relaxation
o Greater ease of movement and better coordination
o Increased range of motion of the muscle/limb
o Preventing injury
o Better body awareness
o Less soreness in the muscle after other forms of exercise
o DANCING aesthetics, generates power and speed in GOLF and TENNIS
- Factors Affecting flexibility
o Age decrease in flexibility with age
o Gender females more flexible than males
o Exercise People who exercise are generally more flexible than those that dont
o Temperature Increased temperature increases flexibility, decreased temp increased viscosity of joints
o Time of day more flexible in afternoon
o Injury injury rehabilitation restricts movement
o Clothing clothing and equipment can limit range of motion


- This is where the muscle is slowly taken to the end of its range and held for a period of time (10-30 seconds)
- E.g. quad stretch- hold quad for 30 seconds, release and do the same for the other leg
- The longer it is held increases the mobility
- Low risk of injury


- Involves progressively faster and continuous movements where the muscle is gradually worked to its full
range of motion
- E.g. Leg swings against a wall where the height of the swing is slowly increased
- Limited dynamic flexibility in the hips for sprinters will reduce stride length and inhibit performance
- Reduces stiffness


- Involves a bouncing action at the end of the range of movement

- This has a high risk for injury so only recommended to specific groups of athletes
- Good as part of a warm up for explosive events


- Involves a combination of contraction and relaxation of the agonist muscles and antagonist muscles
- Generally a static stretch is followed by an isometric contraction for about 10 seconds, the muscle is then
relaxed and followed by a greater stretch
- Strengthens muscle through isometric contraction
- E.g. assisted hamstring stretch

Contraindications for Flexibility Training

Exercise/Movement Defined Example
Extreme movements Hyper flexion or extension Sit ups with hands behind
Excessive Loads Too much stress is placed on Deep knee bends
muscles or joints
Excessive twisting Place strains on joins and Standing twist with a barbell
loosen joint capsules
Ballistic movements Placing excessive stress on
joint tissues
Rotation movements May lead to joint Neck rotations


- It takes 7 times longer to correct a wrongly performed skill than teaching it from scratch
- Temporal patterning is taking discreet skills and making a serial movement
- Neuromuscular pathway
- Are the building blocks for better movement execution and the basis on which to assemble advanced
- Learning a skill can be broken down into subroutines
- Process of skill development and refinement is continuous
- Relies on correct analysis and provision of feedback
- Variety of practice/drills
o Repetition of movement
o Mental picture through perfect demonstration/video
o Focus on correct execution of skill
o Variety of practice for skills
o Skills taught under same conditions and situations
o Varied by changing complexity, concentrating on multiple skills, using groups and games
- Not all skills are performed in the same manner, and these differences occur as a result of
o Player height
o Weight
o Mechanics
- Skills in a training session need to specifically target
o Improvement in the fundamentals of the game
o Individual needs in specific areas (ball handling)
o Performance under gradually increasing pressure
o Provision of enjoyment through competitive situations
o An increase in knowledge of the game
o Development of cognitive or thinking abilities
o Development of communication via skills practices
- Training sessions can include
o Broad skills base fundamental skills essential to a game
o Enjoyment in the session Fresh and with variety
o Positive transfer of skills Corner kicks from soccer used in league and union due to biomechanical
o Customised activities

Drills practice

- are specific exercises designed to improve the technique and efficiency of the skills an athlete performs
- Allows emphasis to be placed on one aspect of the sport
- Cues and feedback can be given
- Used to practice technique and skills in isolation from other aspects of the sport
- Targets should be set so improvement can be easily monitored
- Coaches should observe the following guidelines
o Should work an athletes weakness as well as their strengths
o Rotate players quickly in the drill
o Plan drills to run for a short amount of time to keep concentration
o Once a skill has been learned modify the drill to make it more challenging
o Variety is important to maintain interest and focus
o Ensure athletes are familiar with the drills for next time

Modified and small-sided games

- Effective way to develop sport specific adaptations

- Fun while developing skills under competitive conditions
- Increases player involvement
- Develops communication and teamwork
- Rules can be altered to emphasise a particular skill or situation

Games for specific outcomes

- Specific outcomes the game might intend to achieve include:

o Defence skills
o Attacking ability
o Ability to create space
o Ability to find and utilise support
o Ability to target an opposition weakness
o Decision making and tactical awareness
- Provides the opportunity for concentrated practice and decision making within structure that closely resemble
the game situation
- Phase practice- involves the repetitive practice of a specific part of the game under competitive game
conditions (passing into the circle in netball)
- Functional practice- involves the use of small games or drills that directly target the skill of a particular player
or group of players who have a special function in the game (shooters in netball)
Variations Explanation/Example
Individual Skill Development Volleyball skills including hand and body
positioning for spike, set, block, dig, serve
Minor Games Newcomb ball and variations, keep up, one
bounce, toss for free ball, most hits/longest rally
Phase Practice Serving, setting, receiving positions
Functional Practice Positioning, pass to setter, setting for a spike
Small Sided Games Serving and blocking, beach style, 2v2

Analysis of Technique

Effective coaching through planning

Info used to improve and detect faults
Break skill into subroutines
Coaches must show technically perfect performances
Use biomechanical analysis (technology)

Technique Correction

o Intrinsic, extrinsic
o Knowledge of performance, knowledge of results
Perfect technique must be practiced until it becomes automatic




- SWOT can design and monitor a training program around SWOT

o Strength- strong attacking side
o Weakness- limited defence players
o Opportunity new players in the team, coaching clinics
o Threat- opposition, injuries, coach absent

- Basic principals of planning

Progression Involves moving from simple to complex or from easy to harf, and
remembering that improvement does not occur in a linear progression (e.g.
performance may plateau, or even slip back)
Accumulation Most training adaptations will accumulate over time, occur at different rates
and be influenced by consistency of effort and recovery periods during
which the body can regenerate
Overload New training loads are required if athletes are to continue to develop.
Beginners achieve overload through increasing volume whereas elite
achieve this by increasing intensity
Variation Training must be varied in terms of intensity, volume, mode and duration
for adaptations and progress to continue. Without variation an athlete can
become bored
Context Each fitness, skill or tactical component must be developed in the context
of overall performance, rather than in isolation. E.g. focusing on strength
while neglecting other important components will be detrimental to an
athletes performance

- Performance and fitness needs

o Effective programs are based on data gained from previous seasons and current performances
o This data will become the basis of the training program and should address both individual and team
o A coach planning must determine the overall involvement and commitment of participants
Individual Team
- Physical fitness - Establishment of team goals
- Health and skill related components - Development of tactics and
of fitness strategies
- Development of game sense at - Organisational considerations e.g.
tactics training days and venues
- Psychological considerations e.g. - Leadership issues e.g. captaincy
motivation and arousal - Allocation of support roles e.g.
- Social considerations such as managers
friendships and support
- Develop technically, physically,
psychologically and tactically

