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1.
7
1.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

2. 13
2.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
3. 19
3.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
3.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
3.3.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

4. 26
4.1. (Model Wizard) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
4.2.
(PDE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
4.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
4.4. ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
4.5. (Model Builder) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
4.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

5. 32
5.1. COMSOL
Multiphysics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
5.2. -
COMSOL Multiphysics . . . . . . . . . . 34
5.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
6.
37
6.1. , ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
6.2. (
) . . . . . 38
6.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
6.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

7. 46
7.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
7.2. . . . . . . 50
7.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

3
8. 56
8.1. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
8.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
8.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
8.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
8.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

9. 69
9.1. COMSOL Multiphysics
. . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
9.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

10. COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS 74


10.1. - . . . . . . . . . . 74
10.2. (Model 1 (mod1)) . . . . . . . . . . 76
10.3. (Study 1) . . . . . . . . 79
10.4. . . . . . . . 83
10.5.
kdv_equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
10.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
11. 90

91

-
-
. -
,

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COMSOL Multiphysics [1],
COMSOL -
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COMSOL
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5
(1D, 2D, 3D);
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Multiphysics Windows, Mac, Linux, UNIX.

6
1.



() [2],
, :
ANSYS -
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MSC.Nastran -/ -
MSC.Patran;
ABAQUS
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FEMAP;
NXNastran -/ -
FEMAP;
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8
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1.1.
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12
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13
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14
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15
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16
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17
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18
3.
3.1.
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19
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= 1 + 2 x. (3)

ji

jj

x
xi xj
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(xi ) = i (xj ) = j ,
1 2 :
1 = (i xj j xi )/L, 2 = (j i )/L. (4)
(4) (3),

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= i + j . (5)
L L
x (5) ,
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(5)
= Ni i + Nj j = N , (6)
 

N = (Ni , Nj ) , = i -.
j
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j, Nj .
.

20
.
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ji

jk
jj
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(xi,yi)
(xk,yk)
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(xj,yj)
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j , k , (xi , yi ), (xj , yj ), (xk , yk )

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= 1 + 2 x + 3 y. (7)

(xi , yi ) = i , (xj , yj ) = j
(xk , yk ) = k , 1 , 2 3 :

1 = [(xj yk xk yj )i + (xk yi xi yk )j + (xi yj xj yi )k ]/(2S),


2 = [(yj yk )i + (yk yi )j + (yi yj )k ]/(2S), (8)
3 = [(xk xj )i + (xi xk )j + (xj xi )k ]/(2S),

S .
, ,

21
, :
= Ni i + Nj j + NK k = N , (9)

Ni = (xj yk xk yj + (yj yk )x + (xk xj )y)/(2S),


Nj = (xk yi xi yk + (yk yi )x + (xi xk )y)/(2S),
Nk = (xi yj xj yi + (yi yj )x + (xj xi )y)/(2S).
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Ui
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Ui Uj k Uk-1

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22

x, y.
-
(6).

Ni 2i1 + Nj 2j1 + NK 2k1
 
= N +N +N . (10)
i 2i j 2j K 2k

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3.3.

, -
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23
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(9)

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(e) = N = (N1 , N2 , ..., Nn(e) ) . .2. , (12)
n

n , (e) -
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:
(1) (1) (1)
(1) = N2 2 + N3 3 + N1 1 ,
(2) (2) (2)
(2) = N3 3 + N2 2 + N4 4 ,
(3) (3) (3)
(3) = N5 5 + N3 3 + N4 4 , (13)
(4) (4) (4)
(4) = N6 6 + N3 3 + N5 5 ,
(5) (5) (5)
(5) = N1 1 + N3 3 + N6 6 .

, (13) -
, -
, -

24
(13)
(1) (1) (1)

N1 N2 N3 0 0 0

(1)
1

(2) (2) (2) (2)
0 N2 N3 N4 0 0

2
(3) = (3) (3) (3)
.

0 0 N3 N4 N5 0 3
(4) 0 0
(4)
N3 0 N5
(4)
N6
(4)
4
(5) (5) (5) (5) 5
N1 0 N3 0 0 N6
(14)

, (14)
.
-
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-
COMSOL, -

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25
4.
4.1. (Model Wizard)
,
COMSOL Multiphysics.
Model Wizard (. 13),
.

. 13. (,,)

26
. 13 , -
.
, , -
, .

(. 13),
-
.
(General Form PDE):

2u u
ea + da + = f. (15)
t2 t
, COMSOL Multiphysics -

. ,
Selected physics (. 13) -
PDE(g).
,
Number of development variables (. 13). -
Model Wizard , -
(. 13).
. Model Wizard
, (. 13-)
, COMSOL Multiphysics,
(. 13) (Mathematics) -
: Recently Used, AC/DC,
Acoustics, Chemical Species Transport, Electrochemistry, Fluid
Flow, Heat Transfer, Plasma, Radio Frequency, Structural
Mechanics. -
, COMSOL Multiphysics -
.

