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IXRefraX Instruction Manual

Version 1.4

Copyright 2008-2010 Interpex Limited

All Rights Reserved

24 April 2010

Interpex Limited

P.O. Box 839

Golden, CO 80401

USA

www.interpex.com

Tel: 303 278 9124


Fax: 303 278 4007
IXRefraX Manual Page 2 of 78

COPYRIGHT NOTICE
This manual and the software that it describes are the property of Interpex Limited. The purchaser
is licensed to use this copy of IXRefraX on one computer only. One working copy of the software
may be made by the purchaser for his own use. One hard copy of the manual may also be made
for the purchaser's own use.

The purchaser is hereby granted permission to excerpt text from this manual for the purposes of
inclusion in reports to the purchaser's clients, when results from this software package are
included in said report and this manual is referenced as the source.

No part of this document may be stored in a retrieval system, transmitted or reproduced in any
way, including but not limited to photocopy, photograph, magnetic or other mechanical or
electrical means, for any purpose, in whole or in part, without the express written permission of
Interpex Limited.

DISCLAIMER
It is the user's responsibility to be sure that the interpretations derived from the use of this software
are accurate and correct. Although Interpex Limited has done its best to make sure that this
manual and the software package which it describes are free from errors, Interpex does not
assume any responsibility for results obtained using this software.

Copyright 2007 Interpex Ltd.,


PO Box 839, Golden, Colorado, 80402.
All rights reserved. World rights reserved.

All tables and screen reproductions are from IXRefraX by Interpex Limited.

AutoCAD is a trademark of Autodesk, Inc.


IXRefraX is a trademark of Interpex Limited.
18 October 2007

Interpex Limited
P.O. Box 839 - Golden, Colorado 80402
Tel: (303) 278-9124
Fax: (303) 278-4007
IXRefraX Manual Page 3 of 78

USER RESPONSIBILITIES
IXRefraX is simply a tool provided by Interpex for assisting in the interpretation of seismic refraction
data. Like all tools, it is the responsibility of the user to use it properly. With an interpretation
software package like IXRefraX, the user must understand the seismic refraction method as well as
the Generalized Reciprocal Method (GRM) of refraction interpretation and have some idea as to what
is a realistically acceptable solution.
Seismic refraction profiles are designed to be interpreted in terms of a 2-dimensional structure with
clearly defined layer boundaries. The GRM method makes the assumption that the layers are
approximately flat-lying and that relative slopes between the surface and the refracting layers are less
than 20 degrees. If the structure is not 2-dimensional, if the subsurface does not consist of clearly
defined, relatively flat-lying refracting layers or if the relative slopes among the surface and the
various refractors exceeds 20 degrees, the results of this interpretation may not relate to the actual
subsurface structure.
Slope-intercept interpretation methods are designed for use in 1-dimensional situations where the
surface and topography are flat and parallel. These tools are provided as a quick-look interpretation
and are almost never reliable since this condition is almost never met. It is the users responsibility to
understand the limitations of the slope-intercept interpretations and use them appropriately as a simple
guide to devise starting models for the 2-dimensional interpretation.
It is the user's responsibility to determine whether or not 2-dimensioinal model interpretation in terms
of distinct refracting layers with relative slopes less than 20 degrees is appropriate for each seismic
profile. This can be done by examining the solutions as well as examining the geologic structure
apparent at the field site to determine whether or not they meet the criterion. It is also the user's
responsibility to determine whether or not the 2-dimensional structure with distinct refracting layers
with relative slopes less than 20 degrees is appropriate for the seismic profiles in question. If it is not,
it is the user's responsibility to take this discrepancy into consideration before making any use
whatsoever of the interpretations derived from IXRefraX.

ABOUT THIS MANUAL


This manual is a PDF version of the Windows Help file that comes with IXRefraX. It was created
by importing the Windows Help pages into Microsoft Word and importing the pictures separately,
with some additional formatting.
Text which is shown in red (such as File/Create Spread) indicates an item which is a link in the
corresponding Windows Help file. Using the Windows Help file, either alone or from the
IXRefraX menu, will allow you to click on this link and go to the section of the help file to which
it points.
The purpose of this manual is to offer an alternative medium to the Windows Help, and especially
one that can be easily printed in its entirety so that it can be read in circumstances where a
computer is not relatively available or being used for some other task.
Please contact Interpex Limited by e-mail at info@interpex.com if you have any concerns about
possible errors or omissions in this manual.
IXRefraX Manual Page 4 of 78

Overview
IXRefraX is a software package for the processing, picking and interpretation of seismic refraction shot
records and travel time data in terms of one or more refractors and using the Generalized Reciprocal
Method (GRM)and slope/intercept interpretation methods.

IXRefrax is unique in that it combines 2-D forward/inverse layered modeling with direct inversion using the
GRM method. After getting a feel for the data using slope-intercept interpretations, the user builds a starting
model for the 2-D layered interpretation starting with flat layers. The solution of this exercise can be used in
some cases as a final interpretation, especially if insufficient data exist to make a full GRM interpretation.
However, the results of the 2-D layered modeling are used to remove the drudgery from the GRM method,
such as assigning arrivals to layers and estimating the reciprocal times and X-Y values. Although these
parameters are automatically estimated, allowing a GRM interpretation from even a long spread with many
shots to be interpreted in a minute or so, full access is given to these parameters so that they can be easily
modified in places where the user has a better feel for the correct value.

The integrated first break picking window can be accessed from almost anywhere in the processing flow, so
that if a bad pick is suspected, the pick can be evaluated and repicked if necessary. The same goes for
arrival assignments. "Faults" are allowed discontinuities in the velocity analysis process and can be
introduced in several places by graphical means. These allow velocity analysis curves to be split into two or
more segments according to where they intersect one or more faults along the profile line.

For updates, go to http://www.interpex.com/IXRefraX/ixRefraXversion.htm. Always check for updates if you


are having a problem before contacting Interpex support to see if there is an update available which already
fixes the problem. Updates are free if you download them.

IXRefraX has the following features:

No limits on data set size.


Allows for survey planning using your existing spread geometry or by easily creating a new spread
geometry.
Imports shot record data from SEG-2, SEG-Y and most SEG-1 formats.
Imports travel time data from flat ASCII files.
Looks for certain types of ASCII files with first break information and sets the picks when shot
records are imported from SEG-2 files.
No limit on number of shots or geophone strings in a single profile (spread).
Imports topography data from a flat ASCII file.
Integrated first break picking, automatic, guided and manual with trace zoom box display.
First break picking using keyboard or mouse.
Integrated automatic slope/intercept analysis of travel time curves.
Integrated simple and fast 2-D forward/inverse modeling with ray path display.
Automatic estimation of reciprocal times and X-Y values.
Automatic assignment of arrivals to layers.
Manual assignment of arrivals to layers with display of selected curve differences.
Fully automatic GRM velocity analysis with manual override.
Ability to insert and reposition horizontal refractor velocity discontinuities (called "faults").
Full access to break picking and arrival assignment from any point in processing flow.
Color fill velocity and color coded arrival assignment display.

The mouse is used for moving and editing objects as well as for bringing up menus pertinent to an object
or a particular graph. Please see Using the Mouse on the Data and Section DisplaysIDH_MOUSE.

Hot keys are used to quickly implement several menu functions. Most if not all of these are indicated in the
corresponding menu commands. For instance, a menu command which displays as "Next Shot (N)" under
the File menu indicates that simply pressing "N" while the focus is on the window in which the menu
appears will move to the next shot in the same way as pressing <alt> followed by "F" and "N" or clicking on
File and then on Next Shot. In the shot record display window, hot keys are used to control the gain method
and the gain amplitude. Keys can also be used instead of the mouse to move about the record and pick the
breaks. In the main window, hot keys can be used to switch the model display among time-depth, depth and
elevation as well as to switch on and off some of the display objects such as arcs, error bars and boreholes.
IXRefraX Manual Page 5 of 78

Survey Planning:

Create a survey using Survey Planning/Create Survey or use Survey Planning/Create Model with an
existing spread geometry. Use File/Transfer Synthetic to Data to transfer the existing synthetic data to the
data arrays so you can practice interpreting it.

Processing flow:

1. Import Data using File/Create Spread to import shot records or travel time curve data.
File/Append Data to Current Spread can be used later to append data to an existing spread.

2. Use Edit/Pick Breaks to verify or correct first break picks. While picking a shot record, use Edit/Shot
Header to verify or correct the shot and geophone locations. New guided break picking is now
available.

3. Estimate a flat layered model which is a fit to the data in a general sense by right-clicking on a
selected travel time curve and selecting Flat Refraction Interpretation from the pop-up menu.

4. Use this model in Calculate/Estimate Model to generate a simple 2-D model of the section. If
borehole data are available (see Importing Borehole Data), you can estimate the model using the
borehole data or by forcing a fit to the boreholes.

5. Use Calculate/Estimate Layer Assignments to assign all arrivals to layers using the ray tracing
results from the simple 2-D model. Use Calculate/Estimate Reciprocal Times to estimate the
reciprocal times from the data or simple 2-D model.

6. At this point, you can use Edit/Assign Arrivals to verify or correct the arrival assignments. Use the
options in the View menu while assigning arrivals to control what curve differences are displayed.

7. Use Calculate/GRM Interpretation to generate the GRM interpretation.

8. Refine the interpretation as necessary by reassigning arrivals to layers, adding refractor velocity
discontinuities (faults), editing the reciprocal times or even repicking first breaks. Use File/Refresh in
the GRM intrpretation window to regenerate the GRM interpretation after making these
modifications.

9. Use the Mouse to add and edit labels on the displays.

All profile data and results are saved to a binary file in Interpex IXrefraX format using the File/Save
command . File/Save As allows the data and results to be saved under a new name and File/Open is
used to retrieve the results. When IXRefraX is started, the last file used is automatically opened

Topography data can be imported using File/Import Topography and File/Append Topography can be used
to import topography without disturbing existing topographic values.

Data in the form of travel time curves can be exported as a GRM file using File/Export/Data as GRM File.
Results can be exported as an XYZ file using File/Export/Results as XYZ File. or to AutoCAD Script format
using File/Export/Results as AutoCAD SCR File.

Graphics can be exported in three different formats, Autocad DXF, CGM Graphics, or Windows Metafile
(WMF) formats.

Data and results can be printed using File/Print.

Unwanted data are removed by masking. Either individual points or entire shots can be masked. Masking is
done by right clicking on the data point or on any data point on the shot and selecting the appropriate action
from the pop-up menu. Please see .Using the Mouse on Data and 2-D Section Displays
IXRefraX Manual Page 6 of 78

The graphics view can be adjusted and selected using the options in the View menu.

IXRefraX does not have full capabilities unless it is registered to a particular computer, fitted with a
hardware key or used with keyed demo data files. Unregistered versions run in demo mode and do not have
the ability to create or append to spreads.

Hardware key is fitted to the parallel or USB port.


IXRefraX Manual Page 7 of 78

Installing and Updating IXRefraX


IXRefraX is installed by running the setup file found on the distribution CD or downloaded from the
Interpex web site. Usually it is installed into C:\Program files\IXRefraX. The executable file is called
IXRefraX.exe.

After installing, use Windows Explorer to open the C:\Program files\IXRefraX directory and drag the
IXRefraX.exe from there to the desktop using the RIGHT mouse button. When released, select "Create
shortcut here". Position the shortcut according to your preferences and rename it to IXRefraX.

If you have selected "Hide extensions for known file types" in Tools/folder options/view in the Windows
Explorer, the EXE extension will not be shown. It will be the file with the InterpeX "IX" logo and the GRM ray
diagram on top of it.