- Schedule of events
o Players need to peak regularly and be prepared for training one or two days after
o Long term= players need to have elevated level of preparedness for finals
o Training plans need to reflect schedules and ensure that players are not under loaded or overloaded in
terms of training volume
o Intervals of training and rest need to be scheduled so that players are able to rise to competition needs
on a cyclic basis
o Track athletes and swimmers will have a different schedule, usually peaking periodically throughout the
o Training volume must be effectively managed to ensure the athlete peaks at the correct times
o Planning is affected by
Competition structure
Phases of competition
Special events in the season
Availability of resources
Motivation and Attitude
Demands of the sport

- Climate and season

o Optimal performance is structured around an athletes schedule of events and competition
o Planning needs to cater for adverse conditions
By changing venue or altering the length of a session
o Seasonal variations and climatic conditions influence the intensity, volume and type of training
performed as well as the attire and things needed at each session
o Heat, wind rain, cold, fog and humidity
o Athletes competing at altitude often need to acclimatise
o Athletes competing in snow sports may utilise other countries winter seasons to optimise preparation
o E.g. clothing, sunscreens, fluid intake and volume of training on hot days


- Schedule major competitions into diary

- Goal setting- team and individual
- Tactics and strategies to meet competition needs
- Schedule training
- Performance needs what skills are needed?
- Fitness needs
- Peaking for performance- tapering
- Climate training in rain (clothes)
- Motivation

Elite athlete Recreational/amateur participant

- data and statistics from previous - Motivation for participants
season and current performances - Fitness and performance needs
- fitness and performance needs - Goals (finals, fun)
- team and individual goals - Fluid replacement
- training schedule and training - Training days
volumes (school, reps, state) - Schedule of events e.g. finals
- competition structure
- phases of competition (pre, during,
- peaking for performance (tapering)
- special events in season (e.g.
holiday, formal)
- climate and seasonal considerations


- Phases of Competition
- Benefits of periodization
o Develop cardio fitness and neuromuscular functioning
o Allow recovery
o Provide a foundation for improvement in pre season phase
o Allows adjustment for competition
o Develops skills
- Pre season
80% of total training volume can be executed in this period.
AIM = is to build on an athletes fitness foundation while continuing to develop and perfect their skills
Generally team sports will have a shorter preparatory phase

General preparatory phase

Pays special attention to an athletes weaknesses
Builds a strong fitness base through high volume training
Still focus on game strategy and technique
For beginners this phase can be two to three times longer

Specific preparatory phase

Transition to more specific training related to the sport in terms of energy systems,
skill components and patterns of play
Volume is initially high and then gives way to increased intensity to the phase of
Training is then tailored to meet the individual needs of the athlete
- Develop technique
- Improve performance biomechanics
- Introduce strategies and familiarise players with them
- Teach appropriate mental skills
- Improve all aspects of fitness/strengthen flexibility and particularly those specifically
required in the sport
- High Volumes of training at moderate intensity
- Target appropriate energy systems
- Speed, Strength and Flexibility require specific attention

o In season
Less time is spent on continuous repetitive work but effort in training will escalate
Increased in intensity decreased volume
Specificity must be more rigidly
Increased intensity matched by focus on activities directly relating to competitions
Maintain stamina
Practice and improve tactics/strategies
Perfect skill execution
Gain competitive experience
Continue work on developing appropriate mental skills
Achieved through
Supplementary work o required fitness components including
strength/power/agility/flex and speed
Use of highly specific skills practice (drills)
Continuation of conditioning training
Use of small games, grids and resistance work to increase intensity and provide relief
o Post season
Physical and mental recovery
To prevent weight gain
To maintain aerobic fitness base (increase endurance, strength, power)
To maintain a reasonable skill level
To repair injuries and to recuperate physically and mentally
Characterised by
One week of total rest
Diet modification to reflect the decreased work load
Remaining weeks consisting of active tests with training sessions being reduced to a
couple of times per week and a corresponding reduction in both volume and intensity
Maintenance of strength and flexibility
Work on weaknesses such as injuries or specific technical skills
A change in environment e.g. outdoors to indoors or using swimming training for
runners or cyclers
- Sub phases
o Macro cycles
Long term planning frameworks, and may represent an entire planning program, sometimes
called an annual plan
Encompasses the available preparation time preceding a major competition and identifies all
lead up competitions along the way
Provides an overview of what is to happen in terms of long term training and preparation
Also references training specifics such as volume and intensity over a period of time and
maintenance or increase of fitness components (strength/endurance)
o Meso Cycle
A number of microcycles joined together
Focus is on one component (fitness, strength, endurance) and go for 4-8 weeks
o Micro cycles
Number of sessions in a short period of time
Much shorter usually 7-10 days with 3-10 sessions and allowed for detailed planning and
specific objectives to be achieved
Includes detailed information about frequency, intensity, plyometric and specific session
- Improvements for endurance athletes
o Expand VO2 Max
Develop a Mesocycle that focuses on Fartlek training and continuous runs
o Increase strength
A mesocycle targeting leg muscles involved in running single leg squats, hops, jumps
o Improving lactic acid thresholds
Running intervals close to the lactic threshold
o Maximising power
Meso cycle where explosive effects including; gym, plyometrics and short intervals are utilised
o Improving economy
Microcycle dedicating time to technique and efficiency
o Restore, Recover, Heal
Mesocycle leading up to competition allows for tapering to occur
o Increase specific endurance
Add to strength Mesocycle utilising exercise by performing low loads and high reps
- Peaking
o Is a temporary state that occurs when the psychological and physical capacities of the athlete are at a
maximum and when the technical and tactical preparation is optimal.
o Results form the athletes ability to adapt to various training methods and types
o Involves sequential, cumulative training programme which focuses on preparing the athlete for a peak
o Temporary state that only occurs during the competition phase
o Does not happen overnight and requires planning
o Characterised by:
Good health
Routine training
Adaptability to training
Quick recovery
Functional synergism (everything acting together)
Correct recovery procedures being used and quality sleep
Extreme efficiency
Adaptability to stress
Self confidence
High motivation and aspirations
Superior neuromuscular coordination
Heightened rate of recovery

- Tapering
o Reduce aspects of their training session in the weeks leading up to a major competition
o Allows the mind and body to have a break and provides an opportunity to heal injuries and recharge
o Achieved by decreasing the volume or the intensity of training
o Preferably- reduce volume but maintain intensity, and include adequate rest and recovery and good
o Approx. 7-10 days of tapering for most sports dropping intensity and volume by 40-50%
2 weeks for swimmers (improves max VO2 and arm strength)
1-2 weeks for runners (improves leg power)

o Benefits of tapering
Maintain max VO2
Maintain muscular strength
Lower blood lactate levels
Healing of minor injuries
Disappearance of soreness
Replenishment of glycogen stores

- Sport specific sub phases

o Fitness components
preparation phase involves main goal of adaptation, then hypertrophy, maximal
strength and then conversion to power and functional strength
Max strength cannot be continually improved in season so there will be cycles of
maintenance and max strength
Emphasis moves from aerobic capacity to aerobic power
Then changes to anaerobic capacity and finally anaerobic power
In season there is a shift towards maintenance and topping up anaerobic power as
the finals approach
Speed and agilty
Preparation phase with an emphasis on technique and general speed
Progresses to more game-specific speed and agility

o Skill requirement
Initially emphasis on general skill development for the sport
Progresses to the specific skill development of each athlete
As fitness improves skills can be performed under fatigue then skills under pressure
During competitive season large amount of time spent on maintaining or fine-tuning
skill development
Intensity and volume
As the colume decreases the intensity increases
E.g. high intensity with an emphasis on technique, however volume is low as the
athlete peaks for the finals.