4.2.
(PDE)
(15)
, COMSOL Multiphysics
, .
(15) COMSOL Multiphysics
, -
:
n  s
2 uj

X uj X ik
eij
a 2
+ daij + = f i. (16)
j=1
t t x k
k=1

i, j = 1, 2, ..., n, n , -

27
, ; uj u, f i
f , eij ij
a , da -
ea da , ,
s

ik -
P
n n. x k
k=1
s-
n s. s Model Wizard
.
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a , da ,
f i ik , -
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-
n.

4.3.
, .. COMSOL
Multiphysics MATLAB [5], , -
MATLAB,
.
,
COMSOL Multiphysics, , -

.
t, x, y, z -
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,
,
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x)
n (x > 0), -
1, x > 0,
f (x) = 0, x 0.

u, u1, u2 .., , -
(
), u, u1, u2 .. -

28
( COMSOL Multiphysics
). , uxx -
u x, uxt
u -
x t.
eij ij i
a , da , f ,
ik
.. -
-
, MATLAB [5], ..
MATLAB-.

4.4. ,

COMSOL Multiphysics

(. 13), Model Wizard. -
(. 13) Studies tree -
(Model Builder).
Select Study Type ,
, Add Physics
Model Wizard (. 13), Select Study
Type :
Preset Studies , -
( ) Add Physics,
;
Preset Studies for Selected Physics , -
( )
Add Physics, ;
Custom Studies , -
, Add Physics.

4.5. (Model Builder)


-
(Model Builder). Model Builder -
-
, -
, (. 14).
:
Global Definition -
, , ..,

;

29
Model , -
, , -
, .. ,
;
Study -
, ..;
Results -
;

. 14.

CAPE-OPEN -
(. 15): Compound Constant, Temperature
Dependent Property, Pressure Dependent Property, Single-
Phase Property, Two-Phase Property.

. 15. CAPE-OPEN

,
.

4.6.
1) Model Wizard, :
) -
;

30
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31
5.
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.

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COMSOL Multiphysics.

5.1. COMSOL
Multiphysics
, -
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COMSOL Multiphysics -, -, -
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),
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(,
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( (Union) = , (Interselection) = , -
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-
,
,
(Draw Interval ) -

32
(Draw line ).

Draw Quadratic , Draw Cubic -
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(Convert to Curve ) .

-
-
. COMSOL Multiphysics -
1D, 2D, 3D (. 16), -
(. 16).


. 16: , -
; ,

3D , -
-,
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Build Selected (.
17). , . 16 17
,
.

33
. 17. ( -
)

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[].

5.2.
COMSOL Multiphysics
COMSOL Multiphysics
2D 3D -
. Import
(. 16). ,
,
Filename (Settings) Import
Import (. 18).

. 18. (
)

COMSOL Multiphysics -
: Autodesk Inventor, CATIA V5, IGES,
Parasolid, Pro/ENGINEER, SAT, SolidWorks, STEP.
, ,
.
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(. 19).

34
. 19. , -

5.3.
1) :
) -
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a b, -
, c d,

35
c, .. c (a, b),
b (c, d);
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36
6.

6.1. , ,

4.2, eij ij i
a , da , f ,
ik

.. , , -
,
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, -
. COMSOL Multiphysics -
.
Global Definitions
Model Builder (. 20). -

. 20.

,
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t, x, y, z,
.
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37
,
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(Material Browser)
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).

6.2. (
)

. Model
Builder
Settings.
Settings . ,
(15) . 21.

. 21. ,

Equation (15). Domain, -

38
,
( . 21 ).
,
. Conservative Flux, Source Term, Damping or
Mass Coefficient, Mass Coefficient
eij ij i
a , da , f ,
ik
(15).
,
, MATLAB,
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Definitions Model Builder.
Initial Values (. 22).

. 22.

Model Builder -
..
Times . -
Times , MATLAB, ..
, (-
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0, 1).
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Material
Browser. Material Browser -

.

6.3.
COMSOL Multiphysics -
: ,
.
D -
u, D -
D
: D R.
2- ,

39
,
, .
,


.
:
.
, -
x = x
x = , -
.
COMSOL
Multiphysics (15).
-
,
(15). , (15)

u
= (, a2 u) + f. (17)
t
u = u(~r, t) , a2 ,
a f = f (~r, t) , .