Right-click on the shortcut and select properties. Change the "Start in:" field to the location where you will be
storing your trace data files. IXRefraX remembers which directory you last used and takes you back there,
but if it forgets now you will at least start in a reasonable place.

To have IXR files automatically open in IXRefraX when you double click on them, use Windows Explorer
to double click on an IXR file you have created with IXRefraX. You should get a message saying Windows
cannot open this file. Choose "Select he program from a list" and press OK. The next window says "Choose
the program you want to use to open this file". If IXRefraX is in the current list of programs, select it and
press OK. If not, press the Browse button and go to the C:\Program files\IXRefraX directory, double click on
IXRefraX.exe and press OK. Please note that if you do not have a USB key or registered version, this will
run IXRefraX but the file you selected will not open.

To update IXRefraX to a new version, download the zip file containing the updates from
www.interpex.com and unzip that file into the C:\Program files\IXRefraX directory. you need WinZip to do
this. You can find WinZip at www.winzip.com. If you want to save your present version (just to be safe),
rename it to include the version, for instance IXRefraX107 for version 1.07.

The Help file for IXRefraX is in the C:\Program files\IXRefraX directory. You can access it through
Help/Contents in IXRefraX or you can drag it onto the desktop using the RIGHT mouse button and create a
shortcut just as you did for the executable.

There is a tutorial for using IXRefraX on the Interpex web site under tutorials. It is a PowerPoint PPS file.
You can download that and keep it in the C:\Program files\IXRefraX directory with the software and create
a shortcut to that on your desktop as you did for the program and help files.

Check the Interpex web site periodically for updates, particularly if you are having problems. Always run the
most recent before reporting any problems with the software.
IXRefraX Manual Page 8 of 78

First Time Use of IXRefraX


The first time you use IXRefraX on any machine with a hardware key, you will get two dialogs before you
can continue. The first dialog,

notes that a hardware key has been detected. The second dialog

Allows you to enter a user name which will appear on all printouts produced with IXRefraX. Normally this
would be the company name in a commercial use or the name of a student if used in a teaching or research
situation.

Directories where Data are Stored


When shots are imported, the names of the shot files are saved, including all directory information. The
project RFX file does not need to be stored in the same directory as the shots.

If the data are moved or copied from one computer to another, the same directory structure as existed
before must be preserved, otherwise the shot record files cannot be found for trace display, first break
picking or header editing.

The exception is that the files can be moved as long as the shot records are stored in the same directory as
the RFX binary file. IXRefraX will first attempt to find the file in the specified path and then look in the
existing default directory if it is not found there.
IXRefraX Manual Page 9 of 78

References
Inman, J. R., 1975, Resistivity inversion with ridge regression: Geophysics, 40, pp. 798-817.
Palmer, D., 1980, The generalized reciprocal method of refraction interpretation (ed. Kenneth B. S. Burke):
SEG, Tulsa, 104 pp.

Palmer, D., 1981, An introduction to the generalized reciprocal method of refraction interpretation:
Geophysics, v. 46, pp 1508-1518.
IXRefraX Manual Page 10 of 78

Create a Spread
File/Create Spread is the first step in a project and is the way to get your data into IXRefraX. You can use
File/Append Data to Current Spread later to add more data to the project as it is acquired or if you have data
in more than one form.

This is covered in detail with pictures in the IXRefraX tutorial.

When you select Create Spread from the File menu you will initiate the Create Spread wizard. First select
the type of data to be imported:

Use SEG-1, SEG-2, SEG-Y Trace Data for raw data files.
Use IXSeg2Segy .TRX Trace Data for files you have imported, processed and saved using
IXSeg2Segy.
Use GREMIX GRM Data File if you have tabulated travel time data in the GREMIX GRM format.
Use ASCII Files - 1 shot per file if you have tabulated data in ASCII format with one shot in each
file. The files must be in the same format. (This option is currently not implemented).
Use Multiple-Shot ASCII file if you have a single file containing all your travel time data. This will
read files created by Rayfract, for example.

When you have made your selection, press Next.

Now the import file selection dialog will be displayed. Right-click in an empty area inside the file selection
window to bring up the right-click menu, then select Arrange Icons By and select name, size, type or
modified (date in Win 98) to arrange icons for simpler selection of files to import. Hold down the mouse
button and move the mouse to select all files to be imported, or use the shift and control keys in conjunction
with the mouse to select the files. Then press Open.

If you are importing SEG-2 files, IXSeg2Segy will look for first break pick files in the format of Geometrics
(*.VS) and in the format of SIP or SIPWin (*.PIK). If found, the picks will be read from these files and
assigned to the imported data, provided no first break picks were found inside the SEG-2 file itself. This
requires that the geophone positions are correctly specified in both the SEG-2 and first break pick file.
IXRefraX Manual Page 11 of 78

If you are importing a multiple shot flat ASCII file, a dialog will appear showing the file contents and allowing
you to select the columns from which to read the data:

Specify the columns from which to read the shot ID number, the shot position, geophone position and travel
time values. Zero or negative travel time values can be read in and masked or they can be excluded from
the data set, resulting in a shorter travel time curve (fewer points).

Travel time data can be read as milliseconds or seconds.

The option is available to start and/or stop reading at a specific line number in case you wish to read part of
the file.

The files will be imported and the travel time curves will be displayed.

If you are importing shot record files which do not contain break picks, the records will be picked
automatically as they are imported. You will likely need to repick most of the shots in this case.
IXRefraX Manual Page 12 of 78

Append Data to an Existing Spread


File/Append Data to Current Spread is used to add data to an existing spread. This is useful when you are
interpreting data while in the field to add the next day's data to your previously loaded and interpreted data.
It is also useful in combining data from different sources, for instance you may have historic data in
tabulated travel time form and new data in raw shot record form along the same profile.

When you select Append Data to Current Spread from the File menu you will initiate the same wizard as
used in Create Spread. First select the type of data to be imported:

Use SEG-1, SEG-2, SEG-Y Trace Data for raw data files.
Use IXSeg2Segy .TRX Trace Data for files you have imported, processed and saved using
IXSeg2Segy.
Use GREMIX GRM Data File if you have tabulated travel time data in the GREMIX GRM format.
Use ASCII Files - 1 shot per file if you have tabulated data in ASCII format with one shot in each
file.
Use Multiple-Shot ASCII file if you have a single file containing all your travel time data.

You do not have to select the same kind of data as you used before. When you have made your selection,
press Next.

Now the import file selection dialog will be displayed. Right-click in an empty area inside the file selection
window to bring up the right-click menu, then select Arrange Icons By and select name, size, type or
modified (date in Win 98) to arrange icons for simpler selection of files to import. Hold down the mouse
button and move the mouse to select all files to be imported, or use the shift and control keys in conjunction
with the mouse to select the files. Then press Open.

The files will be imported and added to the existing spread. Then the travel time curves will be displayed.

If you are importing shot record files which do not contain break picks, the records will be picked
automatically as they are imported. You will likely need to repick most of the shots in this case.

Open, Save, Save As


IXRefrax saves its data and results in a proprietary binary format. This format is designed to be forward and
backwards compatible, so that files written by older versions of the software can be read by newer versions
of the software and vice-versa. Of course, in the latter case, data that is not recognized by the older version
would be bypassed.

Binary files created with File/Save and File/Save As can be read using File/Open and carry the extension
RFX.

Seismic trace data is not saved in the binary files. When original seismic shot records are imported into
IXRefraX, the seismic traces themselves are not saved; only the names of the files are saved. Therefore, if
the seismic trace data files are later deleted, moved or renamed, the trace data can no longer be accessed.
IXRefraX Manual Page 13 of 78

Importing Topography
The File/Import menu contains options to import topographic data, either to replace any existing data or to
add data to the existing topographic data.

The only difference between importing and appending topographic data is whether or not any existing data
are discarded before import.

As data are imported, they are sorted into the correct order in ascending station or inline coordinate.

The first dialog which is presented upon invocation of the File/Import Topography command is the file
selection dialog. Next is the dialog for selecting columns (and alternatively rows) from which the data will be
read:

In this example, the station or Inline coordinate is in the first column and the topography data themselves
are in the fifth column. In some cases, there are notes in subsequent columns.

There are no headers in this example, but headers which contain character information not readable as
numeric data or blank lines are automatically bypassed.

After the data are read, they are interpolated to find the specific elevation values for each shot and
geophone position. That is, the data would be extrapolated or interpolated. Shot or geophone positions
before the first point would take on the value of the first point. Positions after the last point would take on the
value of the last point. Positions in between would be interpolated using available data.
IXRefraX Manual Page 14 of 78

Importing Borehole Data


The File/Import menu contains options to import borehole data, which will be displayed on the sections and
can be used in the model estimation.

The first dialog which is presented upon invocation of the File/Import Borehole Data command is the file
selection dialog. After the file is selected, the column selection dialog is presented so that the data columns
can be selected.

Finally, the borehole data is read, including profile distance, the the well number and the depth to the
refractor in the borehole.

An example file is shown here:

TEST REFRACTION LINE 10


BEDROCK DEPTH INFORMATION

DISTANCE WELL # BEDROCK DEPTH (FT)


147 190 42.5
929 189 33.8
2155 188 3.8
2685 187 30.6
2736 203 35
2807 202 35.6
2892 186 35.6
3002 204 35.6
3647 185 40
4072 184 26.3
4997 183 39.4
6040 182 38.4
IXRefraX Manual Page 15 of 78

Export Data as GRM File


Using File/Export/Data as GRM File will export the data only as an ASCII file in the GREMIX GRM data
format. It does not write reciprocal, delay or uphole times. It also does not write the customary header items
in GREMIX, such as the client, etc. It leaves those fields blank and just writes the data values themselves.

You can also invoke this menu option using the Export toolbar button and selecting "Data as GRM file".

Using File/Export/Synthetics as GRM file exports the synthetic data calculated from the 2-D model.

You can also invoke this menu option using the Export toolbar button and selecting "Synthetics as GRM
file".

The file output looks like the following:

Demo8a m 1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

SHOT: 1 LOCATION: 2320.00 ELEVATION: 0.00 DEPTH:


POSITION TRAVEL TIME ELEVATION
2430.0000 70.4569 0.0000
2440.0000 70.6912 0.0000
2450.0000 74.2490 0.0000
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
2890.0000 155.9321 0.0000
2900.0000 154.7699 0.0000

SHOT: 2 LOCATION: 2420.00 ELEVATION: 0.00 DEPTH:


POSITION TRAVEL TIME ELEVATION
2430.0000 10.3384 0.0000
2440.0000 20.6768 0.0000
2450.0000 31.0152 0.0000
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
2860.0000 85.3450 0.0000
2870.0000 84.9106 0.0000
2880.0000 84.0242 0.0000
2890.0000 82.9668 0.0000
2900.0000 78.3854 0.0000
IXRefraX Manual Page 16 of 78

Export Data as Flat ASCII File


Using File/Export/Data as Flat ASCII File will export the data only as an ASCII file in a flat ASCII format as
described below.

You can also invoke this menu option using the Export toolbar button and selecting "Data as flat ASCII
file".

Using File/Export/Synthetics as Flat ASCII file exports the synthetic data calculated from the 2-D model.

You can also invoke this menu option using the Export toolbar button and selecting "Synthetics as GRM
file".

Travel time values can be written as milliseconds or seconds:

Shot numbers are shot ID numbers and are written provided they are all valid (>0) and unique. Otherwise,
the shot index (1 to n) is written. First breaks are converted to seconds.

