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Mark Powell

.. ::: ,. UNIVERSITY PRESS Cambridge Business Skills
Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore,
Sao Paulo, Delhi, Dubai, Tokyo, Mexico City
Cambridge University Press
The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 SRU, UK
Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/97S0521150040

Cambridge University Press 2010

This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception

and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements,
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permission of Cambridge University Press.

First published 2011

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A catalogue record for this publication is available from the British Library

ISBN 97S-0-521-15004-0 Student's Book with Audio CDs

ISBN 97S-0-521-15006-4 DVD

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this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is,
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timetables and other factual information given in this work is correct at
the time of first printing but Cambridge University Press does not guarantee
the accuracy of such information thereafter.

Preparing to present 4
1 Opening and closing 6
2 Smooth structure 10
3 Voice power 14
4 Visual aids 18
5 Facts and figures 22
6 Body language 26
7 Rapport building 30
8 Impact techniques 34
9 Storytelling 42
10 Q&A sessions 46
Bringing it all together 50

Audio scripts 52
Key and commentary 62
Additional materials 78

Online feedback forms 94

Acknowledgements 96

Preparing to present

If there's one skill, above all others, that will help you stand out in the world of
international business, it is the skill of presenting. And the further you progress
in your career, the more likely it is that you will be called upon to present. In
the age of technology and social networking it's easy to lose sight of this. But
you'll never have more impact than when you stand up to speak in public. In
professional life, competent presentations are expected. But great presentations
are rare and always remembered.
Mark Powel!, Mark Powel! Communications

Welcome to Dynamic Presentations. one of a new series of courses from Cambridge

University Press designed to develop excellence in business communication in
English . The complete training package includes this book and COs. an accompanying DVD
with worksheets and a dedicated website containing further games and activities, feedback
forms and full trainer's notes. You can access this material at http://www.cambridge.org/elt/

The secret of successful presentations

Whether you're pitching one on one to a client. talking a small group of colleagues through
the latest quarterlies or giving the keynote speech at a conference, becoming an excellent
presenter comes down to three things:
This course will help you both prepare and perform. By the
end of the course, you'll know how to start and how to
Passion finish, what to put in and what to leave out, when to stick
to your plan and when to depart from it. You'll have an eye
for visu als and an ear for how to use your voice. You'll have
a feel for effective body language and the ability to make
facts and figures unforgettable.
You'll also learn proven strategies for handling any question
your audience might throw at you. And you'll try out a range of dynamic presentation
techniques as you develop a style that is uniquely yours.
What about passion? Well, that's mostly up to you! After
If it matlers to you,
all. if you're not fired up about your talk, why should we it will matter to them.
be? But if you're thoroughly prepared and feel confident
you can perform, you'll be free to connect with your
audience. And all presentations, no matter how routine,
need to connect. Thin k about it. If the figures spoke for
themselves, you wouldn't need to present them! In the
words of poet and biographer Maya Angelou:

'People will forget what you said. People will forget what you did. But people will never
forget how you made them feel.'

As you work through the ten modules in this course, you should always be thinking how you
can make the skills and techniques your own. If something doesn't seem to work at first,
it may be that it doesn't quite suit your style or it may just be t hat you need a little more
practice. Be prepared to have fun and experiment. By getting your trainer to record you, you
can analyse your performance using the online feedback forms (see page 94).
I hope you enjoy the Dynamic Presentations expe ri ence!
Presenting and you
Take a few moments before yo u begin the co urse to th ink about your own needs and
experience as a presenter. Tick the comments that apply to you below and see how Dynamic
Presentations can help you to improve.

o I can present quite well in my own ... Each module of the course contains the key words,
language, but I'm not so sure I can phrases and expressions you need to present fluently in
translate that into English! English. You'll also learn some of the special language
patterns that skilful presenters use to create extra
o I don't have much experience of ... The course brings together some of the world's leading
giving presentations - even in my own presentation experts to share their insights with you. Full
language! notes in the Key and commentary guide you towards a
better understanding of how to present.
o I know what audiences in my own ... In many of the modules, business people from different
country expect, but what about countries compare what different cultures are looking
expectations in other countries? for in a presentation. The CDs and separate DVD contain
recordings of presenters of different nationalities in
o I mostly just have to present to small ... It'S all presenting, whether to an audience of one or
groups in meetings - is that really one thousand, but you'll want to adopt a different
presenting? style. Module 7 on rapport building and Module 9
on storytelling will help you to develop the right
conversational tone.
o I sometimes have to address larger ... No, you don't - you'll sound artificial. Your natural
audiences at conferences - don't I speaking voice will do just fine, but you'll need to use it
need a special public speaking voice in a slightly different way. Module 3 will show you how
for that? to add power and clarity to your delivery.
o I'm sure I must look so nervous ... Relax. Most nerves are caused by fear of the unknown.
standing there in front of everyone- But if you know exactly where your talk is going, there'lI
what can I do about that? be no nasty surprises! Module 2 will help you here, whilst
Module 6 shows you how to look calm and in control.
o I have so much data to refer to and ... Give them a handout instead! And keep your slides
my bosses expect to get a copy of my simple and clear. Module 4 gives you tips on designing
slides at the end. visuals and how to avoid data-dumping. Module 5
explains how to make dull figures come alive.
o My greatest fear is of being boring - ... It's essential to get off to a good start. as that sets the
how do I keep my audience awake? tone for the rest of your talk. Module 1 offers you some
options here. There are also dozens of incredibly simple
'tricks of the trade', which you can learn in Module 8.
o I'm not comfortable telling jokes (and .... There are many ways to connect with your audience
in a foreign language!), but how else and jokes are at the bottom of the list! Modules 7 , 8 and
can I connect? 9 will open your eyes to a whole range of possibilities.
Module 4 tells you how to get the right visual support.
o At least I can prepare for my talk, ... You're not alone if you've rehearsed with a colleague,
but when it comes to questions and And not if you create the right atmosphere with your
answers, I'm up against the audience audience. Module 10 shows you how Q&A can actually
alone! be a highlight of your presentation.

Opening and closing

People tend to remember openers

more than any other part of a
presentation, except perhaps for the
closing remarks.
Andrew Leigh, Maynard Leigh
Associates, www.maynardleigh.co.uk

The secret is: have a good

beginning, a good ending and keep
them as close together as possible!
George Burns. actor and

1 What's more important in a talk: how you start or how you fin ish? Whic h do yo u find more
chall enging? Compare with a partner.

2 According to communication expert Andrew Leigh. t here are four stages to opening a
presentation, He calls th ese the A, B, C and D of openings. What do you think those letters
stand for?
1 Capture your audien ce' s interest instantly::: A __ E_ T __ N
2 Explain what they will gain fro m the ta lk = B _N_ F_ T
3 Show them you have the authority to speak = C__ D_ B____ Y
4 Give them a route map of the presentation ::: D _ R __ T __ N

3 Now match the openings below to th e stages in 2. There are two openings for each stage ,

a b c d
In the 60 minutes it In my 15 years in Somebody once By the end of this
will take me to give Silicon Valley I've said: 'a brand is a morning's talk you'll
this presentation, learned quite a bit promise', But what know how to say
7,000 US businesses about managing happens when that 'No' and fee l good
will go bust. risk, promise is broken? about it.

e f 9 h
My prese ntation What I hope you'll I w as fortunate Today we're looking
this afternoon is in get from this enough to be part at options A and B.
three main parts , afternoon 's session of the team at VW And I'll be happy to
Feel free to interrupt is a clearer idea of that developed the take questions at
as we go along. how CRM works. original Golf GT!. the end.

4 W hat ways are there of capt uring you r audience's interest right at the start of a talk? W ith
a pa rtner co mplete the mi nd map opposite, using the phrases in the boxes.

~ Givethem

( Quote

7 Showthem

a photograph or cartoon a question a joke

a problem or pu zzle a popular myth
somebody well-known a vide o to raise their hand
a surprising fact or statistic a story or anecdote
a news headline to talk to a neighbour

5 e- 1.02 Listen to the opening s of five different presentation s. After ea ch extra ct dis cuss
th e qu estions be low w ith a partne r.
Extract 1: What two pieces of information does the speaker open with7 Did they surprise
you? In two words. what's his presentation going to be about?
Extract 2: What popular myth does the speaker explode? What two examples does she give
to support her case?
Extract 3: What does the speaker ask her audience to do? She draws an analogy between
backing up your hard disc and going to t he dentist. What's the simi larity?
Extract 4: The speaker introduces the subject of competitiveness in three ways: a quote. a
joke and a t ask. Which works best for you?
Extract 5 : How does the speaker show his audience that he rea lly understands their business?
How does he introduce his compa ny?

6 W hich openings in 5 do you find the most effect ive?

7 Some of the prese ntation openings you've ju st listen ed to are listed below. W rite in t he
missing words.

imagine joke know li ke miscon cept ion raise said t urn

a Did you ............................. that ... 7

b Coul d I ask you to ...................... ...... your hand if yo u .. .?
c Could you ............................. t o a part ner and discuss ... ?
d Just ............................. what it woul d be like to .. .
e I think it was ... wh o ............................. .. .
f There's a common ........ ..................... t hat .. .
9 My favourite ............................. about that is .. .
h How would you ........ .......... to be abl e to ... ?

8 W rite an ABCD openin g for a presentat ion you might give an d present it t o the rest of your
group. If you like. use one or more of th e express ions in 7 to gain your audience's atte ntion.

Opening and closing

Try to make your last line or tvvo truly eloquent, meaningful, touching, accurate and wise.
Always memorise your last few lines. This is the time to deliver straight to them: eye to eye,
person to person. Try to leave them with a thought thac will continue to provide an echo
after you stop.
Sonya Ham /in. Sonya Ham/in Comm unications

Many of the techniques you can use to open a presentation will also work we ll t o close
one. But this is your last chance to get your message across. How far do you agree w ith
what Harvard law School presentations coach Sonya Ham lin has to say about closing a

2 et 1.03 listen to the closing moments of four presentations and nu mber t he t echniques in
the order you hear them,
drama ti c summary 0 fa mous w ise words 0 call for action 0 heartfelt message 0

3 In your opinion, which of the closes in 2 does best w hat Sonya Hamlin says it should do?

4 Group the expressions according to w hich closing technique t hey can best be used for.

Summary Wisdom

- Emotion

a Let's take a look back at what we've spoken about this morning.
b I'm reminded of the words of .. ,
c Now let's get out there and ... !
d If you take just one thing from this talk, take this .. ,
e In the end, this is what matters
f Here, at a glance. are the main points I've made ...
9 So, how to sum up?
h I'm counting on you to .. .
We have a saying where I come from ...
So what does all this really mean for you - personally?
k In a nutshell, then .. ,
I In the famous words of .. .
m So, next time you ... , remember to ...

5 Communication skills trainer and bestselling author Andy Bounds has some useful advice
about summarising your talk at the end. How could you avoid the danger he describes in
this extract from one of his podcasts?

When you prepare a presentation, don't use the word 'summary' at the end. The word
'summary' switches people off. Think about it. When I say the word 'summary' at the end
of this podcast, you'll think 'Oh, right, he's going to repeat himself' and you'll click off
and smp listening. That's what I'd do. And if you don't believe me, sit at the back of the
seminar and watch what happens to the room when the speaker says 'summary'. You'll
see people actually put their coats on and leave.
Andy Bounds, communications expert

6 Elt 1.04 Read and listen to TV presenter Quentin Willson's superlative summary of the
E-Type Jaguar. Think of another glamorous and brilliantly designed product you admire (a
fashion item, a smartphone, a perfume, a motorbike) and use the same basic framework in
bold below to sum it up to a partner.

So, how do you sum up a car like this? I could tell you
that it was the making of Jaguar, that it was the first
car to be mathematically designed and that even Enzo
Ferrari said that it was the one car in the world that he
wished he'd made. But that would be to sell it short.
It was, is and always will be a poem in steel and
agonisingly pretty. The E-Type is quite simply the most
beautiful car in the world.

Quentin WiI/son, TV presenter

7 et 1.05 Listen to the opening and close of a presentation about presenting. The presenter
is using a technique called 'The loop'. How does it work? Why is it so effective?

8 With a partner, prepare the opening and close for a simple product or service presentation
and present them to the rest of your group. Turn to page 78 for product and service ideas
or use an idea of your own. You can evaluate your performance using the feedback form on
the website.

Smooth structure

A presentation is very much like ajourney. We n eed

to explain: 'Where are we going?' And then along that
journey as we move through it, we need to explain
how we're moving on. Are we makin g progress? And,
fin ally, when we get to the end, we've got to close our
presentation in a way that's more engaging than 'Any
questions?' So finding something that reiterates those
key points at th e end is absolutely essential.
Rob Ceraghty, The Wow Factor

1 Rob Geraghty mentions some of the ways in wh ich a presentation is like a journey. Can you
think of any others?

2 If a presen tation is a kind of journey, then the ability to si gnpost that journey is clearly
critical. Complete th e 'signpost language' below:

ask digress expand leave move return staff summarise

asking closing coming giving going outlining turning

I'm going to ............................. our main goals today.

I'll be
.......... start ........ off by .. . ............................. yo u a brief overview.
............................. you all a question.
on to this late r. Let's ............................. on
to the subject of .. .

OK, .......... ,............... .

for a moment to the
To ............................. to
question of ...
my main point here.

Let's ....................... .
on that a little .

............................. ba ck to
what I wa s saying earlier.
To ..................... .
for a moment.

.. ........................... the main points we've looked at .

...................... ...... you to remember one thing.
In ............................. , I'll just ,.. ............................ you with this .. .

3 Referring to points you made earlier in your If you don't know where You're }
presentation is a good w ay to show t he going, you'l! probably end up
coherence of your t alk an d strengthen your somewhere else.
arguments. Mentioning w hat you'll be talking Yogi Berra, baseball legend
about next can build anticipation. as long as
you don't get t oo much ahead of yourself ! Deci de w hether the phrases below refer
back or point forward and circl e th e appro priate arrow.

a Earli er we saw ... f So, the next question is ...

b This leads us on to .. . 9 As we discussed ...
c As you'll recall .. . h This brings us on to ...
d Later we' ll see .. . This goes back to ...
e You 'll remember ... By the end of this talk .. .

4 .f 1.06 Being able to show a logical link betw een your main points is very import ant in
a presentation. Link the presentation extracts below and label the 'link phrases' w ith the
appropriate functi on. Th en listen and check your answ ers. The first one has been done
for you.

cause -----+- effect effect - - cause action - - purpose

pOint ----;.~ contrast point -~.~ addition point .. specification

a Turnover for Q3 is well up, and what's more, there never will be.
b Avoiding risk is a mistake, ~ has resulted in reduced profitability.
c We need to constantly reassess whereas in the rest of Asia it's trip led .
d A rise in the price of oil thanks mostly to increased sal es in Russia .
e Demand is down 3% in Japan, especially in the long te rm . point - . specincation
f There's no market for low quality, so that w e don 't lose our competit ive lead .

9 The recent flood of ch eap imports as a result of th e merger announcement.

h We need to move fast and yet these have not converted into sa les.
Our share price has soared in particular on what it is we do best.
Now is the time to focus - in order to ta ke advantage of th is opportunity.
k Our website 's receiving more hits, plus, it's a growing one.
It's an enormous ma rket; may lead to a price war.

5 Turn to page 79 to practise using

some of the key signpost language
you've studied.
Smooth structure

In making a speech, one must study the proper arrangement of the various pans.
Aristotle, Creek philosopher

How do you plan your own presentations? Do you have a system for 'arrang ing the various
parts'? Compare techniques with a partner.

2 Look at the different types of presentation below and choose the one you'd be most likely
to give yourself. Modify it if you need to.
a Putting forward a proposal 9 Announcing a breaJrrhrough
b Describing a new product or service h Outlining a business plan
c Reporting a set of financial results Pitching for (increased) resources
d Giving a motivational speech Giving a project Ilpn(jte
e Announcing a series of changes k Announcing a decision
f Troubleshoot ing a problem Describing a new process

3 Decide which three or four of the foll owing parts you'd w ant to include in the presentation
you chose in 2. Then put those parts into the most effective orde r and expla in your
structure to a partner.

action aims causes competition costs customer need data

decision future idea implications investment issue key benefits
main features market potential need opportunity options past
plan potential objections present problem procedure
recommendations research results targets threat us

4 ..t 1.07 Listen to extracts from three different presentations and connect up the parts as
they are delivered. Each presentation begins with an attention-getter and then progresses
through three stages.
Extract Attention-getter Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3
1 ~ audience task popular myth opportunity actual fact
2 proverb threat customer benefits action
3 surprising statistic product featules udld comparison

5 How did the language the presenters used in 4 help you to decide what stage of their
presentation they were at?

6 Certain expressions are commonly used to talk about different parts of a presentation.
Look at the sets of expressions opposite and label the part they refer t o below.

benefits ...... . comparison ........ data ........ features .

implications ........ issues ........ options ........ popular myth ...... ..
potential objections ........ projections ........ pros and cons ........ truth ...... .

The figures clearly
It's commonly believed that ... show According to our I the
In reality ... The fact latest research ....
It's taken is ...
People tend
for granted In one Statistically
to assume
(these days) study ... (speaking), ...
that ...
that ...
It's a popular Our research
In actual fact ... (Recent) studies
misconception that ... indicates that ...
show that ...

In terms of ... it
It features J incorporates I This saves
compares favourably It has superior ... includes ... Another you ... This allows
with "' " plus is ... you to ...
How does it It's in a class
measure up to of its own. You're also So now you
the competition?
. able to ... can '"

As far as ... is concerned,

It (easily) outclasses I
outperforms ... We've upgraded ... The great(est) Whatthis
there 's (really) no and made (several) advantage of means is ...
comparison. improvements to ... this is ...

I guess you're It's going to This could have Another alternative

Now. I know what might be to .. .
wondering ... require, ." several knock-on One possibility
you're thinking.
effects. would be to ...

Let me reassure It might We can't rule out ... is not an option

If you have any
doubts about ... you that ... It's bound to ... involve ... the need to ... for us right now.

. .. months I
It's not only a question of ...
On the one hand, ... In the years from
It's also a question of ...
SO,on long(er) now ...
On the other
The basic balance ... term ...
hand, ...
We need to
consider ...
issue is ... ~- ..... / Looking further
ahead ....

We must also And we can't ignore , Over the coming .. . We envisage

take account the fact that ... One possible On the plus months I years .. . I foresee ...
of ... drawback side ...
is ...

7 ~ 1.08 Listen to a manager for a financia l services company giving a presentation about
interdepartmental communicat ions and comp lete her vis ua l aids.

All m. ........ problems are resistance to new L .... .. make use m....... .. K......... M......... forum
p......... problems. respect between d....... .. set up a L ...... for F2F, 0......... or both?
lack of c......... discussion dedicated L. ......., KM w....... ..
L ........ the company

8 Turn to page 80 to practise delivering a short. struct ured presentation of your own, wh ich
you w ill present to your group. Yo u can eva luate you r peliormance using the feedback
form on the website.

Voice power

Without good No word was

delivery, the best ever as effective
speaker cannot be of as a righdy
any account at all. timed pause.
Cicero. Roman Mark Twain,
orator American author

I learned that the spaces

between words were as
important as the words
Gerry Spence.
undefeated lawyer

1 Read t he words of the three ma s t er~ prese nt ers above and work with a partn er on the
following questio ns.
a How far do you agree with Cicero that the most important thing in a presentation is how
you sound?
b What's the difference between pausing and hesitating? How can a good use of pausing be
helpfu l to bot h speaker and audienc e?
c Read Mark Twain's comment aloud. If you could pause just once, where would you pause?
Try two. three or four pauses. Which version sounds best?
dRead Gerry Spenee's comment aloud. Try pausing for a second after 'spaees between
words', Now try two, three and four seconds, How long is too long?

2 et 1.09 Listen to the advice of presentations coach Ooug Jefferys spoken in two different
ways. Whic h version sounds more like a conversation and wh ich more like a presentation?
Version 1: Conversation 0 Presentation 0
Version 2: Conversation D Presentation 0

In order to get your audience to really take in what you have to say, you've got to learn to
stop talking - stop talking long enough for them to ingest that last thing you said, get a
picture of it, try to put it into a context they know, before moving on to the next thing you're
going to say, The pause is absolutely the most important thing you can do.
Ooug Jefferys. CEO of PublicSpeakingSkilis.com

3 In which of the two versions you have just listened to does the speaker:

Conversation Presentation
a speak fa ster?
b speak louder?
c pause more?
d sound more fluent?
e sound clearer?
f sound more interesting?

4 .t 1.10 Work with a partner. Listen to part of a presentation about public speaking. One
of you should mark the pauses on the script below like this I. The other should underline
the stressed words and phrases.

'You know, I there are a lot of myths about speaking in public. Myth
number one is that what you actually say is only seven percent of the
message. Thirty-eight percent is how you sound and fifty-five percent is
how you look. But think about it. I mean, if that was true, you could go to a
talk in Swahili and still understand ninety-three percent! Myth number two
is that public speaking is most people's greatest fear - just above death.
The comedian Jerry Seinfeld has a great joke about that. He says, "Come
on, if it really was their greatest fear, at a funeral the person giving the
eulogy would rather be in the box!'"

5 What type of words tend to be stressed? What do you notice about where the pauses

6 . 1.10 Listen again. When does the speaker's voice go up before a pause and whe n does
it go dow n? Turn th e I for each pause into l' or -.

7 Wo rk w ith a partner. Take turns readi ng the script in 4 yo urselves using the marked
pauses, st resses and intonation to help you. Experiment wit h long er pauses and louder
stresses unt il you find a ve rsion that feels comfortable for yo u. How is it different from
yo ur partner's version?

8 What is your preferred style of prese nting?

relaxed and conversational
smooth and professional
passionate and enthusiastic
light-hearted and humorous

Do you adapt to suit you r audience or play to yo ur strengths?

tn the drama of organisational life, yo ur instrument }

is your voice and your breath is the music.
Or Louise Mahler, originator of Vocal Intelligence
Voice power

Martin Luther Ki ng did not use fillers in his impassioned 'I have a dream' speech.
It wasn't the 'I have a urn, you know, like a dream' speech.
{ Timothy Koegel, author of The Exceptional Presenter

1 (,. 1.11 Listen to two versions of th e same present ation. They both last about 45 seconds
but how are they different?

2 Prepare a 45-second speech using one of the open ing quotes on page 81 or invent one
of your ow n. Someone else in your group will count th e number of t imes you use a fill er.
W hoever urns and ers the m ost has t o speak again!

3 In English, word stress is an important part of how we communicate, and changing w hat
w e stress can radica lly change w hat w e mean. In each extract below underline th e main
stress in the two sentences.
a We haven't seen a massive improvement yel. Bu t it' s a good start.
b We haven 't seen a ma ssive im provement yet . But my guess is we soon wi ll.

c Th e market may bE declining . But fortunately our market share isn 't.
d The market may be declining . Or this co uld just be a temporary blip.

e We do pretty well in the States. But we don't do so well in Europe .

f We do pretty well in t he States. But not as well as we could be doing.

9 Turn over is up on Q3. But profits are down.

h Turn over is up on Q3. But th at was a particularly bad quarter.

It's hard to gain a foot hold in India. But not impossible.

It's hard to gain a foothold in India. But harder st ill to gain one in China.

k There are a couple of points I'd like to make. An d both concern cash flow.
There are a couple of points I'd like to make. And t hen I'll hand you over to Jan .

4 1.12 Practise deli vering the extracts in 3 and then compare w ith th e recording .

5 Work in opposing teams. You are going to reenact two dramatic presentations from the
cla ssic business m ovie Other People 's Money.

The scene:
Andrew Jorgenson is the patriarchal chairman of New England Wire and Cable, Once
highly successful, his company has not kept up with new technology and both revenues and
share price are down. Lawrence Garfield, known to his enemies as 'Larry the Liquidator',
a corporate financier and one of the major stockholders, is trying to persuade the other
stockholders at the annual general meeting to vote him in as the new chairman, so he can
carry out his plan to sell off the company's considerable assets before its share price falls any
further. Of course, this will mean the closure of the firm and the loss of thousands of jobs.
Each team should choose a presenter to oppos e th e other team and coa ch them to deliver
their speech by going throu gh the text:
marking short pauses (I), longer pauses (11) and very long pauses (Ill )
marking intonation (1' or w)
underlini ng stressed words and ph rases
highlighting louder and qui et er pa rts of the speech in di fferent colours.

Gregory Peck as Andrew Jorge nson Danny DeVito as Lawrence Garfield

I want to share with you some of my This company is dead, I didn't kill it, Don't
thoughts concerning the vote that you're blame me , It w as dead w hen I got here. It's
going to make in the company that you too late for prayers , For even if the prayers
own. This proud company, which has w ere answered, and a miracle occurred,
survived the death of its founder, numerous and the yen did this, and the dollar did
recessions, one major depression, and that, and the infrastructure did the other
two world wars, is in imminent danger of thing, we would still be dead . You know
self-destructing - on this day, in the town why? Fiber optics, New technologies.
of its birth. There is the instrument of our Obsolescence. We're dead all right,
destruction, I want you to look at him in We're just not broke. And you know the
all of his glory, Larry the Liquidator, the surest way to go broke? Keep getting an
entrepreneur of post-industrial America, increasing share of a shrinking market. I'm
playing God with other people's money. not your best friend . I'm your only friend .
This man leaves nothing , He creates I don 't make anything? I'm making you
nothing, he builds nothing, he runs nothing. money,

Rehearse your t alk a few t imes. When both teams are ready. give your pres entations to th e
annual stockholders' meeting of New England Wire and Cable. W ho did the better job?
Who gets your vot e?

6 f-t 1.13 Listen to recordin gs of the speeches. How do the t w o speakers ' styles compare?
Think about pace, volume and sentence length.

7 Turn to page 8 2 to learn a simple method for using your laptop or PC to increa se your
voic e power. You can evaluate your performance using the feedback form on the website.

Visual aids

I hate to tell you, but, chances are, your PowerPoim slides are
lousy. But don't take my word for it, let's do a little test. Show
your slides to someone who doesn't speak your language.
Now, you're saying 'What's he talking about? Of course, they
can't read them.' Ahah! If you're expecting your audience
to read your PowerPoint, you're already in big trouble.
PowerPoint is a visual medium. Whether it's a chart, a graph,
a picture or a cartoon, your audience should be able to
understand your message just by looking at the images.
T.l. Walker, CEO of Media Training Worldwide

1 Read the advice of leading media trainer, T.J. Walker. Then compare t he two presentation
slides below. Which do you think he'd prefer? Which looks more like your own slides?

2 Discuss your own preferences with a partner. Think

about these features:

data load visual impact colour contrast

legibility font size scale aesthetics

3 ij,t 1.14 Listen to business people from different

cultures sharing their views. Write notes on the points
you agree with.





4 You've been asked to give a short team presentation on

family business in India. In groups, try to decide which
slide opposite would be the most effective as your main
visual aid.

Percentage of businesses in India
which are family-owned (FOBs)

Family Business Don't commit }

career suislidel
Nancy Ouarte. Ouarte Design

5 Nancy Duarte is one of the wo rld's lead ing presentation designers. Her company
helped former US vice-president AI Gore develop his celebrated environmental talk 'An
Inconvenient Truth', What do you think she means by 'career suislide'?

6 ( . 1.15 Sometimes using real objects or 'props' in a presentation can be highly effective.
Listen to business people talking about some of the best uses of props they've seen
presenters make and answer the questions below.
a How did Apple (EO Steve Jobs demonstrate the
thinness of the MacBook Air?
b What's the weirdest use of a prop the second
speaker's ever seen?
C How did Cisco (EO John Chambers
demonstrate the TelePresence system?
d What's the connect ion between a jeans pocket
and the iPod Nano?

7 Even if your job does not involve presenting

actual products, how could you use props in your
own presentations? Discuss your ideas with a

8 Turn to page 83 to see a selection of

presentation slides before and after a designer
worked on them. How far do you th ink they've
been improved? Why?
Visual aids

Avoid excessive use of bullet pointing. Only bullet key

points. Too many bullet points and your key messages
will not stand out. In fact, the term bullet point comes
from people firing guns at annoying presenters.
Don McMiflan. corporate comedian

No more than six words

on a slide - ever!
{ Seth Codin, marketing

1 Presenter Seth Godin's advice seems extreme. Or does it? Think of the key message of one
of your own presentations - can you write it out in six words?

2 How far do the words of comedian Don McMillan remind you of any presentations you've

3 The 666 Rule and 10-20-30 Rule refer to the bullet points, font sizes and number of slides
you should use in your presentation. What do you think these rules might be?

4 Now look at page 65 for explanations of the 666 and 10-20-30 rules. How far do you
follow these rules?

5 The slide below is ineffective. In pairs, simplify it by radically reducing the number of words
and rewriting the bullet points to make them grammatically consistent. Compare your
ideas with those in the Key.

A designer knows he has

achieved perfection not The Five Golden Rules You Must Follow to
when there's nothing left be Effective in Presentations
to add, but when there's Long introductions at the beginning are a
nothing left to take away. complete waste of time - get to the point!
Antoine de Saint-Exupery,
Never apologise for being unclear, skipping
aviator, author, engineer
points, having difficult-to-read visuals, etc.
It's a mistake to get too involved in the
details - put those in the handouts.
Quoting figures is not as effective as telling
anecdotes and stories to il lustrate your point.
Conversation, not presentation - that's how
to build rapport with your audience.

6 at 1.16 listen to part of a presentation about marketing to women and note the context
in which the following key figures are mentioned.

a 85% ............................................. d 10% .................................................

b 8/10 .................................... e $70 m ......................................................... .
c 75% ............................................... . f 3.4 .............................................

7 The expressions below are all useful when presenting a slide. You heard most of them in
the presentation extract in 6. Complete them using the words in the box.

figures question implications

attention axis notice
background speak mean
look talk take point see
put might know suggest

a Have a ............................. at this. To give you the ............................. to that, .. .

b The vertical ............................. represents .. . Asyou ............................ , .. .

c As you can ....................... k Now, let's ............................. that into perspective.

d Let's ............................. a closer look.