- Health and safety considerations

o Injury prevention (warm up cool down, spotting and supervision in gym)
o Protective equipment (mouthguards, helmets)
o General equipment (bats, clubs, javelins, springboards must be checked regularly)
o Apparel (comfortable while providing protection and allowing freedom of movement to take place- good
o Environmental hazards (sunglasses, protective suits/hats and caps)
o Illnesses (awareness of modes of viral transfer)

- Providing an overview of the session

o Quick overview of the two or three objectives of the session
o Gives focus to the session
o Ensures they are aware of expectations of the session
o Ensures intentions of the coach and expectations of the players are focused in the same direction
o Address issues
Players present/absent
Assessment of injuries
Discussion of previous performance
Tactics and suggestions
o Outline should include
How long for
How to do the tasks
o Individual and team goals

- Warm up and cool down

o Warm up- Prepares the body both physically and mentally for the training session
Phase 1- general body warm up e.g. directly sport specific (minor game/touch or run with ball
n hand and passing in rugby)
Phase 2- stretching e.g. dynamic and range of motion stretching
Phase 3- callisthenics involving large muscle groups e.g. sit ups, push ups
Phase 4- skill rehearsal performing routines in a game forces athletes to switch on

o Cool down
Active recovery
Jogging stretch recovery food
Good opportunity for the coach to review the session and give feedback
Body circulation, respiration and temp return to pre exercise levels

- Skill instruction and practice

o Practice
New skills should be introduced immediately after the warm up because fatigue makes
learning new skills more difficult e.g. practicing a skill without opponents and then introducing
passive defence and eventually progressing to fully opposed practices
Specifically Target
Specific needs
Performance under pressure
Increased knowledge
Development of cognitive abilities
Development of communication
Executing the skill when fatigued
Small sided games with modified rules
Full practice games
o Instruction
Effective instruction of skills
Well timed
Coach-centred approach
Athlete- centred approach

Guided Problem
Direct Task Peer
discovery solving

Coach centred
Athlete centred
Explain Demonstrate

Feedback Observe

- Conditioning
o Speed, power and acceleration
o Must be scheduled early
o Must be conducted at a high intensity and before the athlete becomes fatigued
o Other components like strength, muscular endurance and aerobic fitness would follow later in the
o Short fitness session after warm up
o Supplementary fitness through circuits
o Intensity of the conditioning training should be appropriate for the energy system they wish to train
o During these fitness sessions- HR should reach training zone intensity (70-85% of max HR) and
remains there for at least 20 mins
o Should be challenging however not completely exhausting which could cause the build up of lactic acid
therefore decreasing performance in the rest of the training session
o Regular fitness testing should be routine in sessions

- Evaluation
o In relation to athletes performance
Receive feedback from athletes about how they felt they performed
Provide feedback to athletes whether or not the objectives of the session were achieved, and
the areas of the session that were good and those that still need work
Will assist in planning future sessions
o In relation to coaches performance
Were instructions clear?
Was feedback provided to all athletes?
Did planning maximise participation?
Was there smooth transition?
What might need to be changed for next time?
What worked well?


- Overtraining
o Due to poor scheduling, high levels of dedication=chronic training stress=performance deterioration
o Early stages may be staleness
Ultimately burn out
- Amount and intensity of training
o Chronic psychological and physiological condition
o Develops when athletes complete high intensity training regularly with an unsubstantial break leaving
them physically and mentally drained
o Errors in a training program
Use of exercises and work rates that are not sport specific
Failure to plan long term training programs to meet goals
Failure to taper training before competition
o Characteristics of over training
Too long and too frequent
Too strenuous
Inadequate recovery
More work that can physically tolerate
When the amount of training exceeds the bodies ability to recover and adapt
o Overtraining should be suspected when a rapid decline in performance is not remedied by rest, good
diet and alternative practices.

- Physiological considerations (lethargy and injury)

o Physical performance
Decline in physical performance
Loss of muscular strength
Loss of coordination
Loss of max aerobic capacity
Injury (chronic/acute)

o Biological function
Muscle tiredness
Chronic fatigue
Early onset of fatigue when training/competing
Decreased muscle glycogen
Increase resting and sub max HR
Elevated HR in recovery
Decrease in MAX VO2
Increase in blood pressure
Increased oxygen uptake and blood lactate level
Loss of wright
Head colds, allergic reaction and increased risk of infection
Occasional nausea
Decreased appetite and libido

- Psychological consideration loss of motivation

o Psychological state
Sleep disturbances
Increased feeling of physical, mental and emotional exhaustion
Decreased self esteem
Negative change in dealing with others
Social withdrawal
Feelings of overall chronic stress
Emotional instability
Decreased motivation and commitment

o Prevent over training

Ensure proper nutrition
Ensure adequate rest/recovery between workouts
Monitor training loads
Vary exercise intensities
Monitor physiological changes
Psychological strategies (mental rehearsal, relaxation)
Keeping a training diary that monitors feelings



Human growth hormone

- Somatotropin is a naturally occurring substances that increase the rate at which amino acids are transported
to skeletal muscle cells.
- Taken to increase muscle size and strength
- Mobilises fats so they can be used as a source of energy
- Used to treat dwarfism
- Long term effects-
o Overgrowth of face, hands and feet
o Gigantism
o Muscle weakness
o Diabetes
o Heart disease
o Disfigurement from bony overgrowth
o Osteoporosis and arthritis

- Derives from the male sex hormone testosterone and cause development of masculine characteristics
- Tablet or Injections taken over a 6-12 week period followed by months of not taking them known as cycling
- Anabolic Effect Muscle Building
- Androgenic Effect Male secondary sex characteristics
- Mainly used to increase weight, strength and power and reduce the recovery time between workouts
- Often taken 100 times the recommended dosage

in muscle
Steroids cross

- Steroids improve
o Protein synthesis
o Prevent breakdown of protein
- Side Effects of steroids- depends on the dosage and regularity and time period of use:
o Testicular atrophy and decreased reproduction
o Increased/Decreased Libido
o Psychological issues
o Increased blood pressure changed levels of lipoproteins
o Development/Reduction of breasts
o Bad Breath
o Bad Acne
o Yellow skin and eyes
o Liver damage
o Masculine appearance- deepening of voice and facial hair
o Increased aggressiveness
o Increased sex drive- women-

- Is a natural hormone that stimulates red blood cell production (increased oxygen carrying capacity marathon
runner, aerobic system- )
- Simulates bone marrow in producing red blood cells
- Originally developed for people with anaemia and kidney deficiencies, HIV/AIDS treatment
- Allows athletes to absorb more oxygen and to improve their stamina
- EPO and Performance
o Increases red blood cell count increasing oxygen uptake and stamina
o Benefits Marathon, Triathlon, Cross Country Skiing, Distance Cycling
- Side effects:
o Lose valuable fluid
o Poor circulation
o Blood clots
o Stroke
o Chest pain
o Headache
o High blood pressure
o Joint pain
o Fatigue
o Shortness of breath
o Some cases of death