The file output looks like the following:

Shot Nr.;Shot Station;Receiver Station;First Break (seconds)


1 2320.00 2430.00 0.074305
1 2320.00 2440.00 0.073274
1 2320.00 2450.00 0.076763
1 2320.00 2460.00 0.079794
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
1 2320.00 2880.00 0.149389
1 2320.00 2890.00 0.150779
1 2320.00 2900.00 0.151776
2 2420.00 2430.00 0.009743
2 2420.00 2440.00 0.019486
2 2420.00 2450.00 0.029228
2 2420.00 2460.00 0.038971
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
7 3010.00 2870.00 0.088502
7 3010.00 2880.00 0.087878
7 3010.00 2890.00 0.086180
7 3010.00 2900.00 0.084087
IXRefraX Manual Page 17 of 78

Export Results as XYZ File


The results from the GRM analysis can be exported to an ASCII XYZ file for import into third party software
using File/Export/Results as XYZ File. This will export the results only as an ASCII file in the XYZ data
format.

You can also invoke this menu option using the Export toolbar button and selecting "Results as XYZ
file".

The first dialog to be presented after invoking this command is the one to select which parameters to write
out:

Distances can be written as Easting and Northing coordinates, Station (profile distance) coordinates, or
both. If neither is selected, no file will be written. Data values written can be velocities, depths, elevations or
time-depths. If no data are selected for writing, no file will be written. The Northing and Easting coordinates
written depend on the direction of the profile line. The first point ties with the specified profile point in the
next dialog. The direction of the line can be specified by "Tie Point and Direction" or "Beginning and End Tie
Points". The end tie point is used solely to find the direction angle and is offered as an alternative to
specifying the direction.

The second dialog concerns map coordinates as generated from station coordinates, and is not displayed if
map coordinates are not to be written. The form of this dialog depends on your selection of "Tie Point and
Direction" or "Beginning and End Tie Points":
IXRefraX Manual Page 18 of 78

Or

The third dialog is the one used to select the output file name.

The depth- and time-depth sections are stored as profile data, not as map data. This dialog allows you to tie
a specific station coordinate to a specific map coordinate and to specify the direction of the line on the map.
The azimuth values would be 0 for a north directed profile, 90 for an east directed profile, 180 for south, 270
for west and 45 for a northeast directed profile, for instance.

The file output looks like the following:

LINE: Demo7 EAST NORTH STATION VELOC 1 VELOC 2 DEPTH 1


ELEV 1 ELEV 2 TIMEDEPTH
1958214.0 1172376.2 2430.0 1000.0 7420.0 27.4
0.0 -27.4 27.2
1958222.5 1172381.2 2439.8 1000.0 6721.7 27.5
0.0 -27.5 27.2
1958231.0 1172386.1 2449.6 1000.0 6721.7 27.5
0.0 -27.5 27.2
... ... ... ... ... ...
... ... ...
... ... ... ... ... ...
... ... ...
... ... ... ... ... ...
... ... ...
... ... ... ... ... ...
... ... ...
IXRefraX Manual Page 19 of 78

Export Results to AutoCAD SCR File


The results from the GRM analysis can be exported to an ASCII SCR file for import into AutoCAD or similar
software packages using File/Export/Results as AutoCAD SCR File. This will export the results only as an
ASCII file in the SCR data format.

You can also invoke this menu option using the Export toolbar button and selecting "Results as
AutoCAD SCR file".

The first and only dialog is the one used to select the output file name.

The interfaces are exported as polylines, one interface per polyline. The station and elevations are written
out for each point. A blank line terminates each polyline.

The file output looks like the following:

plinegen
1
PLINE
0.00, 223.41
9.57, 223.55
19.13, 223.69
28.70, 223.83
... ...
... ...
1157.39, 228.57
1166.96, 228.68

PLINE
0.00, 196.32
9.57, 196.46
19.13, 196.60
... ...
... ...
1157.39, 198.35
1166.96, 198.46

Export Results to DXF Graphics File


Export DXF graphics file allows you to enter a file name for an AutoCAD DXF interchange file. Then a DXF
file is created with the same graphics as is presented in the graphics window on the screen.

Export Results to CGM Graphics File


Export CGM graphics file allows you to enter a file name for a CGM interchange file. Then a CGM file is
created with the same graphics as is presented in the graphics window on the screen.

Export Results to WMF Graphics File


Export WMF graphics file allows you to enter a file name for a WMF interchange file. Then a WMF file is
created with the same graphics as is presented in the graphics window on the screen.
IXRefraX Manual Page 20 of 78

Printing Text and Graphics


The File Print command allows you to generate printed output of your data and results. When you issue this
command you are presented with a dialog of items to be printed. These are in the form of check boxes:

Print Graphic: if checked, the graphic, just as it appears on the screen in the IXRefraX window, is printed. It
is automatically sized to fit the paper on which it is printed.

After printing the graphic, a header is printed consisting of the data set name, the number of shots and the
max number of geophones in any shot. This header is not printed if no listings are selected.

Print Refraction Shot Parameters: Prints a summary of the shots, including the type of shot, index, shot
ID number, Station, Geophone Range, Depth, Uphole time and number of points (geophones) in the shot.

Print Data Listing: Prints a listing of the data, including the station, elevation and observed travel times for
(up to) 5 shots per group. The listing is repeated until all shots have been listed.

Print Time/Intercept Time-Depths: Prints a listing of the station, first through (up to) fourth layer velocity,
followed by first through (up to) third layer time depth as determined from time/intercept analysis.

Print Time/Intercept Depths: Prints a listing of the station, first through (up to) fourth layer velocity,
followed by first through (up to) third layer depth as determined from time/intercept analysis.

Print GRM Time-Depths: Prints a listing of the station, first through (up to) fourth layer velocity, followed by
first through (up to) third layer time depth as determined from GRM analysis.

Print GRM Depths: Prints a listing of the station, first through (up to) fourth layer velocity, followed by first
through (up to) third layer depth as determined from GRM analysis.
IXRefraX Manual Page 21 of 78

Picking First Breaks in Sequence of Records


Edit/Pick Breaks is used in the case where you would like to go through the entire sequence of shot records
in your spread to verify or correct first break picks. When this menu item is selected, the first shot is
displayed in the shot pop-up window.

The breaks can now be verified and picked as described in Trace Display and Editing Window.

Editing the Layer Velocities


Selecting Edit/Layer Velocities brings up a dialog allowing you to edit the surface and refractor velocities:

Pressing OK reads your changes and recalculates the travel time curves. Pressing Cancel aborts the edit.

The model vertex positions are edited using the mouse. Please see Editing Vertex Positions.

Editing the Vertex Positions


The vertex positions are edited graphically using the mouse. When you point at a vertex, the cursor turns to
a crosshair. If you depress the (left) mouse button and move the mouse, you will attach and move the
vertex. If you depress the right button the mouse and move the mouse, you will attach and move the entire
layer.

As you move the mouse the vertex remains in its original position, the cursor changes to a standard arrow,
and grey lines show the new edges of the layer with the cursor pointing at the new vertex position (for
moving layers, the entire layer is shown in grey):
IXRefraX Manual Page 22 of 78

When the mouse button is released, the vertex is moved, the cursor changes back to a crosshair and the
results are recalculated and redisplayed if the Tools/Autocalculate menu item is checked. Only vertical
movement is allowed unless in the survey design mode. Movements will be scaled back to create a valid
model if movement is too far:
IXRefraX Manual Page 23 of 78

Editing the Topography Values


Topography values are imported from the shot record headers if available. Often these values are not
specified or specified as zero. Topography can be imported from ASCII files or can be entered through the
topography editor. After import, values can still be edited in the topography editor.

Editing topographic values in the shot header editors is not available. Once topography data are imported,
they must be editied in the topography editor.

In the main window, there are two options for editing the topography: Edit/Topography and Edit/Topography
and Northing, Easting. For simple topography edit, the spreadsheet on the left is shown: For the topography
edit with northing and easting, the spreadsheet on the right is shown instead:

You can edit the values, change the number of entries, or copy/paste the values to or from another
spreadsheet, such as Excel. All columns must be the same length. Duplicate values are not allowed and
values must be in order.

When finished editing, press OK to continue and keep edits, or Cancel to cancel the edit.

Upon pressing OK, the number of values is counted and columns are checked for length consistency. If
inconsistency is found, you will need to continue editing. If values are out of order or if duplicate values are
found, the following dialog will be displayed:
IXRefraX Manual Page 24 of 78

If values are in order but duplicates are found, the top radio button section will be grayed out. If values are
not in order but no duplicates were found, the bottom section will be grayed out. If either "Continue Editing"
button is selected, you will return to the editor. If not, the values will be sorted, duplicates will be removed
and the topography edit is completed.
IXRefraX Manual Page 25 of 78

The View Menu


The View menu in the main IXRefraX window allows for adjustment and selection of the graphics display as
follows:

Zoom toggles the zoom capability on and off. When selected, depressing the left mouse button and
dragging it across the display creates a rubber-band box. When the mouse button is released, the selected
graphic is rescaled according to the dimensions of the box, rather than to the min and max of the data
values themselves. When more than one graphic is displayed, the graphic containing the center of the box
is rescaled. In this case, the horizontal axis of both graphs are simultaneously rescaled. The box can be
smaller or larger than the original display.

Unzoom autoscales the graphic displays to the min and max of the data displayed.

Last Zoom restores the graphic display to the state it was in before the last time the Zoom or UnZoom
command was used.

Autoscale Velocity Colors uses the colors in the 2-D model as well as the velocities generated in the GRM
interpretation (if available) to automatically scale the color range for velocity color fill. This range is static in
IXRefraX and is not saved with the rest of the model parameters, but instead saved in the INI file. This
means that opening a new refraction project will not change the velocity color range. The range can be
edited in View/Properties

Data is a pop-up menu controlling the data display.

The active selection is checked. Selecting No Data Display shows only the model graph. (If No Model
Display is selected, the MRG 2-D Inverted Model display is selected.) Selecting Measured Data Only
does not display a synthetic, only the travel time curves as both boxes and lines. Selecting Fit to Forward
Modeling shows the data as points and the results of the MRG forward model as lines. If No Data Display
is selected, the model takes up the full vertical viewing area.

After the GRM interpretation is completed, the upper display can be replaced by the Velocity graph from
the GRM interpretation window.

If Color Code Layers is checked, the data points and lines are coded to reflect the arrival's layer
assignment. Otherwise, colors show different shots.

If Masked Shots is checked, the shots which are masked will also be displayed, otherwise they are hidden.
Masked shots are not used in any calculations. Shots are masked by right clicking on them and choosing
Mask Shot from the pop-up menu. Choose Unmask Shot to clear the mask.
IXRefraX Manual Page 26 of 78

Model is a pop-up menu controlling the model display:

The active selection is checked. Selecting No Model Display shows only the data graph. (If No Data
Display is selected, the Measured Data Only is selected.) Selecting
2-D Inverted Model display shows the 2-D model which was generated by the Calculate/Estimate Model
command. If there is no model, only the topography is shown.

Selecting GRM Interpreted Time Depth shows the composite Time-Depth values interpreted from the
GRM analysis. Selecting GRM Interpreted Depth shows the composite Depth values interpreted from the
GRM analysis. Selecting GRM Interpreted Elevation shows the composite elevation model interpreted
from the GRM analysis. If there is no valid GRM analysis for this data set, these menu items are greyed out.

Draw Rays is checked if selected. If selected, then (for the MRG 2-D model only) the ray paths from each
source to each receiver are drawn.

Draw Arcs is checked if selected. If selected, then (for the GRM depth and elevation only) the interpreted
depths are drawn as arcs with the radius being from the geophone point directly above. The angle width
used is selected using View/Properties.