J /
I These ............................. show .. .
m The figures ............................ for themselves.

n These results ..................

e youII ................................... .. . o We ............................. expect ...

I should ............................. out .. . p The real ............................. is .. .

9 I'd like to draw your .................................. to .. . q So. what does this ................................ in terms of ... ?

h let me ............................. you through .. . r Now, what are the ............................ of this?

8 W here could you use the following adverbs in the expressions above: clearly. immediately,
presumably. obviously. particularly. briefly. frankly. just?

9 In groups, choose a few of the statistics in 6 and brainstorm ideas for simple visuals.

10 Turn to page 84 to practise presenting information to your group using simple but
effective visuals as support. You can evaluate your performance using the fe edback form
on the website.

Facts and figures

Enough data to sink a tanker. Ninety-eight percent in reserve.

Know the data from memory. Make it clear that you have
done a staggering amount of homework, even though you are
exhibiting but a tiny fraction. Allude to the tons of research
that are available. Offer one-on-one briefings if desired.
I Tom Peters. management guru

1 As one of the world's most influential business thinkers. Tom Peters has given thousands
of presentations. How far do you agree w ith him that, whenever you present. 98% of your
data should be in yo ur head, not on the screen? What are the dangers of 'data-dumping'?

2 ._ 1.1 7 Listen to business people from different countries and industries talking about the
amount of data presenters are expected to include. Wh ich is closest to yo ur own situation?
Compare w ith a partner.

3 What do you think a 'slideument' might be? Read the advice of 'Zen' presentations expert,
Garr Reynolds. How could you implement his idea in your own presentations to give your
audience 'the best of both worlds'?

You can't say everything in your talk. Many presenters include everything under
the sun in their slides 'just in case' or to show that they are 'serious people'. It is
common to create slides with lots of text and detailed charts because the slides will
also serve as a leavewbehind document. Big mistake. Instead, prepare a detailed
document for a handout and keep the slides simple. And never distribute a printed
version of your slides as a handout. Slides are slides. Documents are documents.
Anempts to merge them result in what I call the 'slideument'.
Garr Reynolds, p;esentationzen.com

4 Look at the data in the graph,

Men's extra leisure time compared with women (m ins/day) which shows the extra amount
Italy o
__70 of leisure time men have as
compared with women in 12
PvOnd _ _ _ _ __
different co untries. Imagine
Spon _ _ _ _ __ you're presenting to an
Cludience of mostly female Polish
United States - - - - - - executives. Decide w hat data
to keep in the slide and what to
South Korea
leave for the handout.
Compare your ideas w ith
Japan other people. Who kept theirs
NoMay - simplest?

5 1.18 Practise saying the follow ing figures. Then listen to the CD.
a 14,640 e 560.1 0 '12% m l/3 q 1,000 cc u 5.5 0 sqm
b 33 .33 f 8.00 1% %% n 75' r 18% pa v Q3
c 1999 9 103 m k '14 o 42 pts s 51.3/
d 20 10 h 6. 1 bn 'AI p 9:1 t 2,000 rpm

6 Work in groups of four. Turn to page 85 to practise flu ency with figures.

7 .' 1.19 Round figures are generally more memorable than exact ones. Present the
information below in round figures, usinq the 'approximation wo rd s' in the box to help you.
Th en listen and compare your vers ion w ith the one on the CD.

almost nearly (somewhere) around approximately roughly more I less than

(just I a little I well) over I under (round) about (well) in excess of just short of

a In Q4 we saw a 19.7% increase in revenues.

b We've managed to bring down costs by 24.9%.
c We currently have 97 branches in 20 5 countries.
d We've made a substantial investm ent of 5499.1 m.
e 76% of the respondents in our survey actu ally expressed no preference.
f The basic model comes in 56 different versions.
9 Turnover this year was 1 12,687 ,401.
h The project will be completed in 6-10 weeks.

Nu mbers don't mean much unless they're placed in context. Recently I worked with
a company that launched a 12-gigabyte memory card - 12-gigabytes ! That nu mber
doesn't mean much to most people, so we put it into context. We said that's enough
memory to listen to your music while traveling to the moon and back! Now, 12-gigs
means something to me. Make numbers meanin gful.
Carmine Galla. Galla Communications. former CNN journalist and author of
The Presentation Secrets of Steve Jobs

8 t.. 1.20 Carmine Gallo has coached companies such as Intel, Nokia and IBM in
co mmunication skills. Read w hat he has to say about numbers and do w hat he suggests by
matching the figures to the contexts (e-h). Then listen and check your answers.
a Globally, 256 million people are involved e To give you an idea of just how much that
in start-ups. is, it's enough to fill Loch Ness 22 times!
b The world con sumes 164.5 billion litres f That's roughly the equivalent of selling
of bottl ed water a yea r. 10,000 MercedesBenz cars l
c The world's ric hest 1 V2% are worth 9 To put that into perspective, if they joined
around 550 trillion. hands, they'd circl e the world 12 times !
d Apple's Fifth Avenue megastore turns h That means they currently control just over
over $350 million a year. half the planet's wealth!

b .. .......... .. . c ............... d .............. .

9 1,21 Present the original graph in 4 using round numbers and just highlighting the key
figures. If you ca n, put it into context. Then listen to the model version on the CD.

Facts and figures

As a presenter, nothing commands like credibility. This is especially true when it comes to
presenting data. Audiences that are analytical, scientific o r engineer-minded tend to look
at the data with a sceptical eye - it's what they're trained to do, after all. If your data has
been boiled down or clarified too much, they may feel it has been manipulated, has become
'marketin g data' or is no longer substantial. To prevent these assumptions, avoid decorating
your data; ornamentation can detract from credibility.
Nancy Duarte. Duarte Design

, Nancy Duarte is one of th e world's leading presentat ion designers. To w hat extent d o you
agree wit h her that there's such a thing as 'technical data' and 'marketing data'?

2 What kind of audiences do you typically have to present to?

3 Being able to accurately describe trends is an important part of presenting data.

Brainstorm all the verbs you know to describe the following trends:

Which of the verbs yo u came up with can be converted into nouns?

4 When you wa nt to give your audience an idea of th e scale, speed and significance of the
trends you're describing. you need to use modifiers. Add the modifiers in the box to the
chart according to their function. Some of them may serve more than one function.

substantial disappointing massive rapid encouraging slight

ffi8Fked alarm ing modest huge moderate tremendous
dis8StFOUS sudden significant fantastic sfta-f-p enormous
gradual steady marginal considerable dramatic

Scale Significance Speed

++ ++ ++ sharp

+ marked + +

- - -

- - - - disastrous --

5 With a partner, write descriptions of this simple bar chart using the
expressions in the box.
Examp le: P is marginally higher than E

marginally higher than (just) as high as

by far the highest almost as high as
not quite as nowhere near as high as
more or less the same
considerably higher than equally high

a b c d e

6 Put the following phrases in order from a large decrease to a huge increase:
a more t han doubled b almost halved c nearly tripled d increased tenfold
e quadrupled f fel l by a t hird 9 increased th ree and a half times

7 Complete the key words below for describing markets and market share.
be fo............... out of
An in c. .................... share of a shr...................... market.

The market is
b............... ing ++
s...............y +
III f.. .............1
br............... into d ...............ed
A dec. ..................... share of an exp...................... market.

8 1.22 Write the missing prepositions in the presentation extracts below. Then listen and
The ad had an immediate impact. In Janua ry
our CT rate went up ............................. 2V2% Online Advertising Campaign
............................. just V2% ............................. 3%- % Banner Ad Click-through Rate
an amazing six-fold increase!
Then in February we saw a drop
....................... 1 3/ 4 ............................. just 1V4 %.
But that's still w ell ............................. average.
In March the fig ure fluctuated ............................ .
a high ............................. 2 and a low
............................. 1%.
Finally, in April it hovered ................ ..
1 Vz% to finish up ............................. a little
............................. that by the end of t he
lan Feb Apr
cam pa ign . All in all, an exc ellent response!

9 Turn to page 85 to practise presenting different kinds of numerical and graphic

information. You can evaluate your performance using the feedback form on the w ebsite.

Body language

'Act natural' is always good advice. But,

remember, when you present, you're not
speaking face to face, but face to faces. To
reach out to your audience you need to be
just a little bit larger than life. You are your
most important visual aid.
Begofla Arsuaga. partner, Communicadia

When your body language is out

of alignment with your verbal
message, people believe what
they see - not what you say.
Carol Kinsey Coman. Kinsey
Consulting Services

1 Think about the comments of the communication experts above and discuss the following
questions with a partner:
a How easy is it to 'act natural' in front of an audience? How could you make your body
12nguage 'just a little bit larger than life'?
b How far do you agree that your main visual aid is you?
c When you present, in what ways do your actions 'speak louder than words'?

2 ( . 1.23 Listen to four business people from different cultures talking about body language
in presentations and answer the questions.
a What does the Brazilian say about the age of the audience? Is it the same in your country?
b What point does the Australian make about words and body language? Is it good advice?
c What is the Finn's intercultural recipe for success? Do you agree with his point about
d What does the Kuwaiti say about private and public speaking? Would you take his advice?

3 When presenting, the body language of the sexes tends to be a little different. Wh ich do
you associate with men and which with women?

a Move around M b Hold eye M c Gesture M d Gesture M

the room more r- contact four - towards r- away from r-
W times longer W themselves W themselves W

e Point and wave M f Smile and nod M 9 Tiltthe head M h Keep bodies M
their arms more r- while listening - and frown while r-
fairly rigid r-
W W listening W W

I speak two languages-

{ body and English.

Mae West, Hollywood legend

4 How typi ca l are you of yo ur gender? How could you be a bit more gender-neutral?

5 Look at the statements below and match them to the gestures that wo uld best reinforce
them. Are all these gestures acceptable in your culture?
1 2 3 4 5 6
I think there I ask you, what I wonder what OK, let's take This really Let's just
are three main are we supposed the answer is these points isn't good remember
issues here. to do? here. one at a time. enough! one thing .


a b c d e f

6 Work w ith a partner. Memorise the short presentation extracts below. one at a time, and
then take t urns to present them. What gestures feel nat ural for you?
a As you know, the project has been a huge success.
b On the one hand, it's very high qua lity. But on the other hand, it's expensive.
c I think we can eliminate Option B straight away.
d But this isn't about me. It's about you, everyone of you here today.
e So, w hat's the long-term trend? Frankly, who knows?
f It just isn't working. And there are two main reasons for this.
9 We're aiming to expand our product range by 25%.
h So, our goal is to increase productivity whilst cutting back on costs.
For us at the moment R&D is a top priority.
The whole t hing has been a disaster from start to finish .
k Profits have gone up from six to eight million dollars.
Firstly, it's highly effective, Secondly, it's highly efficient, And thirdly, it's high time we
did it,
m And it's powered by the tiniest microchip you've ever seen.

7 How do yo u rate your partner's body language overa ll? How does it compare with yours?

A little bit static Confident and expressive A bit too theatrical

Body language

It has been well established by researchers that those who can effectively read
and inte rpret non-verbal communication, and manage how others perceive them,
will enjoy greater success in life than ind ividuals who lack this skilL
loe Navarro, former FBI Special agent and author of What Every BODY is Saying
and Louder Than Words.

Do you think it's possible to show t he following qualities through your body language?

leadership charisma honest y enthusiasm confidence conviction

2 Research has shown t hat people can send and rece ive up to 10,000 non-verbal clues in less
t han a minute. What postu res and gestures might signal the qualities in 17 How wo uld yo u
know the speaker lacked t hese qualities?

3 Divide the followi ng behaviours into tho se w hich convey a sense of authority and t hose
w hich create rapport. It's not just about body language, but the body pl ays a crucial part,

wait maintain lots of eye conta ct use subtle gestures talk slowly
look slightly above the audience ask lot s of questions stand still use humour
listen imagine you're talking to a small group of friends
imagine your presence fill s the room say less talk low get excited

Authority Rapport

4 Which is more important to you w hen you speak in public - authority or rapport? Is it
poss ible to have both?

5 Work in groups. Just for fun, deliver one of the following using appropriate body language
- speak the w ords with your lips, but silently. Can yo ur group guess w hat you are sayi ng?
a Our technological lead gives us an enormous advantage.
b What we're experiencing is a period of steady decline.
c In a sense, these are two opposing ideas.
d By merging our two firms we'll enjoy significant economies of scale.
e You can see that the new model has a much simpler, sleeker design.
f I'd like to talk you through the different stages of the process.

6 Work w ith a partner. look at the examples of presenter body language opposite. In what
ways co uld they be distracting or create the wrong impression? Are yo u guilty of any of
7 1.24 Now listen to four short extracts from a presentation a
about body language and discuss these questions with a partner.
a Why are hands so important? What makes a partic ular gesture
b Why isn't folding your arms the answer to the 'hands problem'?
How is it similar to standing behind a podium? What's the solution
to 'the podium trap '?
c What makes a 'hands problem' even worse? How can you guard
against this?
d What are the signs of being too energetic and too relaxed? What
should you do?

8 Give a short, simple presentation to your partner - perhaps

on where you'd like to be in ten years' time. Make some of the
annoying gestures above as you speak and see how many they can

9 Pictures a-e illustrate more examples of unhelpful body language in

a presenter. Can you work out what they are?

10 Choose a subject you feel strongly about and prepare a short

presentation on it. Spend 10 minutes making some notes. The
template on page 87 may help. Try to make your main points as
graphic and dramatic as possible. When you're ready. present your
opinion and let your body follow your words, You can evaluate your
performance using the feedback form on the website.

Rapport building

You rehearsed your speech thoroughly and mastered

that all-important body language. But when you
delivered the talk, you sensed little enthusiasm in your
audience. What's going on? You're probably coming
across as artificial. To demonstrate your authenticity,
imagine meeting four aims: being open to your audience,
connecting with your audience, listening to your
audience and being passionate about your topic. When
you rehearse this way, you'll genuinely experience these
feelings when delivering your speech. And your listeners
will know you're the real thing.
Or Nick Morgan, Public Words

1 Dr Nick Morgan is an author. Harvard Business Review journalist and expert on developing
authenticity and charisma as a speaker. With a partner, try to decide:
a in what W3YS you can show openness to your audience
b what you can say or do to connect with your aud ience
c how you can deeply and actively listen to your audience
d how you can demonstrate passion for your subject.

2 ( 4 2.02 One simple way of connecting w ith an audience is to reduce the number of
references to 'J' and 'you' and replace them w ith we'. Increase rapport in the statements
below by changing some of the pronouns to the first person plural. Then listen and check
your an swers,
a Now, I know this is something that affects each and everyone of you ,
b I think YOL'd all agree that in the long term this is in your best interests.
c You need to be asking yourselves: what are you trying to achieve?
d So do you or don't you take up the challenge? The choice is you rs.
e I've got t hree amazing new products I want to share with you today. So let me get started!

3 4 2.03 Another way to be more interact ive is to use question tags. Add tags to the
prese ntation extracts below. The first one has been done for you as an example. Then listen
and check your answers.
a This isn't really so surprising, is it? d We 've been here before.
b But we won't let this stop us. e (said it was good news.
e We certa inly can't complain. f You know what's going to happen.

When you are giving the same presentation many times, it is important not to let

{ yourself get bored. In teracting with your audience is the best way to achieve this,
Mike Crabiner. former CEO of Energis

4 a. 2.04 Rephra sing co ntroversial statements as negative question s makes them much
mo re persuasive. Re phrase the foll owing in th is way. The fi rst one has been done fo r yo u as
an exampl e. Then listen and check you r answers.
a We should be focusing our attention on our core business. Shouldn't we .. 7
b Offshoring - this is something we need to be looking at.
c It's time we started to take internet advertising seriously.
d We've had enough of being number two in this industry.
e There's a need for more accountability at board level.
f We're in danger of losing some of our best cust om ers.

5 2.05 To build real rapport. your presentation needs to sound conve rsational. On e thing
you can do to achi eve thi s is t o repeatedly involve yo ur audi ence. That's w hat the speaker
bel ow is doing. She is addressing an international group of (EOs and senior executives.
Mat ch up the seven stages of her spe ech in a-g w it h her invol vem ent expression s in h- n.
Th e first one has been done for yo u as an exampl e. Then li sten and check.

a h
Let's just tal k about email for a moment. If you 're You'd think I was crazy, right? I mean, there are
anything like lTI e, you probably wish email had currently 1 .7 billion em ail users out th ere! But let
never been invented! me ask you a question .

And it's not just spam, is it? Wh en was the last And would it surprise you to learn that students
time you rece ived dozens of emails t hat didn't now hardly use email at al l - except to contact
even directly concern you? professors and parents!

So, what if 1was to say to you that email, as But, you see, that's where you 'd be wrong . The
we know it, is dead ; that email will soon be as fastest-growing group of social networkers is
obsolete as the fax machine? actually women over 35 .

d k
How many of you pay regu lar visits to sites like Raise your hand if that's happened to you . Right.
Facebook, MySpace or Tw itter? How about I think that's something we can all relate t o.
texting? Most of you . Interesting . Email is inescapable.

But let me share some statistics with you. Did And you don't need me to tell you that. togeth er,
you know that 300 million users spend 8 billion China, India and wom en over 3 5 exercise a
minutes a day just on Facebook? tremendous amount of influence!

f m
Now, I know what you ' re thinking . You're I mean, I don't know about you , but on a typ ical
thinking, well, OK, sure, we know kids are the day I probably waste more time on email than
biggest users of Web 2.0 technology and texting. just about anything else.

9 n
And the biggest markets for SMS are China and If, like me, you find yourself more and more
India . The Chin ese alone send half a trillion text involved in social networking these days, t hen you
messages a year! should already know that email is on its way out.

a m b c ....... . d ........ e ........ f 9 ........

6 Underline th e involvement expressions the speaker uses in 5. There are at least 16. The first
one has been done for yo u.

7 Now prepare a short presentation w it h a controve rsial them e and use som e of t he rapport
techniques you've studied in this module to make your speech more persuasive. There's
a 'controve rsial ideas bank' on page 8 7. Yo u can evaluate your performance using the
feedback form on the w ebsite.

Rapport building

You know a little hurnor would make your communications more

engaging, persuasive, and memorable. The good news is, you can
be funnier- and you don't even have to tell jokes ! It's one thing
to be funny. It's another thing to spread fun. You don't have to
be Oscar Wilde. You don't have to be Robin Williams. You just
have to be a fun person that creates opportunities for laughter to
Doni Tamblyn. HumorRules.com

1 Doni Tamblyn is a comedian, corporate trainer and expert on using humour when you
communicate. Read her comments and discuss these questions with a partn er:
a Do you agree that being fun is more important than being funny?
b In what ways could you create 'opportunities for laughter to emerge'?

2 Form two groups. One group should brainstorm the advantages of using humour in a
presentation, the other the possible disadvantages. Then briefly team'present your pros
and cons. Which team made the stronger case?

3 ( . 2.06 How could you create humour out of the following in a presentation? Briefly
discuss each situation w ith a partner. Then listen to the story of how a presenter actually
handled it and decide w hich of their strategies might wor k for yo u.
a You know your audience is dying to see the new product you've just been describing.
b You invite your audience to share their thoughts with a neighbour, but a lot of them are
either sitting alone or seem uncertain how to begin.
c There's a sudden power cut and you lose all your audio-visualsl
d You're scheduled to give a pre-dinner ta lk on Valentine's Day.
e You are t he last speaker on the programme and, before you even start. your audience looks
exhausted and ready to go home!
4 Humour is not the only thing that is a matter of personal taste. We know that different people
also process information in different ways. Theories vary, but some of the most common
intelligence types are represented in the diagram below. To key directly into each intelligence
you need to vary your language. With a partner, write the letter of each presentation extract
beneath the type or types of intelligence you think it's specifically addressing.

a Picture this ... h The basic principle is fairly easy to grasp.

b How does this sound? So, logically, ...
c Let's take a moment to reflect on that. Take a minute to talk to a partner.
d Statistically speaking, ... k Now, you're probably saying to yourself ...
e Do you see what I mean? Unfortunately there isn't time to go into depth here.
f It strikes me that ... m I want to share with you ...
9 Ask yourself ...

n But let's look at th is another way. t Does that make sense to you?
o What I'd like to do is give you a feel for... u On balance, ...
P I think the figures speak for themse lves. v To illustrate w hat I'm saying ...
q Personally, ... w So far we've barely touched on the question of ...
r I hear you say ... x Just to give you an overview of .. .
S Between you and me, ... y Let me fill you in on the background to that.

5 et 2.07 Listen to some short presentation extracts. From what the presenter is doing or
asking the audience to do, what intelligences do you think they're addressing?

Extract 1: ........................................................

Extract 2: ........... .

Extract 3: ........................ ..

Extract 4: ......

Extract 5: .......... .

Extract 6: ..

Extract 7:

Extract 8:

6 Turn to page 88 to practise rapport

building. You can evaluate your
performance using the feedback form
on the website.
Impact techniques

I want to talk a mi nute about repetition ...

I want to talk a minute about repetition. It's very. very important
in any speech that you do two things - repetition, restatement.
You have to remember that you wrote the speech, you researched
the speech, you studied and practised the speech, you basically
married the speech. You know it, but we don't. So you have to
repeat and restate the important points. I repeat, you have to
repeat and res tate the important points.
Tracy Goodwin, communication professor

1 How many examples of repetition and restatement can you find in Tracy Goodwin's
comments? Think about words, phra ses. sen t ences, sounds.

2 2.08 Create greater impact in th e presentation extracts below by replacing one word
in each with a word that has already been used . The first one has been done for you as an
example. The n listen and check your answers.
a It's not a question of qualifications. It's a f'ft'ftttef of talent.
b I always say total quality begins with absolute commitment.
c What's the use of setting goals if your objectives are unrealistic?
d One thing we don't need is more data. We 're drowning in information as it is!
e A decline in the market doesn't have to mean a drop in sales as well.
f We're still running at zero profit. But. from nothing the only w ay is up.

3 ., 2,09 Look at t he statem ents below and underline wo rds you could repeat after a short
pause to increase yo ur impact. The first one has been done for you as an example. Th en
listen and check your answe rs.
a First of all, I'm pleased to report that profits are !.!Q by 38%.
First of all, I'm pleased to report that profits are up ... up by 3&%.
b It's a cliche, I know, but this firm has always put its people first.
c Ladies and gentlemen, it's time to face the facts.
d So, that's what happened - w hat I want to know is: why did we let it happen?
e What's really important for us to do right now is this ...
f One thing j know: we must never again lose our sense of focus.
9 Nobody likes failure, but some people are more afraid of success.
h We've come a long w ay to get to w here we are today.
And today we're announcing our biggest breakthrough ever.

4 .., 2.10 A very effective repetit ion technique

is to echo the first word of yo ur statement at

th e end. This is sometimes ca lled the James 'Bond,
Bond technique. Complete the sta t emen t s James Bond.'
opposite by putting the same wo rd in both Sean Connery
gaps. Then listen and check your answers. in Or No
nothing everything anything no one everyone nowhere

a ........... have we been more successful than in South America - ............... .

b has ever been able to beat us on price - ............................ .
c ........ ..................... in the beta test was positive about the product - ................
d ........... is beyond us if we work together as a team - ............................ .
e............... ........ would be better than the system we've got at the moment - ...... .
f ............................ in this market is about to change-

5 A mantra is a key phrase that is repeated 'Yes, we can!' }

several times throughout a speech - for Barack Obama
example, Barack Obama's 'Yes, we can!' Think
of a presentation of your own. Can you reduce
your key message to a mantra of no more than
seven words? Compare with others in your
group. Briefly give the background to your
presentation and suggest improvements to
each other's mantras if you can.

6 Repeating certain sounds can add power to your key points. Advertisers use this
technique a lot. Look at the following famous examples and identify the sounds being
repeated. Some repeat more than one.

Pleasing people the world over. {Holiday Inn} Fly the friendly skies. (United Airlines)
You can be sure of Shell. (Royal Dutch Shell) Don't dream it. Drive it. (Jaguar)
Where do you want to go today? {Microsoft} Sense and simplicity. (Phi/ips)
Probably the best beer in the world. (Carlsberg) Functional. Fashionable. Formidable. (Fila)

7 C. 2.11 Now replace the word in bold in each of the statements below with a close
synonym that echoes the highlighted sounds in the rest of the sentence. The first one has
been done for you as an example. Then listen and check your answers.
a Properly priced, packaged and adveFtised, this product cannot fail.
b China is not our main market, but it may be a significant market in the future.
c Of course. this is a serious problem to which there's no easy solution.
d [n the world of international finance this company remains a formidable force.
e I know that if we w ork together as a group we can take on the competition.
f If we cannot challenge change, then we have no option but to embrace it.
g If we don't manage to break even on this by Q4 we may even go under.

8 ( . 2.12 Turn to page 88 to practise using repetition for dramatic impact. When you've
rewritten and delivered your short presentation, you can evaluate your performance using
the feedback form on the website. Then listen and compare your version with the one on
the CD.

Impact techniques

Is there anything you can do to get your message

across with greater impact? Are there any techniques
that all successful speakers use to inspire, persuade
and enthuse their audiences? And, if so, can anyone
learn to use them? The good news is that the answer
{Q all these questions is an emphatic yes. The same

rhetorical techniques that were originally defined by

the ancient Greeks are still very much alive and well
today. They are the way effective speakers speak.
Max Atkinson. Henley Business School

1 Max Atkinson is the world's top researcher into audience reactions to public speakers. In
his comments above find examples of:
a repetition of words and sounds b rhetorical questions c groups of three

2 Why do you think rhetori ca l questions are so powerful in a presentation?

3 Phrasing a key point as a question and echoing the question in the answer is often more
effective than just making your point. look at the example and transform the other
statements in a similar way.
a Piracy is the main challenge we face.
So, what's the main challenge we face? The main challenge is piracy.
b Viral marketing is the answer.
c Converting leads into sales is the problem.
d China is where the best opportunities are.
e Big-budget advertising simply doesn't work, that's my point.
f Give our project teams more autonomy, that's the plan.

4 . .. 2.13 Work with a partner. Can you think of another rhetorical question you could add
on to the end of each extract in 37 Then listen and compare your ideas with those on the

5 et 2.14 Certain rhetorical questions are very common in presentations. Complete the ones
below using the pairs of words in the box. Then listen and check your answers.

where + go hen I de w hat + do w hy + selling what + talking

how soon + expect where + did what + waiting how much + wasted

a We've tripled revenues in two years. So . ..........baw. .......... did we ........... ao............. it?
b The whole of central Asia is one big golden opportunity. So . ............................. are we
............................. for?
c We poured millions into this venture and it flopped. So . .... ..................................................... we
go wro ng?

d When t he patents run ou t on thi s product, our competitors will legally be able to clone it.
So, ............................. are we going t o ............................. about it?
e We spend fifty million dollars a year on internet advertising alone. But ............................ of
t hat is ............................. ?
f It's by far the most cost-effective system on th e market. So, ... .. ......... isn't it
............................. ?
9 In spite of offering excell ent salaries and benefits, we're st ill failing to retain key personnel.
So, ............................. do we ............................. from here?
h Retooling the plants is not going to be cheap. So, ............................ sort of f jgure are we
............................ about?
We've considerab ly stepped up our R&D activity. So, .......................... can we ............. .
to see results?

6 Choose a rh etori cal question fro m 5 or formulate on e of your own and use it to create
a 20-s econd presentation of your own product or service or one you kn ow w ell. Use the
follow ing three-part structure:
Present th e situation -7 Ask a rhetorical question -7 Answe r the rhetorical question

7 Grouping points in thre es seems to alm ost magically make th em more memorable. Match
up the thre e presentation extract s below :
a What will it take to achieve our goals? d In Canada, Russia and Scandinavia.
b How do we plan to become a more e Time, effort and tenacity.
socially responsible firm? f Through our total commitment to clean
c Where do our key markets lie? energy, sustainability and fair trade .

a b .... c

A biUion hou rs ago, human life appeared on

earth. A billion minutes ago, Christianity
emerged. A billion seconds ago, the Beatles
changed music for ever ... A billion Coca-Colas
ago, was yesterday morning.
Roberto Coizueta, former CEO Coca-Cola

8 .t 2.15 Now. t o ea ch of th e extra cts in 7 add a

fou rth point as th e ' punchline'. Try delive rin g all
fou r points, rememberi ng t o pause after the third.
Th en list en and co mpare yo ur ve rsion w ith the one
on the CD.
a But, most of all, through our comm itment
to people.
b But, first and foremost, Germany.
c But, above all, talent.

9 Cf 2,16 Work w ith a partner. l ook at LIlt:! l1ule~ un pag e 89 and rew rite th em as a
presentation using as many impact t echniques as you can. Compare yo ur versi on w it h
oth ers in th e class. You can eva luate your performance using the feedback form on the
w ebsite, Then listen and co mpare it w ith th e one on the CD.

Impact techniques

Wise men talk because they have something to say; fools because
they have to say something.
{ Plato. Creek philosopher

1 ( f 2,17Simple contrasts and opposites can be very effective in a presentation: good and
bad, past and present, us and them. Complete the statements below using the idea of
contrast to help you. Then listen and check your answers.
a This year w e're number t wo in the market. Th is L ............ .............. n. ................... ........ year, we'll
be n..... ..................... ... 0 ....... .......... ..... ... .
b As they say. it's not a matter of doing t hi ngs right. It's a m............................ of
d............................ the r. .. ...... ....... ........... th .. .
c I'm not asking you to say yes today. I'm a. . .... ........ ......... ... y....... . ......... not to
5.. ..... ... ... .. ..... ....... .. n............................. .
d I'm not saying it's a good or::tion. I'm 5...... . it's 0 .. .. ........ on .............................
0 .... ..... .... ... .. ... ... .. .. .

e They say you shou ld look before you leap. Is.............. . ..le........
th .. ......... ................ I.................... .
f Five years ago we had an idea . To............................ it has be. ........................... a
rea .................... .
9 If we don't seize this opportunity. so............ . ....... el.. .. .... w.
h We may never be the biggest, but we c ........................... st. .. .. be the
be ..... ........................ .