Dirichlet Boundary Condition Constraint

Zero Flux

Periodic Condition Flux/Source

. 23.
(17)
COMSOL Multiphysics (. 23), Model Builder -

40
( PDE), -
.
Dirichlet Boundary Condition Constraint
u
. Zero Flux Flux/Source -
,
. Periodic Condition -
.
, MATLAB -
. -
COMSOL Multiphysics. -
,
, . -
MATLAB (
). , -
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-,
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COMSOL Multiphysics MATLAB.

6.4.

1) :
) -

~2
2
(x, t) + Ep (x)(x, t) = i~ (x, t),
2m x t
h
i , ~ = , h ; m
2
(), Ep (x)
x
1 0 < x < 1,
n
Ep (x) = 0 x < 0, 1 < x.

Ep (x) Global
Definitions (. 20);
) -

   
d d
+ (x) = + (x) = f (x),
x2 x dx2 dx

41

f (x) = cos(x).
f (x) Global
Definitions (. 20);
) , -

~2
(x) + Ep (x)(x) = E(x),
2m x2
,
0 0 < x < 1,
n
Ep (x) = x < 0, 1 < x.

Ep (x)
Definitions ,
Global Definitions (. 20);
) -

~2
(~r, t) + Ep (~r)(~r, t) = i~ (~r, t),
2m t
, Ep (~r)

~r(x1 , x2 )
1
Ep (~r) = 2 ,
ch (|~r|)
( ), -
2-
:
2 2
2= 2 + .
x1 x22
Ep (~r) Global
Definitions (. 20);
) -

~2
(~r) + Ep (~r)(~r) = f (~r),
2m
, f (~r) = |~r|, Ep (~r)

~r(x1 , x2 , x3 )

Ep (~r) = 2 ,
r

42
. (
), 3-

2 2 2
2= + + .
x21 x22 x23

Ep (~r)
Definitions ,
Global Definitions (. 20);
) -

~2
(r, t) + Ep (r)(r, t) = i~ (r, t),
2m t
, Ep (r)
r
1
Ep (r) = ,
r
( )


1
2= r.
r r
Ep (~r) Global
Definitions (. 20).
2) :
) -
-


u,t = au,xx ,
w,t = aw,xx + exp(kw/u)u.

,t ,xx
, a
k . u -
,
, w
;

43
)

u,xx = u(au bw) + (au bw)2 ,


(
w,xx = w(au bw)
v,t = c(w + u)v,xx

a b u, w -
c d v, a < c < b < d.
,t ,xx -
, a, b c
. , -
a b, ,
c d,
c b. u w -
, .. u(a) = u(b) w(a) = w(b),
v c d. -

v(x, 0) = cos(x);

)


u,t + u,xx + u,yy + u3 w = 0,
w,t + w,xx + u,yy + w3 u = 0,

R. -
, ,


u(x, y, 0) = exp((x2 + y 2 )),
w(x, y, 0) = exp((x2 + y 2 )).

,t , ,xx ,yy -
-
;
) -
, -
,
-

3
R
u1,t = u1,xx + u1 u1 u32 dy,

u2,t + u2,xx + u2,yy + u2 u3 = 0,
3,xx + u3,yy u2 = 0,
u
u4,t + u4,xx + u1,x u1 = 0.

44
u1 = u1 (x, t), u2 = u2 (x, y), u3 = u3 (x, y), u4 = u4 (x, t),
,t , ,xx ,yy -
.
;
) -

u,xx + u,yy + u,zz = w,
w,xx + w,yy + w,zz = u.
u = u(x, , y, z), w = w(x, y, z), ,xx , ,yy ,zz
.
.


u(x, y, 0) = exp(((x + a)2 + y 2 + z 2 )),
w(x, y, 0) = exp(((x a)2 + y 2 + z 2 )).

a .
, ,
,
u w ;
3) :
) z
-
; . -
( ) .
a, -
R = a/2,
;
)
-
T1 , -
T2 ,
, .

45
7.
, , -
. -
.
Model Builder
Mesh .



COMSOL Multiphysics (. 24). -

. 24.

Extremely fine [ ]
Extremely coarse [ ],
. , -
, , -
, -
- ,
Refine Mesh (.
25).
. 26.
, , -
Refine Elements in Box,
Draw Box..., -
Specify bounding box. -
Number of refinements
Refinement method.
-
,
-
, , -
. -

46

. 25: -
,

. 26.

,
.

47
7.1.
,
COMSOL Multiphysics -
,
,
.
. 25 , -
.
:
Free Triangular 2D (. 27);
Free Quad (. 27);
Mapped , , (. 27);
Boundary Layers -
(. 27);
Edge .

