Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 55

.., ..

2016
514.1(075.8)
22.151.173
92

:
.. , - .-. ,
.., .

..
92 : 2 . . 2 : / .. , .. -
. 2- ., . .: , 2016. 424 .
ISBN 978-5-406-04044-7

-
.

, .
- .
514.1(075.8)
22.151.173




.
2
RU.51.03820 08.09.2015.
. 12382. 6090/16.
NewtonC. .
. . . 26,5. .-. . 22,0. 200 . 2602.
.
117218, . , . , . 14, . 2.
.: 8-495-741-46-28.
E-mail: office@knorus.ru http://www.knorus.ru

-

432049, , . , 27.
E-mail: ul-pd@mail.ru

.., ..,
.., (), 2016
ISBN 978-5-406-04044-7 , 2016

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
. .
I.
1. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
3.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
4.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
5. . . . 26
6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
12. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
II.
13. . . . . . . . . . 55
14. . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
15. . . . . . . . . . 63
16. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
17. . . . . . . . 71
18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
20. , . . . . . . . 83
21.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
22.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
23. . . . . . . . . . 97
24. ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100

4

25.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
III.
26. . . . . . 115
27. . . . . . . 119
28. . . . . 126
29. , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
30. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
31. . . . . . . 147
32. . . . . . . . . 150
33. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
34. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
. . .

IV.
35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
36. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
37. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
38. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
39. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
40. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
41.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
42.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
43.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
V.
44. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
45. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
46. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
47. . . . . . . . . . 211
VI.
48. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
49. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
50. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
51. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
5
52. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
53.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
VII.
54. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
55. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
56. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
57. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
58. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
59. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
60. . . . . . . . . . . . 269
VIII.
61. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
62. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
63. . . . . . . . 279
64. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
65. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
66.
, p . . . . . . . . . . 290

.
IX. .

67. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
68. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296
69. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
70. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
71. .
III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
72. .
IV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
73. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
74.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
6
75.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
76. , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325
X. .

77. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332
78. . . . . . . 336
79. ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338
80.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
81.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349
82. , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354
83. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
84. .. . . . 363
85. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366
XI. ,
86. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
87. . . . . . . . . . . . . 375
88. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378
89. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383
90. () . . . . 386
XII.
91. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389
92. . . . . . . . . . 394
93.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399
94. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 403
95. . . . . . . . . . . . 407
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 417
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418

-
, . I ..,
.. .
,
- -
.
, -
. ...
-
.. , ..
, . II .. , .. , . II
, -
. -

( ). -
.
, ,
,
.
:
; , -
, , -
.
-
. -
,
.
IV
.
-
.
, -
, . ,
, -
.

. , ,
.., , , -

8

-
. -
, -
.
-
,
. -


. -
, . , ,
II -
.
, III , -

.
, .. , -
.
, -

.

.
,

, .
, -
,
, -
. , -
-
,
.
-

.
, IX, -
.
, , -
,
9

-
.
-
.
XI -
, ,
. -
.
, , X , -
.

.. ,
. , -

.

( 1990 . . .. )
, , -
.
-
(.
..) - ,
.., -
, -
.

.., ..


.

I. 

1.  .

1. XIX.
-
(17881867).
, -
. -
, .
3
, (.1). -
. ' -
( ).
' -
. ,
,
.
, -
-
, .

, '.
, , : -
, ; ,
, ; -
1. . 11
, ,
, .. , -
, : , . 2 || ,
, , ,
h', '. -
, , -
. , ,
,
1 2. , , ,
1 2 ( )
.

M
h'
M' ' '

. 1 . 2
,
.
. , ,
-
. ,
(.3). -
(.. , -
) -
. ,
.
-
, , -
, . -
, .
, , (17931880)
12 I.
(17931863). -

.
(17981867). XIX. -
-
, ,
, .
2. -
-
( ) .


p
B
Q'
B'
' q'
C'

. 3 . 4
f -
. , f -
.
, f -. -
, ,
(, .4, || ), -
,
(, Q' .4, OQ' || ). ,
( q' .4), -
f.
-
, .
E3 , -
, -
. ,
, -
1. . 13
1. -
. , ,
.
, ,
. -
, -
. ,
, -
E3 . , -
, , -
E3, ,
.
-
. -
:
) 2, , , .. -
( ) .
;
) , , ,
.. ( ) .
. , -
. , , -
, () .
,
. ,
', , ' -
, .
, ,
,
:
.
:
) , ..
( ) .
3 -
- -

1
, , , -
.
2
),) ) ( )
().
I.
14

-
. , , -
, ,
,
. ,
, , || (. 4),
P' -
. Q' OQ' || , -
Q OQ'
.
, -
(. 4),
-
, : -

.
3. -
. A3 -
. A3 , -
,
,
. -
, ,
. , . 2, -
A3,
. , ), )
), . 2,
.
4.
-
. -
, , , -
.
-
.
, -
. -
.
-
.
15
2.

