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I.

FORMAT OF THE THESIS


These are the parts of the thesis, which are necessary that must be followed.

1. PRELIMINARIES

1.1 Blank Sheet.


This serves as the flyleaf.

1.2 Title Page


This page bears the thesis title, name of the department and institution to which the study is to be
presented, statement of qualification for which the investigation is submitted, and name of
researchers/proponents and month and year of compliance.

1.3 Approval Sheet


This page includes the title of the thesis, name and course of the proponent/s (researcher/s),
together with the signature of the adviser/s, members of the oral defense panel and program
chair. This page certifies that the thesis has been approved and accepted. This page must also
bear the date of oral examination and the date of approval and acceptance.

1.4 Acknowledgment
This part of the thesis recognize persons and organizations who/which assisted the researcher/s
in the completion of the thesis starting from the adviser/s, followed by the members of the oral
defense panel, program chair, proof reader, etc. Acknowledgment should be kept simple and
polite.

1.5 Dedication
This section refers to whom the researcher/s dedicate his/her contribution however this is
optional.

1.6 Abstract
This present the summary of the thesis that gives the readers an overview of the study without
reading the whole thesis. Abstract includes statement of the problem/purpose, methodology,
major findings, and conclusions of the study.

As usual, thesis abstract does not mention any reference to the literature. It should not be less
than two hundred (200) words but not more than five hundred (500) words or a maximum of two
(2) pages and should be encoded in double-spaced.

Note: The abstract of a thesis proposal includes only the statement of the problem/purpose and
methodology of the study.

1.7 Table of Contents


This is a sequential listing of all major parts of a thesis with corresponding page numbers. Table
of contents includes titles of the preliminaries pages, chapters, sections and subsections,
bibliography, appendices and curriculum vitae.
1.8 List of Appendices
This section presents the sequential listing of the appendices with its corresponding title and
page. This list should be arranged in order that they are observed in the appendices.

1.9 List of Tables


This contains the list of all table titles found in the body of the thesis with corresponding page
numbers. Tables should be numbered in sequence, type bold, and use Arabic numerals
connected with its table title. For instance, the first table appearing in chapter two should be
marked as Table 2.1 Title of table 2.1.
1.10 List of Figures
This refers to the list of charts, graphs, maps, and other illustrations utilized in the thesis with its
corresponding title or caption and page. Figures are also numbered in order, type bold, and use
Arabic numerals. The figure labeled as Figure 1.1 is the first figure appeared in the first chapter
while the first figure shown in the third chapter should be tagged as Figure 3.1. For example,
Figure 1.1 Title of figure 1.1

1.11 List of Acronyms*


This is optional section of the thesis. It is a list of all acronyms used in the study for easy
reference of the reader.
2. MAIN BODY OF THE THESIS
The main body or the main text of the thesis is separated into five chapters and sections ( the sub-topic
of each chapter). The page of the thesis body should be in order using Arabic numerals; however page
number for every chapter is not visible. Text of the main body should be type double-spaced.
2.1 CHAPTER I. PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