Color Fill Velocity is checked if selected. If selected, the 2-D section for all displays is filled with a color
determined from the velocity according to the range specified in View/Properties. Note that the default
thickness for the fill is 10% but this can be modified. Use 100% to get a complete fill.

Error Bars is checked if selected. If selected, then (for the GRM results only) the uncertainties from the
GRM averaging are shown as vertical lines at each point.

Pan Left and Pan Right are active only when the display is zoomed. Then move the display one display
width to the left or right. These are useful for long profiles; you can zoom the display to show data and
results for a small section of the display and then pan right or left to look at different data sections.

View/Properties is discussed in detail in a different section and it controls the labels and details for the
individual axes as well as the range of velocities for color fill and the arc length for the arcs on the depth and
elevation sections.
IXRefraX Manual Page 27 of 78

Editing Graph Line Colors


Using View/Colors or pressing the color toolbar button brings up a dialog which allows you to edit the colors
used to draw lines on the graphs:

You can edit the colors used for drawing axes, traces, first break marks, trace window background, rays,
ground surface (elevation) for labels, for showing the spectrum in the band pass filter and for boreholes and
arcs.

Remember that the first break marks are xored (exclusive or) so the color will be different than what you
select. For instance, if you select yellow, you will see the marks in blue. If you select yellow, the marks will
be light magenta.

The colors for shots/layers is a table of ten colors that are recycled if ten values is not enough. These are
used to display the layer for arrival assignments and for differentiating between shots when layer colors are
not displayed on the shot data.

To mimic the color scheme in FIRSTPIX, change the trace color to yellow and the trace display background
to black.

The values are saved in the IXRefraX.INI file.


IXRefraX Manual Page 28 of 78

View Properties
View/Properties gives the user to details of the axes used to display the data and model as well as the
arc angle and the range of velocities for color fill.

The tab control in the dialog allows for tabbing among the three axes which are used in the current display.
Otherwise, the tabs look very similar, so we will discuss only the station tab.

The station axis label can be edited and it is stored in the IXRefraX.INI file so it pertains to all data sets
accessed, not only to the particular data set being worked on when changes are made. It is important to
preserve the units for this label: "(m"). Otherwise the label can be translated to another language or
modified to suit the user's purpose.

The radio buttons in the lower left corner control whether the cm or inches areas of the dialog are active.

The label height field controls the height of the label on the axis and the offset controls the offset towards
graph. These give the user control over the appearance of the labels.

For each axis, the axes are specified by the number of major divisions, the starting value and the size of the
major division. The number of minor divisions can also be changed.

The velocity color fill range can also be specified and this normally goes from red to blue. If you check
Reverse Color Sequence, the color fill will be from blue to red.

The velocity color fill range can be automatically calculated by using View/Autoscale Velocity Colors in
either the main window or in the GRM interpretation window. This scans all body and GRM interpreted
velocities and automatically generates a color range for display.

The velocity color fill thickness can also be specified. Selecting 100 percent will fill the entire layer. Selecting
a smaller value, for instance 10 percent, will only color a small section below the surface and below each
refractor. This provides a more realistic indication of the true sampling of the subsection.

The angle range for the arc angle can also be specified. Neither the velocity color fill or arc angle is specific
to any particular graph.
IXRefraX Manual Page 29 of 78

View Properties for Trace Data


View/Properties for trace data shows a different type of dialog:

In this case there is a selection as to view the traces vertically (as in a reflection seismic section) or
horizontally as is more common in refraction work. Variable area fill can be used for positive sections of the
traces and first breaks can be plotted or not.

Each trace is given a slot in which it is plotted. The trace can be wider than this box, or narrower and can be
clipped at a box which is of a different size as well.

Trace gain can be by global max, trace max, or AGC and there is a window length for the AGC.

Timing lines can be drawn at minor divisions, major divisions or not at all. The trace axis can be trace
number or position.

For global max gain, you can specify what value is used. The default is the actual global max.

You can plot all traces or a range of traces.

Gain type can be selected without opening the View/Properties dialog by pressing the hot keys G, T or A in
the trace display window. The gain value (trace width) can also be increased or decreased using hot keys U
and D.

If you are printing the trace display graphic and the variable area fill areas are not completely filled, you may
have to reduce the scale factor for fill pixel. This will also reduce the width of the first break markers.
IXRefraX Manual Page 30 of 78

Using the Mouse on the Data and Section Displays


The mouse can be used to determine the properties of data and model vertices and to change the status of
the data or edit a vertex position. In the GRM analysis window, the mouse can be used to edit reciprocal
times by moving a time-depth segment to match the other segments. It can be used in any model section or
time-depth window to insert, delete or move horizontal refractor velocity discontinuities or faults.

The mouse cursor normally changes when pointing at an object, typically to a crosshair, vertical arrow or
horizontal double arrow. Vertical arrows are used in the GRM interpretation window to indicate slope-
intercept results for surface and refractor velocity or time-depth. Horizontal double arrows are used for
faults. Crosshairs are used for data points, model layer vertices or time-depth/depth points in the GRM
interpretation window. Right-clicking on the object will typically pop up a menu allowing you to edit or delete
this object in some way. Depressing the left button while pointing at the object will often allow you to
reposition the object.

When you point the mouse at a model vertex or a data point, the cursor turns into a crosshair.

Pointing at a data point and (left) clicking the mouse brings up a window displaying the statistics of that
point:

Pointing at a data point and right-clicking the mouse brings up a menu offering several options:

Selecting Flat Refraction Interpretation will bring up the Time-Intercept window for the shot containing the
point you clicked on and allow you to select the number of layers to be used in the time-intercept
interpretation.

Selecting Display Traces will bring up the Shot Record window for the shot containing the point you clicked
on and allow you to repick the first breaks and otherwise manipulate the shot record.

Selecting Edit Shot Header will bring up the Shot Header Dialog for the shot containing the point you clicked
on and allow you to edit the shot parameters and geometry.
IXRefraX Manual Page 31 of 78

Selecting Mask Point or Unmask Point will set or reset the mask value for that point. Masked points are not
used in the interpretation or inverse modeling.

Selecting Mask Shot or Unmask Shot will set or reset the mask value for that shot. Masked shots are not
used in the interpretation or inverse modeling.

Left-clicking in the data graph without pointing at a data point brings up a menu allowing you to change the
display properties (see View Menu for more details) and to add a label to the display:

Pointing at a layer vertex and (left) clicking the mouse brings up a window displaying the statistics of that
vertex:

Pointing at a layer vertex and right-clicking the mouse brings up a menu allowing you to delete or split that
layer.

Pointing at a layer vertex and left-dragging it allows you to change the vertical position of the vertex.
IXRefraX Manual Page 32 of 78

Left-clicking in the model graph without pointing at a vertex brings up a menu allowing you to change the
display properties (see View Menu for more details) or to add a fault, a label or velocity label (A fault is a
horizontal refractor velocity continuity used when velocity analysis curves are fit):
IXRefraX Manual Page 33 of 78

Adding and Modifying Labels


Labels can be added to the travel time curve or GRM model displays (time depth, depth, or elevation).
Labels are deleted when a new project is created or if the Edit/Delete Labels command is used.

To add a label, right click while not pointing at anything and select New Label from the pop-up menu.

To add a velocity label in a model display, right click while not pointing at anything and select Label Velocity
from the pop-up menu.

Labels are static, while Velocity labels are dynamic. Velocity labels show the velocity at the arrow tip if an
arrow is present, or at the center of the label if no arrow is present. When pointing at a spot where the
velocity is not defined, the label will be blank.

When you point at the label with the mouse, the label will "light up" and a box will be drawn around the label
area. Pointing at a corner or side will change the cursor to an arrow that allows you to drag that corner or
side by depressing the left mouse button and dragging the corner or side.

Pointing at the arrow tip or center of the label will change the cursor to a 4-way arrow that alllows you to
move the arrow or label.

The picture shows several of the options for moving and resizing:

Right clicking on the label will allow you to edit the label (you cannot edit dynamic velocity labels), delete the
label, add an arrow or delete the arrow. Adding an arrow when the arrow already exists will reset the
existing arrow to the default position.

You are not asked to confirm the deletion of the label or arrow.
IXRefraX Manual Page 34 of 78

The Tools Menu


The tools menu allows for manipulation of the layered model and for toggling the Autocalculate flag:

Selecting Add Layer brings up the Add Layer dialog:

This allows you to select the number of the layer to add, the velocity and the layer thickness. This is the only
way to create an additional layer below the last (deepest) layer in the present model. Any layers that are
beneath the added layer will be moved downward by the thickness of the added layer. The added layer
mimics the shape of the

Selecting Delete Layer brings up the Delete Layer dialog:

This allows you to select the number of the layer to delete.

Selecting Split Layer brings up the Split Layer dialog:

This allows you to select the number of the layer to split. Splitting a layer creates a new layer boundary
above the selected one. The new boundary points are positioned at the same horizontal distance as the
layer which is split. The vertical position is half way between the layer being split and the layer above it. If
the first layer is split, the vertical position is half way between the layer being split and the topography.
IXRefraX Manual Page 35 of 78

Selecting Resample Layers brings up the Resample Layers dialog:

This allows you to change the density of the digitization along the layer. For instance, if you started out with
a fairly low density and have a reasonable fit and would like to increase the detail in the model, you can
resample to a higher density. Or if you started out with too much detail and would like to decrease the
density to make the model more manageable, this menu option will do the trick.
IXRefraX Manual Page 36 of 78

The Trace Display and Editing Window


The trace display window shows the current trace and allows for editing break picks and shot header, minor
processing and slope/intercept interpretation of the travel time data.

Breaks can be picked manually or automatically using one of several methods. Automatic picks can be
guided - this is a new feature of v 1.1

Overview:
Automatic picking can be invoked by selecting one of the methods from the Pick menu. If the results are
good, this is the final pick. However, this is not often the case.

If there are one or two picks that are not satisfactory, these can be repicked manually.

However, if several or more picks are not satisfactory, guided automatic picking is a powerful tool for getting
the picks right in almost every case.

Trace Display Control:


Although View/Properties in the trace display window can be used to control the various features of the
trace display, there are additional menu items and hot keys which allow quick control of display adjustment:

View/Trace Gain Up increases the gain of the traces by a factor of Sqrt(2). Pressing "U" has the same
effect.
View/Trace Gain Down decreases the gain of the traces by a factor of Sqrt(2). Or press "D".
View/Gain by Global Max changes the gain method to global maximum. (Or press G)
View/Gain by Trace Max changes the gain method to trace maximum. (Or press T)
View/Gain by AGC changes the gain method to AGC. (Or Press A)

Display of Travel Time Curves from other Shots:


View/Curves from Other Shots toggles the status of display of travel time curves from other shots on top
of the traces currently displayed.

There is a toolbar button which also toggles this option:

When shots are added by File/Create Spread or File/Append Data to Current Spread, shots which do not
have first breaks picked will be flagged as unpicked and will be auto picked. These shots will not be
displayed as travel time curves while picking other shots until they are picked by the user.
IXRefraX Manual Page 37 of 78

Manual Break Picking:

The toolbar provides quick access to the most used commands.

Pressing the OK button or selecting File/Close closes the window and saves the first picks to the travel
time curve table.

Pressing the Cancel button or selecting File/Close closes the window and does not save the revised
break picks.

Pressing the Save button saves the processed (and picked) traces back to the original file. Processed
traces are never saved unless you use this button or the equivalent menu command. This works only for
SEG-2 and SEG-Y formats. This is the same as File/Save Traces.

File/Save Project saves the entire project. This is useful during initial picking stage of the processing to
make sure you save your work so it is not lost in the event of a crash.