2.
1. V n + 1 R
, V' -
. -
n (
V), f: V' ,
( ):
1. f , ..
.

( ) ( )
f x = f y ,
2.
x y .
-
:

A, , , , X, Y, . f ( x ) = X, , x
X. 2 , -
V, , -
.
,
n -
.
. R . -
, , n- -

.
2. -
.
.
, V -
,
. L k -
V, k = 2, 3. ,
L,
, k = 2, , k = 3. , -
L (). -
: , b, , ,
: , , ,
L -
, -
16 I.
, -
.
,
, ,
, .

, a, b, c, d
V, , , D , .
, , D ,
. , -
, , .
, .. , -


L. a L,
b L c L. , a, b c
.
3. ,
.
10.
.
1


a b , .-
a b , . -

L ( a, b ),

. l, L ( a, b ),
, .
, l ,
., l' , -
A , a L' ,
-
l'. A l' B l', a L'
b L',
L' , a b. , L'
L , , , -
l' l .
.
20. , ,
.
30. ,
, .. .

1
,
. ,
A , . , ,
.., , .
17
2.

W
, -
, a b ,
. 10 , -

L ( a, b ) . A , ,

a W, b W, L ( a, b ) W.
, m , -

. m L ( a, b ), m W. ,
.
40. , , .
b , , a L, L' W
, -
, b . b ,
L W, L' W. L L' -
W,
.
, , ,
b.
a b ,
.
, -
.
50.
.
60. ,
.
4. , -
-
. ,
. W -
V, , W' -
W. W
. W' V'
, f:V' f : W' ,

x W' f ( x ). -
, f -
. , 1
, 2 : -
f , f .
18 I.
, -
()
.

3. 

1. .
1, 2, A3, 1 -

: R = (1, 2, 3, ). 1, 2, 3 -
, , 12, 23, 31
.

a1, a 2 , a3 , e, -
R, ,

e = a1 + a 2 + a3 , (1)

, a1, a 2 , a3 , e -
R. ,
,

.
, b1, b2 , b3 , e -,
R = (1, 2, 3, ). -

V,
-

,
b 1, b 2 , b3 , e = 1 b1 + 2 b 2 + 3 b3 .

a1= 1 b1, a 2 = 2 b2 , a3 = 3 b3 ,

a1, a 2 , a3 , e, 1, 2, A3, E -
(1).
,
.

(1),



e = a

1 + a 2 + a3 . -

, a1 = a1, a2 = a2 , a3 = a3 , e = e
R. , -
,
.

k , k 3, ,
1

.
3. 19


1.
a1, a 2 , a3 , e a1, a2 ,
a3 , e R = (1, 2, 3, ), -
0,




a1 = a1, a2 = a2 , a3 = a3 , e = e. (2)






a1 a 1



1,

a1 = 1 a1. a2 = 2 a2 , a3 = 3 a3 , e = 4 e. a1, a2 , a3 ,

e R, e = a1 + a2 + a3




4 e = 1 a1 + 2 a2 + 3 a3 . 4 0, e = 1 a1 + 2 a2 + 3 a3 . -
4 4 4
1 2
(1), = 1, = 1, 3 = 1,
4 4 4
1 = 2 = 3 = 4. , (2).
2. .
X , -

R = (2, 2, 3, ). - x,
X, 1, 2,
3, ,
R. a1, a2 , a3 -
V, , -
x :




x = x1 a1 + x2 a2 + x3 a3 . (3)
1, 2, 3 X
R, 1 , 2
, 3 ; :
(1, 2, 3) (1, 2, x3)R. x 0,
.
,


X

x, a1, a2 , a3 , e,

R. .
a1, a2 , a3 , e

,
R, x , X. -



x x , x = x.




a1 = a1, a2 = a2 , a3 = a3 .
x1, x
2 , x3


X



x = x1 a1 +x2 a2 + x3 a3 x = x1 a1 +x2a2 + x3 a3 .
20 I.

(3), x1 = x1, x2 = x2 ,

x3 = x3 , 0. ,


.
R = (1, 2, 3, ) -
R 1 (l, 0, 0),
2(0,1, 0), 3 (0, 0, 1), E (1, 1, 1).
,
1 2 3 , e
a , a , a
R. e = a1 + a2 + a3 . ,
-


(1,

1,
1). a1 1
a1 = 1 a1 + 0 a2 + 0 a3 , 1 (1, 0, 0). -
2 3.


2. (1, 2, 3) X R,
a a1, a2 , a3 , e -
,

-

R, y = x1 a1 + x2 a2 + x3 a3 X.
(1, 2, 3)

X R,
a 1, a2 , a3 , e, -


R, x = x1 a1 + x2 a2 + x3 a3 X. 1
0, (2).