2.1.1 Introduction or Background of the Study

2.1.2 Theoretical Framework or Conceptual Framework

2.1.3 Statement of the Problem

2.1.4 Scope and Delimitation

2.1.5 Significance of the Study

2.1.6 Definition of Terms

2.2 CHAPTER II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.2.1 Conceptual Literature

2.2.1.1 Local Literature


Foreign Literature

2.2.2 Research Literature

2.2.2.1 Local Studies


Foreign Studies

2.2.3 Synthesis or Relevance of the Reviewed Related Literature to the Present


Study

2.3 CHAPTER III. METHODOLOGY

2.3.1 Research Design


2.3.2 Description of the Participants

2.3.3 Instrument/s Used in the Study

2.3.4 Procedures of Data Gathering


2.3.5 Statistical Analysis of Data

2.3.6 Presentation of Data Analysis

2.4 PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

CHAPTER IV. PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

2.4 CHAPTER V. SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

3. REFERENCE MATERIALS
This presents all the reference materials used in the study.

3.1 Bibliography
This part presents the list of all references quoted in the construction of the thesis. The references
should be arranged alphabetically in every category and should be written aligned to the left margin
and indent five (5) spaces or half an inch for the second and the subsequent lines of citation
Appendices
This section comes after the bibliography. It includes questionnaires, tables with 1-2 pages or
tables which is not significant / critical to the argument of the researcher, computations, forms,
computer printouts, and other documents which are important to the study. Appendices should be
divided into sections and labeled using the capital letters of the English alphabet starting with A.
The organization of the appendices should be based on the order as it was cited in the main body.
Each appendix should begin on a new page and every title of Appendix should match to the Table
of Contents,
Addendum
This is an add-on document in the conduct of the study. This add-on refers as the Certification
from the Proofreader. This certification is added to authenticate that the manuscript was proofread
by a person who is a proofreader, editor, or knowledgeable in the English language
Curriculum Vitae of Researcher/s
This is the last division of the thesis. This section provides an overview of the researchers or
proponents life and qualifications. It includes personal information, educational background, and
professional work experiences (if there is). There is no format required for this section; however it
is recommended that this should be written in uniform format for thesis with more than two
proponents or researchers.

4. WAY OF WRITING
This pertains on how the researcher should write numerical value, unit of measures, and citations.

4.1 Numerical Value


Numerals stated in the main text should be spell out except for those connected to units of
measurement (i.e. 30 kg, 3m), use as quantity (11 boxes, 18 pieces, 33 files, 14 tables etc.) , use
to indicate a series such as The data given are 1, 14, 11, 3, 6, 18, and 9. or The inventory of
laptops for the first five months of this year were 4, 5, 8, 9 and 11., use in the statistical analysis for
data interpretation, and use in tables and in figures. Numbers with one word (i.e. one, two, twenty,
thirty, forty, etc.) should also spell out and enclosing the digit into a parentheses, i.e. three (3), but
numbers with more than one words may be written as numerals, i.e. 24. Write the numbers in
words if it is situated at the beginning of the sentence regardless of the numbers or words or
numerical values.

4.2 Unit of Measure


Always use SI units for the units of measure as much as possible. Remember also that period
should not be attached after the unit of measure unless it is at the end of the sentence. Unit of
measure should be written in words followed by its abbreviations within the parenthesis. For
example 3 milliliters (3 ml), 14 centimeters (14 cm), 3.18 meters (3.18 m), 33 kilobytes (33 KB),
1.8 kilometers per hour (1.8 kph), 6.09 gigabytes (6.09 GB).
4.3 Citations
All citations must be quoted correctly in the content and in the bibliography. These are some
examples on how a citation should be presented:
Primary Source
Dicdican (2001) developed a learning package in Mathematics for Grade Six pupils in the
Division of Laguna. The data gathered revealed that
The multi-media learning experiences are often presented in a self-instructional format
referred to as module (Russel, 1974)
According to Soedijarto (1976), a module should consist of
A concept that can be measured on any one to the four types of measurement scale,
which have varying degrees of precision in measurement such as nominal, ordinal,
interval, or ratio (Kumar, 1996:47-48).
Calderon and Gonzales define a variable as anything that may change or may be changed
from one condition to another, either qualitative or quantitatively such as age, height,
weight, method of teaching, language, time, etc. (1993:83)
Secondary Source
Kidder in Fonollera (1993:53) give the meaning of sampling as a means of selecting a
given number of persons, objects or events ( called subsets) from a given population by
specified selection process.

4.4 Quotations
Quotations may be copied directly and accurately, onto to or word for word, and they must be
placed in quotation marks. However, students are encouraged to produce and restate ideas in
their own words and way of presenting such concepts.

4.5 Annotations
Annotations or footnotes are not encouraged to use in the text. On the other hand, it is
recommended to use citations rather than footnotes.

5. THESIS APPEARANCE
This refers to the physical requirements of the entire thesis for submission.

5.1 Paper
Paper should be white letter-size (8.5 x 11 in). Page orientation should be portrait layout.
Manuscript, figures, and tables layout should also in portrait and are placed on one side only of the
paper. Back to back writing of manuscript, figures, and tables will not be accepted.

5.2 Language
American English is the official language should be used in writing a thesis and it should be formal,
objective and expository. All sentences must be comprehensive with correct grammar and spelling.
Sentences and words stated in the form of idiomatic expressions, metaphors, subjective, slang and
undefined abbreviations and acronym are not allowed to use in the text.