2 Choose two or three of the sets of opposites below and create a contrast for each that is
relevant to a company, product or service you know, Stand up and present them to the
rest of your group.

NO ~~l YES THEM j+...k US

PAST j4-

BAD -+I'

AIM j4-

- 3 Great speakers make sure they create
a sense of excitement by using vivid,

expressive language - power language. The
presentation extracts opposite sound pretty
dull. Inject some enthusiasm into them by
Unbelievable! replacing the adjectives and verbs in bold
with more vivid ones. Compare ideas with a
Revolutionary! partner.


a It's a big market. e It's an attractive design.
b We've changed t he industry, f We've reduced costs.
c It's a new product. 9 These are good results,
d We 've beaten the competition. h Revenues have increased.

4 ~ '2.-' a Read the following statements. Decide where you could create extra emphasis
and add the intensifiers in the order t hey are listed. Deliver each statement. stressing the
w ords you added. Then listen and check your answers.
exceptionally even
a We've doneAwell this' year - Abetter than last year, in fact. (exceptionally, even)
b If w e believe in this company, we need to be com mitted to its success. (truly, one hundred
c It's done better than we expected in a short space of time. (dramatically, such)
d It's encouraging to see people wo rking together as a team, (just so, really)
e We now dominate the sector, even though it's competitive, (totally, so highly)
f We've invested in R&D and I'm delighted to say that that investment has paid off, (heavily,
absolutely, a hundredfold)
9 Every unit has performed well and I believe th is is the beginning of an exciting period for
this company, (superlatively, genuinely, just. tremendously)

5 Metaphor is when you describe one thing in terms of another to create impact. For
example, when people talk about markets being flooded or prices slashed, they are
speaking m etaphorically. If metaphors are used too often they lose power and becom e
cliches. But used sparingly they can be very effective. Number t he metaphors below
according to the category they belong to:

w ipe out the competition outpace our competitors

grow our business join forces fall behind
build a firm foundation for future business
start to see the fruits of our efforts come under attack
win back market share rethink our strategy be overtaken
play as a team reinforce our position
catch up with t he market leaders build a reputation
leve l the playing field get to the root of the problem
1 Business is a sport bring out t he big guns cultivate re lationships
reconstruct our image hit the ground running
get in on the ground floor be in a different league

2 Business is a r ace 3 Business is war 4 Business is a 5 Business is

construction site nature

6 Turn to page 89 to practise adding imagery and power to yo ur speech.

lmpact techniques

It continually fascinates me that top business managers and other professionals

go on courses at considerable expense in order to learn basic oral skills - th e same
skills that are taught to a first-yea r d rama student. Class ical rhe tori c, like good
acting technique, had val ues we can resurrect a nd explore . Think of it as a series
of tools that help you feel your way toward s a fuller expression of words.
Patsy Rodenburg, acting coach

1 What are the most important similarities and differences between acting and presenting?

2 Whenever you combine rhetorical techniques, you multiply the ir impact. Use the
knowledge of impact techniques you've built up to analyse the following movie extracts
and find good examples of:
a rh etorical quest ions c repetition of sounds e groups of th ree (plus one)
b repetition of word s d co ntrast s and opposites f co mbination s of t he above

Dan Futterman in Shooting Fish

Mr Greenway, do you know why you're here? You're here to see te chnology at its most
advanced. You're here to buy a seventh-generation computer. A computer you can talk to.
A computer that'll talk to you. This is Johnson. It's the first comp uter to be truly free of a
keyboard. Mr Greenway, nobody likes to type. Everybody likes to tal k. Do you like to talk? I
like to talk. Johnson here doesn't just understand 3,000 words, not just 6,000 words - the
common everyday vocabulary of you or me - Johnson understands 80,024 words.

Michael Douglas in Wall Street

I am not a destroyer of companies. I am a liberator of them. The point is, ladies and
gentlemen, that greed, for lack of a better word, is good, Greed is right, Greed works,
Greed clarifies, cuts through and captures the essence of th e evolutionary spirit. Greed
in all of its forms. Greed for life, for money, for love, knowledge, has marked the upw ard
surge of mankind, and greed, you mark my words, w ill not only save Teldar Paper, but
that other malfunctioning corporation called the USA.

Aaron Eckhart in Thank You for Smoking

In 1910 the US was producing 10 billion cigarettes a year. By 1930 we were up to 123
billion. What happened in between? Three things: a world war, dieting, and movies.
1927: talking pictures are born. Suddenly, directors need to give their actors something
to do whi le they're talking, Cary Grant, Carole Lombard are lighting up; Bette Davis: a
chimney. And Bogart: remember the first picture w ith him and Lauren Bacall? She says:
'Anyone got a matchT And Bogey throws the matches at her and she catches them -
greatest romance of the century. How'd it start? Lighting a cigarette. These days when
someone smokes in the movies, they're either a psychopath or a European. The message
Hollywood needs to send out is: smoking is cool. Most of the actors smoke already. If
they start doing it on screen, we can put the sex back into cigarettes.

3 Choose one of the movie extracts in 2 and reduce it to notes you can w rite on five prompt
cards. Try not to have more than six word s o n e :::l c n c:::lrcL

4 Deliver the presentation from your notes. Don't even try to reproduce the original! Just
have fun with it and use as many impact techniques as you can. But stick to your natural
style - relaxed, dynamic or whatever suits you best.

5 . 2.19 listen to recordings of the three presentations. Concentrate on the w ay the

speeches are delivered. If you'd like to, have another go yourself.

6 2.20 Impact techniques are not only useful in formal platform speeches, they can
also be very powerful in more re laxed, conversational presentations. Compare the two
performances below of Carly Fiorina, former CEO of Hewlett-Packard. listen and read . Then
answer the questions be\ow.

Good morning. What you just saw is an ad that will begin

running this morning. We call this ad Anthem. It's part of a
campaign that will feature the stories of our customers and
how they use our technology. And all of these customers that
we will feature have one thing in common. Every one of them
was told that what they hoped to accomplish was impossible.
Fed Ex was told they'd never make an overnight delivery
service work. Amazon was told they'd never make online
retailing work. BMW's Formula One team was told they'd
never make a car that rivals Ferrari. In every single case,
they proved the skeptics wrong. And in every single case, HP
was there. Why is this the face we have chosen to show the
world? Because it's about everything we can achieve, working
together. It's an affirmation of our belief that progress is not
made by the cynics and the doubters, it is made by those who
believe that everything is possible. Now is not the easiest
time for the IT industry, or around the world, for that matter.
But in these uncertain times, it is our capacity to look ahead,
our capacity to build a better future, our
capacity to develop practical solutions that
make our work all the more essential.

Presentation at Comdex Computer Expo

a Fiorina uses one impact technique more

t han all t he others co mbined . Which
one is it an d what effect does it have?
b Wh at are the functions of t he two
rhetorical questions Fiorina uses?
c What can you say about th e way Fiorina
varies the length of her sentences?
d What rh etorica l differences do you
notice between t he two speeches?

7 Turn to page 90 to practise using impact t echniques yourself. You can evaluate your
performance using th e feedback form on the website.


Storytelling is the single most powerful

{ tool in a leader's tooikir.

Or Howard Cardner. Harvard Professor
of Cognition and Education

The choice for leaders in business and

organizations is not whether to be involved in
storytelling - they can hardly do orhe-rwisf' - hut
rather whether to use storytelling unwittingly
and clumsily or intelligently and skilfully.
Steve Den ning, author of The Lead er's
Guide to Storytelling and The Secret
Language of Leadership

1 Consider the comments by the st orytel ling experts above and discuss these questions wi th
a partner:
a How far do you agree with Or Howard Gardner about the power of storytelling? What kind
of stories do leaders need to tell?
b Is it only leaders who need to tell stories? What about frontline managers, accountants,
technicians and IT support staff? What about you?
c What do you think Steve Denning means by a story told 'intelligently and skilfully'?

2 Telling stories is a powerful tec hnique at any stage in a presentation. but particularly
at the beginning and end. Ed Brodow is an actor. author and leading negotiation skills
trainer. Read t he opening opposite of his keynote speech at the Pentagon and match the
storytelling t echniques he uses to the highlighted parts of the text:
a Create drana d Deliver the punchline 9 Set the scene
b Signal the end of the story e Involve the audience
c Establish credibility f Link to the theme of the presentation

A couple of years ago, a man walks into a sandwich shop in Delray Beach, Florida - -+-----1
and orders a meatball sandwich. So the owner starts to fix the meatball sandwich
when all of a sudden the customer pulls out a gun and he says: 'This is a stickup! - - f - - I
Give me all the cash in the register!' Now, I don't know what you would do in a
situation like that. Admiral, what wou ld you do in that situation? You'd give him
the money. I sure would give him the money. What would you do? You'd give him
the money. Well, that's not w hat happened. By the way, this is a true story. That's
not what happened. The owner of the shop puts down the meatba ll sandwich,
looks at the robber and he says: 'Listen, pal. We've had a really bad month.' He
says: 'Businpss hr\s been terrible. Wou ld you settl e for ten d ollars a nd the meatball
sandwich?' Now, I'm not making this up. This was in the paper. He says: 'Will you
settle for ten dollars and the meatball sandwich?' So the gunman says: 'Are you
crazy?' He says: 'I've got a gun here! I'm not settling for ten dollars and the meatball
sa ndwich.' He says: 'I'm not settling for anything less than twenty dol la rs and the
meatball sandwich!' So, the owner says: 'You got a deal\' Gives him the twenty
bucks, gives him the meatball sandwich. You know what it said in the paper? It said:
'And the robber left satisfied.' ... My subject today is the courage to negotiate. - - - + - -- - - {

3 look back at th e presentation extract in 2 and answer the qu ~s Liul1 s.

a Which grammatical tense is used more to tell the story: the past simple or the
present simple? Why?
b There are a lot of questions in the story - real, reported and rhetorical. What
effect does this have?
C Brodow quotes what the people in the story actually said. Why is th is so effective?
d How many examples of repetition of key words can you find in the story? Why is
repetition so important in a story?
Ed Brodow. negotiation
4 2.21 Work with a partner. Listen to Brodow's prese ntation. Reme mbering expert, keynote
wh at yo u've lea rn ed about vo ice and delivery, one of you should mark the pauses speaker and author of
and the louder parts of the extract. The other should mark th e strollgly stlesseu Negotiation Boot Camp
words (see Module 3).

5 Now combine your notes to team-present the story with energy!

6 .t 2.22 Listen to four business people from different countries giving tips on telling stories
in presentations and take brief notes under the headings below :

Rapport Timing Humour Credibility Influence

7 Work w ith a partn er to practise retelling a story. One of you should turn to page 90 and
the other to page 91.


People don't want more information. They are up to their eyeballs in information. More
facts will not help them. A story will. A story will help them figure out what all these facts
mean. If you let the 'facts speak for themselves', you risk an interpretation that does not fit
your intentions. When you give a story first and then add facts, you stand a better chance of
influencing others to share your interpretation.
Annette Simmons, founder of Croup Process Consulting and author of The Story Factor

1 Why do you think Annette Simmons recommends telling a story first and then presenting
your facts rather than doing it the other way round?

2 An anecdote is a true story about your own life. How can this be even more effective than
a story about someone else?

3 .t 2.23 Listen to three presenters telling anecdotes and answer the questions:
a The first presenter is talking to a group of young entrepreneurs in Singapore. How does her
story help her to build rapport with her audience?
b The second presenter is an Argentinian Customer Relationship Management (CRM)
specialist addressing an international group of hotel managers. How does he use statistics
and humour to make his point?
c The third presenter is a German business school professor talking at an international HR
directors' conference. What makes his story so effective?

4 What key skills does a storyteller need? With a partner complete the mind map below
using the words in the box.

draw quote use let stick involve exaggerate

your descriptions
a little

in the story

5 ( . 2.24 Change the reported speech in the story extracts opposite into direct speech.
And. instead of using the attitude words in bold. let your voice communicate the same
emotion. The first one has been done for you as an example. Listen and compare your
versions with the ones on the CD.
a She looked up from her desk and rather angrily asked me what I wanted.
She looked up from her desk and said: 'What do you want)"
b He cheerfully admitted that, to be honest. t,e didn"t "now the first thing about
c He abruptly told me not to interrupt him when he was speaking.
d I laughingly replied that he'd got to be joking!
e She took me to one side and whispered rather secretively that she had some information
I might be interested in.
f He pointed out rather officiously that he was afraid that wasn't his job.
9 She remarked sarcastically that. of course, I was the world's expert on customer relations.
wasn't 17
h He yelled at the top 01 his voice that he couldn't hear himself think!

6 I) 2,25 Rewrite the story extract on page 90 using present tenses w here they will create
more impact and changing reported speech into more immediate direct speech. Then
stand up and deliver your revised vers ion, making sure you use your voice and gestures to
bring the story to life fo r your group. listen and compare your vers ion with the one on
the CD,

7 A certain amount of exaggeration is permissible in a good story. But this means you may
need to use a w ider range of vocabulary. Work with a partner. For each of the neutral
adjectives below, think of a more exaggerated adjective using the initial letters to help
you, Can you think of any others?
a tired (ex ... ) f cold (fr ... ) k beautiful (gor ... ) p frightening (te ... )
b hungry (sta ... ) 9 hot (bo ... ) ugly (hid ... ) q funny (hil ... )
c big (en ... ) h clever (br ... ) m clean (spa ... ) r interesting (fa ... )
d small (ti ... ) good (su ... ) n dirty (fi ... ) s surprising (as ... )
e difficult (im ... ) bad (Iou ... ) o strange (bi ... ) t exciting (thr ... )

8 Whe n is t he last time something surprising I exciting I interesting I strange I frightening

happened to you? Briefly tell the story,

9 A 'simile' is when you say something is like something else. Work wit h a partner. Match the
similes on the right to the statements on the left:
a Their IT centre was so modern. 9 It was like a family reunion!
b We got such a warm welcome in h It was like being in the freezer at a meat-
Singapore. packing plant'
c It was so dark in the auditorium. It was like we'd won the World Cup!
d They were so difficult to understand. It was like meeting aliens from another planet!
e It was so co ld on the plane. k It was like the flight deck on the Starship Enterprise!
f Everyone was so happy about the It was like midnight at the bottom of a coal mine!

a b c ....... . d ....... . e I ....... .

10 You're going to build your own anecdote step by step. Turn to page 91 and follow the
instructions . You can evaluate you r performance using the feedback form on the website.

Q&A sessions

You've told a compelling story, you've designed

dazzling PowerPoint slides, you've delivered your
message confidently, and now you open the floor
to questions. Unless you manage this part of your
presentation effectively, all of your other efforts will
go up in smoke. You must stand tall in the line of
fire and learn how to handle tough questions.
Jerry Weissman, Power Presentation Ltd

1 Leading corporate presentations coach Jerry Weissman has worked with high-profile
companies such as CiseQ, Microsoft and Yahoo! How important is Q&A in the talks you have
to give? How do you 'manage this part of your presentation'?

2 (t 2.26 Listen to pairs of speakers briefly comparing how they handle questions from the
audience. After hearing each pair, underline the speaker you agree with more and explain
why to a partner.
a First I second speaker because ... e First I second speaker because ...
b First I second speaker because .. . f First! second speaker because .. .
c First! second speaker because .. . 9 First! second speaker because .. .
d First! second speaker because .. . h First I second speaker because .. .

3 The speakers in 2 refer to different types of question. Complete the main question types:
a a g .......d question d an unn ....c.. ..ss .... ry question
b a d....ff... .c....It question e a m. .. .lt....pL. .. question
c an .... ff-t....p....c question f a h....st...I.. .. question

4 Look at Kees Garman's 08 system for handling questions. What strategy or combination of
strategies would work best for each type of question in 37

Deal with the question straight away

Define exactly what the question is first
Defuse any negativity before answering
Divide up the question into sub-questions
Deflect the question onto someone else
Defer answering the question until later
Disarm the questioner by admitting you don't know
Decline to answer the question but give a reason
Kees Carman, communications coach

5 Now, bearing in mind the D8 syst em . mat ch up each of the six question t ypes in 3 with
how you mi ght actu al ly respond. using th e se ntences below.
Question type
good ...................... difficult ...................... offtopic ......................
unnecessary ...................... multiple ...................... hostile ......................

a b c
I think that raises a What are your thoughts I think there are several
slightly different issue. on the matter? questions there.

d e f
Well , as I might have I'm glad you asked me I'm afraid I'm not able to
mentioned ... . t hat. d iscuss that, but ...

9 I'm afraid I don't know h

OK, let's take those one Let me just check I
off the top of my head. at a time. understand you correctly.

Hmm, I wonder what Sorry, I don't quite see I don't have that
other people think? the connection. information to hand.

m n 0
OK. so I think your main I'll find out. Can I get Ah, perhaps I didn't
question there is ... back to you on that? make that clear.

p q r
Alicia here might be a
Ah , yes, thank you for To be quite honest with
better person to answer
rem inding me. you, I really don 't know.
that. Alicia?

6 .._ 2.27 You heard one of th e speakers in 2 ta lk abo ut t he import ance of repeatin g t he
questi ons you're asked before an swering. Repeat t he questions below using th e words in
italics to help yo u. Then list en and check yo ur answers.
a Are you planning to go public with this? You're asking me whether ...
b Are we in a pOSition to take on more work? You want to know if ...
c How do you see the market developing? You ask me .. .
d What are our chances of success? You 're wondering .. .
e When is the lau nch date going to be? You'd like ...

7 ..t 2.28 Yo u also hea rd one of th e speakers say t hat hostile questions need t o be
rephrased. Rep hrase t he questions bel ow usi ng t he words in bracket s t o help you. Listen
and check.
a Why did we spend so much on this? (asking - why - scale - investment - necessary)
b Are these figures accurate7 (like me - go through - some - figures again)
c Why is this project six months behind schedule? (have - some concerns - timeframe)
d Is this really going to be wo rth it? (like - look again - some advantages - new system)
e Is anybody actually in charge of this unit? (have - question - management structure)
f Do you honestly expect us to support this? (not fully convinced - benefits - initiative)

8 Tu rn t o page 92 to pract ise handling neut ral and hostile questions.

9 Turn to page 92 to practise dealing w ith all th e different types of questi on. You can
evaluate your performance using the feedback f orm on t he webs ite.

Q&A sessions

After you've prepared your I don't do much by way of

material, write down the twenty thinking of all the questions
questions that the audience is they might ask and preparing
most likely to ask. Be prepared answers. 1 do spend a lot of time
to answer them. This may thinking about the key themes,
surprise you, but yOll will have how they link together and the
figured out at least ninety best way of explaining them.
percent of the questions. Marjorie 5cardino. CEO
Sue Gaulke, Suc<...e))works Pcarson PLC

1 Think of a presentation you have given or may have to give in the fut ure. Take Marjorie
Scardino's advice and list the key th emes of your talk - list no more than three. Work out
how you could link them together.

Theme 1 Theme 2 Theme 3

2 Now take Sue Gaulke's advice and w rite down three questions you thin k you r audienc e
wou ld be likely to ask about each theme.

Ql Ql Ql

Q2 Q2 Q2

Q3 Q3 Q3

3 Work with a partner. Briefly outline the themes of your presentation to him/her and be
prepared to clarify if necessary. Th en take the questions one by one plus any followup
questions yo ur partn er may have.

4 Which themes we re hardest to exp lain? Did you lack vocabulary at any point? Which
questions we re the toughest to answer? Why? What strategies could you have used to
handle them better?

5 ~. 2.29 Sometimes. especi ally in less individualistic cultures. an invitation to ask questions
can init ially be met w ith silence! listen to three speakers trying to deal w ith this. Whose
approach would suit you best?

6 Mat ch the expressions (a- j) opposite to their funct ions by w riting in t he co rresponding
letter. The first one has been done for yo u as an example.
a b c d e
You claimed Going back But you I want to take You told us ....
that .... Could for a moment still haven't you up on Do you have
you tell us how to what you answered what you said any data to
you arrived at were saying my question . about ... sUtlpmt that?
that fig ure? 0 about . 0. D w hi ch is ... D D D

f 9 h
I think you OK, then. Oh , OK, fair When you were One th ing I'm
mentioned , ... Well, let me enough. Point outrlning ... , you still not clear
Could you just put it another taken. I see said .... What about. Did you
elaborate on way ... what you're exactly did you say ... or am I
that? D D saying. D mean? D mistaken? D

a asking for an explanation f asking for proof
b making a criticism 9 clearing up a misund erstanding
c referring to an earlier point h pushing for an answer
d rephrasing a question conceding a point
e querying a point asking for more detail

7 . 2.30 A management consultant has just given a presentation on marketing strategy.

listen to five short exchanges from the Q&A session which followed. Write the functions in
6 in the order you hear the audience members using them. The first on e has been done for
you as an example.
Extract 1 I"l D Extract 2 DD Extract 3 0 D Extract 4 DD Extract 5 0 D
8 Turn to page 93 to practise fielding quest ions.

9 As you ca n see in some of the expressions in 6, when asking questions at the end of a
presentation, it's often useful to set the co ntext before you ask the question.
(Context) You claimed t hat ... (Question) Can you tell us how you ... ?
(Context) You mentioned ... (Question) Could you just elaborate on that?

Sometimes you need to set the co ntext in two stages as you zoom in on your question:
(Context) When you were outlining ... (Zoom) you sa id ... (Question) What exactly did you mean?

Now turn to page 93 to practise contextualising your questions in this way. You can
evaluate your performance using the feedback form on th e w ebsite.

10 Why do you think it might not be such a good idea to finish your presentation with the
Q&A sess ion? See what public spea kin g pro Tom Ant ion has to say about it, And good luck
in your future presentations!

Ma ny public speakers make their biggest mistakes during their question and
answe r sessions. The presemer has a great program, does a powerful close,
opens the floor up to questions, answers them well, and then ... fades off the
stage into oblivion, never to be seen again. OK maybe not that dramatic, but
still et big mistake. If you don't have a second powerful close after the Q&A
period, it could have a negative impact on your whole presentation. Make sure
you have two good closes whenever there is a possibility of a Q&A session.
Tom Antion, professional public speaker. AmazingPublicSpeaking.com

Bringing it all together

Congratulations! You've successfully completed the course. Now comes the tricky
part - bringing it all together in your own dynamic presentation .
{ Mark Powell. author of Dynamic Presentations

Choose a presentation (or part of a presentation) you have given in the past or may
have to give in the future. Alternatively, select any interesting topic you'd like to be
able to talk about. You may find it helpful to start off by mindmapping some initial

2 Can you reduce you r basic message to

Key a single phrase or sentence? You may
Ideas for Ideas for
themes need to think about this!
opening closing
Key message:

Memorable Interesting
quotes data

Ideas for Ideas for

visuals humour

3 Now sketch out the structure of your presentation using sticky notes, a whiteboard or
some ot her non-digital device. Don't rus h th is stage.

Opening Close
What's your Theme I Theme Z Theme 3 What's your
ABCD? classic dose?
V __- V __. V
Link Link Link

Attention Supporting Supporting Supporting Summary

point I point I point I

- Wise

- Supporting
point Z
point Z
point Z
Credibility "d'
"'" ----......... message

Supporting Supporting Supporting

Call for
point 3 point 3 point 3

r '
4 Look at the presentation plan you created in 3 and consider the following:
a You know audience attention peaks in th e first and last few minutes of your talk. Have you
designed a sufficiently powerful opening 'hook'? Are you closing with a 'bang '?
b You can create more peaks of interest throughout your talk by alternating good meaty
content with entertaining stories, examples and visuals. This is sometimes referred to as
having 'steak and sizzle'. Check your plan. Have you got the right balance? You don't want
all steak and no sizzle (dull. heavy content) or all sizzle and no steak (plenty of fun but
nothing to say)!

5 As you know. you can add more sizzle by putting key facts and figures into interesting
contexts. Have you done this?

6 Add further impact using some of the techniques you've been practising on this course.

Repetition Groups Contrasts
Rhetorical Similes (sport. war.
(words. of three and
questions (it's like .! growth.
sounds) (plus one) opposites
- * - ~

7 Now go to your PowerPoint or Keynote application and design your slides. As you prepare,
a Have you put too much information on any of the slides? If so, cut it down to the essentials
or create another slide.
b Have you got attractive, relevant images or just charts and diagrams? Remember to keep
your visuals visual.
c Have you chose n the largest font size possible? Don't forget the 10-20-30 rule.
d Have you left yourse lf anything to say about the slides or do they say everything for you? If
you don't want to compete with your visuals, make sure they only tell half the story.

8 When you've got your slides more or less how you want them, run through your
presentation a few times with them. If you can, ask someone to listen to you and give you
feedback. Your slides should help you to stay on track. but don't use them as notes - you're
supposed to know what slide is coming next!

9 You're almost ready! But first, take a few

moments to prepare for the kind of questions Defer
your audience might ask. Think especially of any Defuse
difficult questions that could come up. Do you
remember how to handle:
unnecessary questions? Deal with
multiple questions?
off-topic questions? Disarm
Divide up

You might want to refresh your memory of the
DB system.

OK, you're on! Time to give your presentation.

You can evaluate your final performance using Decline
the feedback form on the website. Good luck! Deflect