, x = ( x1 a1 + x2 a2 + x3 a3 ) = y. , y
X.
3. .
1. X(1, 2, 3), Y(y1, 2, 3) Z( z1, z2, z3),
R, ,

x1 y1 z1
x2 y2 z2 = 0. (4)
x3 y3 z3


a1, a2 , a3 , e ,

-




R.




2

x = x1 a1 + x 2 a 2 + x3 a3,
y = y1 a1 + y2 a2 + y3 a3 , z = z1 a1 + z2 a2 + z3 a3
X, Y Z. ,
x, y z -
, .. . 53 . I
(4).
3. 21
, (1, 2, 3)
12 , X(1,2,3),
1(1, 0, 0), 2(0, 1, 0) (4) 3 = 0.
, X
13 ( 23) , 2 = 0 (1=0).
4.
. 1, 2,
l -
: R = (1, 2, ). 1, 2 ,

.

a1, a2 , e,

R,
,
e = a1 + a 2 , -
, a1, a2 , e, -
R. , , ,
,
-


, a1 , a 2 , e,
a1, a2 , e


, -
0, a1 = a1, a2 = a2 , e = e.
X l, R
(1, 2, ).
-
x, X,

a
1 2, a , e, R. -
a1, a2 L, -



l, x :
x = x1 a1 + x2 a2 . 1, 2 -
X R; : (1, 2). , , -
, l -
.

A3

E2
E1
E

A1 X3 A2
E3
X

. 5
22 I.
, -
R= (1, 2, )
1(1, 0), 2(0, 1), E(1, 1).
5. R = (1, 2, 3,
). X , 3,
3 12 3 (.5). 3 -
X 3 12. ,
, 3, 3
12. 12 -
.
3 R
3 12 (. . 5). 1, 2,
3 12 , -
R3. R2 = (1, 3, 2)
R1 = (2, 3, 1) (. . 5). ,
R, : R1
23, R2 13 R3 12.

.
2. X ,
3, R 1, 2, 3, 3 X -
3 12 R3 1, 2.
3(y1, y2, y3) R (.
.5). 12, y3 = 0.
x1 y1 0
X, 3 3 , x2 y2 0 = 0,
x3 0 1
x1 y1
= 0.
x2 y2
, (1, 2, 0) 3.


E3
R: 3 (1, 1, 0).
a1, a2 , a3 , e, -
R. 3 3 (1, x2, 0) (1,
1, 0),


e3 = a1 + a2 , (5)




x3 = x1 a1 + x2 a2 (6)
3 3.
23
4.



(5) , a1, a2 , e3
R3 12. (6)
, 3 12 R3
(1, 2).
. ,
X , 2, R x1,
2, 3, 2 X 2 13 R2
1, 3, .. 2 (1, 3), 1 X
A1 (, 1) R1 2, 3, .. 1
(2, 3).

4. 

1. , 2
, ,
, f: V' , -
. V'
V.

f.

f : V' P, ,
, () -
.
.
.
2. 3
V (. I, 85). 2 -
3,
( ).
f: V' 2 : a V

,
a. f, , -
(. 2, . 1), 2
.
, -
, .
I.
24


. 4
V. 3
4, . -
f: V' 3, a

, -
a. -
, 3 -
. , 2,
4, .
() , -
()
4.
3. ,
.

B b
8

. 6

-

V. ,
,
f: V'
: a V
, , a,
(.6). ,
, -
, -
(
) . -

6 a , b
.
4. 25
:
;
. 2
, f V'
2, f: V' P2. -
, 2
. , ..
, -
, .. ()
, ,
.
. . -
, , -
, -
(, ).
.
. d R = (, , ),
. -
d R 1, 2,
x
, BE d 1 1 .
x2
, -
d,
-
, BE ;
BM = xBE .
BE , OB,OE


R (.7). OE = BE + OB, BE
, OB , OE


R . OM = + BM ,
OB
BM = xBE , OM = xBE + OB. OM
, , (, 1) -
R . (1, 2) -
, , (, 1) (1, 2) -
x
, .. x = 1 .
x2
4. ,
A 3

1
, , e

, OM = xe.
26 I.
d B E M A

. 7

, -
. -
, , -

A 3 ,
, , -
, -
, , -
.
, , 1060,
2, . 3. , 60:
.
,
, -
, -
, -
. , , -
,
,
. ,
-
.

5. 