. 27. COMSOL
Multiphysics:
, -
,
,

-
, -
. ,
, .
-
. :
Free Triangular 3D (. 28);

48
Swept , (. 28);
Boundary Layers -
;
Free Triangular 2D -
;
Free Quad
;
Mapped , , , -
;
Edge .


. 28. COMSOL
Multiphysics: -
,

, -
, -
.
, -
,
, -
.
-
.

-
.
, -
Model Builder = Mesh = Size -
Element Size Parameters (. 29).
. Maximum element
size Minimum element size

49
. 29.

. Maximum element growth rate [ -


] ,
, , -
. Resolution of curvature ,
. -

. Resolution of narrow regions
, -
.
( -
) , ,
,
,
. Size
Model Builder.
, ( -
) ,
(. 19)
(. 30):

7.2.

. -
-

50
. 30. -

, ,
. -
(-
, ), ,
.

-
( )
:
-
;
.

,
, .
,
, ,
.
-
,
. : -
, -
,
. ,
, -
,
, -
.

51
, -
,
.
, ,
, ,
r R -
,
.
-
, .. r. COMSOL Multiphysics
,
(. 31),
Mesh,
,
(. 31).


. 31. ()

7.3.
1) , -
5, :
) ;
) ( a b)
,
( b c) Refine
() ;
) ,
-
1/(R + 1) (:

52
Refine,
, ..
Refine
), -
;
)
, . -
;
)
-
,
;

-
x, a < x < b, b a
(: -
Distribution). -
;

-
;
)

1/(R + 1) (:
Distribution).
;
2) , -
5, :
) a b -
c d, a < c < b < d;
)
, -
-
1/(R + 1) (:
Distribution);
,

(:
Refine). ,
,
,
;
) -
-
x2 , a < x < b, b a -

53
(:
Distribution);

;


,
-
(:
Refine);

,
;
) * . -
.
(-
: Refine). -
-
;
)
-
;

-
, -

(: -

Refine, , ..
Refine
), -
;

-
;
3) , -
5, :
) -

a,
R = a/2. -

;
)
,
.

54
4) * , -
5, :
) * -
,
,
-
;
) * ,

.

* .

55
8.
8.1. .

,
-
. -
, . -
,

.
COMSOL Multiphysics
Model Builder Study, -
Solver Configuration = Solver (. 32)
, Compute (. 32).
, (. 32),
.


. 32. Study, ,

, -
. -
, -
Time Dependent. ,
,
, Eigenvalue.
Settings.
Compile Equations: Time Dependent , -
(. 33).
, ,
. -
. ,
, -
, -

56
,
. , -
, -
. -
, -
, .

. 33. Compile Equations: Time Dependent

Time Dependent Times (. ??) -


. tolerance -
.
,
Time steps from solver (-
, Results While Solving Update at). -
, -
, Times. -
(, -
), -
Time steps taken by solver Strict
Intermediate Free. -
,
. , Eigenvalue -
Desired number of
eigenvalues
Search for eigenvalues around,
, Name
of parameter, , List
of parameter values, -
. -
. Matrix symmetry
Symmetric, Nosymmetric, Hermitian.
.
( , ) -
.
,
, :
Direct
direct linear system solvers. Direct -
.
Iterative

57
iterative linear system solvers. Iterative -
direct linear system solvers -
.
Fully Coupled
Stationary Solver Time-Dependent Solver.
Segregated -
. . Segregated,
Stationary Solver, Time-Dependent Solver
Fully Coupled. -
Segregated,
Segregated : Segregated
Step, Lumped Step, Lower Limit.
Parametric
. -
, -
.
, ,
. Stationary
Solver.
Sensitivity . -
Stationary Solver
Adaptive Mesh Refinement , -
, -
. Eigenvalue
Solver Stationary Solver.
Stop Condition ,
.
Parametric attribute Time-Dependent Solver.
, Direct Iterative (Fully Coupled Segregated)
. Fully Coupled
Segregated Direct
Iterative.
, (
, , ,
, -
, ) .
Study
Model Builder Compute (. 32).

8.2.
(. 32).

58
( Time Dependent . 32): Compile Equations, Dependent
Variables, .


. 34.