Audio scripts
Track 1.02 Extract 4: I think it was David Extract 2: OK, I'm going to break
1 A Exercise 5 5arnoff, the ex-president of RCA, off in a moment. So let's take a look
who said: 'Competition brings out back at what we've spoken about this
Extract 1: What's in a name? If your
the best in products and the worst morning. We've looked at the five ways
most valuable asset is your brand,
in people.' And of no two companies a product can fail. First. we looked at
everything. For example. did you know
is that more true than of Coke and extension failures - trying to st retch
that for over 20 years Apple Computers
Pepsi. Between these two soft drinks your brand too far, as Harley Davidson
was locked in a legal dispute w ith
giants the competition could not be did w hen it tried to make perfume!
Apple Corps, t he holding company
more aggressive. My favourite joke We also looked at PR failures and the
owned by The Beatles. over their
about that is t he one about the Pepsi R.J. Reynolds Joe Came! campaign,
right to use the Apple name? And did
executive who gets called into the marketing cigarettes to young people.
you know that the gia nt American
boss's office. 'I'm sorry, Doug,' says Then we looked at cultural fai lures
brewer Anheuser-Busch is still unable
the boss, 'but I'm going to have to fire and KFC in Hong Kong. We moved
to call Budweiser beer 'Sudweiser' in
you. It's a little embarrassing, but you on to look at people failures at Planet
Germany and France because that's
tested positive for Coke.' OK, we' re Hollywood and Fashion Cafe. Finally,
the registered name belonging to the
talking today about what it means to we looked at failures of ideas. And it
Budvar brewery in the Czech Republic?
be 'competitive'. So, just for a minute is from t hese that we can learn t he
Today I wa nt to talk to you about the
or two, could you turn to a partner and biggest lesson, The list of failed product
multi-billion-dollar business of creating
discuss what the word 'competitive' ideas is almost endless. Kellogg's Cereal
and prot ecting brand identity.
means to you? Mates. Pepsi AM, the Ba rbie computer,
Extract 2: You know. there's
a common misconception that
Extract 5: As small business owners, Clairol's 'Touch of Yoghurt' shampoo -
you know your number one enemy is all jokes in their respective industries.
mergers just don't work. In fact. we're
cash flow and that you need to keep But behind each of these spectacular
repeatedly told that 70 to 80% of
generating new business to survive. For fai lures was the basis for a brilliant idea.
them fail. And it's true that one of the
over a decade, attracting customers To create future successes we have
biggest of all time. the $180 billion
has meant having a website and maybe only to revisit the fai lures of the past ...
AOL Time Warner merger went bad ly
advertising online . But it's hard to Thanks very much.
wrong. But t hat's the thing. It's mega-
mergers that faiL When you merge
know just how effective that is when. Extract 3: You know, I've been
according to the latest survey, there where you are now . I've sat in a six-by-
with innovative sma ller businesses,
are now over 100 million websites six cubicle with a list of cold leads and
it's a different story - particularly in
out there! How wou ld you like to be a telephone just waiting for me to pick
research-intensive industries like yours.
able to have someone target potential it up and start calling. But in my day it
Take pharmaceuticals . To date, pfizer
customers for you, generate sales calls was easier. I can remember when it was
has formed successful alliances with
and maximise sales conversion? Just just a question of going out there and
over a thousand biotech start-ups. And
imagine what it wou ld be like to know getting the business. It took dedication,
in IT Cisco averages one small business
that for every t housand dollars you indestructible self-confidence and a
acquisition every six weeks. Has it been
invest in sales, you are getting eight lot of hard work, but the business was
successful? Well, let's put it this way,
to ten times your investment in new there to be had. Today, you have to
Eighteen years after it went public its
business. I work for a company called create the business_ So, if you take just
market capitalisation is bigger than
leadTracker.com. We do one thing. one thing from this talk today, take
Dell, Xerox and Apple combined!
And we do it well. We get you noticed this. I used to be a salesman - and a
Extract 3: I'd like to talk to you this
onl ine. very good one. But you're more than
morning about data rescue or what
that. You're entrepreneurs, creating
to do when your computer goes into Track 1.03 business each and every day. For you,
meltdown, taking your data with it. So,
1 B Exercise 2 the challenges and the opport unities
to start off, could I ask you to raise your
Extract 7.- Ladies and gentlemen, to are so much greater. Enjoy the risks
hand if you've backed up your hard
disc in, oh, let's say. the last week ... 7 take this project to the next stage we you have to take, fo r with greater risks
Nobody? Right. OK. how about the last need you r tota l commitment to t he come greater rewards ... Thank you
ideas behind it. But we need more than very much.
month ... 7 Four people. OK. How about
ever? A dozen of you. Good. good for that. We need you to go back to your Extract 4: It was Ricardo 5emler,
divisions and units and project teams the Brazilian CEO and author of the
you! Backing up your hard disc is a bit
and become champions for this new best selling Maverick!, who sa id:
like making a dentist appointment. isn't
it7 We all know we should do it, but we in itiative. to spread the word and build 'Democracy has yet to penet rate
confidence in the new direction we are the workplace.' He said: 'There are
just keep putting it off. Well, the system
I'm going to show you today means about to take. Without you and your companies which are prepared to
that you'll never have to back up your people we cannot make this strategy change the way they work. They realise
data again ... and you'll never lose it. work, Without your actions, it's all just that nothing can be based on w hat
words, We're counting on you to make used to be, that there is a better way.
this happen .. . Thank you very much, But 99% of companies are not ready.
52 Audio scripts
They are caught in a kind of industrial schoolchildren took part in a stock luxury. Th e challenge for us, then, is
l urassic Park.' Well said. There are market simulation game and 80%of to make the lUXUry products we offer
enough dinosaurs in this industry of them managed to beat the index. more affordable, but no less luxurious.
ours already. If we want to be part of So, in actual fact, a professional What this means is: we need to
the one percent. we have to evolve. adviser might just be the worst person be introducing better payment plans,
And today's talk has been about how to to go t o for financial advice. For, in trade-in deals and preferential rates
speed up our evolution ... Thank you. reality. 'professional' doesn 't mean for insurance policies. I want to see
they're better. It simply means they us doing everything we can to make
~. Track 1.04 cha rge for being worse! the dream of owning a Mirage Turbo a
1 B Exercise 6 Extract 2: Could I just ask those practical reality for the customers we
of you who drive t o work to raise traditionally attract.
The audio script is in the module: 7B
Opening and closing. your hand if you actually enjoy the
experience? Well, don't worry. Help is QTrack 1.08
' Track 1.05 at hand . 28 Exercise 7
1 B Exercise 7 This is the CommuterMate, the Speaker: I read an article in
motorist's electronic friend. As you can Businessweek the other day entitled:
Speaker: As we go through this
see, it features CPS, which constantly 'How many management problems
morning, I'd like you to be asking
monitors car speed and gives you turn out to be people problems?' The
yourselves a question. How do you
1,000 metres' warn ing of police writer, who spent eight yea rs at the
know when you give a presentation
cameras. It also alerts you to traffic World Bank. seemed to think in pretty
that your audience is going to care
queues and accident hotspots. Plus, it much all of them. And I agree with
about what you have to tel l them?
includes free automatic online updates him. All problems are people problems.
Well. we 1I come back to that later ...
and can be plugged straight into your In IT. with our heads stuck in computer
... I start ed my presentation by
vehicle's cigarette lighter. manuals, I think we sometimes lose
asking you all a question. How do
What this means, in a nutshell, is sight of that.
you know your audience is going to
you can set it up in minut es and avoid As you know, over the last six
care about what you tell them? Now,
almost any kind of headache on the months we've been having problems
I' m going to answer that question.
road. But the greatest advantage of the with the introduction of new comp uter
Before you tell them what's in it for
CommuterM ate is that it has none of technology throughout the compa ny.
them, show t hem what's in it for you.
the usual reliability problems. Basically, the main difficulty has been
Show th em how much you care about
So, how does it measure up to the getting the different departments
it. Enthusiasm is infectious and so is
competition? Well. in terms of cost. it to adopt the new system. Another
indifference. If it matters to you, it wil l
compares very favourably with similar related problem, I think, has been a
matter to them ... Good luck in your
devices because, as I mentioned, the certain lack of respect between the
future presentations.
system automatically updates for free. operational and IT divisions. Poor
Track 1.06 And, as far as reliability is concerned, communication has also compounded
well, there's really no comparison. The the problem. We're simply not talking
2A Exercise 4
CommuterMate is in a class of its own to each other. And we need to fix that.
The audio script is in the module: 2A
So, what are the options? Well, one
Smooth structure. Extract 3: No one escapes a deep opt ion wou ld simply be to make full
recession - not even the rich. Did use of the new technology mandatory
.' Track 1 .07
you know that in the last 12 months across all departments. Anot her
28 Exercise 4 the four hundred richest people in alternative would be to set up a forum
Extract 7: They say 'an economist is an the USA have, between them, lost for members of different divisions to
expert who'll know tomorrow why the three hundred billon dollars? Three ... decide how best to implement the
things he predicted yesterday didn't hundred ... bill ion. That's huge. That's technology. Most ambitiously, it's been
happen today'. The same cou ld be said the annual COP of Hong Kong. Now for suggested that we should replace
of most financial advisers. the average working man or woman the current divisional structure of
In the world of investment. it this may not seem like a big deal. But the company with a more integrated
remains a popu lar misconception t hat in the lUXUry car industry it's a full-scale structure consisting of crossfunctional
if you want to beat the stock market. catastrophe! teams.
you really have to seek professional Th e global economic downturn we Because of the cost and complexity
advice. And people still tend to are currently suffering has hit us hard. of a corporate restructuring exercise, I
assume that w ith the assistance of Throughout the industry we are seeing th ink we can eliminate that last option
a professional financial adviser you major production slowdowns with right away. And we don't think simply
can't fail to get a better return on your the expectation of a sustained fall in issuing a directive is going to address
investment. demand. And here at Mirage we are the real problem, So we can rule out
Wrong. Statistically speaking, two- increasingly vulnerable to competition that option as well. In our view, our
th irds of City 'experts' underperform at the lower end of the luxury sector. best option is t o create a Knowledge
the stock market index. In fact. Does this cloud have a silver lining? I Management forum, a platfo rm for
according to some of the latest think it does. The fact that brands like discussion. But what will this involve?
research, this is a lot less than many BMW are seeing an increase in sales Well, our first priority is to get buy'
amateurs can achieve. In one st udy, proves that there is, most definitely, in from everyone in the company.
for example, a group of British still a market for luxury, but affordable Once we 've sorted that out, then
Audio scripts 53
we can decide what form that forum two sli des is very beautiful. but the Air as the world's thinnest notebook
should take - faceto~face, online or fi rst certainly has a lot of power. I like computer. Steve said it was so thin
buLtl? And, finally, what's needed s to the use of black and the panoramic you could put it in an ordinary office
set up a dedicated intra net. arrange photograph. Most important. it makes envelope. The audience laughed. So he
KM workshops, informationsharing a point - one point, the key po int. went to the side of the stage, picked
sessions and so on. Let's look at these which is, look, the market for 3D up an office envelope and proceeded
in more detail ... eyewear is going to be huge. And to open it. And inside, su re enough,
that's all the audience needs to know. there it was - the Mac Book Air. thin as
' Track 1.09 The rest the presenter can mention in a company report. Just brilliant,
3A Exercise 2 support of their main pOint. But t he Speaker 2: Yeah, I remem ber that
The audio script is in the module: 3A audience doesn't need to see it. speech ... Erm, have any of you ever
Voice power. Dutch: Well. first of all, I th ink you heard of a conference called the TED
have to ask: what is t he purpose of the conference? No? Fantastic event .
... Track 1.10 visual aid? The first slide is obviously It's business, science and techn ology
3A Exercises 4 and 6 trying to get your attention. And it mostly. In fact, you can watch some
does. But it doesn't tell you very much. of thp. <;pppches online if you want to.
The audio script is in the module: 3A
In the Netherlands we like to see a little Anyvvay, one year there was this brain
Voice power.
more data, more figures. In the second scientist called Jill Bolte Taylor talking
Track 1.11 slide, which is also quite attractive, about what it feels like to be actually
38 Exercise 1 I th ink, everything is itemised. And I having a stroke, because she'd had one
actua lly prefer to see all the details herself, And suddenly someone brings
Version 7: OK, um, I'd like you to
whi le I'm listening to a presentation. on a human brain in a jar of fluid, a
look at this chart, which, er, shows real one, and she takes it out and starts
I don't want to have Questions in my
consumer response to the campaign
mind when I'm trying to concentrate. t alking about it. And you can hear the
over the, erm, over the last six months.
Swedish: In Sweden we also like to effect it has on the audience, but she
And, er, oh, wait a minute. Er, yeaI-,
have all the necessary information. but certainly got everyone's attention!
here we are. Er, so, as you can see,
that needn't mean bad deSign. Th e Speaker 3 : Ugh, sound s gross to
overall, er, the response has been, me! Er, the best use of a prop I've
pro blem with the second slide is that it
you know, very positive, er, really. I seen is probably when John Chambers,
has too many bu llet points and far too
mean, fifty-nine percent. er, yeah , many words per line. An audience Ldll'L llle CEO of Cisco, was presenting
fifty-nine percent said they'd tried the
read and listen at the same time . The a new experimental version of the
product and, of those, of those fifty-
background makes it difficult to read TelePresence system. TelePresence is
nine percent. er, about half said they too. The first slide is clever because it this really advanced teleconferencing
actually prefe rred it to their, er, usual
makes you wonder what the speaker's system. And, er, the new version will
brand. So, you know, we 're like, er,
point is going to be. A good visual mean that people in different parts of
really pleased with that result. the world will all be able to attend the
should make you think 'Wow! What's
Version 2: OK. I'd like you to lock same meeting as holograms! Yeah, I
he going to tell us about this?' A bad
at this chart, which shows consumer know, it sounds like science fiction. But
one makes you think 'I wish he'd just
response to the campaign over the last
shut up and let me read!' that's exactly what he did. He actua lly
six months .... As you can see, overa ll,
Japanese: In general. Japanese invited two colleagues on st age with
the response has been very positive. prefer simple design, so the first slide him and they were 3D holograms! It
Fiftynine percent said they'd tried is the clear winner here. But I have was like something out of Star Trek.
the product and. of those fifty-nine Speaker 4: Yeah, I've seen that
to admit that many Japanese find it
percent. about half said they actuillly present ation on video. It's pretty
quite difficult to understand Western
preferred it to their usual brand. Se
presenters, so, to be honest. the more cool. But going back to Steve Jobs for
we're really pleased with that result. a minute, he's given so many great
information they can read, the better.
Track 1.12 The second slide may be a little dense. presentations. But my favourite is the
but it will be appreciated by a Japanese one where he introduced the first iPod
38 Exercise 4
audience. As a speaker, it can also Nano back in 2005. Remember? He'd
The audio script is in the module: 38 be useful t o have more information been talking about the iPod and the
Voice power. on your slides to help you remember iPod Mini and how well they fit in your
whatto say, use them as notes. But I standard pocket. Then the camera
Track 1.13
suppose that's a bad thing. Your slides zooms in on him and he points to that
38 Exercise 6 are supposed to be for your audience, little pocket jeans have insid e the main
The audio script is in the module: 38 not you! pocket. you know the one? And he asks
Voice power. [np av/JjpJ)cp; CYPf WOJ)OPfP/J what 1)5
.' "Track 1.15 pocket is for7' And everybody laughs
Track 1.14 4A Exercise 6 because, you know, they're thinking,
4A Exercise 3 Speaker 1: For me, the master of using yeah, what is that pocket for? And then
Italian: Well , what can I say? I'm props in a presentation wou ld have Jobs takes the Nano out of that pocket
Italian. For us good design is a way of to be Apple's Steve Jobs. I remember and says: 'Well , now we know.' Pure
life. Actually, for me, neither of these when Apple introduced the MacBook genius!

54 Audio scripts
(.Track 1.16 Now, what are the implications meeting their next quarterly targets.
48 Exercise 6 of this? Simply, that if you're not But we take a broader perspective. For
Speaker: Good morning. Thanks marketing directly to women in a way us, past performan ce is as important
for coming. The title of my talk: this that women want to be marketed as present and fut ure performance. So,
morning is What Womefl Waft. AIIU to, you just lost your company three- yes, I suppose we do like quite a lot of
I'm going to be asking the age-old quarters of its revenue this year. For statistical background .
question: Are women different from all the wrong reasons, men may on
men? More particularly. do they average still be earning more than Track 1.18
behave differently when they are women, but they are not the ones SA EXercise S
buying? And, if so, should we be spending most of what they earn.
The audio script is in the Key (page 67).
marketing to them in a different way? So, what are the ma in differences
Well. r can tell you straight away: in buying behaviour between men and .. Track 1.19
yes, they are different. Yes, they do women? Let me talk you through them SA Exercise 7
buy differently. And. yes, we should be one by one ...
The audio script is in the Key (page 67).
marketing to them in a totally different
Track 1.17
way. Unfortunately, 90% of businesses .f Track 1.20
SA Exercise 2
are totally useless at doing so. SA Exercise 8
So, first off. let's be clear. Women French: I work in R&D for a
a Globally, 256 million people are
spend billions of dollars! Many more pha rmaceutical company in Paris.
And in our line of business there's a involved in sta rt-ups. To put that into
bHlions than men. And yet, 50 far,
marketers, most of them men, have protocol for how we must present at perspective. if they joined hands.
failed to take any account at all of international congresses. First. our they'd circle the world 12 times!
women's phenomenal consumer p resent ations are very short - maybe b The world consumes 164.5 billion
spending power. only ten or fifteen minutes. And in that litres of bottled water a year. To give
Have a look at this. This diagram time we have to cover a lot of data. you an idea of just how much that
represents the total number of If we miss out just one thing , you can is, it's enough to fill Loch Ness 22
households. And, as you can see. be sure in the question-and-answer
according to research carried out by sessior , someone will raise the matter. c The world 's richest 1Vz% are worth
the National Foundation for Women Unfortunately, this does mean that around $50 t ri llion. That means t hey
Business Owners, women are the many of our presentat ions are rather currently control just over half the
primary decision-makers for consumer information-heavy. We have a million planet's wealth!
goods in 85% of them. 85%! The slides . For us, data is our only defence d Apple's Fifth Avenue megastore turns
figures speak for themselves, But let's against the audience! But I think that is over $350 million a year. That's
take a closer look. You'll notice that inevitable in a highly competitive, high- roughly the equivalent of selling
in those households women influence tech industry such as ours . 10,000 Mercedes-Benz ca rs!
eight out of ten purchasing decisions. British: Erm, well, I work for a PR J,. Track 1.21
In eight out of ten cases, the woman company in Manchester. So, for me,
decides, yes or no, whether to buy. SA Exercise 9 Model presentation
presentations are all part of the job. I
And I'm not just talking groceries here. startec out as a journalist. so I'm used Speaker: Have a look at this chart.
I'm talking furnishings. vacations, to editing my own work. Because, which shows the extra amount
savings plans, cars. Just about anything well , with figures, if you throw too of leisure t ime enjoyed by men
that doesn't have a remote control! I many at the aUdience, you may as in comparison with women in 12
should point out that when it comes to well have none. I mean, if you want to different countries. I'm sure it' ll come
big purchases like a new home, their make the kind of statements at a press as no surprise to most of you here
influence is slightly reduced - women conference that are going to become today that right across the globe men
make just 75% of real-estate decisions! front page news, then you have to stick do seem to have a lot more spare time
I'd also like to draw your attention to the two or three facts you really on their hands, whilst 'a woman's work
to these figures, published by the want people to remember. That means is' quite literally 'never done'!
Internet Marketing Association. missing a lot out. because if you want Italian men have by far the best deal
Obviously, we might expect women people to get the message, you can't with nearly 80 minutes a day more
to be spending more at the shopping make it too simple . leisure than their female counterparts.
mall. But what about online7 Surely, Chinese: I work for a multinational Norwegians fare the worst. getting just
that's still a male domain? Not any bank in Shanghai, so I'm quite used to a few extra minutes. But let's put that
more. These figures show that on attend ing presentations by American in perspective. Even just three minutes
average women are also spending 10% and German colleagues. It's interesting. a day is around 18 hours of free time
more than men over the Internet. Now, Americans generally stick to the key a year - an extra weekend of putting
let's put that into perspective. It means figures. Germans want to show you your feet up!
that on the biggest day for web sa les aI/ the figures . Germans seem to be Perhaps predictably, the Latin
this year. women spent $ 70 million very focused on the present situation. countries - Spain at well over three
more than men. So the real question is Americans are more short-term quarters of an hour and France at a
what don't women buy? future-oriented. For them it's all about little over half an hour - tend to come
highe r up the chart. And Ge rmany and

Audio scripts 55
Sweden at just over twenty minutes bit of body language that works pockets before you start, don't wear
nearer the bottom. wherever you go in the world ~ a dangly, noisy jewellery, put pens
But the real surprise is the figure smile! away and leave items of clothing
for Poland . On average, men here d In the Gulf we like presenters alone! They look fine as they are. And
have almost an hour a day more than who speak wit h passion . Speaking if they don't, it's too late now.
women to take a nap or 'veg out' in well, with lots of eye contact, firm d The problem with nerves is that
front of the TV. Over a typical week, gestu res ~ these are the things that they tend to make you become
that 's enough time to watch four impress us. I have many Western hyperactive and move around too
Hol lywood movies! It's also eq uivalent colleagues who are uncomfortable much . You've got all this nervous
to an extra night's sleep! with this. but I expla in it this way. energy you're trying to get rid of,
In private conversation we sit close so you pace around, up and down,
Track 1.22 to each other and are very tactile. back and forth. Stop it. It's making
58 Exercise 8 In public speaking you must close the audience exhausted just looking
Speaker; The advertisement had an the distance between you and at you! Relax. Take it easy. It's not
immediate impact. In January our CT your audience by increasing the the 100 metres. Having said take it
rate went up by 2%% from just 'h% volume of your voice and all your easy, I've also got to say don't take
to 3% ~ an amazing six-fold increase! movements. That way we how you it too easy. If you're standing the re
Then in February we saw a drop of 1% are sincere and confident, someone with your hands in your pockets or
to just 1%%. But that's still well above to be trusted . on your hips and a lazy grin on your
average . In March the fig ure fl uctuated
between a high of 2 and a low of 1%.
c. Track 1.24 face, you're going to look much too
casual. Get the balance right. Move,
Final ly, in April it hovered around 1'12% 68 Exercise 7 stop, stand still. move again. And
to finish up at a little over that by the a OK, so the first t hing is: watch what focus on your audience, not yourself.
end of the campaign. All in all, an
excel lent response!
you do with your hands. Apart from
your face, your hands are the things
r.. Track 2.02
your audience is going to notice 7A Exercise 2
JiJ', Track 1.23 the most. Now, it doesn't really The audio script is in the Key (page 70).
6A Exercise 2
a Well, in Brazil I think you have to
matter how much you use your
hands when you speak as lon g as r.. Track 2.03
have a little bit of theat re when you do use them. But remember to 7 A Exercise 3
you give a presentation. We li ke vary your gestures. You see some a This isn 't really so surprising , is it?
people to be, you know, dynamic speakers using the same gesture b But we won 't let this stop us, will
- especially if you are presenti ng over and over again. And that really we?
to a young audience. You can do is distra cting. The audience can't c We certainly can't complain, can
the whole rockand-roll thing with concentrate on what you're saying we?
them! Lot s of jumpin g around! With because they're just t hinking : 'I d We've been here before, haven 't we?
olde r, more conservative audiences , wonder if he's going to do that thing e I said it was good news, didn't I?
it's probably better to be just a little again? Oh, yes, there he gOes!' So fix f You know what's going to happen,
calmer, not quite so extrovert, but the 'hands problem' first. don't you?
still, you know, animated. b I've seen some speakers try to fix
bErm, t th ink most Austl-alians the 'hands problem' by fold ing their At Track 2,04
appreciate a direct, no-nonsense arms. They think it makes them look 7 A Exercise 4
approach . I mean, you should relaxed. It doesn't. It makes them
a Shouldn 't we be focusing ou r
certain ly be friendly and all that, but look defensive and creates a barri e!
attent ion on our core business?
if you're selling, it's OK to sell quite between them and t heir audience.
b Offshoring ~ isn't th is something we
hard, as long as you don't come Same thing w ith a podium. Another
need to be looking at?
across as arrogant. We don't like barrier. If you fold your arms, you're
c Isn't it time we started to take
that. So my advice is to be nat ural, trapped . You can 't move your hands.
internet advertising seriously?
be genuine. Humour's always If you stand behind a podium, you're
d Haven't we had enough of being
welcome, but don't try to put on a trapped . You can hardly move at all.
number two in this industry?
special show. Make su re your body The solution to the 'podium trap' is
e Isn't there a need for more
language flows naturally from your to insist on having a radio mike, get
account ability at board level?
words, not the other way round. out from behind that damn podium
f Aren't we in danger of losing some
c Er, well. in Fin land, we don't like and to hell with the conference
of our best customers?
the Hollywood style of presenting organisers! They don't have to give
too much. We prefer a good honest your talk. You do. ,.. Track 2.05
approach really. ) mean, we don't c Obj ects make d 'Ildlllb fJroblern' ten 7 A Exercise 5
want you to be boring, but good times worse . Clicking pens, adjusting
ties, playing with jewellery, fid dling
Speaker: Let's just talk about email
content should speak for itself. So,
with your shirt cuffs, rattling change for a moment. If you're anything like
not too loud, not too extrovert. That
in your pockets ~ all guaranteed to me, you probably wish email had
makes us nervous. KeEp everything
make you look nervous and annoy never been invented! I mean, I don 't
simple when you present to a Finnish
your audie nce . So empty your know about you, but on a typical day
aud ience. And don't forget the one

56 Audio scripts
I probably waste more time on email going to reinvent the phone! And a turban. So on he comes in a brigh
t han just about anything else. And here it is .. .' And up on t he screen pink turban and tie. Immediately
it 's not just spam, is it? When was there's this enormous picture of a gets the audience's attention. 'Happy
th e last time you received dozens fi rst'generation iPod w ith an old Valentine's Day,' he says, ' I thoug ht
of emails that didn't even directly fashioned telephone dial stuck on it. I'd brand myself pink to be consiste nt
co ncern you? Raise your hand if that's Big laugh! What a fantastic use of a with the occasion.' And the audience
happened to you .. , Right. I think that's visual aid to tell the joke for you! loves it. because it's so unexpected.
so mething we can all relate to, Ema il is b I think humour can save a lot of But that's what's clever. Because, of
inescapable. potentia lly embarrassing situations. course, Sawhney knows one of the
So, what if I was to say to you that For example, getting people in the first things people notice about him
emai l, as w e know it. is dead; that audience to ta lk to each other at the is his turban. And that's what makes
email will soon be as obsolete as the beginning of your presentation can the joke work.
fax machine? You'd think I was crazy, be a good way to get them thinking e All good 'spontaneous' remarks in
right? I mean, there are currently 1.7 about your subj ect. But sometimes presentations are actual ly prepared
bill ion email users out there! But let me people are re luctant to do it. I saw in advance. The secret is to make
ask you a question. How many of you Fons Trompenaars - you know, the them sound spontaneous when you
pay regular visits to sites like Facebook, intercultural guru, very fun ny speaker deliver them. One speaker I really
MySpace or Twitter? How about - I saw him avoid this problem really like - and he's a master of t his - is
texting? Most of you. Interesting. If, like well in a talk he gave once. He the educationalist and creativity
me, you find yourself more and more started off by inviting people in the expert, Sir Ken Robinson. He's always
involved in social networking these audience to talk to their neighbour very funny in that casual Brit ish way.
days, then you should already know about their own definition of culture Never uses visual aids at all - just
that ema il is on its way out. - yo u know, what does cu lture mean chats to his audience. Tells lots of
But let me share some statistics with for you? 'Talk to your neighbour,' stories. Anyway, the last time I saw
you. Did you know that 300 million he said. Th ey looked back at him. 'If him, he was the very last speaker
users spend 8 billion minutes a day just you're sitting on your own, talk to on the conference programme.
on Facebook? And would it surprise yourself. As long as you ma ke noise, It was the closing address. And
you to learn that students now hardly it's fine ,' That got a laugh and, more that's always a difficult job because
use ema il at all - except to contact import antly, people started to talk to everyone's exhausted by that stage.
professors and parents! Now, I know each other. So Sir Ken, he knows this, of course,
what you're thi nking. You're thinking, c I ag ree that the right joke at the and he anticipates the problem. 'I
w ell, OK, sure, we know kids are the right moment can rescue a lot of am the last speaker,' he says, 'I am
bigg est users of Web 2.0 technology difficult situations. And it doesn't the only thing standing between you
and texting. But. you see. that's whe re even have to be very funny. I once .. . and going home.' And, naturally,
you'd be wrong. The fastest-growing saw a speaker ... she was right in there are lots of laughs because
group of social networkers is actually t he middle of her tal k when pow! that's exactly what everyone was
w omen over 35. And the biggest All the electricity went off! Now, we thinking before he came on!
markets for SMS are China and India . were in a kind of lecture hall, so it
The Chinese alone send half a tri llion was completely dark. And, of course, ~. Track 2.07
text messages a year! And you don't none of the audio-visual equipment 7B Exercise 5
need me to tell you that, together. would work. I felt rea lly sorry for Extract 1: OK, we're going to pass
Chi na, India and wom en over 35 her. But she handled the situat ion around some working models of the
exercise a tremendous amount of brilliantly. She came to the front of device for you to have a look at, so you
influence! the platform and said : 'I was going can get a feel for how it wo rks. Now,
t o show you a really interesting there aren't as many devices as there
Track 2.06 PowerPoint slide. But there doesn't are people, so perhaps you could share
78 Exercise 3 seem to be any power .. . so what's in groups of three or four.
a Yo u know, I don't think you t he point?' And eve rybody laughed. Extract 2: If you look at the
necessarily have to say anything And right then you cou ld see the slide. you'll see there's a puzzle we
funny to get a laugh. There are a lot relief in the audience as they're sometimes use to test thinking styles.
of other things you can do. In fact. thinking: It's going to be OK, she can What you have to do is conn ect the
visual humour often crosses cultural see the funny side. boxes in such a way that the numbers
bou ndaries better. I remember d No matter whether you're going on the sides you connect all add up
seeing Steve Jobs presenting t he to use humour or not. I think it's to ten. Simple, yes? Or maybe not so
iPhone back in 2007 . It was a superb usua lly a good idea to at least start simple! Try this on your own f irst.
presentation. You could see the off with something that gets a bit Extract 3: Now, w e've been talking
audience getting more and more of a laugh. A few years ago I was about 'brand royalty' - the idea that
excited, but he kept them waiting at an IT conference in the States some brands are just so strong, they
and waiting as he talked them and I attended a talk by a guy form part of our mental landscape. But
through the history of Apple's past called Mohanbir Sawhney. He's a I can see some of you are sceptical.
successes: the Macintosh, the iPod professor at the Kellogg School of So, I'm just goi ng to play three or four
and so on. Finally, he announced it. Management - brilliant guy. Now seconds of five different pieces of
'And today', he said, 'today Apple is Sawhney's a Sikh, so he always wears music from television commercials and

Audio scripts 57
for each one I want you to write down e What's really ... really important for c So, what's the problem? The
the first product or service that comes us to do right now is this .. . problem is converting leads into
into your head. OK? f One thing I know: we must never .. . sales. Now how can we improve
Extract 4: OK, you should all have a never again lose our sense of focus . that?
copy of the handout. So can you just g Nobody ... nobody likes failure, but d So, where are the best
work with the person sitting eit her some people are more afraid of opportunities? The best
directly in front of or behind you to fill success. opportunities are in China. But didn't
it in? I'll give you about ten minutes for h We've come a long ... long way to we know that already?
this, OK? Great, thanks. get to where we are today. e So, what's my point? My point is
Extract 5: OK, I'm going to put some i And today .. . today we're that big-budget advertising simply
statistics up on the screen . You'll find announcing our biggest doesn't work. So, what are the
a full set of figures in the report, but breakthrough ever. alternatives?
these are just the key data. And I'd like So, what's the plan? The plan is
you to decide what conclusions you (l Track 2.10 to give our project teams more
think we can draw from t hem. SA Exercise 4 autonomy. But what will this mean in
Extract 6: Now, as you know, as part a Nowhere have w e been more practice?
of our market research, we conducted
interviews in our stores with customers
successful than in South America-
r.. Track 2.14
in the 35 to 49 age bracket. And these b No one has ever been able to beat us 8B Exercise 5
were filmed for later analysis. You've on price - no one. a We've tripled revenues in two years.
seen the results in the report. So, we'll c Everyone in the beta test was So, how did we do it?
just run the video and then the re'lI be positive about the product - b The whole of central Asia is one big
time for Questions. everyone. golden opportunity. So, what are we
Extract 7: If you look on the card d Nothi ng is beyond us if we work waiting for?
you were given, you'll find some together as a team - nothing. c We poured millions into this venture
instructions. yes? Good . So. I'd like you e Anything would be better than the and it f lopped. So, where did we go
to get up and find the person with the system we've got at the moment - wrong?
same instructions as you and then see anything. d When the patents run out on this
if you can carry out those instructions Everything in this market is about to product. our competitors w ill legally
together. All right? Good luck! change - everything. be able to clone it. So, what are we
Extract 8: Now. I think that's quite going to do about it?
enoug h backgrou nd from me. Let's , . Track 2.11 e We spend fifty million dollars a year
go online and see the new site. And 8A Exercise 7 on internet advertising alone. But
maybe w e could try this out together. a Properly priced. packaged and how much of that is wasted?
If you shout out the things you want to promoted, this product cannot fail. It's by fa r the most cost-effective
see, I'll do the clicking! OK? b China is not our main market. but it system on the market. So, why isn't it
may be a major market in the future. selling?
, . Track 2.08
c Of course, this is a serious problem g In spite of offering excellent salaries
SA Exercise 2 and benefits, we're still failing to
to which there's no simple solution .
a It's not a question of Qualifications. d In the world of international finance retain key personnel. So, where do
It's a question of talent. this firm remains a formidable force. we go from here?
b I always say total Quality begins with e I know that if we work together h Retooling the plants is not going to
tota l commitment. as a team we can take on the be cheap. So, what sort of figu re are
c What's the use of setting goals if your competition . we talking about?
goals are unrealistic? If we cannot challenge change, then i We've considerably stepped up R&D
d One thing w e don't need is more we have no choice but to embrace activity. So, how soon can we expect
data. We're drowning in data as it is! it. to see results?
e A decline in the market doesn't have
to mean a decline in sales as well.
g If we don't manage to break even on
this by Q4, we may even go bust.
r.. Track 2.15
f We're still running at zero profit. But. 8B Exercise 8
from zero the only way is up. Track 2.12 a What will it take to achieve our

r.. Track 2.09 SA Exercise 8

The audio script is in the Key (page 72).
goals? Time, effort and tenacity. But,
above all, talent.
SA Exercise 3 b How do we plan to become a
a First of all, I'm pleased to report that , . Track 2.13 more socially responsible firm?
profits are up ... up by 38%. 8B Exercise 4 Through our total commitment to
b It's a cliche, I know, but this firm has a So, what's the main challenge we clean energy, sustainability and fai r
always ... always put its people first. trade. But. most of all, through our
face? The main challenge is piracy.
c Ladies and gentlemen, it's time ... commitment to people.
Now what can we do about that?
time to face the facts. b So, what's the answer? The answer is c Where do our key markets lie? In
d So, that's what happened - what I Canada, Russia and Scandinavia. But.
viral marketing . But what do I mean
want to know is why ... why did we first and foremost, Germany.
by that?
let it happen?