- Are drugs that increase the amount of fluid passing from the body
- Medically treats liver and kidney disease
- Helps to lose weight
- E.g. for jockeys, weight lifting (sports where weight reduction is essential)
- Banned because they can clear the evidence of steroids in the body
- Detrimental effects include:
o Dehydration
o Dizziness and possible fainting
o Headache
o Loss of coordination
o Heart and kidney failure


- Is a depressant (slows bodily functions )

- Toxic in large quantities
- Some athletes believe good in small quantities to reduce tension and increase confidence
- Particularly dangerous when consumed with other drugs
- Encourages the body to lose more water than it takes on
- Speeds up loss of fluid from the body which may mask drugs in a test or assist in removing traces of drugs
before a test
- Banned as it can increase self confidence which may cause individuals to take more risks as well as decrease
coordination and increase dehydration
- Use in pistol shooting where steadiness is important
- Effects of alcohol are progressive and dependant on the quantity consumed, persons size and tolerance level
and the length of time between drinks
o Dizziness and loss of coordination
o Loss of inhibition
o Slowed reactions and slurred speech
o Blurred vision
o Possible aggression
o Vomiting
o Unconsciousness or death if large amounts are taken
o Diminish physiological functions
o Cirrhosis of the liver
o High blood pressure
o Obesity and diabetes

Doping is defined as the presence in the body of prohibited substances in breach of the rules set by the sports
organisation (therefore antidoping is stopping this from occurring)

- First carried out at 1968 Mexico Olympics

- Until 2000 urine samples were the only form of permitted testing
- 2000 Sydney Olympics used of both blood and urine tests allowed
- 1990 Australian Sports Drug Agency was formed
o Role is to complete a comprehensive testing program to deter athletes from taking prohibited
substances or prohibited methods
- Athletes are randomly tested and samples are taken fully supervised


- Protects the right of athletes to compete I a sporting environment free from doping
- Athletes should be rewarded on their natural ability and training outcomes, not chemical enhancement
- Knowing that athletes can be tested any time anywhere, is a deterrent to athletes who might consider doping
- Doping is harmful to the health o athletes
- Athletes like being tested because they like being able to prove that they are competing clean.


- Revised prohibited list is released on 1st Jan each year- therefore athletes must be aware of what is prohibited
and keep up to date with their information
- Because athletes have previously tampered with samples, athletes must remove clothing from the knees to
the mid-torso, and from the athletes body. This process can be confronting for some athletes
- Testing is very costly, amounting to several millions of dollars annually worldwide


- Creates even playing field - Cost to the community/sport
- Protects athletes rights to a fair - Cant test everyone
competition - Ongoing issues/new drugs
- Ensures sport rewards natural ability developed therefore new tests
- Promotes athletes health by required
elimination of harmful doping - Testosterone and EPO can be
- Promotes health rather than winning naturally produced and present in the
body. If the person has naturally
elevated levels, they may test
positive despite no drug use- false
- Rules and policies regarding drug
testing vary between sports and send
mixed messages
- Cannot necessarily detect all drugs
at any particular point in time
- Cannot be conducted reliable without
invading the privacy of athletes

Training innovation
Some technological innovations include:

- Clothing
- Protective equipment
- Computer programs and software
- Internet
- Electronic scoreboards
- Testing procedures
- Nutrition
- Video analysis
- Training facilities

Ethical debate- is the athlete or the technology responsible for the win

- Lactate threshold testing

o Lactate inflection point is characterised by a burning sensation, increased ventilation rate, deterioration
of performance
o HR monitors establish level of intensity relative to their target HR during exercise (when lactate starts to
o Determining the point at which lactate starts to accumulate is important for athletes as training regimes
are geared to push back this point for as long as possible while still working at levels of high intensity
o Testing blood samples during graduated exercise is the most accurate and reliable way of establishing
blood lactate levels
Treadmills used with blood samples taken at graded levels of intensity
This is analysed and the change in lactate levels is shown on a lactate performance curve
o However this can be expensive and limited in terms of availability

- Biomechanical analysis
o Explores the various techniques applied to skills such as throwing, catching, bowling, jumping and
manipulating objects
o Aims to make execution of any movement more skilful, efficient and safe
o E.g. video analysis, photography, comparative images, slow motion replay
o Movements are explored in detail, problems identified and ways of making them more biomechanically
efficient, recommended
o Video analysis can
Improve technique
Improve visualisation
Establishing Biomechanical Efficiency
Analysing strategies
o Aims to
Improve technique
Improve visualisation
Establish biomechanical efficiency
Analysing strategies
o Used mainly in
Rugby league

- Video and data gathering analysis

o Assists with the evaluation of the performance of individuals later
o Allows the coach to concentrate more fully during the actual competition
o Allows them to replay movements, correct technique and evaluate performance
o Help analyse past performances and provide valuable information for planning future performances
o Strengths and weaknesses of the opposition can also be evaluated

Equipment advances

- Swimsuits
o 2000- manufacturers competed to produce suits with the most performance enhancing features while
staying withing the rules of not improving buoyancy
Fabric that had the lowest possible level of friction drag in the water
A streamlined shape
Fully bonded seams to reduce drag
o This swimsuit (speedo LZR racer) was banned in 2010
o 2009- new range of suits was launched made from all-polyurethane fabric
o Issues of fairness and equity was raised- some were advantaged over others who could not afford the
o New rules from 2010 specify that the type of textile and the shape of suits for men and women
Men must wear only from knee to waist
Women cant have over the shoulder or past the knee

- Golf balls
Synthetic fibres

- e.g. tungsten used in golf balls

- allows the ball to respond better for distance, spin and control.
- Durability is improved

- Allows different characteristics (distance or spin)


- 1 piece good for beginners, cheap in production, used in most driving ranges
- 2 piece - used by most ordinary everyday golfers because it combines durability with maximum
- 3 piece takes more spin, allowing a skillful golfer more control over the ball's flight when hit.

- Golf clubs
Graphite shafts

- Lighter than steel shafts therefore good for beginners with a slow swing action
- Results in less vibrations when hit
- However less rigid than steel shafts and tend to have more whip and flexibility.
- Graphite shafts are also more expensive

Metal alloy heads on driving clubs

- More variation and flex= higher whipping action and therefore extra distance
- Higher accuracy
- Lighter material
Injury Assessment and Management:



Injury mamagement
Return to play
-Soft tissue: RICER
-Hard tissue: immobilise and refer


Ways to classify sports injuries (DOISH)

- Direct and - Direct
Indirect o Caused by external forces applied to the body
o Results in hard (fractures, dislocations) or soft (sprains, bruises) tissue
o E.g. collision during a hockey game resulting in broken bone and bruising.

- Indirect
o Caused by intrinsic force (force within the body) usually due to inadequate
execution of the skill.
o Results in usually soft tissue injuries (excessive strain on muscles, tendons
or ligaments and possible damage to muscle structures.
o E.g. sprinter tearing a hamstring when running. Or a netballer who sprains
an ankle when landing.