5.3 Documents
All document drafts, including the thesis and other pertinent official documents to be included in the
study, should be typewritten, free from erasures, and has uniform font when submitted. Text should
be in black color, twelve-point size, and one of any of these fonts; Arial, Times New Roman,
Bookman Old Style, Courier New, or Tahoma. Submitted hand-written drafts and
incomplete documents will not be accepted. Text should be always aligned on both the left and
right margins or justified on both sides. Five-space indention is used for every paragraph.

5.4 Margins
From the beginning up to the end of the thesis margins should be 1.5 inches for the left and
1.0 inch for the top, bottom, and 1.25 inch for right margin.

5.5 Spacing
The entire thesis should be written in a double-spaced format.
Optional
***except for the following should be typed in single spaced:
Name/s of the researcher, proposed thesis title, rationale or brief description of the
developing project, and names and designation appeared in the thesis proposed title
document
Thesis title, submitting department and institution, qualification statement, name of the
researcher/s or proponent/s, and month and year of submission in the title page
Thesis title, name of researchers, course, and names and designation appeared in the
approval sheet
Table of Contents entry except entries between other categories
List of Appendices
List of Tables List of Figures
List of Acronym
References in the Bibliography except between entries
Thesis title, name of researchers, course, names and designation of the proofreader in the
certification from the proofreader

5.6 Pagination
Page numbers of the entire thesis should be consecutive from the title page up to researcher/s
curriculum vitae. Page numbers should be situated at the right top of each page with no other
decorative layouts.

The preliminary part of the thesis should numbered starting from the title page through the list of
acronym or through the list of figures using the lower case of the Roman numerals. The title page
Roman numeral number is i, however this is not included or visible in that page. Page 1 of the
main body which is the first page of the chapter 1; however this chapter page number should not
be visible or included as well as the entire first page in every chapter.
THESIS TITLE

A Thesis
Presented to
the Faculty of the Name of the Department

In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Course

by
Name of Researcher/s
Month and Year of Compliance
TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE
Title Page...i
Approval Sheet.. ii
Acknowledgment.. iii
Dedication (optional). iv
Abstract. v
Table of Contents.. vi
List of Appendices..... vii
List of Tables. viii
List of Figures. ix

CHAPTER
I. THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND.
Introduction...
Conceptual Framework.
Statement of the Problem...
Scope, Delimitation and Limitation...
Significance of the Study..
Definition of Terms.....

II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES..


Conceptual Literature.
Local
Foreign.
Research Literature...
Local
Foreign.
Synthesis/Relevance of the Reviewed Related Literature to the Present
Study

III. METHODOLOGY AND RESEARCH DESIGN


Research Design
Description of the Participants......
Instrument Used in the Study
Procedures..
Statistical Analysis of Data

BIBLIOGRAPHY

TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE
Title Page...i
Approval Sheet.. ii
Acknowledgment.. iii
Dedication (optional). iv
Abstract. v
Table of Contents.. vi
List of Appendices..... vii
List of Tables. viii
List of Figures. ix

CHAPTER
I. THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND.
Introduction...
Conceptual Framework.
Statement of the Problem...
Scope, Delimitation and Limitation...
Significance of the Study..
Definition of Terms.....

II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES..


Conceptual Literature.
Local
Foreign.
Research Literature...
Local
Foreign.
Synthesis (Relevance of the Reviewed Related Literature to the Present
Study)

III. METHODOLOGY..
Research Design
Description of the Participants......
Instruments Used in the Study
Procedures..
Statistical Analysis of Data

IV. PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

V. SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATION...

BIBLIOGRAPHY.

PAGE
APPENDICES.
CURRICULUM VITAE..
TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE
Title Page...i
Approval Sheet.. ii
Acknowledgment.. iii
Dedication (optional). iv
Abstract. v
Table of Contents.. vi
List of Appendices..... vii
List of Tables. viii
List of Figures. ix

CHAPTER
I. THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND.
Introduction...
Conceptual Framework.
Statement of the Problem...
Scope, Delimitation, and Limitation...
Significance of the Study..
Definition of Terms.....

II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES..