1.
R = (1, 2, 3, ) R = ( A1, A2 , A3, E ) , -
R' R A1 ( a11, a21, a31 ), A2 ( a12 , a22 , a32 ),
A3 ( a13 , a23 , a33 ), E ( a10 , a20 , a30 ).
5. 27

a11 a12 a13 a10

a21 a22 a23 a20 (1)
a a30
31 a32 a33

R R'.
a1, a2 , a3 , e -
R. 2 3





a1 = a11 a1 + a21 a2 + a31 a3 ,



a2 = a12 a1 + a22 a2 + a32 a3 ,



a3 = a13 a1 + a23 a2 + a33 a3 ,




e = a10 a1 + a20 a2 + a30 a3 (2)
R' '.



a1 + a2 + 3

( a11 a12 + a13 a10 ) a1 + ( a21 + a22 + a23 a20 ) a2 +
+ ( a31 + a32 + a33 a30 ) a3 .


a1, a2 , a3 ,


,

a1, a2 , a3 , e


R' (.. a1 + a2 + a3 = e ) ,
(1) .
, (1) R
R' .
(1) R R' -
, , , R' -
,
, -
. , k1, k2 k3,
:
a11k1 + a12k2 + a13k3 = a10,
a21k1 + a22k2 + a23k3 = a20, (3)
a31k1 +32k2 + 33k3 = a30.
, k1, k2 k3
, k1 0, k2 0 k30.
, , , k1 = 0, -
(3) , ' A2 A3, -
, R' .
28 I.

k1a11 k2 a12 k3a13 a10

k1a21 k2 a22 k3a23 a20 (4)
k a k2 a32 k3a33 a30
1 31
R R',
.
2. -
.
1. X
R R' ( x1, x2 , x3 ) ( x1, x2 , x3 ). -
1, 2, 3 x1, x2 , x3 , (1) -
R R', .
. a1 , a 2 , e -
, a3
R. 2 3 a1, a2 , a3 , e, -
(2), R'. (1)
, R'.
y , X, ( y1, y2 , y3 )
(y1,y2 , y3 )





a1, a 2 , a3 a1, a2 , a3 . (2), (6) 54,
.I :
y1 = a11 y1 + a12 y2 + a13 y3 ,
y2 = a21 y1 + a22 y2 + a23 y3 , (5)
y3 = a31 y1 + a32 y2 + a33 y3 .
1, 2, 3 1, 2, 3 X
R, : 1 = 1, 2 = 2, 3 = 3, 0.
y1 = x1, y2 = x2 , y3 = x3 , ' 0. -

yi yi (5) = , -

:
x1 = a11 x1 + a12 x2 + a13 x3 ,
x2 = a21 x1 + a22 x2 + a23 x3 , (6)
x3 = a31 x1 + a32 x2 + a33 x3 .
. -
, R R'
:
29
5.

2 4 0 5

1 3 0 4 .
0 0 1 3

. ,
(3) :
2k1 + 4k2 = 5, k1 + 3k2 = 4, k3 = 3.
1 3
k1 = , k2 = , k3 = 3.
2 2
(4) R R', -
(6):
x1 = x1 + 6 x2 ,
1 9
x2 = x1 + x2 ,
2 2

x3 = 3 x3 .
3.
.
R = (1, 2, ) R' = ( A1, A2 , E ),
R' R: A1 (a11, a21), A1 (a12, a22), E (a10, a20).
a11 a12 a10
(7)
a21 a22 a20
R R'. -
, -
, (7) .
2. X R
R' (1, 2) ( x1, x2 ). 1, 2
x1, x2 , (7) R R',
.

. a1, a2 , e -
R.




a1 = a11 a1 + a21 a2 ,




a2 = a12 a1 + a22 a2 , (8)



e = a10 a1 + a20 a2 .
, (. -
2 3), R'.
30 I.




(7) a1,
a2 , e
R'.
y , X, (1, 2) ( y1, y2 )



a1, a2 a1, a2 .
(8), (5) . I, 15 :
y1 = a11 y1 + a12 y2 ,
(9)
y2 = a21 y1 + a22 y2 .
(1, 2) (1, 2) X R,
: 1 = 1, 2 = 2, 0.
y1 = x1, y2 = x2 , ' 0. (9)

= , -

:
x1 = a11 x1 + a12 x2 ,
(10)
x2 = a21 x1 + a22 x2 .

6. .
1. , .. . -
, -

, .
, ,
( -
). .
, .
R
(1, a2, 3) B (b1, b2, b3) -
d. d. 1 3 (1, x2,
3) ,
x1 a1 b1
x2 a2 b2 = 0. (1)
x3 a3 b3
d.
,
31
6. .

a1 b1
a2 b2 = 2, (2)
a3 b3
(1) , 1, 2, 3
1, 2, 3 b1, b2, b3. ,
( ), ,
1 = 1 + b1, 2 = 2 + b2, 3 = 3 + b3. (3)

d. : ,
, 1, x2, 3,
(3), d. : (1, 2,
3) d, , , 1, 2,
3 1, 2, 3 b1, b2, b3 (3).

