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1 Preparation Material Page 1


BS EN 970 Non destructive examination of fusion welds visual examination

Welding inspector should have good vision in accordance with EN 473, should be
checked every 12 months

Condition for visual examination BS EN 970 states minimum illumination shall be 350
lux but recommends min 500 lux

Direct inspection should enable the eye to be within 600mm from the surface being
inspected, in a pst to give viewing angle not less than 30

Aids to visual inspection the use of mirrored boroscope or a fibe optic system viewing

Magnifying lens is used to avoid visual examination. It should be X2 to X5

Duties of welding inspector before welding, during welding, after welding

WPS is Welding Procedure Specifications

Welding inspector should also ensure inspection aids that will be needed are in good
condition, calibrated.

Safety consciousness is the duty of all employees.


Brazing: Melting point of filler metal is above 450C but always below the melting
temperature of the parent metal.

Welding: An operation in which two or more parts are united by means of heat or
pressure or both, in such a way that there is continuity in the nature of the metal between
these parts.

Cruciform joint needs more pre-heating.

For corner joint Fillet weld is done.

For Lap joint, fillet or resistance butt weld is done.

Types of welds Butt weld

Fillet weld

Autogenous weld (fusion weld without filler metal)

Slot weld (make hole and weld)

Plug weld (keep 2 parent metals in contact, apply current)

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Autogenous weld: A fusion weld made without filler metal which can be achieved by TIG,
plasma, electron beam, laser or oxy-fuel gas welding.

Types of joints Homogeneous


Dissimilar / Transition joint

Heat affected Zone (HAZ): The part of the parent metal that is metallurgically affected by
the heat of welding or thermal cutting, but not melted. (The weakest & hardest part of

Full penetration weld: A welded joint where the weld metal fully penetrates the joint with
complete root fusion. In US it is called Complete Joint Penetration weld (CJP)

Partial penetration weld: A welded joint without full penetration. In US Partial Joint
Penetration weld (PJP)

Fusion line / Fusion boundary / Weld junction.

Toe: Toes are points of high stress concentration and often they are initiation points for
different types of cracks (eg., fatigue cracks, cold cracks)

Excess weld filament reinforcement, overfill.

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Angle of bevel: For MMA weld on carbon steel plate, the angle is 25-30 for V

Included angle for single V preparation is around


Root face effects root penetration. 1-2mm for

common welding processes.

Root Gap is gap b/w two plates. Generally 1-4mm.

Root Radius: In case of MMA, MIG/MAG and oxy-

fuel gas welding on carbon steel plates, the root
radius has a value of 6mm for single and double U
preparations and 8mm for single and double J

Land: usually present in weld preparations for MIG welding of aluminum alloys.

If thickness is more, then single U prep is made instead of V to avoid distortion/bend.

Single V prep flame or plasma cutting, cheap and fast.

Single U prep by machining, slow and expensive.

Single V prep with backing strip: for full

penetration welds with increased current.
Permanent types are made of same material
as being joined and are tack welded in place.
Disadvantages- poor fatigue resistance,
probability of crevice corrosion between parent
metal and backing strip, difficult to examine by
Temporary types include copper strips, ceramic tiles and fluxes.

BS EN ISO 9692 weld preparations

Run (pass): Metal melted or deposited during one passage of an electrode, torch or

Layer: A stratus of weld metal consisting of one or more runs.

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Design Throat Thickness: Distance from root to centre of weld. Denoted by a

Leg length: Distance from the actual or projected intersection of the fusion faces and the
toe of a fillet weld, measured across the fusion face. Denoted by z.

Shape of fillet welds:

MITRE fillet weld.

a=0.707 x z

Convex fillet weld.

Concave fillet weld: the

formula doesnt apply.

Asymmetric fillet weld:

formula not valid here.
Cross section is not an
isosceles triangle.

Deep penetration fillet weld:

It is produced using high
input welding processes (ie
SAW or MAG with spray
transfer). Greater arc

Compound of butt and fillet


Welding positions:
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Classification of imperfections according to BS EN ISO 6520-1

1. Cracks
2. Cavities
3. Solid Inclusions
4. Lack of fusion and penetration
5. Imperfect shape and dimensions
6. Miscellaneous imperfections

Cracks: Type of cracks.

a. Longitudinal cracks
b. Transverse cracks
c. Radiating (cracks radiating from common point)
d. Crater (end of weld / weld metal only / star crack)
e. Branching

Cracks can be situated in weld metal, HAZ,

parent metal. Depending of their nature these
cracks can be
a. Hot (Solidification or Liquation cracks)
b. Precipitation induced
c. Cold (Hydrogen induced cracks)
d. Lamellar tearing problem of parent metal only.

a. Solidification cracks: also called Centre Line Cracking / Hot shortness.