Conceptual Literature.
Local
Foreign.
Research Literature...
Local
Foreign.
Synthesis (Relevance of the Reviewed Related Literature to the Present
Study)

III. METHODOLOGY ..
Research Design
Description of the Participants......
Instruments Used in the Study
Procedures in Developing and
Statistical Analysis of Data
Presentation and Data Analysis

IV. PROJECT DEVELOPED.

V. SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATION....

BIBLIOGRAPHY.
PAGE
APPENDICES.

CURRICULUM VITAE..
LIST OF APPENDICES

APPENDIX PAGE
A Title of Appendix A.....
B Title of Appendix B.....
C Title of Appendix C.....
D Title of Appendix D.....
E Title of Appendix E.....
F Title of Appendix F.....

LIST OF APPENDICES
APPENDIX PAGE
A Scope and Sequence of Intermediate Algebra....70
B Schedule of the Student-Participants.... 72
C List of Second Year High School Student-Participants..... 73
D Table of Specifications for 100-Item Summative Test....76
E 100-Item Summative Test with Table of Specifications for
Content Validation by the Thesis Advisers 80
F 100-Item Summative Test with Table of Specifications for
Content Validation by the Experts. 94
LIST OF TABLES

TABLE PAGE
3.1 Title of Table 3.1 .....
3.2 Title of Table 3.2 .....
3.3 Title of Table 3.3 .....
4.1 Title of Table 4.1 .....
LIST OF TABLES

TABLES PAGE
3.1 Means and Standard Deviations of the Evaluators Responses
Pertaining to the Objectives of the Module... 47
3.2 Summary Table of the Means and Standard Deviations of the
Evaluators Responses Pertaining to the Objectives,
Content, Format and Language, Presentation, and
Usefulness of the Modules 50

LIST OF FIGURE/S

FIGURES PAGE
1.1 Title of Figure 1.1 .....
LIST OF FIGURE/S

FIGURES PAGE
1.1 Model for the Development of Modules in Rational
Expressions..... 3
BIBLIOGRAPHY
A. Books
With one author
Authors Surname, First Name Middle Initial, Title of the book. Place of publication: Name of
the Publisher, Date of publication.

Example

Buffa, Liz. Research Paper Smart. New York: Random House, 1997.

With two authors


Authors Surname, First Name Middle Initial and second authors First Name Middle Initial
Surname. Title of the book. Place of publication: Name of the Publisher, Date of
publication.

Example

Best, John W. and James V. Kahn, Research in Education. Singapore: Simon and Schuster: A
Viacom Company, 1998.

With three or more authors


Authors Surname, First Name Middle Initial et.al. Title of the book. Place of publication: Name
of the Publisher, Date of publication.

Example

Bautista, Evangeline P. et.al. XP Intermediate Algebra. Philippines: Vibal Publishing House,


2006.

With an editor
Editors Surname, First Name Middle Initial, ed. Title of the book. Place of publication: Name of
the Publisher, Date of publication.

Example

Kizer, Carolyn, ed. 100 Great Peoms by Women. New Jersey: The Ecco Press, 1995.

Encyclopedia article
Encyclopedia Title, Edition Date. Volume Number, Article Title, page number(s).

Example
The Encyclopedia Brittanica, 1997. Volume 7, Gorillas, pp. 50-51.
Short story or chapter of a book
Authors Surname, First Name Middle Initial. Story title or chapter title. Title of the book
where the story or chapter was taken. The abbreviation of the word editor, Ed. Editor of
the books First Name Middle Initial Surname. Place of publication: Name of the
Publisher, Date of publication. Pages of the source book.

Example
Buell, Lawrence. Moby-Dick as Sacred Text. New Essays on Moby Dick. Ed. Richard
Broadhead. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press, 1986. 53-72.

With the same author or editor but different book title


Use the name or list of names of the authors or editors on the first entry only following the
formats stated above, and use three hyphens to indicate the following entry or entries
have the same name.

Example

King, Stephen. Black House. New York: Random, 2001.

---. Dreamcatcher. New York: Scribner, 2001.

B. Journals and Periodicals


Journal article

Authors Surname, First Name Middle Initial. Title of the article. Title of the journals. Place of
Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of publication. Volume number, Issue number,
page/s.