58 Audio scripts
~ Tra ck 2.16 b As they say, it's not a matter of doing Speaker 3: In China we have a
8B Exercise 9 thi ngs right. It's a matter of doing tradition of telling stories to ma ke
the right things . important points. But I would say that
Speaker: Traditionally. marketers
c I'm not asking you to say yes today. the story should be quite simple and
have always made it their mission to
I'm as king you not to say no. easy to follow. Western humour may
concentrate on 18 to 44-year-olds.
el I'm not sayina it's a aood ortion . I'm not always work with LIS. It is OK to
After all, this is certainly the sect or of
saying it's our only opt ion . make a small joke about yourself. but
t he market that's the most fashion-
e They say you shoul d look before you be careful. Do not make jokes about
conscious, the most media-aware and
leap. I say leap, then look. your area of know-how. We want to
the most comfortable with technology_
t Five years ago \Ne had an idea. Today listen to an expert. not a c\own\
If I can be cynical for a moment, it's
it has become a reality. Speaker 4: Russians love stories.
also by far the most responsive to
g If we don't seize this opportunity. So. if you think we'll have objections
someone else will. to your ideas, tell us a st ory. It's like
But in concentrating on the 1 8
h We may never be the biggest. but the Trojan Horse, you know? You slip
t o 44-year-olds. marketers have
we can still be the best. you r message inside the story and we
tended to neglect the so-called 'baby
accept it . Russians are, how can I say,
boomers'. Big mista ke. Baby boomers, .t Track 2.18 sometimes suspicious of foreign ideas
as you know. are the generation born
SC Exercise 4 and especially suspicious of change.
between 194 6 and 1964. Many
The audio script is in the Key (page 72). But you should know we are also a
of th em are now over 60. Did you
sentimental and passionate people.
know that in the US the over-60s now
Track 2.19 And if you r story touches us, we can be
represent 20 percent of the population
8D Exercise 5 persuaded .
- up from 12 percent just over half a
century ago? Did you know that there
are now more Italians over the age of
The audio scripts are in the module:
80 Impact techniques - from Shooting
et Track 2.23
98 Exercise 3
60 t han under t he age of 20? And did Fish, Wall Street. Thank You for
you know that by 2050 a phenome nal Smoking. a I have a confession to make. The only
reason I started my business in the
40 percent of Japanese wil l also be
over 60? Now, these over-60s have a e-Track 2.20 first place is because I fai led to get
huge disposable income, They have a 80 Exercise 6 into law school. At the time I was
large amount of free time in which to devastated . All my life I'd wanted to
The audio scripts are in the module:
spend it. And an increasing amount of 80 Impact techniques - at Comdex be a lawyer. Now I see that failure
lifetime in which to spend it! brought me success . In my first year
Computer Expo and Stanford
But it's not just the over-60s. In the in business I had the good fortune
USA households headed by the over- to be featured in a TV programme
40s represent a staggering 99 percent et Track 2.21 about entrepreneurs under the age
of the nation's net worthl Makes you 9A Exercise 4 of 25. I can still remember the film
wonder if the 18 to 44-year-olds are crew coming into my apartment and
The audio script is in the Key (page 75).
worth targeting at all! saying: 'Amy, we'd like to film you
Now. boomers don 't want to be ( 4 Track 2.22 in your headquarters.' I said: 'That 's
treated like big kids. But they don't great ... well, here we arel ' Then they
9A Exercise 6
want to be treated like geriatrics said: 'OK, well, we thought we 'd fi lm
Speaker 1: Well, I guess you al ready you in a staff meeting or som ething.'
either. They know they're getting
knew Arg ent inians like talking! And w e I said: 'Would you excuse me for a
older, but that doesn't mean they
like stories. For me, when I present. minute?' Then I w ent and phon ed all
have to 'get old'. So. where are the
a st ory is the best bridge between my friends at work and said: 'Can you
business opportunities? Well, for
me and my audience. It's like turning apt ovpr to my .1p.1rtment riaht now
baameroriented brands there are big
your experience into a movie that the and pretend to be my employees?'
opportunities in travel and tourism,
audience can play inside their heads, And here we are, just three years
in adventure holidays and in luxury
you know? But the sto ry must be fresh later, and most of them are my
vehicles. There are big opportunities
and original. Never use those books of employees and I actually have a
in health and fitness, in cosmetic and
jokes and funny stories you can buy. Be headquarters!
in transplant surgery. There's a boom
genuin e. Watch your audience. Keep b Talking of customer satisfaction.
in the number of boomers and the
you r stories personal. And short! several years ago I used to work
thing to remember is that boomers
Speaker 2: Well, now, I come from for a well-known chain of hotels in
want experiences they missed first time
Ireland and one thi ng peop le do say Argentina. And, of course , one of
round .
about the Irish is that they can tell a the things we used to do was leave
( 4 Track 2.17 good story. Funny stories are always a guest satisfaction questionnaire
popular. of course. But you don't have in peop le's rooms on the day they
SC Exercise 1
to be funny. I mean, if you tell a joke, checked out. Now, as you know,
a This year w e're number two in the people expect to get a laugh at the most people don't even bother
market. This time next year, we'll be end. So if nobody laughs, it's a disaster. to fill those questionna ires in . But
number one. But with a story it doesn't have to get a here's the thing. We noti ced t hat
big laugh - a simple smile will do. more than half the people w ho did
fill them in and said t hey were very

Audio scripts 59
satisfied with their hotel also said information you might be interested we go along. And if they don't ask, I ask
'But I don't plan to return' and 'No, I in.' them! What do they think? It's a good
woulon't recommend it to somebody He said [officiously]: 'I'm afraid that's way of involving them right from the
else: Curious, no? And, even more not my job.' start.
curious, a quarter of those who said g She said [sarcastically]: 'Of course, b
they were dissatisfied with their you're the world's expert on Speaker 7: I think it's ve ry important
hotel returned! Which just goes to customer relations, aren't you?' that everybody gets to hear the
show that satisfaction is not the h He said [yelling]: ' I can't hear myself question. So if there are more t han a
same thing as loyalty. Ask yourself: think!' dozen people in the room, I always
how would you prefer your life repeat it before I answe r. I don't ask
partner to be? Satisfied? ... Or loyal? .t Track 2.25 them if they heard the question . That's
But seriously, I think we focus far 98 Exercise 6 like saying the person who asked it
too much on customer satisfaction, Speaker: So I come out into the arrivals should have spoken up! I just go ahead
when what we should really be area at Charles de Gaulle airport and and repeat it.
focusing on is customer loyalty. there's nobody w aiting for me. I wait Speaker 2: Hmm, w ell. that's OK
c A few months ago I hit forty and for about quarter of an hour, but still ;)$ long as it isn't a negative or hostile

decided I really needed to get fit. nobody comes. So I ring their office, question. If someone asks: 'Why is
Believe it or not, I was once quite but there's no answer, And I'm thinking your system so difficult to use?', you
an athlete, but, as you can see, I've to myself: 'This is very odd.' Another don't want to be repeating 'Why is our
fallen rather badly out of shape. So 45 minutes go by. And now I'm really system so difficult to use?' You want to
I hunted out myoid racquet and starting to panic. I mean, what am I remove t he value judgement and say
joined my local tennis club. Now, supposed to do? I'm in a strange city. something like: 'So, you're asking about
having not played in almost twenty I don't know a soul. I don't even know the system interface,'
years I thought I'd better have some which hotel they've booked me into c
lessons. So I went along and joined - nothing. Finally - I've almost given Speaker 7: If someone asks a good
the advanced class, thinking, well, up hope by this stage - this tall blonde question, I always thank them for it. It
I used to be pretty good, I'm sure woman comes up to me and says: 'Are may seem a bit fa lse and unnecessary
I'll pick it up again quite quickly ... I you Dr Wh ite?' And I say: 'Yes, I am . to compliment someone on their
was terrible! The instructor said: 'No, Where on earth have you been? I was question. Sut they like it - and at
no, no, you're holding the racquet beginning to think you'd forgotten least you've made one friend in the
all wrong.' I said: 'Sut this is how me.' And she says: 'I'm very sorry! I audience! A good question is one
I was taught to hold it.' He said: was held up in traffic.' It's not a great that helps you give your presentation
'Oh, dear. I think you'd better join excuse, but. anyway, t o cut a long better. Maybe it's about something you
the intermediate class .' So I went story short, we get into a taxi and head meant to mention, but forgot. So why
to the intermediate class and the into town, when suddenly she turns to not thank the questioner for reminding
instructor said: 'You've acqu ired a me and says: 'I'm really honoured to you?
lot of bad habits. Nobody serves like be working with one of America's top Speaker 2: Yeah, OK, but what if the
that 2ny more. Why don't you try the neurosurgeons!' And I say: 'But I'm not next question you get is not one you
beginners' class for a few weeks?' a neurosurgeon . I'm an automotive were hoping for? What are you going
You can imagine my humiliation ... engineer!' And she says: 'But aren't you to say then? 'Well, I won't thank you for
Well, with the beginners I did a littl e Dr White from New York Hospital?' And your question'? Don't comment on the
bette'. I was the second -best player I say: 'I'm afraid not. I'm Dr White from questions you get. Just answer them!
in the class! What was happening? Cleveland Trucks.' She'd picked up the d
The same thing that often happens wrong Dr White! Speaker 7: If a question is clearly off-
when we take on employees with
topic, I mean really pretty irrelevant, I
years of experience, but none of "Track 2.26
think you've got to po litely point out
it recent. They often need more lOA Exercise 2 that it raises a different issue and move
training than new recruits straight
a on . Otherwise, you're just wasting the
out of university - because they have
Speaker 7: To be honest. I just rest of your audience's time,
so much to unlearn.
concentrate on sticking to my plan and Speaker 2: Hmm, unless it's a totally
Track 2.24 giving a good presentation! If I start dumb question, I'd answer it briefly,
answerilg questions in the middle of anyway, You may think it's irrelevant.
98 Exercise 5
my talk, I may get completely lost! but it may not be. Certainly, the person
a She looked up from her desk and said So I usually ask people to leave their who asked it thinks it's relevant. And
[angrily]: 'What do you want?' questions unt il the end - or even write that person could turn out to be
b He said [cheerfully]: To be honest. them down on cards for me. That way important!
I dont know the first thing about I can have a quick look at them before e
computers.' I answer. Speaker 7: If you don't know the
c He said [abruptly]: 'Don't interrupt Speaker 2: Actually, for me it's the answer to a question, admit it. Offer
me when I'm speaking!' other way round. I'm more comfortable to find out or ask other people in
d I said [laughingly]: 'YOU've got to be doing the Q&A. It's more like just the room what they think, Ask the
joking!' having a conversation. So I always questioner what they think. Sut don't
e She took me to one side and said invite the audience to ask questions as bluff. Ar audience always knows if
[whispering secretively]: 'I have some

60 Audio scripts
you're bluffi ng . Admitting you don't ( . Track 2.29 Audience member: Yes, I'm
know w iHwin their respect. lOB Exercise 5 sure you can. But you still haven't
Speaker 2: WeH, that may work in answered my question, which is: how
your country. In my country you should a are we supposed to grow in such a
never admit to not knowing something Presenter: Are there any questions massively over-supplied market without
you're supposed to be In expert in. So you'd like to ask at this point? Erm, diversification?
I say, if you get J question you can't one thing you might like t o know a bit Presenter: OK, well, first of all, let
answer, turn it into a question you can more about is our subscription rates . me say that .. .
answer. The questioner may notice you Audience member: Efm, yes, I was
Extract 3:
haven't reaHy answered their question. wondering about those. Is there a
Audience member: I th ink you
But nobody else will. It works for standard rate or does it cost more for
institutional membership? mentioned something about product
politicians! development being a safer strategy
Presenter: Right, well, in fact, there
f than new market development. Could
is just the one standard rate, so that
Speaker 1: What do you do when you just elaborate on that?
mea ns fO!" a company of your size, it
someone asks you a question you've Presenter: Well. sure, but I don't
actually works out very reasonable ...
already answered? That's a difficult quite see what bearing that has on
one. You don't want to say: 'I've b today's meeting .
already answered that!' But you don't Presenter: I'm sure you have a lot
Audience member: OK, then. Well,
want your audience to think you forgot of questions, which I'll be happy to
let me put it another way. As you
to mention it either. I usually just briefly answer now. Ahah! OK, this always
know, we already operate in severa l
refer back to the slide I used earlier. happens, doesn't it? Everybody's got a
different domestic markets, but what
Speaker 2: But then you make the quest ion but nobody wants to be the
we lack is global presence ...
person who asked the question look first t o ask. Oh, yes?
Audience member: Erm, going back Extract 4:
as if they weren't paying attention t he
to what you were saying about on line Audience member: When you were
first time! No, I think you should just
payments ... outlining some of the ideas behind viral
briefly answer the question again.
marketing, you said something abo ut
9 'sneezers'. What exactly did you mean
Speaker 7: Sometimes someone asks Presenter: I think we've got about ten
by that?
two or three questions at the same minutes for Q&A. SO, if anybody has a
Presenter: Erm, well, simply that
time and so I think you've got to first of question, they'd like to ask, erm ... Yes,
there are some customers, 'sneezers',
al l break down the questions and then actually, I know, could I ask you to just
who actually spread a company's
briefly deal with them one at a t ime. turn to a neighbour and compare your
message for it without the need for
Speaker 2: But that can take too thoughts on some of the t hings we've
direct marketing.
long and leave no time fo r other talked about this morning . And I'll take
Audience member: Well, OK, but.
people to ask their questions. And any questions in a moment. OK ...
erm, one thing I'm still not clear
you might forget what the second
and third questions were whi le you're
r.. Track 2.30 about. Did you say that conventional
marketing was obsolete? Or am I
answering the first! I think it's bette r to lOB Exercise 7
identify the most important question Extract 7:
Presenter: No, perhaps I shou ld just
they've asked and just deal wit h that. Audience member: Erm, going back go over that again ...
h fo r a moment to what you were saying
Extract 5:
Speaker 1: If the information you're about the product life cycle.
Audience member: You told us that
asked for is confidential, say so. Say Presenter: Eh, yes.
Audience member: You claimed there is still good money to be made
'I'm afraid I'm not at liberty to ta lk for the last player in a declining
about that at th is stage' or 'Our lega l that thirteen and a half percent of
our market are what you called early market . Do you have any data to
department has advised me not support that?
to discuss that' or That's classified adopters. Could you te ll us how you
Presenter: Yes, you'll find a fairly
information at this point.' arrived at that figure?
Presenter: Certainly. Basically, what
comprehensive section on this in the
Speaker 2: I think that sounds a little report in front of you. It makes for
evasive. Make a joke of it if you can. we did is take a look at the purchasing
records for the last five years ... interesting reading. But being the 'last
Say something like 'That information is player in a declining market' as you put
so secret. they have n't even told me' Extract 2:
it is actually j ust one of a whol e series
or 'If I told you, I'd have to shoot you.' Audience member: I want to take of recommendations we're making this
you up on what you said about afternoon.
(f Track 2.27 diversification being a complete waste Audience member: Oh, OK, fair
10A Exercise 6 of time . enough. Point taken. I see what you're
The audio script is in the key (page 76). Presenter: Yes, I know that may
seem an extreme view, but I can
~Track 2.28 provide you with a long li st of
lOA Exercise 7 companies in this industry who've tried
The audio script is in the Key (page
a diversification strategy and failed
77). miserably.

Audio scripts 61
Key and commentary
lA Opening and closing Extract 5: The speaker lets his audience So, how do yo u sum up a pair of
know he understands their business by sunglasses like these? I could tell you
2 1 Attention 2 Benefit that they are probably the bestsel1ing
taking time to outline the typical kind
3 Credibility 4 Direction of problems they have to face, and one designer eyewear in history. t hat
in particular - cash flow. He asks them they were the first sunglasses to make
3 Attention: a, C use of new plastics technology and
what it would be like to be able t o
Benefit: d . f t h at popular icons from James Dean
pass that problem on to someone else
Credibility: b. 9 and to know that it would be worth and Marilyn Monroe to Heath Ledger
Direction: e, h and Michael Jackson were all lifelong
many times the fee that person would
charge. Of course, t hat question is his fans. But that would be to sell them
4 Give them a prob lem or puzzle, a opportunity to introduce the answer- short. They w ere, are and always will
surprising fact or statistic the service his company offers. be a timeless classic and irresistibly
Quote somebody well-known desirable. Wayfarers are quite simply
Show them a photograph or cartoon, 7 a know braise c turn the coolest sung lasses in the w o rld .
a video. a news headline d imagine e said
Tell them a joke. a story or anecdote f misconception g joke h like 7
Explode a popular myth 'The Loop' technique is where you
Ask them a question, to raise their 1 B Opening and closing return to the subject you opened with
hand, to talk to a neighbour at the close of you r presentat ion. It's
2 dramatic summary 2
famous wise words 4 especially effective because it creates
5 a perfect circle and a satisfying sense
call for action 1
Extract 1.- The speaker opens with heartfelt message 3 of completion. Skilful speakers often
a rhetorical question (,What's in a build up audience anticipation at the
name?') and backs that up with two beginning of their talk and then keep
3 Probably Extract 3. It's certainly the
examples of companies fighting one which addresses the audience them in suspense until the end when
over a name: Apple Corps v. Apple they finally finish their story, give the
most directly and on an emot ional
Computers over the name 'Apple' and punch line to their joke or answer the
level. Extract 1 is also a direct appea l
Anheuser-Busch v. Budva r over the question they posed right at t he start.
to the audience , but somehow lacks
name 'Budweiser'. In two words. the
the same degree of empathy.
speaker's topic, as he says himself. is 2A Smooth structure
brand identity. 1
4 Summary: a. f. g. k
Extract 2: The speaker explodes the Action: c. h, m In a presentation, as on a journey.
myth that mergers don't work by Wisdom: b, i. I you may want to 'turn off the main
pointing out that it's only mega- Emotion: d, e, j road' and change the subject or even
mergers between corporate giants digress for a moment. You may want to
that so often fail. She then gives two 5 The secret is not to make your speed up or slow down or go back to
exampl es of big research-intensive summary sound like a summary. a place you passed earlier that looked
companies, pfizer (biotech) and Cisco Don't announce it as a summary. Or, interesting. Whenever you change
(IT), taking over many innovative start- if you do, don't just repeat in brief direct ion in Cl presentation, as on Cl car
ups high ly successfully. what you've already said. Phrase the journey, it's a good idea to indicate.
Extract 3: The speaker asks her summary as a question, introduce 'Signpost language' helps you do that.
audience to raise their hand if they've new supporting information and try
backed up their hard disc. Hardly to build up to a powerful one-line 2
anybody has done it recently and close. as Quentin Willson does in his I'm going to st ar t off by
some never. The analogy between t his presentatio n of the E-Type. outlinin g our main goals today.
and going to the dentist is that it's giving you a brief overview.
something we keep meaning to co but 6 Possible answer asking you all a question.
keep putting off. Let's m o ve on to the subject of ...
Extract 4: The speaker introduces the I'll be co ming on to this later.
topic of competitiveness by quoting OK, turn i ng for a moment to the
the former chairman of RCA Records, question of ...
by telling a joke about the rivalry To return to my main point here.
between Coca-Cola and Pepsi and by Let's exp and on that a little.
asking the audience to briefly discuss Going back to what I w as saying
the topic with a neighbour. The quote earlier.
is probably a less risky strategy than To digress for a moment.
the joke, but the two th ings work well In cl os ing, I'll just ...
together. And by sandwich ing the joke summarise the main points we've
between the quote and the audience looked at.
RayBan Wayfarers (7952-) ask you to remember one thing.
task, the speaker reduces that risk.
leav e you with this ...
62 Key and commentary
Let's move on to the subject of beware 'the curse of knowledge',
3 a Earlier we saw ... planning. where you assume your aud ience
b This leads us on to ... Turning for a rroment to the question knows (and caresl) as much as you
c As you'll recall .. . do: don't over-complicate things
of schedules.
d Later we'll see .. . Moving on to some of th e initial if there's good news to deliver,
e You'll remember " . problems we faced. save the best till last
f So, the next question is ...
By the end of this talk I hope you'll if there's bad news to deliver,
9 As we discussed .. . have a clearer 'dea of the progress sandwich it between two pieces of
h This brings us on to ." good news
we've made so far.
This goes back to ... if you're delivering information
So the next question is: how did we
By the end of this talk ... deal with the cultural differences7 that is familiar to your audience,
If I could just digress for a moment el icit some of the inform ation from
4 here. the m, keep the presentatio n short
a Turnover for Q3 is well up, thanks Just to return to my main point for a and adopt an interest ing creative
mostly to increased sales in Russia. minute. structure
(effect _ cause) Thi" 1f':<'Icic; IIC; on to the Quest ion of if you're delivering information
b Avoiding risk is a mistake, especially virtual teams. that's new to your audience, th en
in the long term. Perhaps I should just expand on that a include all the stages of thinking .
(pOint ~ specification) little. allow plenty of time to ful ly
c We need to consta ntly reassess so We'll be coming on to this later. explore the t opic and stick to a
that we don't lose our competitive Going back to what I was saying earlier. conventional linear struct ure.
lead. I'll be saying more about this later on.
(action ...... pu rpose) This brings us on to the question of 3
d A rise in t he price of oil has resulted bud geting. There are no fixed answers here.
in reduced profitability. I'd like to take a moment to talk about Much will depend on context,
(cause ~ effect) logistics. audience expectations and individual
e Demand is down 3% in Japan. In dosing, I'd just like to summarise presentation style. But the following
whereas in the rest of Asia it's some of the main paints we've looked structu res would work well:
tripled. at. a plan ... potential objections ", key
(point ...... contrast) OK, well. that brings me to the end of benefits ... recommendations
There's no market for low quality. my presentation. Thanks very much. b customer need ... main features ...
and what's more, there never will In conclusion, it has, in general, been a key benefits ... cost s
be. (pOint _ addition) very successful project. c targets ... resu lts ... implications
9 The recent flood of cheap imports OK, so we 've looked at logistics. Let's d competition ... us ... future
may lead to a price war. finish by talking about the next phase. e past ... present ... implications
(cause --+- effect) Are there any Questions you'd like to f problem ", causes ... options ...
h We need to move fast in order to ask at this pOint? recommendations
take advantage of this opportunity.
g idea ... resea rch ... data ... key
(action --+- purpose) 28 Smooth structure
i Our share price has soared as a 1 When planning your presentation, h customer need ... opportunity ",
result of the merger announcement. it's a good idea to switch off the market potential ... costs
(effect --+- cause) computer and 'go analogue'. Forget i need ... plan ... costs
Now is the time to focus - in about designing your slides at this j aims ... past ... present
particular on what it is we do best. stage and just concentrate instead k issue ... data ... decision ..
(point ---+- specification) on mapping out the subjects you implications
k Our website's receiving more hits, want to cover, Post~its can work idea ... aims ... procedure ... results
and yet these have not converted well for this. Write each topic on
into sales. a separate Post-it and, when you 4 1 proverb ~ popular myth ~ data ~
(paint --+- contrast) have several. you can start moving act ual fact
It's an enormous market: plus, it's a them around to see in what order 2 audience task", prod uct features
growing one. they shou ld come. This approach ... customer benefits ... com parison
(pOint _ addition) also helps you to see what subjects 3 surprising statistic ... threat ...
you could drop. what's missing and opportunity ... action
5 Answers top left to bottom right:
where you could usefully add visuals
Then I'd like to talk you through the or stories to illustrate and support 5
main phases of t he project. your points. Then, when you're In a well-structured presentation
First I'm briefly going to give you some ready, switch your computer back on the key phrases and expressions
background. and 'go digital'. the presente r uses tell you what
1'c1likp. to c;trtrt off hy olltlinina our main
A few points to remember at the he or she is doing at each stage of
goals today .
planning stage: their talk - listing options, making
First of all, I'm going to give you a brief
you know where you're going, but recommendations, comparing figures,
overview of the project.
your audience doesn't, so make ete. This makes it much easier for an
Then I'd like to fill you in on some of
sure you signal the stages of your audience to follow,
the details. presentation clearly
But before we start, let me ask you a
Key and commentary 63
6 a popular myth If you keep eye contact w ith your your audience 's preferences. It's good
b truth aud ience, you can pause for quite a to learn how to vary your voice, but
c data long time . remembe r that the most important
d comparison thing is to be authentic.
e features 2 Version 1: Conversation
f benefits Version 2: Presentation 38 Voice power
g potential objections 1
h implications 3 Conve rsation: a, d
Presentation: b, c, e, f In the fi rst ve rsion, the speaker ums and
i options ers whenever she hesitates. This sounds
j issues quite distracting and makes what she is
k pros and cons 4 See answers in 6 below.
saying difficult to follow. In the second
I projections version she doesn't say any more or
5 The st ressed words tend to be key
speak any fast er, but instead of the
7 Slide 1: management. people content words - usually nouns and
main verbs. The pauses tend to come
umming and erring, she pauses. This
Slide 2: technology, divisions, actually makes her easier to follow and
communication after st ressed wo rds.
what she says easier to remember.
Slide 3: mandatory, forum,
restructure 6 3
Slide 4: Knowledge Management, The speaker's voice usually goes up in a We haven't seen a massive
on line, intranet. workshops the middle of an utterance (indicating improvement yet . But it's a good
he hasn't finished ) and down at the start.
3A Voice power end to show completion . b We haven't seen a massive
1 'You know, ..,... there are a lot of IID:1ill. improvement..et. But my guess is we
a The much-quoted statistic that what
about soeaking in public. +- M..:th soon wil l.
number one ..,... is that what you c The ~ may be declining. But
you say only accounts for 7% of your
message, whilst how you sound
actually d.Q'i "" is only seven percent of fortunately our market share isn't.
the message . . . Th irty-eight percent d The market mav be declining. Or this
accounts for 38% and how you look
is how you sound """ and fifty-five could just be a tem porary .bl.iQ.
for 55%, originates in the research
percent is how you look. +- But think e We do pretty well in the States. But
of Albert Mehrabian at UCLA in the
about it. +- I mean, ..,... if that was true, we don't do so well in Europe.
1960s_ But it is a misinterpretation
+ you could gQ to a talk in Swahili- - f We do pretty well in the States. But
of his work, which concerned why
people like or dislike you and not
-+ and still understand ninety-t hree not as well as we could be doing.
how they respond to you when you percent! "' .M.0;.h number two "'" is g Turnover is.!J.Q on Q3. But profits are
that public soeaking is most people's down.
speak in public. All great speakers
impress through the power of their
greatest fear -+- - i.iill. above death . h Turnover is up on ID. But that was a
. . The comedian Jerry Seinfeld ..,... has particularly bad quarte r.
voice. How you sound is the most
a ~ joke about that. +- He says, i It's hard to gain a foothold in India.
direct reflection of your personality.
+- "Come 00, ""'" if it really ~ their But not impossible.
The word 'persona' literally means
greatest fear, +- at a funeral -+ t he It's hard to gain a foothold in India.
'through sound' .
person giving the.e.!!l.Qgy +- would But harder stili to gain one in China.
b Pausing is deliberate. You hesitate
when you're not sure how to rather be in t he box!" +' k There are a couple of points I'd like
to make. And both concern cash
continue. A good use of pausing 7 flow.
gives both speaker and audience
Fewer pauses and stresses w ill There are a couple of point s.LQ like
time to think. The audience is able
make you sound quite fluent and to make. And then I'll hand you over
to digest what it has just heard and
conversational, but it will be difficult to to Jan.
speculate about what might be
coming next. This allows them to be give power and emphasis to <Jnything
you say. If you talk like this for t oo 6
more involved in the presentation
as silent participants and not just long, you may start to sound a bit Andrew Jorgenson speaks slowly
monotonous and boring. More pauses and deliberately. He uses quite long
and stresses will make you sound sentences, but breaks them up with
c Probably the most effective place
to pause is after 'effective'. Two more enthusiastic and dynamic, but frequent pauses. It's a very emotional
pauses could come after 'word' you may exhaust your audience if you speech and he uses a lot of imagery
and 'effective'; three after 'word'. overdo it. Talk like this for too long and of death and destruction to convey
'effective' and 'timed'; four after you may start to sound over-dramatic his message. Jorgensen builds up from
'word', 'effective', 'rightly' and and lacking in rapport. Try to aim a quiet opening to a louder closing
'timed'. Too many pauses creates a for a balance of conversationa l and personal attack on Garfield.
staccato effect. presentational styles to gain maximum 'I want to share with}"Q.U-+ 1some
d You can overdo pauses if you make
t hem too long - the audience
of my thoughts -+ Iconcerning the
8 vote that you're going to make "'" I
might think you've forgotten what
to say next. But remember that Never try to be someth ing you're not in the comoany that you own . 11
pauses always seem a lot longer in a presentation. Capitalise on your This proud company, +-I which has
to the speaker than to the listener. strengths, making some allowance for survived the death of its founder, -+ I
64 Key and commentary
numerous recessions, -+
1one maior 3D pie chart is not really helpful here, d Jobs used the small inner pocket you
depression. +
1 and two world wars. the heading is too long and the actual
key figure (70%) not easily legible. The
find on every pair of jeans as if it had
been specifical ly designed to carry
..,. 11 is in imminent danger of
colours are rather dull too, Statistically the iPod Nano.
self-destructing + I - on this ~, + accurate, but zero impact.
I in the town of its birth. + III There 7
The slide below it is a definite
+ 11 is the instrument + I of our improvement. The 2D pie chart works Even if you have no actual product
you can use as a prop, this doesn't
destruction. + I1 I want you to look at better and the colours link up the
stop you using real objects to liven up
him + I in;l1! of his gjQ[y, ... I Larry the
key figure with the heading and the
your presentatior . In some cultures,
Liauidator, + the entrepreneur of
landmass of India on the globe. A
1 and in the creat ive industries in
larger font size also helps, although the
post-industrial America, + I1 playing figure in green doesn't stand out very general, presenters often use a whole
God + I with other people's money. well from the green background. And, array of toys, hats, noise-makers and
in a way, the three main elements in sports equipment to make their point
+ III This man leaves nothing. + 11 He
memorable. But more conservative
creates nothing, + I he bu ilds nothing,
the slide force the audience to work
out the connection between them presenters can still make use of simple
+1 he runs nothing. + ' when they should be listening to the props to illustrate their message: a
speaker. set of sca les to illustrate balance,
Lawrence Garfield speaks in short
jigsaw pieces to illustrate teamwork, a
staccato sentelCes. He uses simple The top right sl ide has plenty of
magnifying glass to illustrate analysis,
words and a certain amount of impact. The key figure stands out well
etc. The secret always is to use props
sarcastic humour. He varies his voice a and, as its connection with the photo
with a sense of humour - and they can
lot, switching from almost a whisper to is not immediately clear, it will be
be a good source of humour. If used
louder sections. He echoes Jorgenson's necessary for the audience to listen
too serioLlsly they can seem cliched
death theme, but turns it around, to the speaker to find out what it is.
and a bit silly.
claiming the company had destroyed A very good example of collaborating
itself before he arrived. with, rather than competing with,
your visual aids. The photo itself is 8
'Th is comoany is dead. + II I didn't
slightly humorous and illustrates well The general rule here is 'less is more'.
kill it. + I Don't blame me. + I It was some of t he joys and frustrations of The deSigner has, in most cases.
dead when I QQ1 here. + III It's too working with fam ily. A more serious Significantly reduced the amount of
late for prayers. + 11 For = if the photo could be substituted if felt data to give what's left more impact.
Where this has not been possible, they
prayers were answered, + 1 and a
more appropriate. A black background
and white font might draw the two have used the animation function to
mirac le occurred, + I and the ~ did elements in the slide closer together. display the text in stages as they speak.
this, ' " I and the doliar did that. ' " I The bottom right slide is very dark The designer has also resisted the
and the infrastructure did the other and atmospheric, but perhaps a little temptation to tell the whole story on
thing, ... 11 we would still be dead, + I stereotypical. The image, however, the slide and leave the presenter with
says nothing about fam ilies. Perhaps nothing to say.
11 You know why? ' " 11 Fiber optics. + I
the worst aspect of the slide is that it More attention has been paid to the
I New technologies . + 11 Obsolescence.
conveys all the information the speaker aesthetics of the slide to draw the
+ We're dead ali right. + I We're has to give, so that there is no actual audience's attention. We live in an age
ilill not broke. + 11 And you know need for them to speak! A pretty but which is very visually sophisticated, so
the surest way to go~? '" 11 Keep fa irly pointless visual aid. slides must look b::>th professionally and
getting an increasing share +
I of a
attractively designed.
shrinking market. + I11 I'm !lQ! your
'Career suislide' seems to refer to 48 Visual aids
best friend. +11 1'm your only friend.
all the things about your slides that
+ 11 I don't make anything7 + I I'm could kill your ccreer - or, at least.
The 666 Rule
making you money . ' the presentation you're giving! These
would include textual overload, The 666 Rule basically states that
4A Visual aids illegibility, lack ot or irrelevant you should never have more than six
visuals, unhelpful, confusing or over- wo rds per bullet (:oint. no more than
1 six bullets per slide and no more than
complicated graJhics, poor layout or
Since the first slide is strongly visual choice of colours and genera l ugliness! six bulletpoint slides in a row. This is
with very little text and t he second is supposed to reduce the amount of
rather dense with textual information, 6 textual informat ion and make your
it's likely Walker would prefer the slides easier to recd. But, if you think
first. The second slide, of course, is a He took it out of an ordinary office about it, you don': really want your
much more typical of most business envelope and showed it to the audience to be reading - you want
presentations. audience. them to be listening! And the 666
b He saw a brain researcher take an Rule can actually mean your aud ience
4 actua l human brain on stage! has to get through 216 words! What
The top left slide shows a fairly c He team-presented the system on are you supposed to be doing whi le
unimaginative use of st andard stage with two holographic they do that? Because if you spea k,
co presenters. they certainly won't be li sten ing ! One
presentation software graphics. The
Key and commentary 65
solution to this problem is to display Much la rger font size for legibility and 7
the bul lets one at a time, always impact - five is a good number to a look background
making sure t o tell before you show. emphasise. b axis j know
The 10- 20-30 Rule Single-word bullets - very punchy; c see k put
The venture capitalist Guy Kawasaki has but still enough to help you d take I figures
a very neat rule about using visuals. He remember what to say. The e notice m speak
calls it the 10-20-30 Rule. Ten is the advantage of having just single f point n suggest
number of slides you should have - just words is that they don't make much g attention o might
te n. And 20 is t he number of minutes sense on t heir own, so t he audience h talk p question
you should speak for. Of course, Guy's has to listen to you for an explanation q mean
job is list ening to people pitching of their significance. r implicat ions
to him for venture capital. so if you All bullets are nouns, however, which
can't say it in 20 minutes in ten slides. are highly memorable. 8 Suggested answers
you probably don't have much of a Option 3 Note that it's not possible to add an
venture! But the best bit of the rule is adverb to all the expressions.
the 30. Guy says don't use fonts smaller As you can clearly see .. . , These figures
t han 30 point because older people, clearly show ... , Clearly, the f igu res
the ones with the money, can't read
them! He says find out who the oldest
> Intro!) speak for themse lves ...
You'll immediately notice ...
person in your audience is, divide their These figures presumably show ... ,
age by two and that is your optimal
font size, So, as Guy puts it. 'Unless you
> Apologies These results presumably suggest ...
These figures obviously show ... ,
are presenting to 16-year-olds, don 't Obviously, the figures speak for
use the eight point font!' > DetaJls themselves , Obviously, the real
question is .. .
Option 7
> Stories I'd particularly like to draw your
attention to ...
Let's briefly take a closer look. To briefly