It occurs during solidification of metal. Reason high carbon, sulphur/zinc in
metal. Carbon adds hardness to material. Sulphur comes from parent metal / oil,
grease etc. Melting point of sulphur is less - 115C and carbon steel m.p. -
1500C. During welding if sulphur is available
in parent metal, it will be added in weld.
Sulphur comes in the centre and top during
welding as it will be in the liquid state whereas
the carbon steel of parent metal solidifies.
Possibility of cracks due to stress.
It also occurs if, depth-to-width ratio of the
solidifying weld bead is large (deep & narrow),
Disruption of heat flow condition occurs, eg
stop/start condition.

Liquation crack: see fig.

also called hot crack. Arc strike creates
martensite grain structure. It is done by welder
due to immediate release of electrode from the spot it cools down and cracks are
formed due to immediate cooling.

b. Hydrogen induced cracks: also known as Cold, delayed or underbead/toe

It occurs primarily in the grain-coarsened region of the HAZ.

Causes: Hydrogen level > 15ml/100g of weld metal deposited.

Stress > 0.5 of the yield stress
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Temperature < 300C

Susceptible microstructure > 400 HV hardness.

To avoid these cracks,

Apply preheat, maintain specific interpass temp, post-heat, apply PWHT, reduce weld
metal hydrogen by proper selection of welding process/consumable, use multi instead of
single run technique, use dry shielding gas, use aurstenitic or nickel filler, clean rust from
joint, reduce residual stress, blend the weld profile.

d. Lamellar tearing: parent metal only. It occurs only in rolled steel products and its
main distinguishing feature is that the cracking has a terraced appearance.
A thermal contraction strain occurs in the through-thickness direction of steel plate. It
breaks in Z direction only.
To avoid lamellar tearing use Z-grade steel. It has high through thickness ductility.
Method to determine whether metal is Z grade steel or not STRA (Short Transverse
Reduction Area Test)

To avoid Lamellar tearing avoid welding or take solid T or solid L joint, put clamps or restraint
control, apply high ductility material on surface of parent metal.

Cavities: Gas cavity essentially spherical shape trapped within the weld metal.
present in various forms:

- isolated
- uniformly distributed
- clustered (bunch of pores together)
- linear porosity (in straight line, usually occur along the side wall result in lack of fusion)
- elongated cavity (ovule shape)
- surface pore (visible at surface)

Causes: Damp fluxes or corroded electrode (MMA), grease/hydrocarbon/water

contamination of prepared surface, air entrapment in gas shield (MIG/MAG, TIG),
incorrect/insufficient deoxidant in electrode, filler or parent metal, too high an arc voltage
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or length, gas evolution from priming paints/surface treatment, too high a shielding gas
flow rate which results in turbulence (MIG/MAG, TIG).

Worm holes: causes due to bad surface, laminated work surface, crevices in work
surface due to joint geometry.

Surface porosity: Visible on the surface. Causes: damp or contaminated surface or

electrode, low fluxing activity (MIG/MAG), excess sulphur, loss of shielding gas due to
long arc or high breezes (MIG/MAG), too high a shielding gas flow rate which results in
turbulence (MIG/MAG, TIG).

Crater pipe: Shrinkage cavity at the end of weld run. Main cause shrinkage during
solidification. Lack of welder skill.
Slope out (TIG) decreases the current flow and welding can be done slowly. Use it
when the welding is about to finish.

Solid inclusions

Slag inclusions: Due to flux coating of an electrode. Slag should be removed by the
welder. Slag causes lack of internal fusion. Particularly in MMA process.

Flux inclusions: Flux trapped during welding. MMA, SAW, FCAW.

To avoid- use good electrode and proper current.

Oxide inclusions: Oxide trapped during welding. Irregular shape, thus differs in
appearance from the gas pore. Occurs specially in case of Aluminum alloys.

Tungsten inclusion: During TIG welding. Typical working voltage for TIG is 10-12 volts.
HF start voltage is 20,000 volts. It may damage electronic equipment. Insulation should
be provided. It becomes expensive.
Causes: Contact of electrode with weld pool, inadequate shielding gas, inadequate
tightening of collet, extension of electrode beyond normal distance.

Lack of fusion: lack of side wall fusion, lack of fusion, lack of inter run fusion, lack of
root fusion
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Lack of penetration: Incomplete penetration, incomplete root penetration.

Undercut: causes- melting of top edge due to high welding current or high travel speed,
attempting a fillet weld in horizontal vertical PB position with leg length >9mm, excessive
or incorrect weaving, incorrect electrode angle, incorrect shielding gas selection 100%

Excess weld metal: causes- excess arc energy, shallow edge preparation, incorrect
electrode size, too slow travel speed, wrong polarity used (DC ve MMA, SAW)
It will become a prb as the angle of weld toe can be sharp leads to fatigue cracking.

Excess penetration: causes- weld heat input too high, incorrect weld preparation ie.,
excessive root gap, thin edge preparation, lack of backing, use of electrode unsuited to
weld pst, lack of welder skill.