- Overuse o Caused by repeated use of body regions over a prolonged period of time.
o Results in pain and inflammation therefore either soft or hard tissue injury.
o E.g. Shin splints (soft), stress fracture (hard), tennis elbow (soft)
- Hard and soft Soft tissue: damage to all organs of the body, excluding bones. It may either be:
tissue injuries - Acute: sudden e.g.
- Chronic: over a period of time e.g.
Hard tissue: injuries to bones, teeth and dislocations. Various forms of fractures may
- Oblique: clean, sharp break across the bone
- Depressed: forcing inwards i.e. skull
- Comminuted: bone is shattered i.e. rib
- Greenstick: spirals up and is typically indirect, caused as the result of a force
travelling along the length of the bone

Soft tissue injuries

- Tears o Sprain-
Occurs when a ligament is stretched beyond its normal movement and tearing of
the fibres occurs.
Symptoms- swelling, pain, bruising, difficult to move
o Strain-
Occurs when a muscle or tendon is stretched beyond its range of movement. A
partial or complete tear of the muscle or tendon may occur
Partial tear- disrupt enough of the muscle to interfere with normal functioning
Complete tear- involves total loss of muscle function
- Contusions o Occurs when a player collides with another player, the ground or an object,
o The skin is not broken and no injury may be immediately apparent
o Swelling or bruising may occur in the next 48-72 hours and pain may increase.
- Inflammatory When soft tissue is injured, it becomes inflamed, but responds by activating a self-
response healing process known as the inflammatory response. The length of the inflammatory
response will be determined by the severity of the injury and the management strategies
used by the athlete. The process includes three distinct phases:
1. Inflammatory stage
This is initial inflammation including pain and swelling

2. Repair and regenerative stage

Includes the production of scar tissue, the elimination of debris and the formation of new
3. Remodelling stage
Increased production of scar tissue as well as the replacement of tissue that is needed
to strengthen and develop in the direction in which the force is applied.
- Manage soft To ensure further damage is not done (HARM)
tissue - Heat- do not apply heat for at least 48 hours as this increases bleeding
injuries - Alcohol- do not consume alcohol as this increases swelling
(RICER) - Running- although some movement is encouraged do not run, as the weight and
impact will cause further injury
- Massage direct massage is discouraged in the first 72 hours as the pressure
causes bleeding to increase

Rest: - Returns heart rate to resting levels, reducing the blood flow around the body and
hence, the blood flow to the injured site.
- Avoids further injury
Ice: - Compresses blood vessels, hence reducing blood flow and swelling
- Numbs pain
- Dont apply directly to skin
- 20 mins on each hour for 24-48 hours
Compression: - Compressed blood vessels, hence reducing blood flow and swelling
- Reduces range of movement, preventing further injury
Elevate: - Above heart level
- Restricts blood flow
Referral: - Medical practitioners for full diagnosis
- Pass on legal obligations

The RICER method

RICER Why How Time
R Rest To reduce bleeding Place in a comfortable position with the Until beginning a program of
into the injury and injury elevated and supported. careful mobilisation
prevent further injury
I Ice To reduce: Crushed ice in a wet towel and 20 minutes every hour up to
pain wrapped around the injury, or four days
blood flow frozen gel packs using a towel as
swelling an insulator (as frozen gel is
spasm colder than ice), or
enzyme immersion in a bucket of iced
activity water
tissue demand (Note: insulating material, such as towels,
for oxygen prevents possible tissue damage from
overexposure to cold.)
C Decreases Wrap an elastic bandage over the injured At the time of the injury and
Compression bleeding area, covering both above and below the reapplied periodically for at
Reduces site. least 24 hours
E Elevation Decreases Raise the injured area above the level of Whenever possible during the
bleeding the heart by placing a support (e.g. pillow) day and for the following two
Reduces under the injury. or three nights
R Referral To understand Appointment with a doctor or As soon as possible following
the nature and physiotherapist the injury
extent of the
To seek
guidance in a
program of

- Skin abrasions, lacerations, blisters

- Imm
Injury Description Treatment
Skin abrasion Abrasions are the direct result of - Gentle cleansing and sterilisation to treatment
the skin being scaped, usually prevent infection of skin
against a hard surface - Apply a soft covering such as gauze injuries
pads - IMM
Lacerations Lacerations occur when the skin - Refer immediately if longer than 1cm EDIATE
incurs an irregular tear - Cleanse TREATMEN
- Ice and compression T OF SKIN
- Cover with sterile dressing INJURIES
Blisters Blisters are a collection of fluid - Rest (DBACADR)
below the surface or within the - Surgically release fluid if still reasonable o D
epidermal layer of the skin caused after rest anger to
by continuous rubbing or sudden - Apply dressing patient and
friction against the skin - If ruptured or torn, clean the affected are yourself
and apply sterile dressing o B
leeding managed
o Assess the injury and decide what it is (bruise/callus/laceration) and whether it is a simple or complex
o Clean the injured area
o Apply antiseptic
o Dress the wound
o Referral to medical practitioner

Hard tissue injuries

o Types
Stress fracture- small crack in the bone
Closed fracture- one which foes not pierce the skin at all
Open fracture- one where the broken bones pierces and extrudes the skin
Complicated fracture- where the broken bone disrupts tissues and organs e.g. fractured ribs

o Signs and symptoms

Intense pain
Possible sound of bone breaking
Swelling, deformity, bruising and discolouration
Loss of function/movement
Grinding sound if moved

o Treatment
Stop participation in activity
Seek immediate medical assistance
Immobilise or splint injury and make player comfortable

o Definition
Where the two bones at a joint are completely displaced from each other.
Majority of damage is done to ligaments around the joint but still classified as hard tissue as it
is the bone that is causing the damage.

o Signs and symptoms

Swelling and deformity
Pain and tenderness
Loss of function/movement

o Treatment
Never attempt to relocate the displaced bone as it may increase the damage
Seek medical attention immediately
Manage hard tissue injuries
o Management of Fractures requires (5)
Control bleeding
Treat for shock
Immobilise using splint/ bandage
Seek immediate medical assistance

o Management of Dislocations require (4)

Secure with splint to immobilise injury
Ice, elevation, support using bandage
Seek immediate medical assistance

o Management of Serious hard tissue injuries requires (4)

Immobilise and support the injured site with a splint, sling or a bandage
Check for impaired circulation and other possible complications e.g. touch fingers/difficulty
Arrange transport to hospital and professional medical assistance
Implement RICER procedure if it does not cause pain

o Splint
Must extend beyond the nearest joints of the injured site.
Can be another limb or another part of the body or a firm straight object
o Sling
Never relocate the dislocation as this will cause further damage
Slings help immobilise limb
Bandage the injured limb to another limb

Assessment of injuries

TOTAPS (only move onto next step if previous step can be completed)

o What happened?
o What did they feel?
o Where does it hurt?
o Has it happened before?

o Watch behaviour- indicator of pain level
o Observe injury- swelling? Deformity?
o If obviously a hard tissue injury STOP assessment and management steps should be taken

o Is the injury tender to touch?
o Is the injury hotter than other body parts?
o If obviously a hard tissue injury STOP assessment and management steps should be taken

Active movement
o Ask THE ATHLETE to move injured part as much as possible until they feel pain
o If movement is hindered management steps should be taken immediately