12, 23, 31 R = (1, 2, A3, E). 1 A2
1 (1, 0, 0), A2 (0, 1, 0), (1) 12
:
x1 1 0
x2 0 1 = 0, x3 = 0.
x3 0 0
-
:
23: 1 = 0; 31: 2 = 0.
2. ,
(1), :
u1x1 + u2x2 + u3x3 = 0, (4)

a2 b2 a b3 a b1
u1 = ,u = 3 ,u = 1 .
a3 b3 2 a1 b1 3 a2 b2
(2) u1, u2, u3 .
, -
.
.
32 I.
1. , -
(4), .
, (4).
, u1 0. (4) -
(2, 1, 0), Q(3, 0, 1). (1)
PQ:
x1 u2 u3
x2 u1 0 = 0, u12 x1 + u1u2 x2 + u1u3 x3 = 0.
x3 0 u1
, 1, (4). -
, PQ,
.
3. d1 d2,
u1 x1 + u2 x2 + u3 x3 = 0, (5)
v1 x1 + v2 x2 + v3 x3 = 0. (6)
, (5)
(6) . ,
.
2. , (5) (6),
u u u3
, 1 2 = 1.
v1 v2 v3
. , (5) (6),
u u u3
, 1 2 = 2.
v1 v2 v3
4. d R (4), -
u1, 2, 3
d R, : d (u1, u2, 3).
, 2 , -
. 1 ,
, , -
.
,
.
.
, -
.
33
7.

12, 23 31 -
R = (1, 2, A3, E). 12
3= 0 0 x1 + 0 x2 + 1 3 = 0,
12 (0, 0, 1). -
: 23 (1, 0, 0), 31 (0, 1, 0).

7.
1.
.
.
-
, ,
.
:
.
' . -
R : ', -
(1, 2, 3)
m . ,
. , , -
,
(6, 2), .. . -
, d
, R (a1, a2, a3), D
d. , .
, 1: ' ,
'
, .
, 1 -
, .. A d ' = (A), D' = 1 (d),
D' a'. , A d
(1, 2, 3), d (u1, 2, 3). A d,
11 + 22 + 33 = 0. (1)
' (1, 2, a3) D' (u1, u2, u3).
(1) , D' '. , -
, , -
. ,
34 I.
d '= (A), b' = (B), '= (). -
D' = 1 (d). A d, D' '. D' b',
D' ', .. ', b', ' D'. ,
, ,
(.8). , -
1 .

. 8

2. -
. , ,
,
*,

.
-
R 1, -
. 1.
, F,
.
F
1 F* -
.
* -
, F*. -
*
, . , -
, . -
, ,
*. .
: , -
, . -
,
F, . F -
F*, . -
7. 35

* F*:
, ,
. , , * ,
, - ,
. , ,
, .. .
.
1. 1*. -
. (..

).
2. , 2*. , ,
, , - ,
. (.. ).
-
.
,
.
3.
, -
. .
, , -
-
, -
* ,
, , ,
, .
.
1. - 1*. -
-
, ,
(.. ). .
2. , - 2*. -
, - , -
. ,
.

-
.
36 I.
8.
1. , ,
, ,
. , -
. , , -
: ABC (.9).
ABC
''', , -
. ', ', ' -
,
'', '', ''.
B

A C


. 9
M

C' A'
A

B' B'
B
B

C C'
A'

A
P

M
N

. 10 . 11
1
1 ( ) . , -
, -
1
. (15931662) , . -
.
37
8.

,
, .
A ''' , ,
', ' ', , N -
'', '', '' (.10). ,
, N .
, , ,
. -
ABC ''' ,
. , , , ' ,
N , ,
N (.11). ,
', ', ' .
R = (, , , ) -
', ' ' . '
x2 3 = 0 (1,
0, 0), : ' (, 1, 1),
.
' ' : ' (1, b, 1), ' (1, 1, ).
, N R. ''
1 = 0, (bc 1) 1 ( 1) 2 + (1 b) 3 = 0.
: (0, 1 b, 1).

'

B'
C'
M

C A'
d

B
A P

N
. 12
38 I.
N : N (a 1, 0, 1 c),
( 1, 1 b, 0). , N ,
0 a 1 a 1
1 b 0 1 b = 0
c 1 1 c 0
(3, 1).
. ,
-
. , ABC
''', ' (. 12).
' ' , , , ', '
, '' -
. , '' ',
d, -
. , N -
'', '' d. , , N
.
2. ,
. , , -
, .
.
2 ( ). -
,
, -
, .
, -
.
, 2 1.

9.
1. d , , D , ,
, a D A.
R0 = (A, , ) d (1, 2)
D . D -
x
, 2 0. 1 ( -
x2
) , , , D : (, CD).
9. 39
1. , , -
,
X, , (, ) = .
R = (, , ) -
X (, 1). (, ) = .
, X, ,
. - X' (1, 2) (,
x
') = . 1 = ,
x2
x1
= . , X X' ,
x2 1
.
. , , , D D', -
(, CD) = (, CD'), D D' .
,
.
2. , , , D, , -
R (1, 2), (b1, b2), (1, 2) D (d1, d2),
, , D ,