Overlap: An imperfection a the toe of the weld caused by metal flowing on to the surface
of the parent metal without fusing to it.
Causes- poor electrode manipulation (MMA), High heat input/low travel speed causing
surface flow of fillet weld, incorrect pst of weld.
In fillet weld undercut at top and overlap at base is called sagging.

Linear misalignment: welder and inspector both responsible. It is structural preparation

problem. It increases linear shear stresses at joint and induce bending stress.

Angular distortion: same as linear

Incompletely filled grove: welder is responsible. Causes- insufficient weld metal, irregular
weld bead surface.

Irregular width: Causes- welder eye sight prb, severe arc blow.

Root concavity: causes- excessive backing gas pressure, incorrect prep/fit up, lack of
welder skill.

Burn through: insufficient travel speed, excessive welding current, lack of welder skill,
excessive grinding of root face, excessive root gap.

Stray arc: arc strike can produce hard HAZ, which may contain cracks martensite.

Spatter: high arc current, long arc length, magnetic arc blow, damp electrodes, wrong
selection of shielding gas.

Torn surface / grinding mark / chipping mark / underflushing / misalignment of opposite

runs / temper colour (visible oxide film)
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Destructive Testing Quantitative Tests & Qualitative Tests.

Quantitative Tests Measure a mechanical property such as Tensile strength,

hardness or impact toughness. Carried out for welding procedure qualification.
a. Transverse Tensile Test
b. All weld tensile test
c. Impact toughness test (charpy v-notch test, unit Joules)
d. Hardness testing
e. Crack Tip Opening Displacement Test (COTD)

Qualitative Tests to verify the joint is free from defects, they are of sound quality.
a. Bend Test
b. Fracture Test
c. Macroscopic examination

Transverse Tensile Tests: Welding procedure qualification always requires this

test to show that the strength of the joint satisfies the design criteria. Tensile strength
of entire joint is measured. Component is to be cooled for both sides.

Tensile Strength or Ultimate tensile strength =

If load is in KN then, load = KN x 1000 = N

The test is intended to measure the tensile strength of the joint and thereby shows
the basis of the design, the base metal properties, remains the valid criterion.

Acceptance Criteria: If the test piece breaks in the weld metal, it is acceptable
provided the calculated strength is not less than the minimum tensile strength
specified, which is usually the minimum specified for the base metal material grade.
Eg: If parent metal tensile strength is 1000 N/mm2 and metal breaks from the weld at
960 N/mm2 it is reject. Should be more than or equal to 1000. As per ASME IX code
if parent metal breaks at 95% ie 950 N/mm2 it is acceptable.

All weld tensile tests: Specimens are subjected to a continually increasing force in
the same way that transverse tensile specimens are tested.
Yield or proof stress are measure by means of extensometer that is attached to the
parallel length of the specimen and is able to accurately measure the extension of
the gauge length as the load is increased.

Ductility: Ability of the material to stretch before getting fractured or break.

Tensile ductility in two ways,
% elongation = change in length x 100 / original length
% reduction in area = change in area x 100 / original area
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Impact toughness Test: Charpy V notch test pieces have become the
internationally accepted method for assessing resistance to brittle fracture by
measuring the energy to initiate and propagate, a crack from a sharp notch in a
standard sized specimen subjected to an impact load.
There are standard dimenstions for smaller sized specimens, for example 10 x
7.5mm and 10 x 5mm, angle 45
Specimens are machined from welded test plates. Notch pst located in different pst
according to testing requirements but typically in centre of the weld metal and at pst
across HAZ.
Unit of impact toughness test is Joules. Ft-lbs in US specification.
Toughness decreases at high temp & low temp.
Impact specimens are tested at a temperature that is related to the design
temperature for the fabricated component.
C-Mn and low alloy steels undergo sharp change in their resistance to brittle fracture.
SS grade 316L is used to provide good toughness at low temp.
CS has high carbon. Direct breaks, high strength.

Transition: Change in state of material.

Brittle material fracture Flat and rough, crystalline surface, featureless or smooth,
chevron marks.
Ductile material fracture Rough and torn, shear lips, fibrous surface, plastic or
permanent deformation takes place, reduction in area, lateral expansion.

Acceptance criteria: Three samples are tested and the average value is taken.
Values are compared with those specified by application standard or client.
After this test additional info about toughness is provided which can be added in test
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Hardness Testing: Generally known as resistance to scratch. Ability of material to

resist indentation.
Hardness of metal is resistance to plastic deformation. This is determined by
measuring the resistance to indentation by a particular type of indenter.

Types of methods,
i. Vickers hardness test square based diamond pyramid indenter
ii. Rockwell hardness test Diamond cone indenter or steel ball
iii. Brinell hardness test Ball indenter (mainly used to measure hardness of base
metal, tungsten ball usually used.)

readings in HV, HB, HRV

specimen used for macroscopic examination can be used for hardness testing.
HEZ will give maximum hardness.