Passive movement
o SPORTS FIRST AIDER moves injured body part through its full range of motion until athlete feels
o Is pain or change in range of motion management steps should be taken immediately

Skills test
o Ask athlete to run through some basic movement skills suitable to their sport to see if they are capable
if retaking the field







Past HSC Questions:

- What are the signs, symptoms and management of hard tissue injuries? (4 marks) (2009 HSC)
- Outline features of the inflammatory response to a soft tissue injury. (3 marks) (2008 HSC)
- Describe the procedure for the immediate management of a sprained ankle. (5 marks) (2007 HSC)
- Analyse the injury management procedures necessary for an athlete who is recovering from a hamstring injury.
(12 marks) (2007 HSC)
- Clarify how the nature and extent of injuries are determined. (5 marks) (2006 HSC)
- Describe the signs, symptoms and management of a dislocated joint. (5 marks) (2004 HSC)
- Outline the difference between direct and indirect sports injuries. (3 marks)(2001 HSC)


Children and young athletes (ATOM)
- Appropriateness of As bodies are still developing and muscles and bones grow at different rates, the level of
resistance training resistance should be kept to a minimum when weight training to avoid added stress on the
- Thermoregulation Observing and managing climatic conditions helps prevent health issues as a childs
capacity for thermoregulation is not fully developed. Hence, fluid consumption should be
encouraged and readily available.
- Overuse injuries Training programs must develop proper technique and manage training intensity to avoid
stressing the developing bodies of young athletes.
e. g. stress fracture

- Medical conditions (asthma, diabetes, epilepsy)

Condition Factors to consider Signs and symptoms First aid procedures

Asthma: - Aware of triggers - Wheezing - Administer medication. If
narrowing of - Preventative steps including - Difficulty breathing doesnt instantly relieve,
airways resulting a management plan - Tightness in chest call 000
in breathing - Panic - Assist to upright position
difficulties - Monitor vitals
Diabetes: - Awareness of signs and Hypo: - Sugary substance
inability of the symptoms - Tired, pale - Followed by low GI food
pancreas to make - Preventative steps including - Slow movements
sufficient insulin a management plan Hyper: - Time
- High levels of energy - Low intensity exercise
Epilepsy: - Aware of triggers, type and Petit Mal: - Remove hazardous objects
unusual electrical extent of seizures - Stare - Do not restrain
activity in the - Be aware of limitations - Memory loss - Reassure after passing
brain can result in - Closely supervise - Odd movements - Apply DRABCD if
seizures - Ensure sport is appropriate Grand Mal: unconscious
- Cries out, falls to
- Body is rigid with
jerking movements

Issues/considerations Implications Management

Thermoregulation - Immature sweat glands - Regular drink breaks
- Body temp increases faster - Wear hats
than adults - Appropriate clothing
- Dont acclimatise well - Warm up and cool down
- Large SA :V = gain more - Stay in shade
heat from environment
- Easily dehydrated
Overuse injuries - More likely to suffer as - Shorter periods of
bodies are not yet developed exercise
- Can develop stress fractures - Correct technique
- Restricts the variety of sport - Avoid over training
- Warm up / cool down
- Have rest days
Resistance training - Can stunt growth - Use light loads and
- Injuries can occur if used higher reps
incorrectly - Use own body weight
- Must only use own body - Stretch
weight - Balance with other
- Ensure supervision

Adult and Aged Athletes (HFB)

- Heart Conditions With age, functional capacity decreases, particularly sedentary people. Training programs
must reflect individual ability and slowly progress to avoid stress upon the heart.
- Flexibility/Joint Age and inactivity can reduce muscle tone and elasticity. Focus needs to be placed on
mobility adequate warm up and gradual increase in range of movement and intensity to avoid
- Bone Age and inactivity can lower bone density. Bone density must be monitored and programs
density/fractures should include low weight-bearing exercises if required to decrease the risk of fracture e.g.
gardening, lawn bowls, walking, swimming

Female Athletes (Bake PIE)

- Bone density Inactivity, poor nutrition and the onset of menopause can result in low bone density and
osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is a condition characterised by brittle bones, largely caused
by insufficient calcium. Weight bearing exercise and a calcium rich diet should be
encouraged from a young age to avoid such issues, as poor bone density can reduce
movement potential and increase the likelihood of injury.
- Pregnancy Exercise is of great benefit for pregnant women and should be encouraged, particularly
exercises concerning the pelvic girdle. However, in the final trimester, high intensity and
contact sports should be reduced or avoided.
- Iron deficiency Iron deficiency largely occurs due to menstrual blood loss and an imbalanced diet. This
may result in fatigue because iron facilitates the delivery of oxygen to working muscles and
the removal of carbon dioxide. This results in lethargy from a reduced capacity to produce
energy aerobically and has a negative effect on performance.
- Eating disorders Focus should be placed upon correct technique rather than appearance of the body as well
as healthy eating instead of low body weight to avoid eating disorders. Eating disorders
negatively affect the body which receives insufficient vitamins, needed for essential bodily
functioning and repair.
e.g. lack of calcium

The Female Triad:

Energy Deficit: higher energy needs, lower fat in the
body, decreased intake of dairy products (due to fat), and
decreasing intake of calcium.
Altered menstrual cycle: conditions are not ideal and the
Altered cycle ceases, reduced oestrogen in the body which helps
mesutrual the body absorb calcium.
cycle Lower Bone Density: high energy, insufficient intake, less
nutrients available to support bone growth/strengthen the
The bones.
Triad - Insufficient energy decreased iron increased
chance of sickness.
Energy Case Study:
Suzie Rhydderch: represented Australia at junior
international meetings. At the age of 21, Suzie was forced
to undergo a hip replacement after breaking her hip in an athletics race. This was the direct result of Suzies
eating disorders as an adolescent female. Although pleaded by her coach and mother to gain weight, she
stopped listening to everyone, believing that the thinner she was, the faster she would go. This poor nutrition
lowered her bone density, making her more susceptible to injuries such as bone breakages and fractures.
Suzie, who once aspired to run at the Olympic Games can never run again.

Past HSC Questions:

- Outline how problems associated with iron deficiency and bone density can affect female participation in sport
(3marks)(2010 HSC)
- How does sports medicine address the medical conditions of children and young athletes? (5 marks)(2010 HSC)
- Analyse the role that sports medicine plays in addressing the needs of children and young athletes (12 marks)
(2008 HSC)
- Outline the impact pregnancy may have on female athletes participation in sport (3 marks)(2007 HSC)
- Analyse why sports medicine has a focus on the specific demands of adult athletes, aged athletes and female
athletes (12 marks)(2003 HSC)
Physical preparation
- Pre-screening Understanding the goals of the athlete
Identify any existing medical conditions
Assess fitness levels
For example, a person who wishes to begin a program at the age of 40 years and who
has a history of active involvement in fun runs and other aerobic activities such as
soccer will not have the same elements of risk as an older, obese, unfit person. Pre-
screening is especially important for:
males more than 40 years of age
females more than 50 years of age
people who smoke, are obese or who have high blood pressure
people with a family history of heart conditions.
- Physical fitness Health and skill related components of the sport should be trained to deal with the demands of
the sport:
Determine ones overall health wellbeing e.g. cardiorespiratory endurance, flexibility
Skill related components of physical fitness e.g. co-ordination, reaction time, speed
- Skill and As most injuries occur at the amateur level, it is especially important to modify complex skills
technique to reduce the strain on the body or ensure that the correct style is used to execute the
For example : A basketball player who is unable to rebound and land competently,
places their knees at risk.
Catching correctly will save a cricketers hands and fingers from injury, and also from
the ball hitting their face or body.