The up arrow or File/Previous selects the previous shot in the sequence and the down arrow or
File/Next selects the next shot. Changes to break picks are saved with this operation.

The shot record can be printed or File/Print, the header can be edited or Edit/Shot Header. Edit/Pick
Parameters allows you to edit the automatic picking parameters.

The zoom tool is available in 3 flavors: manual zoom or View/Zoom, zoom to breaks or View/Zoom to
Breaks and return to last zoom or View/Last Zoom.

Zoom to breaks scales the data to best fit the existing first break picks. Zoom toggles the zoom tool on and
off. When on, depressing the left mouse button and dragging the mouse creates a selection box which is
then used to scale the display.

Unzoom autoscales to display all data or File/Unzoom.

The trace display properties can be edited and are applied to all traces in the spread , right click on
graph or View/Properties.
IXRefraX Manual Page 38 of 78

If the display is zoomed, it can be panned up , down , left or right . Or use View: Pan Up, Pan
Down, Pan Left or Pan Right.

The Pick menu allows for automatic first break picking. Right now the Simple Pick is the only one available.
Others will be added later.

Using the options in the Process menu, traces can be Differentiated or Integrated. Process/Detrend
removes a linear trend from the traces and Process/Remove DC Level removes the DC level (average
value) from the traces. These processing steps are applied to all traces in the record.

Spectral analysis and band pass filtering or Process/Band pass Filter and slope/intercept analysis or
Process/Refraction (Flat Layer) are available.

Help/Contents displays this window.

First breaks can be picked with the mouse or the keyboard. There is a zoomed display of the selected trace
which is on the opposite side of the trace plot from the selected trace. This is called the Pick Window:

For a gain of 1, the trace displayed in the pick window is scaled to its full amplitude with no AGC. Increasing
the gain displays the trace at 2, 4, 8... times its amplitude. Gain is increased and reduced by a factor of 2 as
described below.

There is a grey box on the full trace display outlining the portion of the trace which is displayed with
magnification in the pick window.

The View menu contains five controls for the pick window:

View/Pick Window toggles the pick window on and off. It is checked when the pick window is on.
The pick window currently works only for traces displayed as trace number. If the trace display is by
position, turning this option on will set the display to trace number and rescale the display.
There is a toolbar button which gives access to this feature: .
View/Enlarge Pick Window extends the range of time which is displayed in the pick window. The
actual size of the pick window stays the same. Pressing "E" has the same effect.
IXRefraX Manual Page 39 of 78

View/Reduce Pick Window reduces the range of time which is displayed in the pick window. The
actual size of the pick window stays the same. Pressing "R" (contRact) has the same effect.
View/Pick Window Gain Up increases the gain of the trace shown in the pick window by a factor of
2. Pressing "+" has the same effect.
View/Pick Window Gain Down decreases the gain of the trace shown in the pick window by a factor
of 2. Pressing "-" has the same effect.

To pick a break with the mouse, position the mouse cursor on the trace and sample where you want the
break to be and click the left mouse button. Clicking the right button pops up a menu which allows you to Kill
the trace, Flip the trace (reverse polarity), Unzoom the display or edit the display properties.

A dead trace is still displayed, but it has a first break pick at sample 0. The data for this trace is not
transferred to/from the travel time curve, including the existence or position of the trace.

The following assumes traces are displayed vertically. If they are displayed horizontally, the arrow keys
work appropriately for the horizontal display:

To pick a break with the keyboard, use the Left/Right arrow to select the trace and the Up/Down arrow to
select the sample. If the pick window is selected, the cursor on the trace display is coordinated with the one
in the pick window. Press the Space Bar to pick the break at the cursor position. Picking a break repositions
the pick window to center on the break position.

Page Up/Page Down moves the trace one half the window height. Using the Left/Right arrow positions the
pick window on the first break if one exists and is within the range of the window. Otherwise, the vertical
position of the window is not shifted.

Automatic Break Picking:


Simple Pick uses a simple method of finding a step function. It comes from Geometrics SeisView program,
written in the mid 1980's.

Hatherly Pick uses a method developed by Hatherly, a colleague of Dereke Palmer in Australia.

Box Pick uses a method involving convolution with a boxcar function.

Wavelet Pick uses a method which convolves a user-selected wavelet with the trace, looking for matches.

Each of the automatic picking methods has at least one parameter which may effect the accuracy of the
picks and will probably be data dependent

Guided Break Picking:


Guided break picking is a powerful tool for picking good quality breaks quickly. This allows the user to draw
a line estimating the position of the first break for several traces at once. Automatic break picking then
focuses on a region near the intersection of this line and attempts to find a good quality break.

Please see Guided Picking and Editing the Guided Pick Parameters for more details.

Wavelet Selection
The Wavelet Pick requires that a wavelet be present. In order to select a wavelet, use the menu option
Pick/Select Wavelet. This pops up a dialog which instructs you to hold left mouse button and drag mouse to
draw an elastic box around the wavelet you wish to pick. Release the mouse button to view selected
wavelet. Click mouse to return to trace display.

Now you are able to use Wavelet Pick.

If you are not happy with the wavelet, repeat this procedure.

You may want to zoom the display to focus on the area of interest before selecting the wavelet.
IXRefraX Manual Page 40 of 78

Note that the vertical extent of the elastic box is used to select the time range of the wavelet. The horizontal
extent is used to select the trace from which the wavelet is taken. If the elastic box is wider than a single
trace, the trace from which the wavelet is taken may be unpredictable and is near the center of the box.

Pick/View Wavelet will show a display of the currently selected wavelet. Click mouse to return to the trace
display.
IXRefraX Manual Page 41 of 78

Automatic Break Picking and Editing the Automatic Picking Parameters


Automatic Break Picking:
Breaks can be picked automatically using one of several methods in the Pick menu.

How well the automatic picking works depends on the data quality, the picking method and the parameters
selected. Typically, at least some of the breaks will have to be manually picked.

Simple Pick uses a simple method of finding a step function. It comes from Geometrics SeisView program,
written in the mid 1980's.

Hatherly Pick uses a method developed by Hatherly, a colleague of Dereke Palmer in Australia.

Box Pick uses a method involving convolution with a boxcar function.

Wavelet Pick uses a method which convolves a user-selected wavelet with the trace, looking for matches.

Each of the automatic picking methods has at least one parameter which may effect the accuracy of the
picks and will probably be data dependent

Wavelet Selection
The Wavelet Pick requires that a wavelet be present. In order to select a wavelet, use the menu option
Pick/Select Wavelet. This pops up a dialog which instructs you to hold left mouse button and drag mouse to
draw an elastic box around the wavelet you wish to pick. Release the mouse button to view selected
wavelet. Click mouse to return to trace display.

Now you are able to use Wavelet Pick.

If you are not happy with the wavelet, repeat this procedure.

You may want to zoom the display to focus on the area of interest before selecting the wavelet.

Note that the vertical extent of the elastic box is used to select the time range of the wavelet. The horizontal
extent is used to select the trace from which the wavelet is taken. If the elastic box is wider than a single
trace, the trace from which the wavelet is taken may be unpredictable and is near the center of the box.

Pick/View Wavelet will show a display of the currently selected wavelet. Click mouse to return to the trace
display.
Selecting Edit/Edit Pick Parameters brings up the tabbed automatic picking parameters dialog.
IXRefraX Manual Page 42 of 78

Editing the Pick Parameters

Tabs are for Simple Pick, Hatherly Pick, Box Pick and Wavelet Pick.

Pressing OK saves all changes to all parameters. Pressing Repick Now saves all changes to all parameters
and then repicks the shot using the method from the active tab. Cancel does not save changes to
parameters.

The Simple Pick uses a minimum increase in amplitude over a ten-point window. Spikes are rejected with a
maximum threshold and the pulse width sought is specified. this pulse width is normalized to the sample
interval.

The Hatherly Pick uses an estimate for noise as a percentage of the trace max.

The Box Pick convolves a boxcar with the trace, varying the period of the boxcar from a min to a max value
in a specified number of steps. No more than the specified number of maxima will be evaluated. Power
(rather than amplitude) can be used.

The threshold can be peak value or averaged and the pick can be moved a certain number of cycles.

The Wavelet Pick requires the user to select a wavelet (see Wavelet Selection above). Events less than a
percentage of trace max amplitude are rejected. Once a pick is found, a later pick will replace it only if it is
IXRefraX Manual Page 43 of 78

greater than the present pick by a specified percentage. Side lobe rejection is also specified as a
percentage.

The tabbed dialog allows for auto picking using the selected tab with the specified parameters. Once the
Repick Now button is pressed, those parameters are made permanent. Up to then, Cancel reverts back to
the current parameters.

It is best to experiment with values for given data sets and see which parameters give the best results.
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Guided Picking and Editing the Guided Pick Parameters


Guided Break Picking:
Although breaks can be picked automatically using one of several methods in the Pick menu, how well the
automatic picking works depends on the data quality, the picking method and the parameters selected.
Typically, at least some of the breaks will have to be manually picked.

Guided break picking allows the user to draw a line on the shot record display to guide the automatic break
picking process. Then, automatic picking is carried out only on the specified portion of each trace which is
above and below the point where the user-drawn line intersects the trace.

If you experiment with drawing the line above and below where you actually want the breaks to appear, you
will find a place where you get the kind of results you want, depending on the data and the automatic break
picking method selected.

If the Pick Window (see The Trace Display and Editing Window) is switched on, it will disapear while the line
is being drawn and reappear when the picking is finished and the mouse cursor is positioned on a trace.

To make a guided pick, position the mouse cursor on the first (or last) trace you wish to pick (or outside the
traces if you wish to pick them all):

Depress the left mouse button and drag the mouse across the traces near where you want the picks and
stop on the last (or first) trace you wish to pick (or outside the traces if you wish to pick them all):
IXRefraX Manual Page 45 of 78

Release the mouse button and the new picks are displayed:

If you do not like the new picks, you can repeat the exercise. Hint: if (some of) the picks are too early, try
drawing the line later in the display; if they are too late, draw the line earlier. If there is sufficient structure or
bending in the first breaks, you may need to pick the breaks in two or more sections.

Guided Break Picking Parameters:


IXRefraX Manual Page 46 of 78

Use Edit/Guided Pick Parameters to change the method, time range, and option to clear breaks before
picking. This brings up a dialog:

Select the method of picking (the Wavelet Pick will not be available if there is no wavelet selected), the
amount of time before the crossing and the amount of time after the crossing of your drawn line to be used
in finding the pick.

If you select Clear Picks before Picking, traces which are not picked will be left dead. Otherwise, the existing
pick will remain.
IXRefraX Manual Page 47 of 78

Editing the Shot Header


When you invoke Edit/Shot Header from the Trace display window, the Shot Header Editor dialog is
displayed:

Since the original trace file is treated as a read-only file, the geometry is read from the file when it is
originally imported and saved in IXRefraX. When the shot record is opened, the original geometry is
replaced and after editing the shot record, the geometry data are again transferred from the shot record
back into IXRefraX.

Thus, only the shot and geophone positions can be edited. All topography values are stored in a single
array that is loaded using File/Import/Import Topography or File/Import/Append Topography.

The buttons which allow for geometry control refer only to the spread; the shot position is edited separately.
IXRefraX Manual Page 48 of 78

Create Geometry allows you to create a spread by specifying type of spread, number and value of
geophone spacings. The created geometry uses the first position of the northing and easting column as a
starting point. The Azimuth specifies the affected columns; 0 is north, 90 is east, and so on.

For a constant spacing spread, only one spacing is required and the entire spread is created with that
spacing.