5 Golden Rules
> ConversCltion
An image of five gold bars replaces the
give you the background to that, So,
briefly, what does th is mean in terms
of ... ?, Now, briefly, what are the
implications of this?
~ Get to the point title, leaving you free to call these the
five golden rules . Frankly, the figu res speak fo r
... Never apologise Embossing the font adds three- themselves
... Save the details for the handouts dimensional depth. Let's just take a closer look, Just to give
you the background to that. I should
~ Tel l stones 6 just point out"" Now, let's just put
that into perspective, I'd just like to
... Think conversation, not presentation a 85% = percentage of American
draw your attention to ... , let me just
households in which women are
talk you t hrough ...
Strong colours reflect the title - golden the chief decision-makers in the
rules. purchase of all consumer goods 5A Facts and figures
Larger font size increases legibility. b 8/10 = the number of times it's the
Maximum six words per bullet - it's woman in those households who
your job to say more about each of makes the final decision Datadumping is a common problem,
these. c 75% = percentage of real-estate particularly in technical presentations,
All bullets begin with an imperative decisions made by women whe re the speaker is anxious to prove
verb - this adds consistency and power. d 10% = the amount by wh ich women to their audience that they have
spend more online than men covered all the angles and know their
Option 2 e S70 m = the amount by which subject in det ai l. But, in fact, the best
women spent more online than men way to demonstrate you r expertise
on the biggest day for web sales this is to have all t he necessa ry data at
~ Intros

year your fingertips and, as Tom Peters
3.4 = the proportion of annual recommends, onl y show a very small
~ Apologies revenue companies lose by not portion of it to your audience in your
~ Details marketing directly to women slides. Th is allows you, when your
audience asks for more detail or further
GOLDEN ~ Stories informat ion, to display your command
of the subject by quoting supporting
RULES ~ Conversation figures - apparently off the top of
your head. In rea lity. of course, you've
carefully memorised all the key figu res
and have a copy of the rest close at
Strong colours again reflect the title -
hand ,
golden rules.

66 Key and commentary

2 on your PowerPoint slides to transition half a percent (percentage point)
As the extracts show, certain cultures from the full picture to the edit ed (a) quarter of a percent (percentage
are mistrustful of presentations that highlights or vice versa. point)
lack factual depth . Cu ltures as diverse k t h ree quarters (AmE som et imes t hree
4 fourt hs)
as Belgium, Canada, the Czech
Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, There are clea rly different degrees I five eighths
Israel , Korea, the Netherlands, Norway, of simpl ification possible here. But m a thi rd
Slovakia, Sweden and Switzerland fall since the audience consists mostly n seventy-five degrees
into this category. Other cultures, of Polish women, the photographic o up two points
notably Arab countries, Brazil. Britain, visual is probably quite appropriate p (a ratio of) nine to one
France. Greece, Hungary, India, Ireland. as it is. Poland, in second place in the q a thousand ccs (cubic centimetres)
Italy, Mexico. Romania. Russia. Spain, chart must obviously be retained r eighteen percent per annum
Turkey and the USA, will tend to be (and highlighted in some way) along s one point three dollars to the euro
more influenced by style than content, with Italy in the number one slot. For t two thousand revs (revolutions) per
at least in the presentation itself. contrast one or two countries should minute
'Style' may take many forms, however. be selected from the middle and u five and a half (five point five) square
For the British. Irish or Americans it near-bottom of the chart (say. France metres
will probably involve humour. For and Germany), together with Norway, v Q three (third quarter)
the Arabs. Greeks, Hungarians or at the lower extreme. Headings and
Indians it's more likely to be a matter layout could also be made simpler and 7
of eloquence . Latins will probably more memorable, so that the final slide a In Q4 we saw an almost 20%
be looking for ~ersonal charm and might look something like the one increase in revenues.
charisma . Chinese and Japanese may below. b We 've managed to bring down costs
not be especially impressed by either by nearly 25%.
style or content. Anything stylish about Men's extra leisure time (mins/day) c We currently have around 100
your performance may come across as branches in over 200 countries.
arrogant and flashy and clash with their
Italy _10_
20 _
30 _
40 50
_ 60_70_ d We've made a substantial investment
preference for calmness and humility. of just short of SV2 bn .
Poland _ _ _ _ __
And most of your facts and figures will e Just over three-quarters of the
Franc8 _ _ __ respondents in our survey act ually
probably be considered only of short
term interest when their concern is Germany _ __ expressed no pre ference .
mainly for the long-term future. Th e basic model comes in more
NOl\wy - (.
t han 50 different versions .
3 g Turnover this year was well in excess
A 'slideument', as Reynolds explains, of 100 m .
is neither a good slide nor a good h The project will be completed in
handout. It contains too much approximately 2 months.
information to be visually effective
as a slide and not enough to give
sufficient background as a handout . a-g b-e c- h d-f
His suggestion that you make
your slides simple and memorable
58 Facts and figures
and your handouts detailed and 1
comprehensive is one good solution Note that this slide not only has more
There's certainly a big difference
to this prob lem . Unfortunately, impact but requires the presenter to
between presenting to 'numbers
it is common practice in many explain its significance rather than
people' (engineers, technicians, IT
companies (for example, in Germany) just hover in the background or state
support. R&D, production, finance
for employers to request a copy of t he obvious. If the audience asks, for
and accounting) and 'people people'
the presenter's PowerPoint slides to example , where the USA ranks on the
(marketing and sales, HR), although
email to the audience as handouts chart the presenter can quote the
nobody wants to be overloaded
after the talk. And some conference relevant figures from their notes.
with endless data! The secret wit h
committees expect speakers to ernail numbers people is not to exaggerate
their slides in advance as part of their 5 Note that the recorded version is
or sensationalise any of the figures_ let
presentation proposal_ Where bosses British rather than American English.
the figures speak for themselves and do
and conference organisers cannot be a fourteen thousand, six hundred and nothing to distract attention away from
flexible, one solution is to have two forty them. Keep things elegant and simple.
slides for each of the key parts of your b thirty-three point th ree three With people people it's OK to put a
presentation - a strikingly designed c nineteen ninety-nine slightly positive spin on things and to
overview or 'snapshot' of the most d twenty ten or two t housand and ten cut down the amount of interesting
important data and a textually denser, e sixty dollars and ten cents but non-essential information. But any
fully contextualised slide to satisfy the f eight point oh oh one percent audience will usually welcome a bit of
data-hungry. Obviously, you would g a hundred and three million or
celebrat ion of positive information, so
then delete the 'snapshot' slides from a hundred and three metres it's generally acceptable to 'dress up'
your set of handouts. Another option is (depending on the context) the good news a little.
to use the 'custom animation' function h six point one billion

Key and commentary 67

3 Suggested answers 4 8
soar The ad had an immediate impact. In

t Scale Significance Speed

skyrocket January our (T rate went up by 21/2%
BIG OR SMALL GOOD OR BAD FAST OR SLOW from just V2%to 3%- an amazing six-
take off
boom CHANGE? CHANGE? CHANGE? fold increase!
shoot up ++ massive ++ ++ sharp Then in February we saw a drop of 1%
jump enormous tremendous' sudden to just 1 %%, But that's still well above
leap huge alarming average.
go up tremendous dramatic In March the figure fluctuated
rise dramatic ' between a high of 2 and a low of 1%.
increase + + rapid Finally. in April it hovered around 1V2%
+ marked
climb substantial encouraging to finish up at a little over that by
crash significant the end of t he campai gn. All in all, an
plunge considerable excellent response!
- moderate - - steady Note: People often just want to give
disappointing a general overview of trends the
nosedive audience can already clearly see in the
go down - - slight -- - - gradual
visual. To do this. they may simply talk
fall modest disastrous about 'the trend generally being up',
decrease marginal alarming" 'an overall downward trend ' or 'a few
dip ups and downs' .
a modifier which can fulfil more than
one function (simu ltaneously)
slip 6A Body l anguage
slide 5 Suggested answers 1
. stabilise o is marginally higher than E, a For most of us, being in front of an
: - flatten out A is Uust) as high as C. audience is not natural. so acting

even out B is by far the highest. natural involves imagining you 're
E is almost as high as D.

speaking to just a few friends or
E is not quite as high as D. colleagues and adopting the same
A and ( are nowhere near as high as B.
.. ea sy-going conversational tone you'd

bottom out o and E are more or less the same . use with them. Of course, that only
o is considerably higher than A and C. works if you're quite a lively and
A and C are equa lly high. expressive conversationalist to begin
top out
: with. If you're too relaxed and low-
key in front of a large audience. you
may lose their attention. That's why
rema in constant you need to make your voice just
a littl e bit louder, your movements
remain An increasing share of a shrinking
just a little bit more deliberate and
unchanged market.
hold steady your gestures just a little bit more
expansive than usual.
recover b As long as you don't try to compete
pick up with your visual aids, you'll alw ays be
bounce back the audience's centre of attention.
ill And that's what you should be. So

come out from behind that podium
have I experience A declining share of an expa nding or PowerPoint projector and let them
a few ups and market.
see you!
downs THE MARKET c If the messages you're sending
.Q peak I reach a be forced with your words and your body
/ - " , peak out of are synchron ised, you'lI be doubly
reach a high I an effective. But if your words are
all-time high saying one thing and your body
another. people will pay more
""- _ / ' reach a low I an attention to your body and how you
~ all-time low
move. That's human nature. And it's
Nouns: a(n) boom. jump. leap. rise. break into why it's so easy to distract or confuse
increase. climb. crash. plunge. slump. your audience with inappropriate
nosedive. fall. decrease. dip. drop, slip, The market is gestures. If you repeatedly nod your
slide. stabilisation , recovery, bounce. booming ++ flat head or scratch your nose, that's
rally, fluctuation, peak. high, low steady + depressed what they'll be fixed on!

68 Key and commentary

2 5 listen, imagine you're talking to a small
a Younger audience", appreciate a 1 e 2e 3f 4a 5d 6b group of friends, get excited
more physical dynamic presenter: Certa in gestures are famously rude in
older audiences a calmer. more 7
some cultures - for example, the 'OK'
relaxed one . sign with the tip of the thumb and a After the presenter's face, their
b Your body language should flow index finger touching is offensive in hands are the thing the audience will
naturally from what you are saying, Brazil. Pointing the index and midd le notice the most. especially if they are
not the other way around or you'll finger upwards w ith your pa lm inward used a lot. It's OK to gesture a lot as
seem unnatural. is a rude, if now rather old-fashioned, long as you vary your gestures. They
c He says a smile works in all cultures. gesture in Britain. The thumbs-up sign only become distracting if they are
d In private conversation Arabs like to can also be risky in some countries. habitual and repeated.
sit close together. In public speaking Also be careful not to punch the palm b Foldin g your arms keeps your hands
they compensate for the distance of your other hand, point directly at st ill. but rest ricts your ability to
with expressive body languag e and people or display an open palm with express yourself. More importantly,
raised voices. the fingers separated ... the list goes it creates a barrier between you and
on and on. your audience. Standing behind a
3 podium creates a similar barrier and
But there's no need to be paranoid! In
a M - Men move around the room is also very restricting. The solution
genera\' the lively use of gesture will
more. to 'the podium trap' is to insist on
make your presentation much more
b W - Women hold eye contact four having a radio microphone and the
effective than stiff immobility, so don't
times longer. freedom to move around if you want
be inhibited. Be yourself. The audience
c W - Women gesture towards to.
knows you are foreign and are more
themselves. e Fiddling with object s makes a 'hands
likely to be amused by a couple of
d M - Men gesture away from problem' worse. Clicking pens,
inappropriate gestures than offended
themselves. adjusting ties, playing with jewellery,
by them. It's much more important to
e M - Men pOint and wave their arms shirt cuffs or loose change in your
more. eliminate any distracting habits you
pockets are all ext remely distracting.
repeatedly display - for instance, using
f W - Women smile and nod while So empty your pockets. don't wear
the same gesture over and over again
listening. dangly jewellery, put pens away and
to emphasise points.
9 M - Men tilt the head and frown leave items of clothing alone!
w hile listening . d People who are nervous often move
6B Body language
h M - Men keep their bodies fairly around a lot and wave their hands
rigid. 2 about. so people who move around
The qualities here are demonstrated by too much may appear nervous, even
very different gestures. postures and it they're not. Being relaxed is good;
If you are a woman presenting to a movements. You can combine them, of being over-relaxed mal<.es you 1001<.
mostly male audience (especially a course. but it's difficu lt to be all things as jf you don't real ly care. Hands
senior one), you might wa nt to think to all people. You need to decide what on hips or in pockets can give this
about 'commanding your space' a little kind of image you want to project impression. So t ry to make sure you
more by moving around the room, and w ork on that. Openness, honesty stand st ill between movements and
smiling just a little less and gesturing and approachability are reflected in appear alert to your <ludience.
outw ards. All these behaviours open gestures, smiling and good eye
(rightly or wrongly) are associated contact. Enthusiasm and energy are 9
with confidence and tend to be more chiefly shown in mobility and ta lking Picture a shows the 'penguin positlon'
typica l of men. Too much smiling and with the hands more. Leadership and with the back stiff and arms limp at
nodding, in particular, can make it look con fidence come through a more your sides. Not only does this lower
like you 're too anxious to please. controlled use of movement with your own energy levels and make you
If you are a man present ing to a nothing hurried and a firm standing look a bit uncomfortable speaking in
mostly female audience, you might position. For charisma, the X Factor, public but it also drains energy from
want to wander around a bit less, there is no magic recipe, except to the audience, who take their lead from
but loosen up your postu re a little look as though you're enjoying the you. Your arms are not passengers!
more. To avoid coming across as moment and would rather be giving Make them do some of the work.
arrogant or superior, try to avoid this presentation right here right now Picture b shows what communications
frowning when concentrating on what to this audience than doing anything coach Tim Koege l calls the 'T. Rex'.
someone is saying to you. Remember else. Here the presenter moves quickly
to smile and look people directly in around the room with their hands
the eye for a second or two longer held up high by their face and a
than you normally would. All these Authority: w ait. use subtle gestures, fixed grin. The impression is one of
behaviours (again, rightly or wrongly) talk slowly, look slightly above the over-anxiousness to please and false
are associated with being open to and audience, stand still, imagine your cheerful ness.
interested in your audience and tend presence fills the room, say less, talk
Picture c illustrates the so-ca lled 'fig-
to be more typ ical of women. low
leaf position'. Here the presenter clasps
Rapport: maintain lots of eye contact. their hands in front of t hem like a
ask lots of questions, use humour, frightened rabbit. The idea is that t his

Key and commentary 69

stops you waving your arms about and many of the same thoughts and watched a TV documentary about
looks calm and professional. In fact. it experiences they have, the more a subject you were not especially
usually makes you look over-formal and you'll connect. A good piece of interested in to begin with, but the
prevents you from expressing yourself advice if you're presenting at a presenter brought it so much to life,
with your hands. It can also look a bit conference is to talk to members of you watched it right through till the
defensive. Remember. you're facing your audience as they arrive. find end? That's the kind of passion you
an audience not facing a free kick in a out a few names, ask them about want to create.
football match! their jobs and what brings them
to the event. This will help you to 2
The position in picture d is sometimes
called 'parade rest' . It involves folding relax and overcome any last-minute a Now, w e know this is something that
your hands behind your back as soldiers nerves. And when you begin your affects each and everyone of us.
do in the army. At best. this looks a bit presentation it will be more like b I think we'd all agree that in the long
confrontational. At worst it can look talking to people you know than to term this is in our best interests.
as if you're hiding something from the total strangers. Also, if yoW can refer c We need to be asking ourselves:
audience! to at least one or two people by what are we trying to achieve?
name as you're speaking, ask them a d So do w e or don't we take up the
Picture e shows the 'caged tiger'. This
simple question or two. it really helps challenge? The choice is ours.
is where the presenter paces up and
to build rapport with the whole e We've got three amazing new
down in front of their audience. Such
audience. products we want to share with you
behaviour is usually the result of nerves
c In a conversation peop le are today. So let's get started!
as the speaker tries to use up excess
motivated to listen by the fact that
energy. If punctuated with periods of 3 a is it? d haven't we?
they may have to speak next. In a
st anding still. it can sometimes be quite b will we? e didn't 17
presentation the audience knows it
dynamic. If continuous, it can be very c can we? f don't you?
may not be able t o speak until the
tiring for both speaker and audience!
end - and needn't speak at all. Down
4 a Shouldn't we ... 7
goes motivation to listen! If, as a
7A Rapport building b Offshoring - isn't this 7
presenter, you give your audience
c Isn't it ... 7
1 small opportunities to participate as
d Haven't we .. . 7
you speak (perhaps by di rectly asking
a Creating an impression of openness e Isn't there ... ?
them questions or getting them to
to your audience has a lot to do f Aren't we ... ?
do things), you turn a presentation
with your body language. If you
into more of a conversation and 5 a-m e-i
appear relaxed and comfortable in
audience motivation goes up. But b- k f-j
front of them, they'U relax and be
make sure you stop and listen if c-h g- I
comfortable too. Audiences take
they do respond to you. You may be d- n
their lead from you. If you appear
able to use something they say to
nervous and self-conscious, you'll
connect to what you were about to 6 Involvement exprt;ssions:
make them tense as well. If, on the
say next or relate what you say next
other hand, you come across as If you're anything like me . .. .
back to something they said earlier.
over-confident. you may antagonise I don't know about you, but .. .
Either w ay, you've shown you were
them into resisting your message. When was the last time you ...?
listening! And don't worry about the
Good eye contact is essential. Talk to Raise your hand if ...
audience distracting you from your
them, not at them! Smile from time I think that's something we can all
plan. You don't need to be word-
to time. Project your voice a little relate to.
perfect. In fact, most audiences
more than usual. but not so much So, what if , was to say to you ... 7
prefer a speech that sounds as if it's You'd think I was crazy, right?
that it sounds as if you're lecturing .
at least partly spontaneous to one
Try to make your presentation sound Let me ask you a question .
more like a conversation. If you're whic h is tota lly rehearsed . Ilow many of you ... 7
d If your presentation topic matters to
presenting to a roomful of strangers, If, like me, you find .. .
you, it will matter to your audience. But let me share some statistics w ith
it may help t o imagine you're
Correction: if your topic appears to
addressing a group of colleagues you.
matter to you. it w ill matter to them.
or friends. After all. that's what you Did you know that ... 7
It's vita l that you convey a real sense And would it surprise you to learn that
hope they'll be by the end of your
of enthusiasm for your subject and
t alk. .7
have some fun with it as you speak.
b To communicate is to connect . Now, I know what you're thinking.
Just being interested in your theme
The word 'communication' comes But, you see, that's whe re you'd be
is not enough. When an audience
from related Lat in words meaning wrong.
attends your presentation, they
'to have something in common', And you don't need me to tell you ...
are giving you permission to have
'to share a mutual objective', 'to
a good time. Having a good time 7B Rapport building
strengthen connections'. To connect
doesn't mean joking around or being
with an audience, they need to like 1
maniGllly energetic. But it does
you. And to like you, they need to
usua lly mean increasing your energy a Being funny will help you to
like something in you that is like
level to fill the room. Enthusiasm entertain an audience - providing
somet hing they like in themselves.
is infectious and so is the lack of they like you r sense of humou r! But
The more you 'talk their language'
it. Remember the last time you being fun is more inclusive and a lot
and show them that you've had

70 Key and commentary

less ris ky. Audiences can participate Cons: generally good to include the visual in
in the fun and even occasionally humour can be distracting, especially there somewhere.
take the lead. They are not just on if it has no connection with what
the receiving end. As Doni Tamblyn you're talking about 8A Impact t e chniques
has pointed out, when you're funny, it can confuse an audience whose
it makes an audience fee l good English is not so good
about you; when you're fun, it makes it can be embarrassing if it looks as Examples of repetition from Tracy
them feel good about themselves. if you're expecting a laugh and you Goodwin's comments include:
Ideally, you want them to feel both. don't get one - it takes a while to complete sentences ('I want to talk
A presentation should be a shared recover from a fai led joke - a minute about repet ition'); adverbs
experience. in cultures very different from your ('very, very important'); semifixed
Another source of fun. if you don't own it can be easy to unintentionally expressions ('You .. , the speech');
feel you want to try and be funny give offence by using the wrong kind sound repetition (,repeat and restate
yourself, is to use humorous quotes of humour" the important points' / r /, /p/ and It/) .
The secret of recovering fro m a joke t hat nobody
instead. You can find thousands An example of restatement is the
notked is simply to move on: if they did notice, but
of these on the Internet. And you didn't laugh, then alwaY5 admit the fa ilure somehow
rephrasing of 'very, very important in
can simply show them in a slide or ('My husband gave me t hat joke. Thanks, honey:), any speech that you do two things -
actually deliver them yourself. If .. Verba l humour and wo rdplay are th e most 'easily lost repetition , restatement' as: 'You have
in tra nslation', but other simpler kinds of physical or
they're not well known, you could to repeat and restate the important
visual humour may still work we" ,
even try pretending they're your poInts.'
own! You wouldn't be the first 4
person to do that. 2
There is some overlap between some
b One good way of creating a matter .. question
of the intelligence types. Here are
opportunities for laughter to b absolute .... total
the suggested answers with possible
naturally emerge is to constantly c objectives .... goals
alternatives in brackets.
be listening and talking to your d information .... data
audience. Often they will initiate the 1 Visual: a, e, n, v, x e drop ..... decline
humour. Some audiences are more 2 Audito ry: b, r (p) f nothing .... zero
reluctant to participate than others. 3 Logical: d, i, p, t
But. if you've succeeded in relaxing 4 Physical/spatial: f, h, 1, 0, u, w, Y 3 a up never
them and getting them to trust you, 5 Interpersonal: j, m, s b always g nobody
they are much more likely to be 6 Intrapersonal: c, g, k, q (f, 0) c time h long
responsive and share the ir humour d why i today
with you.
5 e really
Of course , fun doesn't necessarily Ext ra ct 1: physical!spatial! visualj
have to involve humour. Asking your interpersona l 4 a nowhere d nothing
audience to take part in a short Extract 2: visual j logica l j b no one e anything
lively activity can also generate intra personal c everyone f everything
laughter. And if you can laugh at Extract 3: auditory j intrapersonal
Extract 4: visua l /physica l! spatial j 6
yourself when things go w rong-
your radio mike falls off, your video interpersonal The repeated sounds are shown in
li nk freezes - you can save a lot of Extract 5: visual ,logical phonemic transcript: learners only
embarrassment: 'My radio mike just Extract 6: visual' auditory I need to highlight the letters in the
committed suicide', 'Can we turn the interpersonal words and identify the sounds orally.
central heating up? My video link's Extract 7: visual, physicalfspatial , Holiday Inn: Ipl and h:l
frozen'. interperson al Royal Dutch Shell: IJI
Extract 8: visual/physical/spatial / Microsoft : Iwl and It!
2 Pros: interpersonal Carlsberg: /bl and I~I
humorous stories are memorable Note that handouts, cards and objects United Airlines: If! and faT.!
and, if relevant. help you get your combine the visual with the more Jagu ar: Id! and It!
message across more effectively physical. Some people need to see Phillps: Isl and hi
laughter raises energy levels, a good things on a handout they can hold in Fila: If!, ISI, 101 and Ibl
thing in any talk, but especially a front of them rather than on a screen
long one in the distance. Getting aud ience 7
humour is something both speaker members to work in pairs or groups a advertised .... promoted
and audience can share, so you build obviously encourages interpersonal b significant .... major
rapport through laughter process ing of information, whilst c easy .... simple
it gives your audience a breathing getting them occasionally to work d company .... firm
space between different parts of alone encourages inner reflection. e group .... team
your presentation and can even help Remember that most presentations f option .... choice
you to phase your talk consist of a lot of talking, so the g under ~ bust / broke / bankrupt
it reduces stress; when the audience auditory channe l is already open most
laughs everyone can relax, you of the time. Remember also that we
included live in a highly (tele}visual age, so
whatever intelligences you address, it's