a1c1 b1d1
a2c2 b2d2
( AB, CD ) = . (1)
a1d1 b1c1
a2d2 b2c2
R0 = (, , ) -
R R0.
,
A(k1a1, k2a2), (k2b1, k2b2). R R0
:

k1a1 k2b1 c1
.
k1a2 k2a2 c2
k1 k2, -
(. 5, . 3):
k1a1 + k2 b1 = c1,
(2)
k1a2 + k2a2 = c2 .
(10) 5 :
40 I.
x1 = k1a1 x1 + k2 b1 x2 ,
(3)
x2 = k1a2 x1 + k2 b2 x2 .
1, 2 D R0. (3)
:
d1 = a1k1 y1 + b1k2 y2 ,
d2 = a2 k1 y1 + b2 k2 y2 .
1 2:
d1 k2b1 k1a1 d1
d k2b2 k a d2
y1 = 2 , y2 = 1 2 ,
k1k2 k1k2
a1b1
= .
a2b2
,
d1b1
y k ab
( AB, CD ) = 1 = 2 2 2 .
y2 k1 a1d1
a2d2
(2) k1 k2, :
c1b1 a1c1
cb ac
k1 = 2 2 , k2 = 2 2 .

, -
(1).
2.
.
10. (AB, CD) = (CD, AB).
1 1
20. ( AB, CD ) = , ( AB, CD ) = , (B, CD) 0.
( AB, DC ) ( BA, CD )
30. (, CD) = (BA, DC).
40. (, ) = 1, (, ) = 0.
50. (, CD) + (AC, BD) = 1.
1030 -
: (1, 2),
41
9.

(b1, b2), (1, 2), D(d1, d2). (1), -


. -
40
.
50 R0 = (, , )
(d1, d2) D .
R0 , : (1, 0), (1, 1), (0, 1),
(1) :

1 0 1 d1
0 1 1 d2 d2 d1 d
( AB, BD ) = = =1 1 .
1 d1 1 0 d2 d2
0 d2 1 1

d1
= ( AB, CD ), 50.
d2
, A, , , D,
, , 1050,
, -
. , (AB, CD) = 0. , ,
(AD, ). 50 (AD, ) = 1 (AB, DC). (AB, DC) =
1 1 1 1
= = , ( AD, BC ) = 1 = .
( AB, CD )
3. , , , D g. ,
, , D, (, CD) < 0,
, D, (, CD) > 0. 1030
.2 , , -
A, , D, ,
. , ,
, D, , D , , , -
D, , D, A, .. -
, , , D, 50 . 2 ,
, , D.
, .
g
, N -
, , , N, -
, , , N.
-
. , -
42 I.
, , ,
-
.
4. ,
.
3. , , , D , -
,

( AB, C )
( AB, CD ) = , (4)
( AB, D )
( AB, CP ) = ( AB, C ), (5)
(, ) (, D) .
R = (P, , )
: P (1, 0), A (0,
1), (1, 1), (c1, c2), D (d1, d2). c1, c2, d1, d2 -
, 2 0, d2 0.
(1) :

1 c1 1 d1
1 c2 1 d2 c1 ( d2 d1 ) c (1 d )
( AB, CD ) = = = , (6)
0 d1 1 c1 d1 ( c2 c1 ) d (1 c )
1 d2 1 c2
0 c1 1 1
1 c2 1 0 c c
( AB, CP ) = = 1 = , (7)
0 1 1 c1 c1 c2 1 c
1 0 1 c2
c1 d
c = , d = 1.
c2 d2

, = (12, )

,

1 2 : M 1 M = MM 2 . 1, 2,
,
AB

x1, 2, x, -
, M1M = ( x x1 ) AB, MM 2 = ( x2 x ) AB,

x x1
( M1 M 2 , M ) = . (8)
x2 x
10. 43

4 , , , D A, AB :
(0), (1), (), D (d). (8) :

c d
( AB, C ) = , ( AB, D ) = .
1 c 1 d
, (6) (7), -
(4) (5).

10. 

1. g g'
, . -
g, a M' g'.
' g' ( ).
. , , , D g, A', ', ', D' -
g' , (, CD) = ('', C'D').
R = (A, , , E)
R' = (', ', , ), E , ,
' (.13). A' 2 = 0
, R
: A' (1, 0, ). ' : ' (0, 1,
b). E R : (0, 0, 1), E (1, 1, 1).
R R' (4) 5:
k1 0 0 1

0 k2 0 1
k a k b k 1
1 2 3
k1, k2 k3, -
: k1 = k2 = 1, k3 = 1 b. (6) 5
x1 = x1, x2 = x2 , x3 = ax1 + bx2 + (1 a b ) x3 .
D R R' D (1, 2, 0),
y y
D ( y1, y2 , y3 ), 1 = 1 .
y2 y2
-
(3, 2) D g (, , ) -
(1, 2), D' g' (', ', ')
44 I.