(. 34).
, :
Compile Equations
, Use study
Use study step. Use study
study ( ), Use
study step ( -
, . 32);
Dependent Variables
, -
( ) -
(,
);
Time-Dependent Solver -
Time Dependent. -
Times
tolerance. Time Stepping
-
. Method
:
1) BDF [6, 7];
2) Generalized alpha - [8, 9];
3) Initialization only -
, ;
Steps
taken by solver -
. Steps taken by
solver :

59
1) Free ;
2) Strict ,
, , -
, Times;
3) Intermediate
Times;
4) Manual ( Generalized alpha)

. ,
;
Stationary Solver
Stationary, Frequency Domain, , -

tolerance Linearity. Linearity -
, .. -
, .
Eigenvalue Solver -
Eigenfrequency, Eigenvalue, ,
-
. Desired number of eigenvalues -
, Eigenvalue transformation -
,
(Eigenfrequency);
Modal Solver
Frequency Domain Modal, Time-Dependent Modal.
Study type,
General.
Results while Solving, Output,
Advanced,
Log, Time-Dependent Solver, Eigenvalue Solver
.., .
:
Assemble ,
Java;
State Space ,
state-space PDE MATLAB;
Store Solution ,
, -
;
Time Discrete Solver -
. ,
, ;

60
Optimization Solver ,
. -
, ,
solver;
AWE Solver ,
.

8.3.
8.1 -
, -
. , -
-
, -
. ,
COMSOL Multiphysics.
-
, Linear solver,
Direct, Iterative ( Direct),
:
Direct
MUMPS (MUltifrontal Massively Parallel sparse direct Solver)
-
, ,
[10].
MUMPS multifrontal () -
. multifrontal
, -
.
;
PARDISO -

. COMSOL Multiphysics
PARDISO, . [11]. PARDISO
Ax = B
,
, -
;
SPOOLES Ax = B,
multifrontal
A [12]. A ,
, -
.
,
, Preordering algorithm.
Iterative

61
GMRES (generalized minimum residual) -
Ax = B, -
( Number
of iterations before restart), -
-
[13], [14],
[15];
FGMRES (flexible generalized minimum residual) -
GMRES, -
[16]. -
-
FGMRES.
BiCGStab -
[13], [17] ,
Ax = B. -
BiCGStab . -
, BiCGStab, , ,
GMRES.
Conjugate gradients -
[18], [19] Ax = B,
A , -
( ).
, .
COMSOL Multiphysics.
, UMFPACK,
TAUCS .. ,
,
.

8.4.
COMSOL Multiphysics ,
, -

. Model Builder
(Warning), (Error).
COMSOL Multiphysics -
:
.
, . ,
COMSOL Multiphysics
,
.

62
. -
, COMSOL Multiphysics , ,
,

|M 1 (b Ax)| < tol|M 1 b|, (18)


( -
,
).
, COMSOL Multiphysics
,
, -
.
(18), b = Ax (A
, b, x ), M
, :
MUMPS, PARDISO SPOOLES, M = LU ,
L U LU ;

GMRES, BiCGStab Conjugate Gradients M -
;
M -
.
(18) -
, -
tol. , -
, -
. , , M
,
.
, -
.
, (18) , -
. -
, .. -

. ,
. -
(,
-
).
:
-
Out of memory during assembly,

63
. -
-
. , -
, -
.
:
(), ,
, -
;
, .. -
-
. , -
-
,
;
, . -
COMSOL Multiphysics -
-

;
;
-
, .

8.5.
1)
:
) -

~2
(x, t) + Ep (x)(x, t) = i~ (x, t),
2m x2 t
h
i , ~ = , h ; m
2
(), Ep (x)
x

cos(x) <x< ,
Ep (x) = 2 2
0 x< , < x.
2 2
Ep (x) Global
Definitions. -

64
. -
BDF .
BDF
(, -
, ).
. -
;
) , -
:
~2
(x) + Ep (x)(x) = E(x),
2m x2
,
1
Ep (x) = 2 .
ch (x)

Ep (x)
Definitions ,
Global Definitions. -
MUMPS. -
.
;
) -

~2
(~r, t) + Ep (~r)(~r, t) = i~ (~r, t),
2m t
, Ep (~r)

~r(x1 , x2 )
1
Ep (~r) = 2 ,
ch (|~r|)
( ), -
2-

2 2
2= 2 + .
x1 x22
Ep (~r) Global
Definitions. BDF
.
PARDISO SPOOLES.
.

65
;
)

1 1
(~r) + 2 (~r) = 0,
2 r
~r -, ( -
), 3-

2 2 2
2= + + .
x21 x22 x23

-
, -
.
MUMPS -
.
;
) -

~2 1
(r, t) + (r, t) = i~ (r, t),
2m r t
, -
( )