For a symmetric tapered spread, the taper plus the constant spacing in the center must be entered. The last
spacing is then used to fill in the center.

For an asymmetric tapered spread, all spacings must be entered unless the far end is not tapered.

Open Geometry opens and reads a previously saved geometry.

Save Geometry As saves the current Geometry under a new name, asking for the name first.

Save Geometry saves the current geometry under the same name, unless there is no geometry open.

Add to and Multiply by operate from the currently selected row and column downwards. Add to can be used
to reposition a spread, so as to move it along a line. For instance, if you create a spread which is 24
geophones at a constant 1 meter spacing, you may record 7 shots into that spread. If you then move the
spread so that the first geophone in the new spread is at the same position as the last geophone in the old
spread, you would use the "Add To" button to add 23 m to the spread, starting at the top of the distance
column.
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Shifting the Data


Using Edit/Shift Data in the shot display window will shift the data to match the first breaks. Then the first
breaks are set to zero.

This is designed to allow the user to manually pick and then apply the delay times in the data when there is
not a stable trigger mechanism.

After the shift, the first breaks need to be repicked.

Differentiating the Data


Selecting Process/Differentiate causes all traces in the currently loaded record to be differentiated. That is,
all trace values are replaced by the difference between the previous value and the present value, divided by
the sample interval. The first sample is set to zero.

Integrating the Data


Integration of traces replaces the values by the sum of all values to that point. The first value remains the
same. Subsequent values are replaced by the sum of all values up to and including that value.

Differentiation followed by integration will change the DC level of the traces.

Removing a Linear Trend from the Data


Detrending removes linear trends from the traces. For each trace, a linear regression analysis is used to fit
a straight line to the trace in a least squares sense. Then, the values predicted from this linear trend are
removed from the trace.

Removing the DC Level from the Data


Removing the DC level from the traces calculates the average value of each trace and then subtracts that
value from each sample in the trace.
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Band Pass Filtering the Data

Bandpass filtering allows the data to be filtered in the frequency domain by a trapezoidal filter. Once this
menu command is invoked, five windows are displayed on the screen:

The Input window shows the original traces. The output window shows the output traces. Originally, these
are the same as the input traces.

The Spectrum window shows the average frequency spectrum from all traces and the trapezoidal filter:

The Filter Impulse Response window shows the impulse response of the trapezoidal filter:
IXRefraX Manual Page 51 of 78

Finally, the Bandpass filter frequencies dialog box shows the four corner frequencies of the trapezoidal filter:

You can change the corner frequencies by selecting the field in the dialog and entering a new value.
Pressing the filter button will filter the traces in the input box and display the result in the output box. Filter
applications are not cumulative; each time you press Filter, the input traces are used again as the input.
Pressing OK will copy the output traces permanently to the trace data area and close the bandpass filter
session. Pressing Cancel will close the bandpass filter session leaving the traces as they are displayed in
the input box.

The trapezoidal filter response shows boxes at the four corners and at the midpoint on the up- and down-
slopes. Moving the mouse cursor near one of these points will change the cursor to an east-west arrow:

When this is displayed, you can move the corner or side by pressing the left mouse button and moving the
mouse to move the point or side. You cannot move the point or side to an illegal value. The filter corner
frequencies are updated in the Bandpass filter frequencies dialog box and the filter impulse response are
updated as you move.

Moving the first point (lower left) changes the beginning of the low cut (first field in the dialog).
IXRefraX Manual Page 52 of 78

Moving the second point (middle left) changes the beginning and the end of the low cut (first two fields in the
dialog).
Moving the third point (upper left) changes the end of the low cut (second field in the dialog).
Moving the fourth point (upper right) changes the beginning of the high cut (third field in the dialog).
Moving the fifth point (center right) changes the beginning and the end of the high cut (last two fields in the
dialog).
Moving the sixth point (lower right) changes the end of the high cut (fourth and last field in the dialog).

Remember that a wide filter with shallow slopes will give a compact impulse response, while a filter with
steep slopes or narrow width will give a very wide impulse response.

The spectrum window is initially auto-scaled to include the trapezoidal filter and to include any value in the
spectrum which is within 1% of the peak value.

All windows except the dialog box can be zoomed, un-zoomed, last zoomed or printed. Right click on the
display to show a pop-up menu:

For trace displays, you can also change the trace display properties, which are the same properties used for
the main window trace display. Changing the properties will cause both input and output windows to be
redisplayed with the new properties.

Zooming can be carried out when the View Zoom menu option is checked. Just draw a rubber-band box to
indicate the area for zooming. The area can extend outside of the drawn graph. Un-zooming autoscales the
data and last zoom returns the display to the state before the last time it was changed.

Adjust the filter settings and filter the data. Repeat as necessary until you are satisfied with the results, then
press OK. If you cannot obtain satisfactory results, press Cancel.

Flat Refraction Interpretation


The flat layer slope/intercept refraction interpretation window can be invoked from the trace display window
by using Process/Refraction (Flat Layer) or .

This is useful for quickly examining your data to get a feel for velocities and depths.
IXRefraX Manual Page 53 of 78

The interpretation works with 2, 3 or 4 layers. The points at which the curve breaks from one layer to the
next is determined automatically by a least squares test. The user has control only over the number of
layers.

The reduced travel times, t-x/v, are shown in diamonds.

To increase the number of layers, use Edit/Add Layer or . To decrease the number of layers, use
Edit/Remove Layer or .

To close the window, use File/Close or . To print an image of the window, use File/Print or .
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Calculate/Estimate Model
Invoking the Estimate Model from the Calculate menu will bring up the Model Estimation Parameters dialog:

There are three numbers which need to be entered here:

The number of layers is the number you want to be in the final interpretation using GRM.

The topography following factor has no meaning if the topography is flat. If it is not flat, positioning the slider
on the left will create layers which lie flat, and positioning it on the right will create layers which mimic the
topography. Positioning it in between will follow the topography to some lesser degree.

The number of geophones per node refers to the number of nodes to be generated for the 2-D simple
model. The greater this number, the fewer the nodes and the less detail will be in the simple 2-D model. The
smaller this number, the longer the calculations will take and the more rough and jagged the 2-D model will
be.

For tapered spreads or spreads with missing channels the geophone spacing can be selected from the
smallest, the largest, or the most common.

Remember the goal with the simple 2-D model is to remove the drudgery of manually assigning arrivals to
layers and to give a good estimate of reciprocal times where they cannot be estimated directly from the
data. It is also used to estimate the X-Y values used in the GRM velocity analysis. It can also be used as a
crude interpretation in cases where there are insufficient data to make a GRM interpretation.

After entering the appropriate values, press OK.

Now you will need to enter the Refraction Layer Parameters:

You should have examined the data and/or used your knowledge of the geology in the study area to
estimate the number of layers, the velocities and depths before arriving at this point. Remember that, for the
IXRefraX Manual Page 55 of 78

simple 2-D model, the velocities are required to be constant across the profile line. Enter appropriate values
and press OK.

Remember you can redo the model estimation if you do not like the first result, or after you see the first
result. Also, you can take the defaults (not really good estimates) and get the first result, then look at the
velocities and depths determined and redo the model estimation using these preliminary results. Also, it is
quick enough you could do this even a third time.

The next dialog shows the inversion parameters. The inversion is carried out in two stages: the first stage
does not allow the layers to change shape; only the depths and velocities can change.

The inversion parameters probably do not need to be varied, unless you feel the inversion is taking too long;
then you can reduce the maximum number of iterations.

Press OK to start the first phase. When the dialog asks "Ready to make layers again" press OK. This will
use the newly estimated velocities and redo the inversion, this time using more iterations. Again, you are
able to control the inversion parameters but you probably don't need to.

Sister menu commands are Estimate Model using Boreholes and Estimate Model forcing fit to Boreholes.
The former command will use the borehole information available to generate the model depths and the latter
will force the model to fit the borehole depths.

Calculate/Estimate Layer Assignments


Once a valid forward 2-D model exists, this model can be used to calculate the layers from which each
arrival comes. For each arrival on the travel time curve, a travel path including the direct path and a path
along each available refractor is calculated. Whichever path gives a shorter time determines the first arrival
for that shot and geophone position and thus the layer from which the arrival came.

If View/Color Code Layers is switched off when the layer assignments are estimated, it will be switched on.

Calculate/Estimate Reciprocal Times


Once a 2-D model exists, all values for reciprocal times, even if there is no overlap, can be calculated.

Reciprocal times are estimated as follows:

IXRefraX generates a table of all shot positions. This allows the generation of a forward and reverse shot for
each shot position using all available data.

For each pair of opposing shots and for each refractor:

If there is overlap for both shots, the reciprocal times are averaged.

If there is overlap for one shot only, this value is used.

If there is no overlap of shot and receiver for either shot, the reciprocal time is determined from the
simple 2-D model.
IXRefraX Manual Page 56 of 78

Note that there is a reciprocal time for each shot pair and for each refractor. It is not uncommon for two
overlapping shots to be on the next refractor when the reciprocal time is calculated. In this case, the
reciprocal time used in the GRM velocity analysis will be estimated from the simple 2-D model, not from the
data.

Forward Model Calculation


Using the menu option Calculate/Forward (MRG) Calculation or pressing the toolbar button performs a
forward calculation using the existing data and 2-D model which resides in IXRefraX. The results are drawn
on the screen and the RMS and average fitting errors are displayed. This happens automatically after
moving a vertex or layer if the Tools/Autocalculate menu item is checked.

MRG stands for Multiple Ray Gather and is a forward calculation which is simplified by making the same
assumptions as are made in the GRM interpretation: The slopes of the layers are shallow enough that they
can be ignored. In addition, the velocities are assumed to be constant for each layer at this time.

First arrival times are calculated by selecting the shortest travel time through any layer. For the surface
layer, the direct arrival is the distance between source and receiver divided by the velocity of the first layer.
For refracted arrivals, the path through overlying layers is determined assuming a flat lying model with the
depths as determined at the source and receiver locations. The remaining path is the velocity of the
refractor divided by the refracted velocity. The structure of the layer is used only at the source and receiver
points and the layer is assumed to be flat lying in between.

The forward calculation is also used as part of the Inverse calculations which are in turn used as part of the
Model Estimation.

Note that the main purpose of the forward model calculation is to facilitate the automatic assignment of
arrivals to layers and to estimate the reciprocal times in cases where they are not supplied by the data.

Inverse Model Calculation


Using the Calculate/Invert Model menu option or pressing the toolbar button invokes one iteration of
inversion using Ridge Regression (See Inman in References). This calculates the Jacobian matrix of partial
derivatives by perturbing each velocity and vertex in turn and recalculating the forward model to find the
partial derivatives using a finite difference method. The existing synthetic travel time curves are subtracted
from the data to form the difference or error vector and the model improvements are then estimated by
damping the matrix and performing the matrix inversion. Several damping factors are tried and the one
which gives the best improvement in the fit to the data is selected.

When the inversion is initiated, the Inversion Progress dialog is displayed:

The Inversion Progress dialog shows the iteration being carried out, the progress in the partial derivative
calculation, the current RMS error and average error and the best RMS error achieved so far in the partial
derivative calculation and inversion tests. The progress bar shows the progress in the operation currently
being carried out. Most of the time is spent calculating partial derivatives.

When the inversion is finished, the graphical display of model and synthetic data is updated.
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Edit/Assign Arrivals
To edit the arrival assignments, select the Edit/Assign Arrivals menu option. This will clear the lower display
so it can be used for difference curves.

File/Close or closes the Assign Arrivals session and File/Print or prints the current window.