A D g
C B
g'
E
D'
B'
C'
A'

. 13

y1 y
( y1, y2 ). (, CD) = , ('', C'D') = 1 , , ,
y2 y2
(, CD) = ('', C'D').
2. , , -
.
. R = (1, 2, 3, ) -

x1 = p1 + q1, x2 = p2 + q2 , x3 = p3 + q3 ,
(1, 2, p3) Q (q1, q2, q3). ,
1 2 M1 (1, 1),
2 (2, 2),
1 2
( PQ, M1M 2 ) = . (1)
1 2
. , PQ A3.
', Q', M1, M 2 , Q, 1, 2
12 A3. 2 3 -
12 R3 = (1, A2, E3), E3 -
A3E 1A2: ' (p1, p2), Q' (q1, q2), M1 = ( 1 p1 + 1q1, 1 p2 + 1q2 ),
M 2 = ( 2 p1 + 2 q1, 2 p2 + 2q2 ).
(1) 9,
1 2
( P Q, M1M 2 ) = .
12
11. 45
( P Q , M1M 2 ) = ( PQ, M1M 2 ), -
(1).
(1) , PQ
A3. 1 2, A2, -
. , Q, 1, 2 A2
1A3 (1).
3. , . 1, -
. , b, , d
(. 14).
g, , A, , , D
g , b, , d. (, CD) -
, b, d :
(ab, cd). , . 1, , (ab, cd)
g.

C D B A g

c d b a

. 14

, -
. 2 9,
.
10. (ab, cd) = (cd, ab).
1 1
20. ( ab, cd ) = , ( ab, cd ) = , (ab, cd) 0.
( ab, dc ) ( ba, cd )
30. (ab, cd) = (ba, dc).
40. (ab, cc) = 1, (ab, cb) = 0.
50. (ab, cd) + (ac, bd) = 1.

11.
1. -
, , -
46 I.
, -
1, .. 1, 2, 3, M4 -
M1, M 2 , M 3, M 4 (12, 34) =
= ( M1M 2 , M 3 M 4 ).
-
, -
, .. . -
2:
1. R = (1, 2, 3, ) R' = ( M1, M 2 , M 3, E ) -
. f,
R -
R',
.
f (1, 2, x3)R ' (1,
2, x3)R'. , f .
f, , .
(1, 2, x3)R, Y (y1, y2, y3)R, Z (z1, z2, z3)R -
, 1 3 X' (1, 2, x3)R', Y' (1, y2, y3)R', Z' (z1, z2,
z3)R' .
, f
. (1, 2, a3)R, (b1, b2, b3)R, (1, 2, c3)R, D (d1, d2,
d3) d, a ' (1, 2, 3)R', ' (b1, b2, b3)R', ' (1, 2, c3)R',
D' (d1, d2, d3)R' , d'.
1, 2, 3 d; , , 3
d. , , M 3 d'.
, , , D 12 3
3, 3, 3, D3 (.15).
(3, 2) (1, 2,
3), E3 E 12 3,
3 (1, 2), 3 (b1, b2), 3 (, 2), D3 (d1, d2). 10,
(1) 9, :
a1c1 b1b1 a1d1 b1c1
(AB, CD) = (A3B3, C3D3) = , = : .
a2c2 b2b2 a2d2 b2c2
1

( , . . I, 48). -
: ,
, , -
, .
(.,
, [11], V).
11. 47
M3

d E
A
B
D
C

A3 B3 D3 C3
M1 E3 M2
d'

. 15

', ', ', D' M1M 2


M 3 A3, B3, C3, D3 . 2 3
( M1, M 2 , E3 ), E3 ' M1M 2
M 3, : A3 (1, 2), B3 (b1, b2), C3 (c1, c2), D3 (d1, d2).
('', C'D') = ( A3B3, C3 D3 ) = ,
(AB, CD) = ('', C'D').
2. f1 f2 ,
g ', ' ',
f1 (M) = f2 (M), g.
g, ,
, ' = f1 (M), '' = f2 (M). , ' '' -
.
f1 f2 , (, ) = ('',
'') (, ) = ('', '''), ('', ''') = ('', ''').
, ' '' (9, -
1).
2. .
. R = (1, 2, 3, ) R' = ( M1, M 2 , M 3, E ) -
.
, R R'.
R
1 R'.
1 f,
R R'. 1 (1, 0, 0),
2 (0, 1, 0), 3 (0, 0, 1), E (1, 1, 1)
R', .. M1, M 2 , M 3, E .
1
(1, 2, 3) (1, 2, 3), 0, ,
: R -
R'.
48 I.
M3

E1
M
Q

M1 P M2
E3

. 16

, f , -
. f' -
, R R'. 3
12 3E, E3
M1M 2 M 3 E , , , f' (3) = E3 . 2 -
12 f f'
M1M 2 . ,
23 ( 13) -
M 2 M 3 ( M1M 3 ).
, -
. ,
M1M2, M2M3 31 , Q S (.16). -
f () = f' (), f (Q) = f' (Q) f (S) = f' (S), 2
f () = f' ().
, f f' , .. f -
, R
R'. 1 -
R ' -
R'.
-
, .
. -
,
.
3. -
.
10. ,
, , .
11. 49
, .. -
, f - A, ,
, ', ' ',
g' (.17). ,
g'. ,
, , '
. N .
, , N , N' N -
'', .. g'. , N
, ' g'.
, f -.
.