Key and commentary 71

8 more conversational, thereby building e striking. fabulous, gorgeous, eye-
There'l! always ... always be a market rapport. catching. breath-taking
for quality. And quality is w hat I want f slashed
to talk to you about today. So what 3 g great. superb. terrific. fantastic
do I know about quality? I know three a So, what's the main challenge we h soared. taken off, {sky)rocketed,
things. I know it's better. I know it costs face? The main challenge is piracy. gone through the roof
more. And. crucially. I know customers b So, what's the answer? The answer is
actually want it to cost more. Because vira l marketing.
it's not about your products; it's about c So, what's the problem? The a We 've done exceptionally well this
how people perceive your products. As problem is converting leads into year - even better than last year, in
Stella Artois's brilliant beer ad used to sales. fact.
put it: 'Reassuringly expensive' . I know d So, where are the best b If we truly believe in this company ,
no better definition of quality. opportunities? The best we need to be one hundred
opportunities are in China. percent comm itted to its success.
88 Impact techniques e So, what's my point? My point is c It's done dramatically better than
that big-budget advertising simply we expected in such a short space of
1 time.
doesn 't work.
a Repetition of words and sounds So, what's the plan? The plan is d It's just so encouraging to see
Words to give our project teams more people really working together as a
any(thing/one) autonomy. team.
techniques e We now totally dominate the
speakers/speak 4 sector. even though it's so highly
a Now what can we do about that? competitive.
b But what do I mean by that7 We've invested heavily I heavily
successful speakers (!sI)
c Now how can we improve that? invested in R&D and I'm absolutely
inspire. persuade (/sI. /p/)
d But didn't we know that already? delighted to say that that investment
enthuse their audiences (Ill )
e So what are the alternatives? has paid off a hundredfold.
rhetorical techniques (tt/)
alive and well (Ill ) f But what will th is mean in practice? 9 Every unit has performed
speakers speak (/sI, Ipl . Ik/) superlatively well and I genuinely
5 believe this is just the beginning of
b Rhetorical questions
Is there anything you can do to get a tremendously exciting period for
a how + do
your message across with greater b what + waiting this company.
impact? Are there any techniques c where + did 5
that all successful speakers use to d what + do
inspire, persuade and enthuse their e how much + wasted Business is a sport
audiences? And, if so, can anyone f why + sell ing win back market share. play as a
learn to use them? (The three g where + go team. level the playing field, be in a
opening sentences are all rhet orical h what + talking different league
questions.) i how soon + expect 2 Business is a race
c Croups of three outpace our competitors, fall behind,
Is there anything you can do to get 7 a-e b-f c-d be overtaken, catch up w ith the
your message across with greater market leaders
impact? Are there any techniques 8 a-e-c b-f-a c-d-b 3 Business is war
that all successful speakers use to wipe out the competition, join
in spire, persuade and enthuse their SC Impact techniques forces, come under attack, rethink
audiences? And, if so, can anyone our strategy, reinforce ou r pOSition,
1 bring out the big guns, hit the
learn to use them? (A group of three
within a group of three.) a This time next year, we'll be number ground runn ing
one. 4 Business is a construction site
2 b It's a matter of doing the right bu ild a firm foundat ion for future
Rhetorical questions can be a powerful things. business, build a reputation,
presentation tool because they seem to c I'm asking you not to say no. reconstruct our image, get in on the
address the members ofthe audience d I'm saying it's our o nly option. ground floor
directly and ask them to think about e I say leap. then look. 5 Business is nature
the question, even if they are not f Today, it has become a reality. grow ou r business. start to see the
supposed to actually answer it. They g ... someone else w ill. fruits of our efforts, get to the root of
make the speaker's monologue sound h ... but we can still be the best. the problem, cu ltivate relationsh ips
more like a dialogue (always a good
3 6
th ing) and encourage involvement
in the issue and anticipation of the a huge, enormous, immense a For the last three years we've
answer, which, if it is not obvious, b transformed, revolutionised enjoyed spectac ular success.
the speaker usually goes on to give. c brand-new. innovative. revolutionary. b It's been a really outstanding
Rhetorical questions are one very breakthrough performance all round.
effective way of making a presentation d destroyed, wiped out. outclassed. c First indi cat ions are the situation
defeated, slaughtered could be catastrophic.

72 Key and commentary

d This really is a revolutionary idea. first. this may feel a little unnatural, here [wo rd repetition] doesn't just
e We're talking about cutting -edge but eventually your performance will understand t hree thousand words,
technology. become second nature. Performance not just six thousand words [word
f The new designs are absolutely will become presence. Until then, fake repetition] - the common eve ryday
stunning. it till you make it! vocab ulary of you or me - Joh nson
g It's enormously difficu lt to make Alternative ly, you can stop worrying [word repetition] understands eighty
long -term predictions. about the characteristics yo u don't thousand and twenty-four words . [word
h Customer response has been truly have and concentrate on improving repetit ion, contrast, group of three]
remarkable. the ones you do! Michael Douglas in WaflStreet
j The latest figures are extremely
The most important diffe rence I am not a dest royer of companies. I am
encourag ing.
between acting and presenting is that a liberator of them . [contrast] The point
The whole campaign has been
an actor is trying to persuade you they is, ladies and gentlemen , t hat greed,
phenomenally successful.
are someone else. If they forget their for lack of a better word, is good .
k Even though there's a risk, it 's cruci al
lines, hesitate or say things wrong, Greed [wo rd repetitio n] is right. Greed
to our success.
they lose credibility. A presenter is works. [word repetition, group of three)
Other people say it can't be done,
on ly trying to be themselves, to be Greed [wo rd repetition] clarifies, cuts
but I say we're the ones to do it.
authentic in front of an audience. thro ugh and captures [group of t hree]
m Maybe we can't be number on e in
Interestingly, presenters gain credibility the essence of the evolutionary spirit.
the world, but we can in Asia .
when t r ey hesitate, have t o t hink, Creed [wo rd repetition] in all of its
n We need t o build bridges between
change direction , improvise . We forms. Greed [word repetition ] for life,
department s.
then be lieve they are t alking to us for money, for love, [group of three]
o We have to close the gap on the
spontaneously and not simply reciting knowledge [plus one] has marked the
a re hearsed speech. upwa rd surge of man kind and greed
p We can't just plough more money
'Over-presenting', which is like [word repet ition], you mark my words,
into R&D.
over-acting , is what happens when will not only save Teldar Pape r, but
8D Impact techniques that other malfunctioning corporation
, the presenter comes across as
too rehearsed and too focused on
t hemselves and their performance.
called the USA. [contrast]
Aaron Eckhart in Thank You for Smoking
An important similarity between acting Sometimes, people who belong to In 1910 t he US was producing 10
and presenting is that both involve a public speaking clubs and societies are billion cigarettes a year. By 1930 we
strong element of performance. The tra ined to spea k in this way. It might were up to 123 billion . [cont rast] What
ability to use your voice, gestures and work in certain cult ures. But general ly, happened in between? [rhetorical
posture effectively is just as important the result is that you look like a third - question] Three things : a world war,
in both. Some speakers have natural rate actor or stand-up comedian. dieting and movies. [g roup of three]
presence: others have to learn how to Unless you could be a first -rate act or 1927: talking pictures are born.
perform in a way that suggests they or stano-up comed ian, don 't do this! Suddenly, directors need to give their
have presence. Once you know your mat erial, focus actors someth ing to do while they're
If performance is what you do, on your audience at all times. not on talking . Cary Gra nt, Carole lomba rd
presence is what you are. Gaps in what you are doing. The more your are lighting up; Bette Davis: a chimney.
your presence can be wo rked on as monologue sounds like a dialogue, [group of three] And Sogart: remember
elements of your performance: the more authentic you'll appear. And the first picture with him and lau ren
Presence Performance auth ent icity is the key. Bacall? [rhetorical question] She says
You 're calm Slow down, 'Anyone got a match?' And Bogey
breathe evenly, 2 throws the matches at her and she
smile Sound repetition highlighted. catches them - greatest romance of
You're confident Project and lower Dan Futterman in Shooting Fish the century. How'd it sta rt? [rhetorical
your voice, don't question] lighting a ciga rette. These
fidget Mr Greenaway, do you know why days when someone smo kes in the
You're entertaining Be playful, you're here? [rhetorical question] movies, they're either a psychopath
tell stories, let Yo u're here [word re petition] to see or a European . [contrast] The message
humour emerge technology at it s most advanced. Hollywood needs to send out is:
You're rere [word repetition] to buy
You're provocative Challenge smoking is cool. Most of t he actors
orthodoxy, take a seventh -generation computer. A smoke already. [word repetition] If they
calculat ed risks computer [word repetition] you can start doing it on screen, we can put the
You're charismatic Look as if you're talk to . A computer [word repetition]
sex back into cigarettes.
enjoying yourself, that'lI t al k to you. [word repetition]
laugh This is Johnson. It's t he first computer
You have rapport Conve rse with [word repetition] to be truly free
of a keyboard. Mr Green away, a early Fiorina uses a great deal of
and involve you r repetition in her present at ions. She
audience [word repetition] nobody likes to
type. Everybody likes to talk. [word particula rly likes using a technique
If you feel you lack, but wou ld like t o repetit ion, contrast] Do you like to talk? the ancient Greeks called 'anaphora'
develop, the characteristics on the [word repetition, rhetorical question] I - starting consecutive sentences
left. you can begin by starting to do like to talk. (word repetition] Johnson or clauses with identical or nearly
more of the things on the right. At identical words and phrases:

Key and commentary 73

1 .
FedEx was told they'd never make sentences is monot onous and to their bosses and down to their
an overnight delivery service work. difficult to follow. But a speech subordinates. Getting buy-in for
Amazon wa s told they'd never make consisting only of short simple your id eas from people with more
online retailing work. BMW's Formula sentences rapidly begins to sound authority tha n you and who al ready
On e team was told they'd never pretentious and over-dramat ic. The know all the facts requires real skill.
make a car that rivals Ferrari. secret is to alternate between the Stories can help here. Specialists of
In every single case, they proved two. Two or three short sentences all kinds will often find it easier to
the skeptics wrong. And in every punctuated by one longer one will explain what t hey are doing to non
single case , HP was there. work well, but there's no need to specialist s by avoi ding jargon and
But in these uncertain times, it is st ick to a pattern . In fact, a pattern is technical terms and telling a sto ry
our capacity to look ahead, our the last thing you want, for then you instead.
capacity to build a better future, become predictable. See how Carly c The golden rules of st orytelling are:
our capacity to develop practical Fiorina does it . make sure your story is relevant to
solutions that make our work all the d There are subtle differences between the th eme of your presentation:
more essential. the two speeches. The informal keep it short but not so short that
Note also the use of groups of three Stanford speech contains more your story lacks colour and detail,
in two of the examples above. short sentences and t his sets the the things that bring it alive in
The effect of using repetition in a conversational tone Fiorina aims to the minds of your audience; don't
presentation is both to make sure achieve. To ove rcome the potential rush the important parts of your
the audience gets your message and distancing effect of the greater story: pause before you deliver the
to give a certain depth and gravity formality in the Comdex speech , rea lly important parts; involve the
to your words. Li ke music. repetition Fiorina uses the first person plural audience through questions: use
works at a fairly deep level on t he no fewer than eleven times . In the direct speech wherever yo u can . It's
audience's subconscious awareness Stanford speech she uses 'you' and much more effective to hear what
of pattern and sound. The danger, 'I' more often to create the illusion people in the story actually said and
as with all rhetorical techniqu es, is of a dialogue. It's also interesting how they said it. Try to recreate t he
that it can be over-used and become that whereas there are two groups moment, not just report it.
predictable. Powerful repetition then of three in t he Comdex speech,
the Stanford speech contains none. 2
becomes merely repetitious .
Fiorina 's second favourite technique Perhaps this rhetorical technique a Create d rama :
is the use of contrast. The Comdex lends itself better to a more formal .. . all of a sudden the customer
speech contains t hree contrasts occasion than to a conversat ional pulls out a gun and he says: 'This is a
(two of them quite subtle) - what one. stickup! Give me all the cash in the
Fed Ex, Amazon and BMW were told register!'
9A Storytelling b Signal the end of the story:
they could never do, but succeeded
in doing anyway; the 'cynics and 1 You know what it said in the paper?
the doubters' who don't make c Establish credibility:
a Storytelling is a vital part of
any progress as opposed to those By the way, th is is a true st ory .. .
leadership ~ not only the charismatic
who do; the difficult economic Now, I'm not making this up. Th is
kind of leadership that seeks to
climate which makes HP's work w as in the pape r.
motivate and inspire, but also the
even more, not less, important. d Deliver the punchline:
quieter, more handsoff kind of
The Stanford speech contains two 'And the robber left satisfied.'
leadership that seeks t o guide and
strong contrasts: what distinguishes e Involve t he audi ence:
successful from unsuccessful people: Admiral, w hat would you do in that
Leaders need to tell many kinds of
what courage is not and what it is. situation? .. . What would you do?
st ories - stories about successes
b In the first speech a rhet orical Link to the theme of the
and failures, about the past and
question ('Why is this the face we presentation:
the future, about people and plans,
have chosen to show the world?') ... My subject t oday is the courage
dreams and ambitions, good fortune
marks a transition from ta lking about to negotiate.
and adversity, about lessons learned.
the focus of HP's ad campaign to g Set the scene:
Increasingly, leaders need to tell
the corporate philosophy behi nd A couple of yea rs ago, a man walks
stories about change and corporate
it. Rhetorical questions can be very into a sandw ich shop in Delray
social responsibility.
useful as a way of signalling a change Beach, Florida and o rders a meatball
b Stories are a powerful form of
of direction from one stage of a sandwich.
communication for anyone in
presentation to the next. business at all levels of t he corporate 3
In the second speech a rhetorical hierarchy. Everyon e can t ell a basic
question ('So what do I know about a The story itself is told entirely in the
story. If you can talk someone
change?') is used to open the present simple. Brodow on ly uses the
th rough your CV or ta lk about the
whole talk. This is a very quick way past simple to emphasise that he is
history of your company, you can
of getting straight to the pOint of relating exactly what happened as
already tell a story, but you may
the presentation without a lengthy it was described in the newspaper.
need to work on improving your
introduction. The present simple gives a sense
c Good public speakers instinctively of immed iacy to his story. It gives
Frontline managers have a need
vary the length of t heir sentences. the impression that the drama is
to speak both up and down - up
A speech full of long complicated unfolding as we listerl. For simple

74 Key and commentary

anecdotes, the past simple will often I an d he says: 'This is a stickup! IGive 98 St o rytelling
suffice. But if your story is at all me all the cash in the register! ' I Now,
dramatic with plenty of dialogue and
I don't know what you would do in
action, the present simple will often A sto ry well told is a great way t o
a situation like that. I Admiral, I what
work better. When you set your story arouse the interest of the aud ience. By
would.iQ!! do in that situation? IYQ.J.LQ
in the past, you make it more distant the end of the story, they are ready. if
give him the money. I! i!.!.!f would
in time. But when you tell it in the they haven't al ready partially worked
alYli him the money. I What would it out for themse lves. to hear what
present, you bring it right into the iill! do? I You'd give him the money.
moment. the key message is and what facts and
I Well, Itlat's not what happened. I figures back it up, But. if you give them
b Questions are the quickest and By the way, this is a true stOry. IThat's
the facts first. then they already know
most effective way of involving your not what happened. IThe owner of
why you' re telling your story before
audience. They're useful in all parts the shop I puts down the meatball
of a presentation, not just for tel ling you begin. You've spoilt the element
sandwich, I looks at the robber I and he
stories. In a story your questions of surprise. You're no longer exploiting
says: I 'Listen. paL l We've had a really
your audience's natural curiosity to
will mostly be either rhetorical bad month.' I He says: 'Business has
see the pieces fall into place, You've
and require no answer ('You know been terrible. IWould you settle for ten
what it said in the paper?') or semi- deprived them of their 'Aha!' moment.
dollars and the meatball sandwichT
rhetorical, requiring just a short I Now, I'm not making this.Y.Q. IThis 2
predictable answer that pushes the was in the ,QgQg[. ! He says: 'Will you
story along ('Admiral, what would settle for t en dollars and the meatball True stories have a special appeal all of
you do in that situation? You'd give ~wichT I So the gunman says: their own , If you tell a joke or a story
him the money. I sure would give 'Are you crazyT I He ~: 'I've .Q..Qt about someone else, then it had better
him the money.') a.lliill here! I I'm not settling for ten be good o r your audience will wonder
c Again, it's about giving the st ory dollars and the meatball sandwich.' I why you wasted their time t elling it !
more immediate impact. Reporting He says: 'I'm not settling for anything But when you t ell an anecdote, it's
speech removes it from the here less than twenty dollars and the a window onto your experience and
and now. Quoting it is like replaying meatbal sandwich!' I So, the owner personality. As long as the story is
a recording of what actually ~: I 'You QQt a deal!' I Gives him the relevant and not too long. you'll have
happened. Compare 'He said he twenty bucks, I gives him the meatball your audience's attention, And if your
really wasn't interested' with 'So he sandwich. IYou know what it said in the anecdote reminds them of similar
says: "Look, forget it!'" By using the paper? l it said: I 'And the robber left experiences they've had themselves, so
second version, the speaker makes satisfied : " ... My subject today I is the much the better!
you feel as if you're part of the story. courage t o negotiate,
It's the difference between someone 3
describing a goal in a soccer match 6 a The presenter begins by confessing
to you and watching the action
Rapport: Stories are like a bridge to a failure that turned out well in
between the prese nter and the the end. Asian audiences generally
d There are severa l examples of
aud ience; they turn the presenter's appreciate some sign of humility,
repetition . 'Meatball sandwich ' is
experience into a movie the audience especially in the you ng, so t his
mentioned eight times. If the story
can play inside their heads is an effective opening strategy,
had a title it would probably be
Then she goes on to show that
called 'The Meatball Sandwich'. Timing: Keep your stories short; watch
she started her business with next
Variations on 'what would you do' your audience as you tell them to see
to nothing, working out of her
and 'that's not what happened' how you're doing
apartment w ith no staff, and still
are repeated too. Because of the Humour: Stories can be funny, but they managed to succeed, The audience
amount of dialogue , we also get a don't have to be: peop le don't have laughs because it's something they
lot of 'he says' . Repetition is great in the same expectations of a story as can relate to, being you ng aspi ring
a story because it makes the main they do of a joke; Western humour may entrepreneurs themselves. This is a
pOints clear and easy to follow, but. not work in Asia, in any case good example of a 'bonding story'.
even more important ly, it gives a
Credibility: Making fun of yourself In effect. t he speaker is saying to
rhythm and structure to t he story.
is generally OK, but be careful not the audience: 'I know what it's like
In fact. it makes it a story and not
t o make jokes about your area of to be in your position, but it worked
just a report. In a report too much
expe rtise (if you're a corporate lawyer, for me, and, if you work hard, it can
repetition would be redu ndant, a
you ca n make fun of your bad time work for you too.'
sign of poor writing style . In a story it
management. but not about the day b The story of the guest satisfaction
is key.
you lost your company a $1 Om court questionnaires is something any
4 case!) hotel manager can relate to. So
the presenter begins with the
A couple of ~ ago, I a man walks Influence: Stories are like the Trojan
Horse; they are a good way of getting familiar. He then does two things.
into a sandwich shop in Delray
First, he surprises his audience
Beach, Florida I and orders a meatball past audience resistance - especially if
with some unexpected stat istics.
~ich . l So the owner starts to fix they are powerful, emotional stories
These turn a simple anecdote into a
the meatball sandwich / whe n all of a
revealing piece of market resea rch.
sudden the customer Q..Y.l.ld out a .lliill
From these statistics he draw s hi s

Key and commentary 75

conclusion - customer satisfaction g She said: 'Of course, you're the I revolting, gruesome m immaculate
is notthe same as customer loya lty. world's expert on customer n grimy, grubby 0 weird. uncanny
An d to underline the valid ity of his relations, aren't you?' p petrifying q hysterical r riveting
conclusion he then draws an analogy h He said: " can't hear myself think!' s arnazing. astoumliflg t exllildf&iflY,
between customers and life partners stimulating, electrifying)
by asking his aud ience a direct 6 Suggested answers
question. which is also a joke. When So I come out into the arriva ls area at 9
they laugh at the joke, they are. in Charles de Gaulle airport and there's a-k b-g c-I d-j e- h f- i
a way. also accepting that the point nobody wa iting for me. I wait for about
he is making is true - a clever use of quarter of an hour. but still nobody lOA Q&A sessions
humour to persuade. comes. So I ring their office, but
c The subject of hiring more mature
there's no answer. And I'm t hin kin g
job applicants, who may have been to myself: 'This is very odd.' Another a a good question
out of the workforce for a while. 45 minutes go by. And now I'm really b a difficult question
is a potentially sensitive one. Such starting to panic. I mean. what am c an offtopic question
people may have a great deal of I supposed to do? I'm in a strange d an unnecessary question
experience. but a lot of it could be city. I don't know a soul. I don't even e a multiple question
out of date. When you hire college know wlich hotel they've booked me f a hostile question
leave"s they know they have a lot to into - nothing . Finally - I've almost
lea rn . But the o lder applicant may given up hope by this stage - this tall 4
think they know it already, so they blonde woman comes up t o me and a a good question : deal with it
may have to 'unlearn' a lot of old says: 'Are you Or White?' And I say: straight away
skills before they can even start to 'Yes, 1 am. Where on earth have you b a difficult question: define it, then
learn new ones. In that sense, they been? I was beginning to think you'd deflect it, defer it, decline to
could be harder to train than young forgotten me.' And she says: 'I'm very answer it or disarm the question er
recruit s. So the speaker cleverly uses sorry! I was held up in traffic.' It's not by admitting you don't know
the self-effacing story of his own a great excuse, but, anyway, to cut c an offtopic question: define it, then
attempt to relearn tennis after 20 a long story short, we get into a taxi defer it or deal with it briefly
years to soften his message about and head into town, when suddenly d an unnecessary question : deal
recru iting older people. He does not she turns to me and says: 'I'm really with it
himself work in HR, but he knows honoured to be working with one of e a multiple question: divide it up,
that an audience of HR directors America's top neurosurgeons!' And then deal with it step by step
is probably going to consist of I say: 'But I'm not a neurosurgeon. a hostile question : defuse it, then
slightly unfit middle-ag ed people I'm an automotive engineer!' And deal with it
like himself. So his anecdote also she says: 'But aren't you Or White
helps to break down any possible from New York Hospital?' And I say: 5
resistance to a professor trying to te ll 'I 'm afraid not. I'm Or White from There are some alternatives here
executives how to do their job. Cleveland Trucks.' She'd picked up the because the question types are not
wrong Or White ! mutually exclusive. A good question
can also be difficult to answer: not
Let you r voice reflect the emotions in 7 all hostile questions are difficult to
the story a exhausted k gorgeous answer, etc. But suggested responses
Quote actual conversations b starving I hid eous are below:
Use gestures to illustrate the story c enormous m spotless a good question: e, q
Exaggerate your descriptions a little d tiny n fi lthy a difficult question: b, f, g, i, j, I, n, p, r
Draw interesting comparisons e impossible o bizarre an offtopic question: a, k
Stick to present tenses for greater f freezing p terrifying
an unnecessary question : d. 0
impact g boi ling q hi larious a multiple question: c, h, m
Involve the audience as you spea k h bril liant r faSCinating a hostile question: treat as a difficult
i superb s astonishing question - best options are I and r
5 j lousy t thril ling
a She looked up from her desk and (Other options: a worn out, 6
said: 'What do you want?' shattered b famished, ravenous a You're asking me whether we're
b He said: 'To be honest, I don't c huge, vast, immense. gigantic, planning to go public with this.
know the first thing about colossal d minute, microscopic b You want to know if we're in a
computers.' e hopeless f icy. perishing position to take on more work.
c He said: 'Don't interrupt me when g swelteri ng, scorching, roasting, c You ask me how I see the market
I'm speaking!' baking i excellent, wonderful, developing.
d I said: 'You've got to be joking!' terrific. fabulous, splendid. magnificent, d You 're wondering what our chances
e She took me t o one side and said: " tremendous. fantastic, ma rvellous. of success are.
have some information you might outstanding j awful. rotten, terrible , e You'd like to know when the launch
be interested in.' abysma, dreadful, miserable date is going to be.
He said: 'I'm afraid that's not my k stunning, striking. dazzling, lovely

76 Key and commentary

a Vou 're asking why this scale of
investment was necessary.
b You'd like me to go through some of
the figures again.
c You have some concerns about the
d You'd like to look again at some of
the advantages of the new system.
e You have a question about the
management structure.
You're not fully convinced of the
benefits of th e initiative.

lOB Q&A sessions

a Asking a question yourself can be
a good way to get the audience to
start asking questions. But make
sure it's the kind of question your
audience might have asked! Check
for nods amongst them. If they look
blank. try again by saying : .... Or
perhaps an even more important
question is .. .'
b Making a joke of it wi ll often save
embarrassment if you know your
audience likes humour. As you've
already learned, some of the
best humour in a presentation is
spontaneous. And some of the best
spontaneous humour comes from
awkward moments - which is why
they are often nothing to be afraid
c Putting people briefly into pairs or
groups to discuss the issues you've
been presenting will often help them
to formulate better questions. They
can then ask them jointly. e.g. 'We
were wondering what you thought
about ... 7'

a-e b-c c-h d-b e-I
I-j g-d h-i i-a j-g

Extract 1 : c e
Extract 2; b h
Extract 3; j d
Extract 4: a g
Extract 5: f i

Key and commentGlY 77

Additional materials

1B Opening and closing

8 With you r partner, choose one of the companies below and

prepare to present your product or service to th e rest of your group, who are your
prospective clients. One of you should open the presentation and the oth er should close it.
In your opener, try to use some of the techniques you have studied to:
capture your audience's attention
tell them what's in it for them
establish your credibi lity and expertise
preview some of the features and benefits of th e product or se rvice.

Then, miss out th e main body of t he presentation and fast forw ard to your conclu sion to:
briefly summarise you r main points
explain what you 'd like your audience to do
close in a memorable way.

See if you can perhaps link your opening to your close to create a ' loop'. And try to avoid
the w ord 'summary'!

Magnetic resonance imaging >.. The Avenir Consultancy is your company's

Cocoon is a standard diagnostic t ool ~ access point to a network of some of the
MRI in today's hospitals. But
for many patients having
ro world's largest data bases of global business
Systems to lie perfectly still in an ~ intelligence. Working with one of our
MRI scanner for up to half if) expert scenario planners and Avenir's own
an hour at a time can be highly stressful. For such highly sophisticated computer simulation
patients th e Cocoon creates a calming virtual U software, plot the trends likely to affect your
environment. The fully customi sable system provides
"- business over the next decade, explore
a w ide range of relaxi ng ambien t settings - f rom
c different commercial, economic and political
rainforest to coral reef t o Himalayan snow peak.
(]) scenarios and get a detailed digital profile
Ceilin g-mounted 3D video screen s an d surround-
sound audio capability leave the patient feeling
totally rested and refreshed at the end of their scan.
~ of your company ten years into the future!
Take strategic planning to the next level.
That's t he Cocoon experience.
...c At Avenir we have a word for it. We call it
I- Tomorrow-Dlogy.

78 Addi tional materials

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advice on hardware and software
selection or even coach
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Web 2.0 and multimedia
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need a nerd? You need us!

2A Smooth structure
5 THESIGNPOST MAZE Work w ith a partner. You are going to play a game to practi se using
signpost language.
Enter th e maze below and take it in turns to speak using the signpost notes to he lp you . One
of you should take t he grey sq uares and t he other the blue . Follow the arrows until you reach
the exit. Thell swap squares and see if you can find a different route .
If you can't think of wh at to say, you lose a point!
Once you ' re used to the game, try just looking at the notes in each square as you play and
then standing up to speak.
Th e situation is: a presenter is reporting to his/her superiors on an intercultura l project he/she
is involved in .
Then - like _ tal k Like _ start off First of all e
First _ briefly . Then - like -
you through - going . give -
going - give . outlining . main fill you in -
main phases . brief overview - some . details
some background goals today
project project

Tu rni ng - By - end .
But before e Let's move on Moving on - talk _ hope _ clearer
subj ect _ moment _
start e let _ ask e some . initial idea _ progress e
planning question - problems . faced
question made so f ar

So . next question If - could just Just . return This leads us . Perhaps . should
how did - deal - digress . moment main point . questi on - just expand
cultural differences? here a minute virtual t eams that a little

Going back . I'll . sayin g This brings us _

We'll _ co ming on Like - take _ moment
what - more - t his question .
. this later _ talk logistics
saying earlier later on budgeting

Closing . just OK, well e bring s Conclusion . OK, so e looked .

Any questions .
like _ summarise . me - end - general . been - logist ics let 's
like e ask . this
some . main points e presentation . very su ccessful fi nish . t alking .
looked at t hanks very much project next phase

Additional materials 79
28 Smooth structure Presentation title:

8 Work individually or w ith


a partner. Use the template to develop a

short presentation with a strong opening.
a strong ending and three main stages in
[] Opener:
Make a note of:
the main points you want to ma ke in the
white boxes
[] []
key topic vocabulary you think you may
need in the yellow boxes
expressions that may help you at each stage
of the presentation (e.g . 'One option may
be .. .', 'In the long term .. .') in the grey
signpost language to transition from one
[] Stage l:
stage to the next (e.g. 'To move on',
'Turning to the question of financing .... ') in
the green boxes.
[] []
Possible stages:
problem-solving (problem, options,
product/service description (features,
benefits. competitor comparison)
common misconception (myth , data, reality)
[] Stage 2:
business plan (customer need, idea. market
troubleshooting (problem. possible causes.
[] []
change (past, present, implications)
motivation (competition. us. future)

[] []
proposal (plan, potential objections, benefits) Stage 3:
financial/sales report (targets. results.