The zoom tool is available in 2 flavors: manual zoom or View/Zoom and return to last zoom or
View/Last Zoom.

Zoom toggles the zoom tool on and off. When on, depressing the left mouse button and dragging the mouse
creates a selection box which is then used to scale the display.

Unzoom autoscales to display all data or File/Unzoom.

View/Data options are Measured Data Only or Fit to Forward Modeling.

Difference displays are also selectable in the View menu:

Like Forward/Reverse Differences displays the difference between the selected cuve and overlapping
curves of the same type. If the selected curve is a forward curve, only differences with other forward curves
are displayed. Similarly for reverse curves.

Opposing Forward/Reverse Differences displays the difference between the selected cuve and overlapping
curves of the opposite type. If the selected curve is a forward curve, only differences with reverse curves are
displayed. Similarly for reverse curves.

Interior Differences displays differences using interior shots.

All Differences displays the difference between the selected curve and all other overlapping curves.

The layers to which arrivals are assigned can be edited using the mouse.

To assign arrivals using the mouse, do the following:

If you want to move the break between layers closer to the shot (to an earlier time) point the mouse at the
point to become the last point on the affected layer and click the left button. For example, if the first point on
layer 3 is currently assigned as shown below and you wish to move the layer boundary to the desired
location, click with the left button on the point shown as desired last pt on layer 2) and the layer
assignments will be changed accordingly.

If you want to move the break between layers farther from the shot (to a later time) point the mouse at the
point to become the first point on the affected layer and click the right button. For example, the first point on
layer 3 is assigned as shown below on the right and we want to move the first point on layer 3 to the point
so designated ion the left. Point at the desired first point on layer 3 and click the right mouse button.
IXRefraX Manual Page 58 of 78

Difference curves are used to aid in arrival assignment in the following manner:

When the arrivals from two forward or two reverse shot segments are from the same refractor, the
difference between those two travel time curves will be flat. When there is an inflection point on that curve (it
changes from flat to sloped), one of the curves is now displaying direct arrivals or arrivals from a different
refractor.

In the above picture, the curve which is "lit up" is being compared to the curve pointed to by the hand and
this difference is displayed in the lowest curve in the difference display. Note the curve is fairly flat after the
selected travel time curve moves on to the same refractor as the comparison curve.

Although it does not work as well, difference curves from a forward and a reverse shot will have a change in
slope when one of the curves changes to direct arrivals or to arrivals from a different refractor.
IXRefraX Manual Page 59 of 78

In the above picture, the curve which is lit up is being compared to all other opposing curves. Each of these
difference curves has a change in slope where the selected travel time curve moves to a different refractor.
The only case in which there is no change in slope is when the selected curve is being compared to the one
pointed to by the hand. In this case the geometry is such that both curves change refractor at the same
location and there is no change in slope.
IXRefraX Manual Page 60 of 78

Calculate/GRM Interpretation
Once the simple 2-D model has been calculated and the layers have been assigned to arrivals and the
reciprocal times have been estimated, the GRM interpretation can be performed.

Selecting Calculate/GRM Interpretation or pressing will start the automatic GRM interpretation process.

The first dialog that appears allows you to select the type of GRM analysis:

Full GRM analysis uses the X-Y values determined from the model and allows you to edit them if you
desire. Partial GRM analysis utilizes a constant X-Y value for each refractor. These values are supplied by
you in the grid on the right side of the dialog. This grid is only active if Partial GRM analysis is selected. The
Time-Delay method uses zero for all X-Y values. Although this may seem redundant, it allows you to test
the results of simple time-delay without setting the layer X-Y values to zero in the grid.

The Optimum GRM analysis is a two-pass process. The first pass uses zero for all X-Y values. The second
pass uses the model determined in the first pass to calculate the optimum X-Y values from the layer
velocities and thicknesses.

The second dialog to appear contains the Automatic GRM Interpretation Parameters:

In the automatic interpretation, segments of the travel time curves are fit to a straight line using linear
regression. One result of this is a fitting error. Segments are made up of points from the same layer and
there will be a variable number of them.

So, for each type of segment, you must select a minimum number of points and a maximum fitting error.
There are three types of segments used:
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1) Direct arrivals are the first section of the travel time curve (usually only for end and interior shots) where
the arrivals are not refracted and come from the first layer.

2) Refracted arrivals are subsequent sections of the travel time curve where the arrivals are refracted and
come from the second through fourth layer. Far shots normally contain only refracted arrivals.

3) Velocity analysis curves are calculated from overlapping refracted arrivals on the same layer for two
opposing shots using the GRM formulas. These results take precedence and the refracted arrivals are only
used in places where velocity analysis results are not available.

Direct arrivals are used to determine the velocity of the surface layer. The surface velocity is the inverse of
the slope of this curve. Curves which are too short may give spurious velocities. Curves which are longer
will better determine the velocity at the surface but too large a requirement on length will reduce the number
of available curves for fitting.

Select the minimum number of points and maximum fitting error for the direct arrivals.

Refracted arrivals are used to determine the velocity and depth of the refractor. The refractor velocity is the
inverse of the slope of this curve. Curves which are too short may give spurious velocities. Curves which are
longer will better determine the velocity of the refractor but too large a requirement on length will reduce the
number of available curves for fitting. These velocities and depths are for flat lying refractors and are used
only in cases where results from GRM velocity analysis are not available, and only then at the user's
discretion.

Select the minimum number of points and maximum fitting error for the refracted arrivals.

Velocity analysis curves are generated from the velocity analysis equations of Palmer's (1980) eq. (2) or
Palmer's (1981) eq, (1). These track the progress of a point which lies on the refractor and have a constant
slope if the refractor has a constant velocity across the section, regardless of topography as long as the
GRM assumptions have been met. The refractor velocity is the inverse of the slope of this curve. Curves
which are too short may give spurious velocities. Curves which are longer will better determine the velocity
of the refractor but too large a requirement on length will reduce the number of available curves for fitting.
Improper arrival assignments will cause errors.

Select the minimum number of points and maximum fitting error for the velocity analysis curves.

For each pair of shot positions, a forward and a reverse curve which overlap each other are used to
calculate the velocity analysis curves and, at the same time, the time depth curves. The time depth is the
depth to the refractor in time units from any point along the profile and is calculated using Palmer's (1980)
eq. (10) or Palmer's (1981) eq. (4).

There is a checkbox which provides for the display of the graphs of the segments used to calculate the
velocity analysis and time depth curves as well as the velocity analysis and time depth curves themselves.
These are displayed for a period of time specified in the dialog, unless the user asks to Wait for user
confirmation. In the latter case, the user must press a key to continue, or press <esc> to remove the
displayed segments from the analysis.

The radio buttons at the bottom of the dialog are only used in cases where combining shots which have
overlapping geophone positions. In this case the overlapping points can be averaged or the further point
can be shifted to match the nearer point.

Once OK is pressed, and the graphs are displayed if requested. Finally, a dialog appears showing the
statistics of the GRM analysis:
IXRefraX Manual Page 62 of 78

The minimum, maximum, average and RMS fitting errors from are displayed for Direct, slope/intercept and
GRM velocity analysis results. Also displayed are the minimum and maximum segment lengths of all the
data.

Finally, the number of used and discarded segments are displayed for each of the three columns. These
statistics are useful for filling in the entries in the Automatic GRM Interpretation Parameters dialog above. If
the first run of the Automatic GRM is not acceptable, make a note of these statistics and rerun the GRM
Interpreatation. If too many are discarded for a particular column, you might consider relaxing your
requirements and allowing shorter segments and/or higher fitting errors. If too few are discarded, you might
consider tightening your requirements.
IXRefraX Manual Page 63 of 78

Pressing the Revise Parameters button allows you to reprocess the data immediately, without seeing the
results. Press OK if you wish to see the results. If you do not like the results, you can always press OK in
the GRM result window and rerun the GRM interpretation from the main window.

The results show velocities on the top and time depths on the bottom. Each segment which was produced
by the foregoing analysis displays its own curve. The velocity and time-intercept results display as straight
lines while the time depth curves display as curved lines.

The colors differentiate the surface and slope intercept results from the GRM results, and the colors on the
GRM results denote the origin of the reciprocal time.

Editing, viewing and combining the intermediate GRM results is covered under Finalizing the GRM
Interpretation.
IXRefraX Manual Page 64 of 78

Combining Intermediate GRM Results


Once the intermediate GRM and slope intercept results have been generated, the next task is to combine
them into a single cross section result, do some editing or to conclude that some mistakes have been made
and they need to be regenerated.

An example screen showing the intermediate results is as follows:

Notice that the View/TimeDepth menu item is checked and the button is depressed. This means we are
viewing time depths, rather than depths or elevations. You can view the depth by selecting View/Depth or
pressing and you can view elevations by selecting View/Elevations or pressing . The Views can also
be switched by pressing the hot keys T, D or E.

Using the File/Close or clicking on the OK button ( ) will close the window. If you have not used the
Calculate/Make Composite Section ( ) command, you will see a warning message and no results will be
saved.

The File/Refresh command ) is not available unless changes have been made. This command will
regenerate the GRM segmented results after some of the data have been edited.

Edit/X-Y Analysis displays the shot pair used for the first segment, along with the X-Y Analysis window.
Please see Editing the X-Y Values for more details.

Note that the time depth curves can only be moved when viewing time depths, so it is best to use that view
for any editing. Moving the time depth curves results in an adjustment in the reciprocal time estimate. This
changes the color of the time-depth curve and the status bar will now reflect that the reciprocal time has
been edited by the user. You can also edit the reciprocal time by right-clicking on a time-depth segment and
selecting Edit Reciprocal Time.

Typically, reciprocal times should be edited so that the time depth curves match the one with the most
reliable estimate of reciprocal time. Not doing so will result in larger uncertainties (error bars). Also, sections
IXRefraX Manual Page 65 of 78

of the time-depth curves which do not fit with the general trend indicate problems and warrant further
investigation. Inappropriate arrival assignments are often the cause of such behavior although first break
picks could also be a problem.

Right-clicking on a time-depth curve also offers the opportunity to (un)mask the segment, delete the point on
the segment, or deleting the points from the point selected to the beginning or end.

The top graph shows the velocity results and the bottom shows the time depth results. The dark red/brown
lines near the top of the velocity graph are from the surface velocity analysis. The bright red line near the
top right of the velocity graph is from a slope intercept analysis.

Pointing at a surface or slope intercept analysis line turns the cursor to a vertical arrow, while pointing at a
result from the GRM velocity analysis turns the cursor to a crosshair.

Right clicking while pointing at any of the lines produces a pop up menu offering Mask, Unmask and Cancel.
Selecting Mask will mask the segment, meaning it is not used when combining results. Selecting Unmask
removes the mask from a previously masked segment and Cancel cancels the right click without doing
anything.

Note that in the following, clicking on curve point to bring up a window will not open a new window for each
click. Clicking on an object when a similar object is already open in a window will simply replace the old
object in that window with the new one. When an object is replaced, any windows dependent on that object
will be closed and changes will be saved.

Left clicking while pointing at any curve brings up a window showing from where the data came. For
example, clicking on the center surface velocity line at about distance 2650 brings up the following:
IXRefraX Manual Page 66 of 78

Here we see layer 1 points in red, layer 2 in blue and a blue line which is the fit to the surface velocity.

Left clicking on the bright red line in the upper right hand corner brings up the following:

Clearly we have a problem here as the arrivals are incorrectly assigned. See "Reassigning Arrivals in the
GRM Reassignment Window" below for details on how to correct this.