- Warm up, The use of a warm up incorporating gross motor movements and specific stretching followed
stretching and by skill-specific movements prepares an athlete both physically and mentally for physical
cool down activity. A warm down after physical activity will enhance the removal of lactic acid, speeding
up the recovery process.

Sports policy and the sports environment

Responsibilities of the club, school, and sports administrator

At present in Australia, regulations for sports injury prevention are the responsibility of the sporting bodies
Guidelines and regulations for developing and maintaining sport safety principles should be the responsibility
of the club or organisations and the sporting facility.
At the sport/club level the sport safety plan should incorporate:
the participants and their activities.
the role of coaches and officials.
the use of playing and protective equipment.
proper player registration arrangements.
the provision of first-aid personnel and equipment.
checking for hazards in playing areas
organisation of comprehensive follow-up procedures, eg. injury report forms/accident reports.

- Rules of Rules in sport and activities have a dual purpose:

sports 1. To ensure that all competitors are subject to the same freedoms and restrictions
and 2. To ensure the safety and well-being of competitors
activities Examples of changes to rules may include making protective equipment compulsory,
banning spear tackles in football, decreasing the duration of a game, and decreasing the
number of players.

- Modified Modifications to childrens sport are made to enhance participation and enjoyment, as
rules for well as to reduce the risk of injury.
children e.g. compulsory safety equipment, reduced size and scale of field, regulated
participation, additional drink breaks.


Match 4 x 15 minute 4 x 10 minute Younger children will not
duration quarters quarters have the capacity to
continue high intensity
game for as long, and will
experience fatigue earlier.
Goal post 3.05 metres 2.4 metres high
Ball Size 5 of Size 4 of Smaller ball will make it
composite composite easier for smaller children
leather or all leather or all to have more control over
leather leather their passes and catches
which will in turn, reduce
the risk of direct injury from
the ball.
Time to pass Up to 3 seconds Up to 6 seconds Enables the children to
the ball think before they pass the
ball and make sure it is a
pass that wont cause any
harm to others.
Stepping Strict application Shuffling on the Helps those gain their
of footwork rules spot allowed balance before throwing to
ensure they can focus on
technique and reduce the
risk of injury
Defending A variety of Strict one on Having more than one
defending one defence. defender on a player can
tactics Undefended increase the risk of contact
employed shot for goal and therefore increases the
risk of injury.
Obstruction A player A player Having a further distance
defending a defending a helps the children
player from the player from the understand the non-contact
opposing team opposing team rule more as well, which
in possession of in possession of will reduce the risk of
the ball must the ball must injuries resulting from
defend from a defend from a contact. This also helps the
distance of 0.9m distance of 1.2m player throwing the ball,
(3 feet) (4 feet) take more time with
technique as they are less
intimidated and therefore
will reduce the risk of
Contact A player who A player who This helps the game flow
obstructs or contacts or better, which will reduce
contacts a obstructs will not the risk of stopping and
player from the be stood out of starting. It will help the
opposing team play. The children understand the
must stand out umpire blow the rules better.
of play whilst the whistle for the
penalty pass or infringement but
shot is taken will allow the
player to
continue after a
brief explanation
Substitutions A team may A team of up to As the children get fatigued
make unlimited 12 players may more quickly they will
substitutions in make unlimited require substitutions more
any one game substitutions at often in order to reduce the
at and and time risk of bad technique and
time intervals, or intervals. therefore injury.
during an injury All playing Substitutions also make
time positions are sure that the children play
rotated at the a minimum of two quarters
end of each which enforces
quarter. Each participation and helps the
player should children learn the rules of
experience the sport
every playing
All players must
play a minimum
of two quarters.
- Matching Ensuring that participants compete with and against others of a similar size and
of standard can be an important factor in maximising safety and enjoyment.
opponen e.g. weight divisions (boxing, weightlifting), age divisions, skill level (A/B grade),
ts male/female, handicap (golf), ratings (ITN in tennis)
- Use of The use of protective equipment in sort can be optional, recommended or compulsory.
protectiv e.g.
equipme Body part protected Protective equipment Injuries prevented
nt Head and neck Helmet Concussion
Neck injuries
Eyes Glasses Eye gauge
Goggles Burnt pupil
Embedded objects in eye
Chemicals in eye-
Body Shin pads Fractures
Wrist/elbow/knee guards Contusions
Shoulder padding
Ankle taping and braces
Teeth Mouthguards Direct injuries to the teeth
Chipped teeth
Jaw injuries
Bleeding gums
Loss of teeth

- Safe To enhance the wellbeing of an athlete, grounds and facilities need to be appropriate for
grounds, the activity and equipment must be in working order.
equipme Focus is placed on
nt and spectators and participants
facilities provision and maintenance of equipment
facility design and layout
provision of first aid facilities and qualified personnel
facility maintenance

Environmental considerations
- Temperature regulation (convection, radiation, conduction, evaporation)

Define Maximise Minimise

Convection occurs when air currents Increase the amount of skin exposed Decrease the amount of skin
cause heat to be transferred to the air exposed e.g. in skiing: multiple layers
Radiation occurs when body heat is Lay in shade during rest breaks
emitted into the atmosphere
Conducting is the transfer of body Pouring water over the body Smear fats on the body e.g. before
heat from person to an object an ocean swim
Evaporation is the release of body Maintaining hydration Wear more clothing, particularly UV
heat to the atmosphere via heat resistant clothing