[] []
company timeline (past. present. future)
direct ive from head office (issue. decision.
manufacturing process I research procedure
(aims. procedure. results)
pitch for (increased) resources (need, plan,
departmental profile (team. areas of activity.
current projects)
situation report (past. present. causes)
[] Close:
market overview (market profile. trends and
market forces. market share). [] []
80 Additional materials
38 Voice power

Change Opportunity

As management guru Tom Peters once said. As the president of Mitsubishi , Minoru Makihara, once

'If you don't like change, you're

going to like irrelevance even less.' 'Where there are changes, there is
opportunity. '


As British financier Sir James Goldsmith once said.

As web gurus Dan Tapscott and Anthony Williams
once said .

'The ultimate risk is not taking a risk.'

'We must collaborate or perish.'

As Albert Einstein once said, As re-engineering guru Mi ch ael Hammer once said,

'Everything should be made as 'Without leadership, nothing happens.'

simple as possible - but not simpler.'

Social responsibility
As the financier Jim Slater once said,
The future

As communication expert Marshall Mcluhan once

said, 'I personally believe that capitalism,
as it is now, won't survive unless it
becomes more socially responsible.'
'Tomorrow is our permanent address.'

As the managing director of Ran k Xerox . Vernon
Intellectual capital
Zelmer, once said.

As management guru Peter Drucker once said.

'If you have found a way to do

'From now on the key is knowledge.' something in two steps, you can be
sure that someone in the Far East has
found a way to do it in one.'

Additional materials 81
7 S OUND-SCRIPTING Fo ll ow the step-b y-ste p in struction s to sound -s cri pt th e op ening o r closi n g
minute of a presen t atio n you might g ive. Th en use you r sound-scri pt t o de liver your speec h
to the rest of your group.

a b

In the days before advert ising In the days before adve rtising
t here was w ord of mouth. Prod uct s there was word of mouth.
and services that worked si mply Products an d services
got talked about and event ually that worked
we bo ught t hem. Then came simply got ta lked about
advertising and bi llions were and eventually
spent by marketing depa rt m ents we bought th em.
to ac hieve th e sa me thing. Today Then came adve rt ising
we're back where we st arted - and billions w ere spent
only today it's call ed w ord of web. And by market ing depart ments
it's a w hole lot faste r. to ach ieve t he same thing.
Type out a short Ru n your cu rsor
we're back where we st arted
section of you r - only today t hrough t he
presentat ion in it's ca ll ed word of web. text and press
full - pe rhaps And it's a who le RETURN where
th e opening or lot
you 'd like t o
fast er.
t he concl usion . pause.

c d

In t he days before advertising In the days before advertising

th ere w as word of mouth. there was word of mouth.
Products and services Products and services
t hat worked that worked
simp ly got talked about simply got talked about
and eventually and eventually
we bought them. w e bought them.
Then came advertising Then came advertising
and billions were spent and billions were spent
by marketing departments by marketing departments
t o achieve the sam e thing . to achieve t he sa m e thing.
Today Today
we're back where we started we' re back w here we started
- only today Decide which - o nly today If you want
it's call ed word of web. words should it 's called word of web. to, you can
And it's a whole be stressed and And it's a whole put unstressed
lot put t hem in lot
words into a
faster. faster.
bold. smaller font.

e ,
In th e days befo re advertising 1"- In th e days before adve rt isi ng .,..
th ere was word of mouth. 4- there was word of mouth. 4-
Products and servi ces.,.. Products and services ..,.
that worked .,.. that worked .,..
simply got talked about "- simply got talked about "-
and eventually.,.. and eventually.,..
we bought them . 4- w e bought them . 4-
Then ca m e advertising ..... Then came advertising +
and billions we re spent .,.. and bill ions we re spent .,..
by mark eting departments..,. by m ar keting departments .,..
t o achieve th e same thing. 4- to achieve the same th i ng. 4-
Today .. Today ..
we're back w here w e started 4- we' re back w here w e started 4-
Optionally, you To get a sense
- only today .. - on Iy today ..
it's ca ll ed word of web. 4- could mark t he it's ca ll ed word of web . + of what you can
And it's a whole .,.. int onation with And it 's a whole <to do with your
lot .. arrows (+ +) at lot .. voice. highlight
faster. "" faster. 4-
the end of each louder an d
line. quieter section s.
82 Additional materials
4A Visual aids
8 B EFORE AND AFTER How successfully do you think the designer has improved t he slides?
Before After

Managing Change

The text is gradually revealed as t he presenter speaks

using 'custom animation',

Ideas are like turtles -

many are born

The text is revealed in two parts as the presenter speaks

using 'custom animation '.

Internet use around the world

Asia Europe North America

Latin Ameri ca Africa Middle East Ocean ia

Additional materials 83
48 Visual aids

1 Work individually or with a partner. Choose one of whether images could be used to replace parts
the sets of statistics from the Stats ba nk be low (or of the text
choose some figures of your own) and prepare to w hether any special effects would be helpful
present them to the rest of your group. whether audio or video would be wo rth adding.
2 Things to consider as you prepare: 3 When you're ready, either:
- talk through your idea without any visual support
what your key message is and how much of the
or make a rough sketch of your visual aid design
data you want to display
and explain how it would work to the rest of your
what sort of graph (if any) would work best: a
line graph, bar chart, pie chart, etc.
what kind of visual image (if any) you need to
- actually produce your visual aid in PowerPoint
support the text
or Apple Keynote and present it to the rest of your
whether to use buliet points
whether you want to project the whole slide
at once or use animation to gradually reveal
different parts of it

Average Household TV Viewing

(Hrs per day)
USA 8 us (-S800 bn). Spain (-S 160 bn).
UK (- 5 105 bn). Australia (-555 bn).
Turkey 5
France (-550 bn)
Italy 4
UK 3 Top Five Creditor Nations
Switzerland 2112 China (+5450 bn). Japan (+S 195 bn).
Germany (+$170 bn). Saudi Arabia
(+580 bn). Switzerland (+S65 bn)

Average Annual Sick Leave

(No. days per employee)
Online Mobile Bulgaria - 22
USA 67% 33% Portugal- 12
Japan 9% 91% Norway - 10
UK 71% 29% France - 8112
South Korea 63% 37% Germany - 6112
Germany 69% 31% Turkey - 4112

2009 Collapse of the Banking Sector

(Market Capitalisation S bn)
30.3.07 20.2.09 World Population Growth
Citigroup 252.85 13 .68 10000 BC 0.005 bn AD 1800 0.9 bn
HSBC 202.14 85.47 1000 BC 0.05 bn AD 1950 2.5 bn
JP Morgan 168.04 76.90 0 0.17 bn AD 2000 6 bn
UBS 124.49 30.37 AD 1000 0.25 bn AD 2050 9 bn
ING 93.40 11.97 AD 1500 0.4 bn
Barclays 92.49 8.06

84 Additional materials
5A Facts and figures 58 Facts and figures
6 N UMB ER GAWE Work in groups of four. each using one 9 T ALKING FIGURES Work
individually or with a partner.
of the data cards below. Speaker 1 should start Choose a graph from the selection below and
by reading out their first number. Whoever has on page 86 and memorise as much of the
that number should cross it out and read out the accompanying information as you can. When you're
next number on their card (crossing that out too). ready, present the graph to the rest of your group.
Whoever has that number should cross that out and Try to make sure you:
read out the next and so on until Speaker 1 reads focus on just the most significant data
out the final number on their card. articulate the key figures well
use round figures w herever possible
Each speaker only has five seconds in which to cross make larger figures meaningful by setting them in
out the number they have just heard and read the context
next on their card. See how far through the game describe any t rends or developments accurately.
you can get w ithout hesitation or mistakes and give
your team one point for each correctly presented Putting out fire with gasoline

0.01 % 6%
5313.30 2011
90" 90"
17,770 Ql-4
V2% 6.9 bn
22cc 6,000 rpm
12.75 ... 2V4 pts
5,893,619 5,893,619
568,000 pa 01.07.09
1Gb 10Mb
$23 tr $23 tr
911,677,803 ISO 4217

Oil prices seem to be a remarkably accurate barometer
of the general political and economic climate - almost
o.o n: 2011 quarter of a century of steadily declining oil prices
5313.30 (apart from Suez Crisis in 1956) - peak of 80-81
6: 1 Q l -4 caused by Yom Kippur War oil embargo (73), Iranian
Revolution (79) and Iran- Iraq War (80) - smaller
17,770 6:1
peaks of 1990 and 1999 due to Gulf War and OPEC
6,000 rpm V2% cuts respectively - all-time high of 2008 Gust fallin g
22cc 6.9 bn short of the $100-a-barrel threshold) a result of 9/ 11
101 sqm 12.75 (01), the invasion of Iraq (03), Venezuelan strikes
... 2% pts 101 sqm (03-05), and a weak dollar - collapses of 81, 89 and
08 due to global recessions - the question is: are the
$68,000 pa 10Mb
fluctuations, like the world, getting more violent?
01.07 .09 1Gb
ISO 4217 'I' 7/8%
'I' 7/8% 911,677,803

Additional materials 85
Anything for an easy life

Eating and sleeping (m in/day)

140 Today's high-pressure world gives us all little time
for a decent night's sleep and a relaxing meal, but
120 cultural behaviour patterns vary significantly - within
the group of mostly rich OEeD nations, the French
E spend longest wining, dining and resting (well over
.:.c.:: .... ,............... ,......c.......,........ ::.+ ............, a 2hrs eating, nearly 9hrs sleeping) - Americans too get

plenty of rest, but along with their neighbours, the
~++~+ns*" .. ,g Mexicans, tend to 'eat on the run' - the more frenetic
work cultures of Japan and South Korea survive on
an hour's sleep less than the French, but still get well
over 7hrs - in Italy food takes precedence over sleep
- what the figures don't show is the prevalence in the
460 480 500 520 540
developed West of sleep disturbances, poor nutrition
Sleeping and eating disorders.

Live long and prosper?

It's well known that, thanks to improved health care
and falling birth rates, the developed world's population
is ageing, but the figures highlight some important
variations in the trend - by 2050 Japan, Spain and
Germany will be amongst the most dramatically
affected - in Japan over-65s will equal around % of
the working population - in all three countries this
will place an enormous tax burden on the declining
number of working young - India's elderly will more
than double too, but still only equal about 1/4 of the
workforce - this could mean a brain-drain of talented
young workers to the West - but in China the number
of elderly will quadruple to 40% and that may lead to a
substantial fall in productivity.

Raising energy levels

Increased investment in renewable energy (solar, wind,
hydro, biomass and waste, tide and wave) is a positive
response to population increase and rising fossil-fuel
prices - in 2006 renewables comprised approximately
18% of electricity sources; by 2030 that figure will
be 23% (predominantly, hydro and wind power) - by
contrast, reliance on nuclear energy and oil will have
declined significantly - but is this good news? - nuclear
energy is at least clean - by 2030 electricity production
w ill have doubled and 44% of it will still be derived
from coal, the dirtiest source - solar energy is unlikely
to really come on stream till 2040 - so where's our
greener, more sustainable future?

86 Additional materials
6B Body language
10 BODY LANGUAGE Use the template below when you are preparing your presentation.

Presentation topic: My feelings about it: Why I feel so Concluding remarks:


/ 15

7 A Rapport building
7 CONTROVERSIAL IDEAS You're going to give a threeminute presentation of a controversial idea.

Your objective is to persuade your audience that your idea, though it may seem ridiculous
at first. is right. Try to use some of the rapport language you've been practising (first
person plural, question tags, negative question forms. involvement expressions) to make
your speech more persuasive.

Here's a basic template to help you prepare:

1 Set-up 2 Proposition 3 Potential 4 Supporting 5 Wrap-up

Arouse interest in Present your objections evidence Gose your
the topic - ask a controversial idea Acknowledge any Present the three presentation
question or state the and briefly explain scepticism from your main reasons why by asking your
commonly he ld belief what you mean by audience and show your idea is a good audience to at least
which o~rposes your it. familiarlt'l with the one. partl'l accept the
controversial arg uments against truth of your
idea. your idea. argument.
30 30 30 60 30
secs secs secs secs secs

And here are some suggestions for controversial ideas you could present:

Controversial ideas bank

If what you're doing is working, try something else. You're only a leader if other people say you are.

A happy workforce is an unproductive workforce. Globalisation is a myth.

Try hiring people you don't like for a change. In business, big is still beautifuL

Always judge a book by its cover. Stop working. Start playing.

If you don't look anything like your customers, Dreams have zero value. Anyone can dream.
something is seriously wrong. Recession can be a very good thing.
Routinely disobey you r boss.
The customer is not always king.
There's no dividing line between products and 90% of the time mediocrity is good enough.
Success is a bigger problem than failure.
Work as if you were going to be a lifetime employee
of the same company.

Additional materials 87
78 Rapport building Things you might include in your 5-minute
presentation are:
6 Chindogu is the Japanese art of
identification of a common need or problem
inventing ingenious gadget s which, in solving a previou s unsuccessful attempts to meet that need
common everyday problem, unfortunately create or solve that problem
an even bigger problem! Work w ith a partner to how your invent ion successfully meets the need or
team-present one of the Chindogu products below solves t he problem
to the rest of your group, who are department store basic product features and operating proced ure
buyers. optional extras
J 2 your target market
prices. avail ability. delivery. etc

You already have a humorous product to present,

but try to build in extra humour w ith funny quotes.
visuals or prepared 'spontaneous' remarks. Also t ry
to address different intelligence t ypes using:
audio and video
reflective activities
discussion activities

Backscratcher T-shirt Pe rsonal tissue-dis penser Obviously. you don't need to use all the se
techniques in one presentation! But prepare to
build in one or t w o.

BA Impact techniques
8 SPEECHWRITlNG With a partner, rew rite t he short
presentation extract bel ow so that it contain s more
repetition of words. phrases and sounds. You may
need to break some of it up into shorter sentences.
Chan ge or add w hatever you need to. Then team-
present your rew ritten presentation. emphasising
the w ords and phra ses you decided to repeat .
Listen and compare your version with the one on
the CD (CD 2.12).
Baby floor-pol isher Noodle-cooler

There'll alw ays be a market for quality. And that's

w hat I want to talk to you about this morn ing. 50

w hat do I know about it? Three t hings: it's better,

it costs more and, importantly. people actually

w ant it to cost extra. It's not about your goods;

it's about how people perceive you r goods.

As 5tella Artois's clever beer ad used to put it:

'Reassuringly expensive'. I don't know a better

definition of quality_
Butter-st ick Umbrella ti e

88 Additional materials
88 Impact techniques Booming baby boomers
9 $PEECHWRITINC With a partner, rew rite the notes about Marketers traditionally concentrate on
baby boomers as a presentation using as many 18-44-year-olds (fashion-conscious,
impact techniq ues as yo u ca n. Then team-presen t media-aware, comfortable with technology,
your rewritten presentation. Listen and compare responsive to advertisin g) - ten d to ignore
your ve rsion w ith th e one on the CD (CD2 . 16). so-called 'baby boomers' (generation born
between 1946 and 1964) - over-60s: 20OJo of
8C Impact techniques US population (up from 12010 in 1950) - now
more Italians over 60 than under 20 - by 2050
40% of Japanese will be over 60 - over-60s
1 Work with a partner. Look at the presentation have a lot of disposable income and a lo t of
extracts below and increase their impact by: free time to spen d it - also living longer - in
replacing neutral adjectives with more vivid USA families headed by over-40s : 99010 of
alternatives (a- f) country's net worth - boomers don't want to
adding intensifiers (g-j) be trea ted like overgrown kids - don't want
switching contrasts around (k-m) to be treated like geriatrics - kn ow they're
using metaphors and images (n-p) getting older, but don't wa nt to get old - big
There are hints to help you . opportunities in travel and tourism, adventure
holidays, luxury vehicles, health an d fitness,
2 Try delivering some of the ext racts in front of
cosmetic and spare-part surgery - boomers
your group. Think especially about pausing and
want experiences they missed th e flTst time

a b c
For the last three years Ifs been a really good First indications are the
we've enjoyed real success. performance all round. situation could be bad.
(spe...............r) (out ..............g) (cat ..............c)

d e f
Were ta lking about The new designs are
This really is a new idea.
advanced technology. absolutely beautiful.
(cu...............g ed ....e) (stu............ ..g)

g h
Ifs 1\ difficult to make long Customer respo nse has been
term predictions. A remarkab le.

(eno...............y) (tr...............y)

The latest figures are 1\ The whole campaign has

encouraging. been A successful.
(ext. .. .........y) (phe..... .........y)

k m
It's crucial to our success, I say we're the ones to do it. We can be number one in
even though there's a risk. but other people say it cant Asia. but maybe not the
Cl be done. Cl world. 0

n 0 p
We need better inter- We have to become more We can't just make
departmental relations. competitive. a bigger investment in R&D.
(build bridges between) (close the gap on) (plough more money into)

Additional materials 89
80 Impact techniques
7 PRESENTING USING IMPAa TECHNIQUES Work w ith a partner to design a short team-presentation
using some of the many different techniques you've studied to add impact.
1 Choose a presentation topic with the simple title: X is .. .
(Examples: Success is ... , Happiness is ... , Creativity is ... , Innovation is ... , Quality is ... ,
Service is .," Technology is ... , Professionalism is ... , Globalisati on is ... . Equal opportunity
is ... , Fair competition is ... , etc.)
2 Decide if you are going to make your presentat ion more formal or informal.
3 Draft your speech incorporating impact techniques where you can to make it more effective.
4 Now reduce your presentation to brief notes on prompt cards.
5 Rehearse giving your presentation using your prompt cards. Only refer to the full text of
your speech if you need to.
G Deliver your presentation w ith your partne r, again using your prompt cards t o keep you on

9A Storytelling

Stude nt A
Read the story below and reduce it to ten key words or fewer. Th en retell t he story to a
partner in your ow n way. What subject do you t hink the speaker's presentation is going to
be about? Try to link up to that subject at the end of t he story.

There's a misconception that you're either creative or you're not and there's not
much you can do about it. Everybody has immense creative capaci ties. I heard a
great story about this of a teacher who was taking a drawing lesson with a group
of six-year-old girls. And one of these girls, she was completely absorbed in w hat
she was doing fo r about half an hour. The teacher said: 'What are you drawing?'
And the girl said: 'I'm d rawing a picture of God.' And the teacher said: 'But nobody
knows what God looks like.' And the little girl said: 'They will in a minute!' At that
age children have immense confidence in their own conceptions. But ten years
la[er they've los[ that.
Sir Ken Robinson. author and educator

98 Storytelling

So I came out into th e arrivals area at Charles de Gaulle airport and there was nobody waiting
for me. I waited for about quarter of an hour, but still nobody came. So I rang their office, but
there was no answer. And I was thinking to myself that this was very odd . Another 45 minutes
went by. And now I was rea lly starting to panic. I mea n, what was I supposed to do? I was in
a strange city. I didn't know a soul. I didn't even know whi ch hotel they'd booked me into -
nothing . Finally - I'd almost given up hope by this stage - this tall blonde woman came up to
me and asked me if I was Or White. And I said I was, asked her where on earth she'd been and
told her I was beginning to think they'd forgotten me. And she said she was very sorry. She was
held up in traffic. It's not a great excuse, but, anyway, to cut a long story short, we got into a
taxi and headed into town, when suddenly she turned to me and said how honoured she was to
be working with one of America's top neurosurgeons. And I said that I wasn't a neurosurgeon .
I was an automotive engineer. And she asked me if I was Or White from New Yo rk Hospital.
And I said I was afraid I was n't. I was Or White from Cleveland Trucks. She'd picked up the
wrong Or White!

90 Additional materials
9A Storytelling
Think of a t ime whe n:
you've learned a va luable lesson (perhaps from a 7 STORYTELLING

mistake) Student B
someone said something clever, enlightening or Read the story below and reduce it to ten key words
profound to you or fewer. Then retell th e story to a partner in your
you've misjudged someone (positively or own way. What subject do you think the speaker's
negatively) presentation is going to be about? Try to link up to
you've been surprised (pleasantly or unpleasantly) that subject at the end of the story.
you've been amused or entertained (by something
I come from a culture where
someor,e said or did)
the three highest superlatives
you've succeeded at something in spite of
are: 'Pretty good', 'Rather nice'
or 'Not bad'. The difficulty of
you've reached an important milestone in your
impressing us as customers is
brought home by the story of
Does it make a good story? Could you link it to a an elderly lady who
presentation theme? Tell a short anecdote about it had never been to the sea.
using some of the expressions yo u've worked w ith A well-meaning friend took her on a lengthy drive to
to structure and add emphasis to your story. Don't witness this marvel. She stood on the shore for some time,
forget to incorporate: gazing intently at the incoming tide, then turned to her
dialogue host with the words: 'Ts thClt Clll it ooes?' For All the pffort
tone of voice that most organisations claim to put into creating great
gestures service for their customers, all too often 'Is that all you
a little bit of exaggeration do?' is the most likely response. It's increasingly hard to
into your story, if you can, and when you present it, 'wow' us.
try to involve your audience as much as possible. The Nige/ Bar/ow, customer service expert
template below may help you:

Begin story Set context Involve audience Add emphasis

Do you know
Talking of ... But the really ...
what I mean?
thing w as ...
This was about ... ......
years ago now.
You're not
I'll never fo rget
going to believe
the (first) t ime I ... I guess this must But that was
this, but ...
have been around th e least of itl
the time of ...
This reminds me of Can you imagine?
(the time) when ...,) I was living in I

working fo r ...
How can I describe
at the time.
it (to you)?
Did I (ever) tell
you about the
Just before this
....... But wiJit iJ
minute. It gets
time I ... ? You should have
I'd been .. . ing better I worse.
heard I seen ...

And in those
Let me tell you the
days ... ' And you'll never And to top
story of how ...
guess w hat I who it all, ...
lI where I how ...
Additional materials 91
lOA Q&A sessions

1 You are going to take part in a Q&A game. Imagine yo u work in the automotive industry
and have just given or attended a presentation concern ing a proposed joint venture with a
foreign competitor to develop a new hybrid electric vehicle.
2 Work with a partner. Take it in turns to check what number the second hand is pointing
to on your watch and then read out the question next to that number below. Begin each
question by saying: 'Excuse me, I have a question.'
3 If it's a neutral question, your partner should just repeat it back to you. But if it's hostile
(marked in red), they should try to rephrase it more neutrally. It's OK to ask the same
question twice. Remember, you don 't need to actually answer the questions. lust see how
quickly and effectively you can respond!

Where would the engines be manufactured? 1-3 Cou ld you JUSt go over the project timeline
Aren't you underestimating rhe cultural again?
problems? Have you budgeted fo r possib le p roject
Can you teH us how far you've gOt with overruns?
R&D? 7-9 Why can't you give us a complete COSt
55- 57 AJ:e you honesrly expecting the go~ahead breakdown?
roday? l{}--12 Who would be respons ible fo r the design of
58- 60 Can you show us rh e sales forecasts the vehicles?
again? How can you justify me enormous risks
involved in this?

31-33 You realise we have zero ex perience Would you recommend keeping prod uction
in thjs sector? in-house?
34-36 Could you JUSt clarify- your position on 19- 21 Surely you're not suggesting wc import
marketing? components?
37-39 Can I ask you who wo uld own [he patents? 22- 24 Do we have the righr level of techn ical
40-42 Aren't you overlooking the competition ? ex pertise ?
43-45 How m uch market research have you done? 25-27 How would this ve nture affecr o ur existi ng
28-30 IFthis is such a great idea, why haven't we
done it before?


1 Work in groups. Each of you should prepare a A difficult question, e.g. ask somet hing very
2-minute talk on a subject you know quite a lot technical, perhaps for an exact figure
about. It shouldn't be too technical unless you are An off-topic question, e.g. ask about something
working with people in the same business as you. which has no connection with the talk
It could just be something very simple like a hobby An unnecessary question, e.g . ask for something
or an interest. that the presenter has already mentioned
2 Take turns 'in the hot seat' and give your talks . A multiple question, e.g. ask two or three
Present slowly and clearly and make sure you separate questions at the same time
introduce and structure your presentation A hostile question, e,g. ask something that
properly. contradicts the presenter or questions their
credibi lity
3 The other people in your group should each ask
at least three of the six types of quest ion you 've They should interrupt you to ask thei r questions
studied: as you speak. Try to deal with each question in an
appropriate way.
A good question, e.g. ask for more information,
raise an interesting related issue

92 Additional materials
lOB Q&A sessions

1 Work with a partner. Choose a subj ect you both know well and prepare six or seven
questio'ls each on the topic.
2 Now enter the maze below. taking turns to be the presenter and questioner. The
quest ioler's inst ructions are in the grey boxes and the presenter's in the blue boxes. Use
th e questions you prepa red to co nduct your Q&A and follow the arrows until you reac h t he
exit. See how m any different routes you can fi nd.

Correct the
Repeat the
presenter's Say you don't Rephrase the
question back to Ask a question.
understanding of understand. question.
the questioner.
your question.

Say you cannot Answer the question Apologise. Say you

Confirm that's what Rephrase the
answer now and and check the
you're asking. question. still don't understand.
say w hy. questioner is satisfied.

Say you don't know Say that raises a
Push for an answer. Ask another Push for an answer.
the answer. different issue.

Accept Offer to find out
Restate your position. Ask another Restate your position.
and thank. the answer.

1 Look again at the presentation you prepared in 1-3 on page 4 8 and prepare t o g ive it in
full. If you can . desig n a few visuals t o support you.
2 The rest of you r group sho uld li sten to yo ur presentat io n and t ake notes on q uestions th ey
want to ask. Hold a Q&A sessio n at the end . Quest ioners sh o ul d prope rly context ualise their
questions before asking them. Presente rs should repeat o r rep hrase t he q uestions before
answering them . The q uesti ongenerator below may help you :


When you were . You ... Could you just ...
talking about mentioned ... elaborate / expand on that? _ ... say a bit more
telling us about spoke about about that? _ ... give us an example of what you
mean? _ ... tell us how you arrived at that figure? _
describing referred to
... go over that again On more detail}?
presenting suggested
outlining questioned Do you have any data to support t hat? _ Are you in a
considering emphasised position to tell us whether ... ? _ Where did you get
your information on ... ? _ Have you done any research
discussing recommended
into ... ? How can you be (so ) sure that ... ? Have
dealing with gave the impression you taken account of ... ? _ How would yo u respond
evaluating made the point that to the criticism that ... ? How do you propose to
explaining quoted a figure of deal with / sol ve the problem of ... ? Have you
thought about what might happen if ... ? _ Aren' t you
summarising showed us a slide
overlooking the fact that ... '

Additional materials 93
Online feedback forms

As you work through Dynamic Presentations you ' ll be given frequent opportunities to practise your
existing presentation skills and tryout new ones. Each training session cu lminates in a longer speaking
activity and. ideally. these should be audio-recorded or filmed for feedback.
On the dedicated we bsite (http://www.cambridge.org/elt/dynamicpresentations/) you 'll find detailed
feedback forms for each module of t he course, which you can print out for use - see thum bnails below.
Keep a record of your performance throughout the course and you'll be able to monitor you r progress
and establish where your personal strengths as a presenter lie. These, of course, are what you should
draw on every time you present.

Feedback form


fe.edbac k form ~Klba<:k form



.:..-............................... .
" . --.....
k ...... ___ ______ ... ___ ...................... .

' ,
--_._-- ..,. -
fHdboc k 10....

...._------- . _--
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"' ...... --.-

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, ,

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94 Onlinefeedbackforms
1.... _ - - .

Feedbock form
,."" "'"

__ fM.dboc~ form
Feedboclc Io<m

.. ...
--~-- ..----- .--"'
_.. _--_
.. _._-----
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Online feedback forms 95

Author's acknowledgements with permission: Or Howard Gardner for the text on p42. reprod uced
Where do I beg in? My special tha nks go to the co rr missioning ed itor with permission : Stephen Denning for the text on p42. reproduced with
Chris (apper for his championing of th is tit le and ulwavering support permission: Ed Brodow for t he t ext on p43. Ed Brodow is a negotiation
t hroughout to t he project manager Wi ll Cape t for his editoria l wisdom expert, keynote speaker. and bestselling author of Negotiation Boot
and heartening be lief in the material : t o my editor I\[ison Silver with her Camp. Copyright 10 2010 Ed Brodow. All right s reserved : Ann ette
eag le eye fo r detail and t ireless efficiency; to the production controller Simmons for the text on p44. reprod uced with permissio n: Jerry
Julie 50nta9 for steering the project to completio n; to t he proofreader Weissman for the text on p46. reproduced with permission: Kees Garman
Marcu s Fletc her fo r a thorough and professiona l job: and to t he for the text on p46, reproduced with permi ssion ; Sue Gaulke . Presi dent.
permissions clearance controller (h ris Doggett, who litera lly made it his Successworks for the text on p48. Excerpt from 101 Ways to Captivate
mission to track down every last expert I wanted to featu re in the course a Business Audience copyright. successworks www.successworksusa .
and secu re their approval. For a fresh and vibrant book desig n I have com; Majorie Scardino for the text on p48 from That Presentation
senior designer Claire Parson and picture researcher Hilary Luckcock to Sensation by Mart in Conradi and Richard Hall : Tom Antion for the text
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go to Leon Chambers and The Sound house St udios. I'd also like to thank reproduced with permission.
Simon Kent of London Metropolitan University for first putting me on
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96 Acknowledgements
15BN 978 0 521 609753 ISBN 978 0 521 783880