1
2= r.
r r
Generalized alpha
. -
Generalized alpha -
(, ,
). -
.
2) -

(: ,
, -
, u w
,
, -
, . ,
, -

66
):
)

u,t = au,xx + b1 u + c1 w,
n
w,t = aw,xx + b2 u + c2 w.
u,t = au,xx + f1 (t)u + g1 (t)w,
n
w,t = aw,xx + f2 (t)u + g2 (t)w.
u,tt = ku,xx + a1 u + b1 w,
n
w,tt = kw,xx + a2 u + b2 w.
)

u,t = au,xx + u exp(kw/u)f (u),
n

w,t = aw,xx + exp(kw/u)[wf (u) + g(u)].
u,t = au,xx + uf (bu cw) + g(bu cw),
n

w,t = aw,xx + wf (bu cw) + h(bu cw).
u,t = au,xx + eu f (u w),
n

w,t = bw,xx + ew g(u w).
)

u,xx + u,yy = uf (au bw) + g(au bw),
n
w,xx + w,yy = wf (au bw) + h(au bw).
u,xx + u,yy = eu f (u w),
n

w,xx + w,yy = ew g(u w).
u,xx + u,yy = uf (u/w),
n
w,xx + w,yy = wg(u/w).
)

u,tt = axn (xn u,x ),x + uf (bu cw) + g(bu cw),
n

w,tt = axn (xn w,x ),x + wf (bu cw) + h(bu cw).
u,tt = axn (xn u,x ),x + eu f (u w),
n

w,tt = bxn (xn w,x ),x + ew g(u w).
u,tt = axn (xn u,x ),x + uf (u/w),
n

w,tt = bxn (xn w,x ),x + wg(u/w).
3) * -
-
:
) * n
( ), -
.

67
-
. ,
. -
-
n.
) *
, -

R -
T1 = T (V )dV ,
V
T2 ,
, .
) * -
, -
, -
. -
;
) *
- .

* .

68
9.

Results Model Builder. -
, Compute
(. 32), Results
,
Graphis -
.
, , .
35.

. 35.
- -

9.1. COMSOL Multiphysics



, -
.
, , -
, -
. -

(, -
). ,
COMSOL Multiphysics -
-
.
Results , -

69
:
Data Sets -
, Plots
Reports, . ,
, - -
, Mesh.
. -
, -
.
Derived Values -
Data Sets . -
, .. -
, , , ,
.. -
: , -
. Derived Values
, ,
;
Tables ,
Evalute All Derived Values, -
. -
Results,
Graphics
(. 35);
Report
, -
.
Results
, ,
, Results
(. 36). -

. 36.

-, - , -
, . -
,

70
, - -
.
Results
,
.

9.2.
1)
8, -
:
) -
(|(x, t)|2 ), ,
( ),
(|(x, t)|2 )
, ..
|(x, t)|2 . -
x .
;
) -
.
-
. ;
) -
(||2 ), -
,
( ), -
(||2 ).
~r .
;
) -
(||2 ), -
-
( )
. -
~r .
;
) -
(|(r, t)|2 ), , -
( ), -
(|(r, t)|2 )
, ..
|(r, t)|2 .
, -
( -

71
x2 + y 2 = r2 ). -
r
. .
2)
8, -
:
) -
u(x, 0), w(x, 0), u(x, t),
w(x, t) -
u(x, t), w(x, t). -
x u(x, t) w(x, t) .
u w.
;
) -
u(x, 0), w(x, 0), u(x, t),
w(x, t) -
u(x, t), w(x, t). -
x u(x, t) w(x, t) .
u w.
-
;
)
u(x, y), w(x, y). u w. -

R x Ry u w.R
R -
u(x, y)dx, u(x, y)dy, w(x, y)dx, w(x, y)dy.

;
) -
u(x, 0), w(x, 0), u(x, t),
w(x, t) -
u(x, t), w(x, t). -
x u(x, t) w(x, t) .
u w.
-
.
3) *
8, -
:
) *
.
-
n,
-
.
.

72
) * (-
-
: , -
);
) * -
;
) * -
- -
.
* .

73
10. COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS


, .. . -
COMSOL Multiphysics
. , -
,
, ,
( -
) COMSOL Multiphysics
COMSOL Multiphysics.
COMSOL Multiphysics (Model
Library),
.
, ,
.
(Model Library)
Equation-Based Models (. 37), -
(Mathematics).

. 37. Model Library

10.1. -
- (),
, -
,
.

74
,
.
, -
,
-
. -
( ), ..
:
ut + uxxx 6 u ux = 0, (19)

ux , uxxx ut -
x t
, u = u(x, t) .
-
:
u(x, t) = 22 ch2 (x 42 t ) ,
 
(20)

42 , (
). ,
.
n . -
(19) , -

u(x, t) = 4(21 22 )
21 22 + 21 ch(22 2 + ) + 22 ch(21 1 + ) (21)

[(1 + 2 ) ch(1 1 2 2 ) + (1 2 ) ch(1 1 + 2 2 + )]2

Model Library.
1 + 2
1 = (x 421 t 1 ), 2 = (x 422 t 2 ), = ln > 0.
1 2

421 , 422 1 , 2 -
,
.
kdv_equation Model Library,
(19)
(20).
, -
COMSOL Multiphysics. -
kdv_equation,
, ..
kdv_equation.mph (root) -
, .. Node Properties -

75
, , , ,
, , ,
.., Used Products , Model
Image , -
.., Unit System -
(
), Font ,
, .
,
,
(Properties).