- Climatic In the event of high temperatures and high humidity, athletes are at increased risk of
conditions suffering dehydration and hyperthermia. The symptoms including dizziness and
(temperature, fatigue will affect performance. Hence, an athlete should increase fluid intake,
humidity, wind, acclimatise to the conditions, take regular breaks and wear appropriate clothing.
rain, altitude, For low temperatures and high wind, athletes are at risk of hypothermia, making
pollution) them more susceptible to breathing difficulties and muscle strains. To avoid this, an
athlete should complete an adequate warm up, acclimatise to the conditions
beforehand and wear appropriate clothing.
In warmer weather, rain can help with temperature regulation however in cold
weather; will lower the core body temperature. Rain can affect outside playing
surfaces which increases the likelihood of injury due to the reduced control an athlete
can excerpt over their body and sporting equipment. At altitude, the oxygen in the air
is thinner, making it harder for athletes to breathe. Athletes should therefore
acclimatise in training if preparing for a competition in high altitude conditions.
Reduction in aerobic capacity of 3% for every 300m you ascend above 1500m. High
jump would benefit, due to less resistance
Air pollution reduces the amount of oxygen an athlete can breathe in. As oxygen is
necessary for physical activity, particularly aerobic activity, this may hinder
performance through reducing the amount of oxygen available to working muscles,
causing faster fatigue.
The hypothalamus, which is located in the brain, regulates the bodys temperature (it
is the bodys thermostat). Accordingly, it reacts when the bodys temperature goes
above or below 37 C.
If the body is exposed to extreme cold the hypothalamus will initiate a process known
as Vasoconstriction.
On the other hand, if the body is exposed to extreme heat the hypothalamus will
initiate a process known as Vasodilation.
- Guidelines for Appropriate hydration is essential in temperature regulation and maintaining athletic
fluid intake performance. This is especially important for sports with excessive sweating which places
demand on the bodys fluid reserves. Sweat is derived from blood plasma (predominantly
water) and when this volume decreases, it results in dehydration. Hence, hydration should
The following quantities of WATER are recommended for adequate hydration when
Before activity
(15-30 minutes)
300mls to 500mls
During activity
200mls to 300mls every
15-20 minutes
After activity
Frequent small quantities (200mls) until pre-activity weight is regained and urination
has become normal.
- Acclimatisation Acclimatisation involves adjusting to a change in the climatic conditions i.e. cold to
hot. Regular exercise in the hotter conditions each day for 7-10 days prior to the event
will adequately facilitate climatic adaptation to prevent the deterioration of
This occurs because repeated exposure to hot environments causes the athletes
body to progressively adapt to the thermal stress, resulting in improved capacity for
the body to sweat and a decreased level of skin blood flow required to regulate body
temperature, ultimately improving ones exercise capacity.

Taping and bandaging

- Preventative Taping and bandaging can reduce the likelihood of common but unwanted movements from
taping occurs e.g. rolling an ankle. It may also provide additional support for slightly injured areas to
ensure no additional damage is done during training or competitions.
- Taping for The location of some joints allows for taping to isolate an injury. For example, the taping of the
isolation of injury ankle can restrict inversion and eversion, however still allow for dorsi and plantar flexion.
Whereas, the shoulder is less effective to tape as it is more difficult to isolate particular
- Bandaging for The taping or bandaging for the immediate treatment of injuries is often to restrict blood flow to
immediate the area to reduce inflammation and also to immobilise the injured area to prevent further
treatment of injuries from occurring.

Past HSC Questions:

- Evaluate how sports policy and the sport environment promote safe participation. (12 marks)(2010 HSC)
- Analyse the role of physical preparation in enhancing the wellbeing of an athlete. (10 marks)(2009 HSC)
- Outline the barriers to the use of protective equipment in sport. (5 marks)(2005 HSC)
- Assess the effectiveness of protective equipment, taping and bandaging in enhancing the wellbeing of athletes
(15 marks)(2004 HSC)
- Assess the ways in which sports policy and the sports environment promote the physical wellbeing of children and
young athletes (15 marks)(2002 HSC)
- Discuss the role that physical preparation plays in the prevention of sports injury (5 marks)(2001 HSC)
Rehabilitation procedures
- Progressive Progressive mobilisation involves the gradual restoration of movement to the injured area
mobilisation through slow, progressive and relatively pain-free active or passive movement.
- Graduated Stretching of the injured areas ensure:
exercise - Minimal scarring occurs
(stretching, - Realigns the muscle fibres
conditioning, PNF is the most appropriate form of stretching as it passively strengthens and lengthens the
total body muscle and tendon, assisting in the restoration of movement.
fitness) Conditioning involves numerous exercises aimed to prepare the body for the demands of the
sport. It may include adapting the body to a range of agility, strength and power skills to
restore the full range of movement.
Total body fitness is regained through progressively overloading the muscle groups and
energy systems so that required adaptations are regained before commencement of activity.
Physical elements of total body fitness include:
- Muscle hypertrophy
- Muscular endurance
- Cardiorespiratory endurance
- Joint mobility and muscle flexibility
Mental aspects of total body fitness include:
- Confidence
- Willingness
- Restored balance and co-ordination
- Training Training may be incorporated into the injury management procedure in a safe manner which
involves activity for the injured person which is relatively risk and pain free.
- Use of heat and Generally, cold treatments should be administered to an injury in the first 72 hours.
cold This may include ice massages, ice baths, or vapo-coolant spray.
After this period, heat treatments should be applied. This may include heat packs,
massage and contrast baths (heat and cold).
However, the use of heat and cold treatments following an injury is highly controversial
due to the benefits and problems associated with each.
Type Positive Negative
Cold - Constricts blood vessels to
reduce blood flow and
hence swelling
Heat - Increased blood flow - Increased blood flow also
- Increased elasticity results in increased swelling
- Decreased stiffness

Return to play
- Indicators of The five indicators of readiness include:
readiness of - Elasticity
return to play - Strength
(pain free, - Mobility
degree of - Pain-free movement
mobility) - Balance
Tests which may reveal a players level of readiness include active and passive movement.
These tests will indicate the degree of mobility and pain of the injured site which will determine
whether the athlete is ready to return to play.

- Monitoring Progress can be monitored through:

progress (pre- - Pain
test and post- - Pre-injury and post-injury monitoring tests
test) The comparison between pre and post injury tests and monitoring fitness allows a coach or
medical practitioner to make an educated decision regarding the players present fitness
without risking further injury.
- Psychological After an injury, psychological barriers may prohibit an athlete from returning to play, including:
readiness - Anxiety
- Trauma from injury
- The longer an athlete is away from a sport, the lower their confidence will be
These barriers will not only hinder performance but may also increase the risk of injury through
non-fluent movements.
These barriers may be avoided through the application of progressive involvement:
returning to play in a lower grade, reducing participation time etc.
- Specific warm- Specific warm up procedures would include both a general warm up in addition to
up procedures added focus on the injured area. This ensures that a full range of movement can be
achieved in a safe and controlled environment before activity.
The warm up may include PNF stretching which in addition to stretching will also
strengthen the injured site.
- Return to play Due to the varying nature of all sports, each sport had its own return to play policies and
policies and procedures. This is a result of the different risk factors involved in each sport. Examples
procedures include:
- Rugby union: concussion- cannot return to play for 3 weeks
- Blood rule: in netball and other sports
- Injury report
- E.g. netball NSW return to play policy:

- Ethical Athletes may return to play for various reason including contracts, desire to achieve
considerations goals, boredom, and pressure from parents, coach, and wealth. However, returning to
(pressure to play too early increases the risk of long-term injury which may threaten their season or
participate, use even career. Returning to play is therefore, an ethical decision which should ultimately
of painkillers) be decided by the player, coach and a medical practitioner.
Athletes experiencing pain but wishing to return to sport may use painkillers. However,
painkillers may result in more extensive injuries as they mask the bodys natural
response to the injury.

Past HSC Questions:

- An athlete is recovering from an ankle injury. Explain the factors the athlete needs to consider before returning to
play.(6 marks)(2009 HSC)
- Explain how progressive mobilisation and the use of heat and cold can assist an injured athlete return to play (8
marks)(2003 HSC)
- Evaluate the policies and procedures that regulate when an athlete returns to play after injury (12 marks)(2001
- Critically analyse the ethical issues raised by the increased use of sports medicine for injury management. (15
marks)(2005 HSC)