Clicking on the time depth curves has the same effect. The short flat time-depth segments are derived from
the slope intercept analysis, whereas the curved segments are derived from the GRM analysis. Clicking on
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a velocity or time depth curve will bring up a graph showing the original travel time curves on the top and the
time-depth and velocity curve on the bottom:

In this graph, you can see that the velocity analysis curve is straight, indicating a constant refractor velocity.
If the velocity analysis curve is not straight, then it is possible that there is a horizontal discontinuity in the
refractor velocity and the velocity analysis curve must be fit to two or more segments. Additional segments
can be introduced by adding a fault, which is a position of horizontal refractor discontinuity.

Faults are added by right-clicking in the time-depth graph and selecting New Fault from the pop-up menu.
Existing faults can be moved or deleted. To select a fault, position the mouse cursor near the fault (vertical
line on the display) so that the mouse cursor changes to a horizontal double arrow as shown in the display
below. Right click and select Delete Fault from the pop-up menu to remove the fault.

To move the fault, position the mouse cursor on the fault so it changes to a horizontal double arrow as
shown, depress the left mouse button and drag the fault to the desired new position. The display will be
updated.

Faults do not pertain to a particular velocity analysis window, but are global for all velocity analysis curves
and are used to split any velocity analysis curve that intersects them. After introducing faults, you should
step through all the velocity analysis segments using the File/Next Segment or Previous Segment menu
commands to be sure that the fault position(s) is (are) appropriate for all velocity analysis segments which
intersect them.
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If you do not like something about the original data, you can click on the curve you do not like and the GRM
Reassignment Window will appear showing that curve and additional curves which are in the same (forward
or reverse) direction:

Reassigning Arrivals in the GRM Reassignment Window

There are now two modes of operation for the GRM Reassignment Window: Display Traces and Assign
Arrivals.
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If you wish to change the appearance of the original travel time curve by repicking some of the first breaks,
select View/Display Traces or press . In this mode, clicking on a curve will display the traces for that
curve and you can verify and repick the breaks.

If the original travel time curve is satisfactory but the arrivals are not assigned to your satisfaction, select
View/Assign Arrivals or press . In this mode, clicking on a curve will reassign the arrivals, depending on
whether it is a right or left click. See Edit/Assign Arrivals for more information on how to assign arrivals with
the mouse.

Each of these windows has an OK or CANCEL menu option with corresponding tool bar button. OK saves
the changes you have just made and then closes the window; CANCEL closes the window without saving
your changes.

Using File/OK ( ) closes the Velocity Analysis window and saves any changes you have made. Using
Edit/Toggle Mask ( ) changes the mask status of the segment. Masked segments are not used when the
segments are combined into a single section. The mask button is depressed if the segment is masked.

Selecting File/Next Segment ( ) or File/Previous Segment ( ), saves the changes and moves to the next
or previous segment. This allows you to conveniently step through and peruse all segments.

Using Edit/X-Y Analysis pops up a widow and a dialog allowing you to edit the X-Y value for this segment.
Please see Editing the X-Y Values for more details.

Creating the Final Section

The final depth section is a composite created by averaging the GRM results in cases where there is more
than one result at any point and filling in gaps in the result by interpolation or using the slope-intercept
interpretations. The composite is created by use of the menu command Calculate/Make Composite Section
( ) or by using any of the View commands that display the composite section (View/TimeDepth Composite
( ), Depth Composite ( ) or Elevation Composite ( )) when the composite section has not yet been
generated.

The first dialog that appears when the composite section is requested is the Depth Section Generation
Parameters dialog.

This dialog contains several flags and parameters, including the method of filling gaps in surface and
refractor velocity, the use of slope-intercept results and the filling of gaps in time depth information. Gaps
can be filled by using the nearest value (which would enable extrapolation of the first and last value), by
interpolation (which would not fill blank spaces on the ends) or leaving gaps unfilled, which would leave
blanks unless slope-intercept values were used.
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The surface velocity can be left entirely blank in the case where the average velocity concept of Palmer
would be used.

Surface and/or refractor velocities can be extrapolated.

Slope-intercept is always used for the surface velocity, as that is the only available determination (exept in
the case where it is left blank for average velocity calculations). Slope-intercept results can also be used to
fill in velocity or time-depth blanks for refracting layers if selected by checkbox.

Press OK to proceed, Cancel to abort composite generation. This produces the Time Depth Editor:

This shows the composite section that has been generated using the parameters in the previous dialog
except that the interpolation (if any requested) has not yet taken place. You now have the opportunity to
remove any values that are undesirable or specify values to fill in those missing. Please edit carefully as you
are now guiding the interpretation.

Use OK ( ) to proceed, Cancel ( ) to continue generating the composite. After pressing OK, the
composite is available for viewing and pressing OK in the GRM interpretation window will return to the main
window with the GRM interpretation now available.

Editing the Final Section

The final depth section can be edited by selecting the composite depth section display and moving the
vertices in the depth section vertically with the mouse. Pointing at the vertex changes the vertex to a
crosshair. Pressing the left mouse button allows you to move the vertex vertically. This enables glitches in
the final interpretation to be smoothed out for a more pleasing display. Please use it with care.
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Editing the X-Y Values


The X-Y Analysis window comes with a dialog box with three sliders and 5 floating point fields.

The first slider and two fields show the X-Y value chosen. The left field shows the X-Y value and the right
field shows the X-Y value normalized to the geophone spacing. The slider shows the normalized value and
goes from 0 to 10.

The second slider and two fields show the X-Y range for the display. The left field shows the X-Y range and
the right field shows the X-Y range normalized to the geophone spacing. The slider shows the normalized
value and goes from 0 to 10. Curves are shown for X-Y spaced one geophone spacing apart. The range is
the number of curves displayed before and after the selected X-Y value. For instance, if the normalized
range is 2, 5 curves will be displayed. Two with X-Y values less than the selected one and two with X-Y
values greater than the selected one.
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The third slider shows the separation between curves for different X-Y values. This is a constant time value
which is added to the curves to separate them for viewing.

The display is refreshed as the sliders are moved or when values are typed into the fields. X-Y should be
selected so that the velocity analysis curve (upper graph) is as simple as possible, while the time-depth
curve (lower graph) is as sharp as possible. Another way to judge is when, for zero separation, the lower
range of curves balances and is opposite two the upper range of curves.

This example shows that the correct X-Y value has been chosen according to Palmers criterion. Note that
the selected velocity analysis curve is straight whereas the ones for smaller or larger X-Y values bulge up or
down where there are inflections in the refractor.

Velocity discontinuities (faults) can also be edited in this window. Faults are added by right-clicking in the
time-depth graph and selecting New Fault from the pop-up menu. Existing faults can be moved or deleted.
To select a fault, position the mouse cursor near the fault (vertical line on the display) so that the mouse
cursor changes to a horizontal double arrow as shown in the display below. Right click and select Delete
Fault from the pop-up menu to remove the fault.

To move the fault, position the mouse cursor on the fault so it changes to a horizontal double arrow as
shown, depress the left mouse button and drag the fault to the desired new position. The display will be
updated.

Faults do not pertain to a particular velocity or X-Y analysis window, but are global for all velocity and X-Y
analysis curves and are used to split any velocity analysis curve that intersects them. After introducing faults
in the X-Y analysis window, you should step through all the X-Y analysis segments using the File/Next
Segment or Previous Segment menu commands to be sure that the fault position(s) is (are) appropriate for
all velocity analysis segments which intersect them.

Be sure to use File/Refresh in the main GRM interpretation window to regenerate the interpretation after
inserting, deleting or editing faults.
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Selecting File/OK ( ) closes the window and saves any changes you have made. Selecting File/Cancel
( ) closes the window and discards any changes you have made. Selecting File/Next Segment ( ) or
File/Previous Segment ( ), saves the changes and moves to the next or previous segment. This allows
you to conveniently step through and peruse all segments.
IXRefraX Manual Page 74 of 78

Survey Planning
Survey planning allows you to generate synthetic data for a particular 2-D (or 1-D) model and attempt to
interpret it to see the effectiveness of the data collected with a particular geometry on the interpreted results.

This can be done using an existing geometry and replacing the field data with synthetic data from the model
calculations or by generating a complete survey geometry from scratch.

In most cases, the Transfer Synthetic to Data command in the File director is used as the final step.

Survey Planning/Create Survey allows you to create a survey from scratch with or without data being
loaded. The first dialog asks for the total number of geophones and the spacing (only constant spacing is
available at this time) and allows the selection of end shots, far shots and interior shots:

The end shots can replace the end geophone (so that the end shots have one less point on the travel time
curve) or not, in which case they are placed one-half spacing beyond the spread. You specify the number of
far shots and their spacing, as well as the number of interior shots, which will be evenly spaced.

Topography can be flat or you can import topography from a flat ASCII file, as with the File/Import
Topography command.

The next dialog is the same as in the Estimate Model command:

In this case the model you specify will be used without modification to fit any data. The next dialog allows
you to enter the layer velocities and depths, and is the same as in the Estimate Model command:
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Finally the model response is calculated and copied to the data arrays so the data and synthetics are the
same.

If a geometry already exists, either from a created geometry or from a real survey, you can use the Survey
Design/Create Model command to create a new model using the existing geometry. In this case the survey
planning dialog does not appear, but the Model Estimation and Refraction Layer Parameters appear as
above, and the synthetics replace the data as before.

These both give results for 1-D models. For 2-D models, you can edit the positions of each vertex using the
mouse.

When the mouse cursor is positioned at one of the vertices, it changes to a crosshair. Depressing the (left)
mouse button and moving it moves the cursor and shows the new positions of the layer boundary:

Releasing the mouse button moves the vertex. In the survey planning mode, both horizontal and vertical
positions can be edited:
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Once the vertices are repositioned to your liking, use the Calculate/Forward command to generate the
synthetics and the File/Transfer Synthetic to Data command to copy the synthetics to the data arrays.

Now these data can be interpreted, saved or exported as if they were field data.
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Help/Contents
The Help Contents command displays this help file and allows the user to read it using the Microsoft Help
System.

Help can be requested by selecting Help/Contents or pressing the help toolbar button .

If Help is requested from the main window, the Help Contents is shown, positioned at the very beginning.

If Help is requested from another window, the Help Topic for the section pertaining to that window is shown.
However, the entire help file contents are still available by pressing the Help Topics button.

About IXRefraX
Help About displays the version and the date of the IXRefraX software package, gives a brief description of
what it does, displays the copyright notice and gives the phone number, fax number and e-mail address for
Interpex.

If a hardware key is connected, it also gives the serial number of the hardware key.

Register
IXRefraX is copy protected using a hardware key, either parallel port or USB key. USB keys are more
popular. However, in certain instances, copy protection can also be done by registering to a CPU. This can
be done if a user needs the software immediately and cannot wait to receive the hardware key, or if a
University needs additional keys for use in a laboratory environment.

You do not need to use this if you have a hardware key. If you have a hardware key and you see the license
agreement on running the software, something is wrong and the hardware key is not being recognized.
Please use KESHOW.EXE and/or Renew32.exe on the CD to see if they recognize the key. If they do not,
then there is a problem with the driver installation. Try reinstalling the drivers to see if that fixes the problem
and if it doesn't please contact Interpex support.

Using Help/Register brings up the following dialog:


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The program code is calculated by IXRefraX using information pertaining to the serial number of your
computer and is unique to each machine. If you want the access key, you must furnish the program code to
Interpex. Upon payment of the license fee or upon agreement with Interpex, you will receive an access key
from Interpex.

The "Your Name" field can be used to identify your output. This would be your company name, or in the
case of a student computer lab, the name of the student using the software at the moment. Each student
should start a session by registering so that his or her name would appear on all printouts created during
that session.