Example

Brown, Richard. Making Mathematics a Personal and Incentive Experience. The Educational
Digest. Michigan: Prakkin Publications Inc., 1982. Vol. XLVII, No. 4, p 31.
Magazine article

Authors Surname, First Name Middle Initial. Title of the article. Title of the magazines. Date
of publication: page/s.

Example

Jerome, Richard and Margaret Nelson. Deadly Game? People. September 23, 2002: 221-2.

Newspaper article
Authors Surname, First Name Middle Initial. Title of the article. Title of the newspapers.
[Place or City of publication, if not stated in the title] Date of publication, Edition of
publication, if stated: Section of the newspaper, if stated: page/s.

Example

Lee-Chua, Queena N. Eureka! Presidential codes and chocolate math. Philippine Daily
Inquirer. July 27, 2009, Learning: F3

C. Unpublished Materials
Undergraduate thesis with one author

Authors Surname, First Name Middle Initial. Title of the Undergraduate Thesis. Type of
unpublished material, School where it was submitted, School location, Year of
submission.

Example

Pilar, Jodi Ann. Title of the Undergraduate Thesis. Unpublished Undergraduate Thesis,
University of Santo Tomas, Manila, Year it was submitted.

Undergraduate thesis with two authors

Authors Surname, First Name Middle Initial. and second authors First Name Middle Initial
Surname. Title of the Undergraduate Thesis. Type of unpublished materials, School
where it was submitted, Schools location, Year of submission.
Example

Capalihan, Evelyn P. and Mariel Cenon. Mathematics Anxiety Level of Selected Third Year
High School Students of Metro Manila. Unpublished Undergraduate Thesis, Philippine
Normal University, Manila, 1996.

Undergraduate thesis with two or more authors

Authors Surname, First Name Middle Initial. et.al. Title of the Undergraduate Thesis. Type of
unpublished materials, School where it was submitted, Schools location, Year of
submission.

Example

Mora, Karen et. al. Proposed Quezon City Polytechnic University Online Library System.
Unpublished Undergraduate Thesis, Quezon City Polytechnic University, Quezon City,
2009.

Undergraduate and Graduate students special project

Authors Surname, First Name Middle Initial. Title of the Special Project. Type of unpublished
materials, School where it was submitted, Schools location, Year of submission.

Examples

Undergraduate student

Alcansado, Joy C. et. al. Development and Evaluation of Measure of Central Tendency
Calculation Software. Unpublished Special Project, Quezon City Polytechnic
University, Quezon City, 2009.

Graduate student

Agustin-Sicat, Ma. Cristina D. Development and Evaluation of Interactive Multimedia Lessons


in Analytic Geometry. Unpublished Special Project, Philippine Normal University,
Manila, 2002.

Masters thesis

Authors Surname, First Name Middle Initial. Title of the Thesis. Type of unpublished
material, School where it was submitted, School location, Year of submission.
Example

Torrefranca, Evelyn C. Development and Validation of Instructional Modules in Rational


Expressions. Unpublished Masters Thesis, Philippine Normal University, Manila, 2009.

Dissertation

Authors Surname, First Name Middle Initial. Title of the Dissertation. Type of unpublished
material, School where it was submitted, School location, Year of submission.

Example

Dicdican, Romulo C. Proposed Learning Package in Mathematics for Grade Six Pupils in the
Division of Laguna. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Eulogio Amang Rodriguez
Institute of Science and Technology, Manila, 2001.

D. Internet Sources
Books taken from the internet
Use the format written in A. Books with <URL Address added after the page/s.>
Journal and Periodical Articles taken from the internet

Use the format written in B. Journal and Periodicals with <URL Address added after the page/s.>

E. Other Sources
From a person
Resource persons Surname, First Name Middle Initial. Occupation. Date of Interview.
Example

Dela Cruz, Juan F. Teacher. October 1, 2009.

From a film

Title, Director, Distributor, Year.

Example

Braveheart. Dir. Mel Gibson, Icon Productions, 1995.

From CD-ROM

Disc Title: Version, Date. Article Title, page/s if given. Publisher.

Example
Comptons Multimedia Encyclopedia: Macintosh version, 1995. Civil rights movement, p. 3.
Comptons Newsmedia.