10.2. (Model 1 (mod1))


kdv_equation.mph (root) => Model 1 (mod1) :
(-) (mod1),
;
( -
), -
, -
,
kdv_equation.mph (root);
,
Geometry shape order ( -
COMSOL Multiphysics ).
2.
kdv_equation.mph (root) => Model 1 (mod1) =>
Definitions => Selection 1
(
), , .
kdv_equation.mph (root)
=> Model 1 (mod1) => Definitions => View 1 .
kdv_equation.mph (root) => Model 1 (mod1) =>
Definitions => View 1 => Axis -
( ) Graphics: -
(X min, X max), -
(Extra X) X
spacing.
, -
kdv_equation.mph (root) => Model 1
(mod1) => Geometry, -
, (Default relative repair
tolerance) .
kdv_equation.mph (root) => Model 1 (mod1)
=> Geometry :

76
Interval :
. , -
Number of intervals,
. -

;
Form Union ,
Finalization method, -

. , -
,
.
kdv_equation.mph (root) =>
Model 1 (mod1) => PDE (g) ,
.
. PDE (g) -
(-) PDE (Identifier = g), -
, -
(Domains), -
. Dependent Variables
,
, -
. , -
( )
,
.
kdv_equation.mph (root) => Model 1 (mod1) =>
PDE (g) :
General Form PDE 1;
Zero Flux 1;
Initial Values 1;
Periodic Condition 1;
General Form PDE 1
- (19). -
(15), (19)
:
2 
2 uj

X uj i
eij
a + daij + = f i, (22)
j=1
t2 t x

77
i = 1, 2, d11 12 21 22 ij 1 2
a = 1, da = da = da = 0, ea = 0, f = 6u1 u1,x , f = u2 ,
1 2
= u2 , = u1,x , ..

u1,t + u2,x = 6u1 u1,x ,


n
u1,xx = u2 . (23)

u1 = u (19), , -
, ( -
). Domains
.
Zero Flux 1 .
,
COMSOL Multiphysics -
PDE.
Initial Values 1 , -
(21).

u1 (x, 0) = 6 ch2 (x[1/m]) (24)

u2 (x, 0) = 24 ch2 (x[1/m]) th2 (x[1/m]) +


+12 ch2 (x[1/m])(1 th2 (x[1/m])).

[1/m] ,
(, -
) , x
. (23) -
, , u1,t u2,t .
General Form PDE 1, Domains
.
Periodic Condition 1 -
. Boundaries
-
. Periodic Condition

(23), , -
.
kdv_equation.mph (root) => Model 1 (mod1) =>
Mesh 1 :
Size;
Edge 1;
Size ,
. -
7. ,
, ..

78
-
. Edge 1, ,
.
, Model 1 (mod1) -
, , -
,
. COMSOL Multiphysics
.

10.3. (Study 1)
kdv_equation.mph (root) => Study 1 -
, ..
( 8).
Step1: Time Dependent :
Study Settings, Mesh Selection, Physics Selection. . 38


. 38

(Study Settings) , -
, . . 38 (Mesh Selection)
(Geometry 1)
(Mesh 1), -
. . 38 (Physics Selection) -
(PDE (g)). ,
Mesh Selection Physics Selection -
, kdv_equation
, .
kdv_equation.mph (root) => Study 1 =>
Solver Configurations, Solver 1,
:
Compile Equations: Time Dependent ,
Study ( -
Study 1) step -
( Step1:
Time Dependent).
Dependent Variables 1 => Initial Values (. 40)
Method = Initial expression, -

79
. 39

(u1 ,
u2 ) ,
( PDE).
Method = Solution,
-
(u1 , u2 ) ,
Solution (. 40), .. Solution -
. -

-
,
, ,
, -
-
. Dependent Variables 1 => Scaling (.


. 40

40) Method = Automatic,


.
, -
. Dependent Variables 1 => Variables Not Solved
For (. 40) Method = Initial
expression, , -
(, -
PDE AC/DC),
. -
. Dependent Variables 1 => Output (. 40)
Keep solution = Initial Values,
,

80
().
Dependent Variables 1
, Fild (.
41). ,
(mod1) -
: mod1.u1 mod1.u2. Fild -
Solve for this field Store in output,
Dependent Variables
1 => Initial Values Dependent Variables 1 => Variables
Not Solved For, Scaling
Method = From parent,
Dependent
Variables 1 => Scaling.