M'
B N'

B'
A C

N' C'
M
N g'

. 17

.
20. .
30. .
R R'
. d
R 1x1 + 22 + 33 = 0. -
d' (.. d)
R' ,
(6, 1).
, -
.
4. -
, ,
.
, , , , -
, -
. ,
, ' . (, ) =
50 I.
= (, '), ' (9, -
1). .
.
10. , -
, .
g0 ', -
. ' g0, -
. , A
. A
A' , .
20. , -
, , -
.
f g0 A ', -
, , ', ',
(.18). ' ' ,
' ' -
f.

B'

M
A' R
M'

Q S g0

A
B

. 18

',
, , ' .,
. ' '
' Q R (c. .18). , Q R
f.
g0 S , , Q, R S -
. . 2 f -
. -
11. 51
. , ,
' .
,
, . -
, -
; ,
. -
, , ,
, -
. , -
,
.
, , -
, ', -
, g0, ',
g0 , -
'.
, ,
. 19, , -
X, g0, -
' (.19, , -
, .19, ).

P A'
X
X'
X
A

X0 P
g0 X0 g0
X' A'

. 19

, 0
g0 '. X, X'
, X' 0' .
52 I.
12.  .


1. 2 40 . I -
. H
. , H
. ,
H . 1 40 . I -
, : 1) f1 H, f2 H, f2f1 = H, 2) f H, f 1 H.
1) f1 f2 , f2f1 . -
f1 f2 , ,
, ,
, f2f1
, .. . -
, f2f1 H.
2) f H. , f 1 H. , ,
. ' = f 1 (A), ' = f 1 (B),
C' = f1 (C) ,
, ', ', ', , -
f , , , .
10 . 3, 11. , -
f 1, , , -
, , ,
.
, , H .
.
.
F F' -
, H- (. I, 40), .. -
, F
F'. -
. -
- -
. (11) ,
-. C ,
F , , -
, a F' , , ,
F F' - .
12. . ... 53
. F , -
, , , D, a F' -
, ' ', ', ',
D'. - ,
(, CD) = ('', C'D').
2. - -
(. I, 73, . 2 3).
.
-
,
. -
, -
H.
-
, . -
, , , . -
,
.

.
()
. -
, .. , -
.
.
3. f
. R = (1, A2, 3, ) -
' ( x1, x2 , x3 )
(1, x2, x3). R : R' =
= ( A1, A2 , A3, E ). f ,
, R' , .. A1 (11,
21, 31), A2 (12, 22, 32), A3 (13, 23, 33), ' (10, 20, 30)
R. ,
R R' .
(11) , ' R'
1, 2, 3. x1, x2 , x3
R, (6) 5
x1, x2 , x3 1, x2, 3 1, x2, 3 x1, x2 , x3
', -
f:
54 I.
x1 = a11 x1 + a12 x2 + a13 x3 ,
x2 = a21 x1 + a22 x2 + a23 x3 , (1)
x3 = a31 x1 + a32 x2 + a33 x3 .
A1, A2 , A3 , det aij 0.
, -
(1) , .
.
. -
R (1), det aij 0, -
.
, R = (1, A2, A2, )
(1). det aij 0, f .
A1, A2 , A3, E R
. 1
(1, 0, 0), A2 (0, 1, 0), A2 (0, 0, 1), E (1, 1, 1) (1):
A1 (11, 21, 31), A2 (12, a22, a32), A3 (a13, a23, a33),
E' (11 + 12 + 13, 21 + a22 + a23, a31 + a32 + a33). (2)
det aij 0, , 1 3, ,
A1, A2 , A3, E , ..
R'.
(11) -
f1, R R'. -
R R' (. (2)), -
f1 (1). , -
f f1 , .. f .

1. .. . .: , 1947.
2. .., .. . .: ,
1966.
3. .., ... . 2. .: , 1976.
4. .., .., II. .: , 1975.
5. .. . 1, 2. .: , 1984.
6. .., ..
. .: , 1985.
7. . . .: , 1948.
8. .. . .: , 1946.
9. ... .: , 1979.
10. .. . .: 1984.
11. .. . .: , 1978.
12. ., . . .: , 1972.
13. .. . .:
, 1958.
14. .. . .: , 1980.
15. .. . .: , 1969.
16. .. . .: 1968.
17. .. . .: , 1969.
18. . . . : ,
1970.
19. . , .
.: , 1966.
20. .. . .: ,
1958.
21. . . IV V. .: , 1966.