. 41

Time-Dependent Solver 1 -
, .
General Times =
range(0,0.025,2), ,
Times
Step1: Time Dependent, Relative
tolerance = 0.0001 (. 42). Absolute tolerance -
-
(mod1_u1 mod1_u2),
, -
( 8). . 42- -
Generalized alpha
Free, , -
, , -
. Advanced (. 42)
, , -
- , -
-
- -
. , Results
while solving (. 42) -
,

81

. 42

, -
.
kdv_equation.mph (root) => Study 1 =>
Solver Configurations => Solver 1 => Time-Dependent
Solver 1 (. 43) ( -
8):


. 43

Direct MUMPS (. 43), -


-
. , Error , -

.
Advanced (. 43) -
. -
-
(Matrix symmetry

82
= Automatic), -
. Row equilibration -
,
. (Nul-space function = Automatic)
,

.
-
, -
.
Fully Coupled 1 (. 43) -
(Linear solver = Direct) -
(Damping method =
Constant) .

10.4.
kdv_equation.mph (root) => Results -
.
Data Sets
. -
Solver 1 Model 1,
Solution kdv_equation.mph (root) => Results => Data
Sets => Solution 1 (. 44). Solution 1 -
, -
Mesh, Material, Spatial ( Frame)
, ..
( Solution at angle (phase)). ,
Solver 1 .

. 44

kdv_equation.mph (root) => Results => Data Sets


=> Parametric Extrusion 1D 1 (. 45) -
, .. -
Solver 1
Parametric Extrusion 1D 1,
. ( )
Solver 1 mod1_u1 mod1_u2 -
,

83
,
Parametric Extrusion 1D 1 -
, ..
mod1_u1 mod1_u2. -
, -
mod1_u1, mod1_u2, mod1_u1
mod1_u2. , Parametric Extrusion 1D 1
Solver 1 .

. 45

kdv_equation.mph (root) => Results => Views -


, ..
, , ..,
.

.
kdv_equation.mph (root) =>
Results => 1D Plot Group 1.
1D Plot Group 1
.
(), 1D Plot Group
1. (Settings . 46) :
Data (. 46) : Data set
( Solver 1), -
, -
Select via ,
( Solver 1), -
Times;
Plot Settings (. 46)
;

84
Axis and Grid Settings (. 46)
;
Plot in Window Settings (. 46)
.


. 46

1D
Plot Group 1 Line Graph 1 -
(Settings . 47):
Data (. 47) Data
set 1D Plot Group 1;
Selection (. 47) ,
( );
Y-Axis Data (. 47) , -
Y ( , -
(23), u1 , .. Expression=-u1);
X-Axis Data (. 47) , -
X ( x, ..
Expression=x);

85
Coloring and Style (. 47) -
(),
;
Legends (. 47) -
;
Quality (. 47) .


. 47

kdv_equation.mph (root) => Results => 2D Plot Group


2 -
u1 (x, t). 2D Plot Group 2
: Data, Plot Settings, Plot in Window
Settings. 2D Plot Group 2 -
1D Plot Group 1,
Parametric Extrusion 1D 1.
2D Plot Group 2 Surface 1,
Data set, Expression .., -
.
, -
.
, -
.
Surface 1 Height Expression 1,

Surface 1. Height Expression 1 -
, kdv_equation.mph (root)

86
=> Results => Views => View 3D 3,
Expression Scale.
, kdv_equation.mph (root) =>
Results => Report, kdv_eqiation,
-
.

10.5.
kdv_equation
-
. kdv_equation
Model Library , -
,

.
, . 48.
u1 (x, ti ), ti -
, Times Time-
Dependent Solver 1. ,
, -
-
.
COMSOL Multiphysics

. 48. -
u1 ,
Times

. , -

87
, . 48 -
ti
(. 49), (. 49)
.


. 49. -
ti

, COMSOL Multiphysics -
. -
,
, , ,
, , -

.
COMSOL Multiphysics -
,
,
, . ,
.

10.6.
1) Model Library
) , -
, -
BDF. -
, ,
;
) -
x, .
, -
;
) ,

88
x, t;
)
Microsoft EXCEL,
;
)
.
2) * Eigenmodes of a Room
, .
3) * Effective Diffusivity in Porous Materials
, .
4) * Diffraction Patterns -
, .
* .

89
11.
COMSOL Multiphysics -
,
,
,
.
COMSOL
Multiphysics
. -
, -
, -
, -
. -
, .
COMSOL Multiphysics -
. -
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. COMSOL Multiphysics
,
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COMSOL Multiphysics -

,
, ,
.

90

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