From email message

Author of the message, (Date). Subject of the message. Electronic conference or bulletin board
(Online). Available email: LISTSERV@email address

Example

Ellen Block, (September 15, 1995). New Winners. Teen Booklist (Online). Helen Smith
@wellington.com

From Website

Name of the Site. Date of last update. Author of the site. Date accessed the site by the researcher
<URL address>

Example

U.S. Department of Education (ED) Home Page. September 29, 1999. U.S. Department of
Education. October 1, 1999< http://www.ed.gov./index.html>.

ADDENDUM
CERTIFICATION FROM THE PROOF READER

This thesis entitled

WRITE THE THESIS TITLE

has been prepared and submitted by

Write the name/s of the researcher/s in alphabetical order.

In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of

WRITE
the
COURSE.
This has been proof read and edited by

Signature
PROOF READERS FULL NAME
Designation
JOURNAL STYLE
THE PURPOSE OF THE JOURNAL FORMAT IS TO ALLOW STUDENTS TO PRESENT THEIR THESIS
MATERIAL IN A MANNER
THAT IS VERY SIMILAR TO THAT REQUIRED BY THE JOURNAL TO WHICH THEY WILL SEND A
MANUSCRIPT(S) THAT IS/ARE
DERIVED FROM THE THESIS. THIS FORMAT OPTION WILL SPEED UP THE JOURNAL SUBMISSION
PROCESS. THIS
WRITTEN REQUEST MUST INCLUDE THE TITLE OF JOURNAL THE THESIS FORMAT WILL FOLLOW.

THE STRUCTURE OF JOURNAL-ARTICLE-FORMAT THESES IS AS FOLLOWS.


1. Title Page giving the title of the thesis in full, the names and degrees of the candidate, the
name of the organization, institute or laboratory in which the research was carried out (if
applicable), the name of the Department of the University associated with the work and the
date when submitted for the degree;
2. DECLARATION. a statement signed by the candidate to the effect that the work has not
been submitted for a higher degree to any other university or institution. The candidate shall
also indicate in the thesis the sources of information used and the extent to which the work of
others has been utilised;
3. an acknowledgements page (optional).
4. a table of contents;
5. a summary of approximately 200 words for an MPhil degree or 300 words for a PhD;

The body of the thesis then follows, with pages numbered consecutively.

The first section of the body of the thesis should be an Introduction. This should be a
comprehensive, critical and coherent overview of the relevant literature. It should identify the
distinct contribution the thesis is to make to the literature, setting the frame and sequence for
each of the papers to follow. It need not be long: 20-30 pages.

After this Introduction chapter, there are a number of chapters each written in the format of a
self-contained journal article. This need not have been submitted to any journal.

The final chapter is a Conclusions chapter, which provides an integrative conclusion, drawing
together all the work described in the journal-article-format parts of the thesis and relating this
back to the issues raised in the Introduction.

The maximum allowable length is 75,000 words: you are recommended to aim for a length
between 50,000 and 75,000 words (PhD); 20,000-40,000 words (MPhil).

Journal Article Style Thesis/Dissertation Format


The Journal Article style allows you to author manuscripts designed for journal publication
during your studies instead of a single manuscript at the conclusion of your program, as in the
Traditional format.
The articles in the Journal Article style need to exhibit your original research, and must be
centered around a common research theme which enables the documents to be combined
together to create a single cohesive manuscript.
The manuscript created must fulfill the requirements of both your committee and the Thesis
Office in completing your thesis/dissertation graduation requirement. Not all committees and
departments allow students to use the Journal Article style, so be sure to determine eligibility and
get approval early.
The format of the preliminary pages in the Journal Article style is the same as the traditional
style format. Both styles contain a single Introduction and Conclusion in the body of the paper.
The main difference is that in the traditional style Chapter/Sections 2, 3, and 4 are the more
standard headings which may be: Literature Review, Methods and Results, etc., in the Journal
option they are: Manuscript #1, Manuscript #2, Manuscript # 3, etc. Each style may contain one
or more Appendices at the end.
A benefit to the Journal Article style is that it offers you the opportunity to publish before
completing your degree, however, copyright and authorship issues are two factors that need to be
taken into consideration when exercising this option. Be sure to take care in weighing the
advantages and disadvantages of using each approach with your committee chair and committee.
You must have their approval and support regardless which option you choose.
Listed below are the Thesis Office requirements for Journal Article styled Manuscripts regarding
formatting.
1. You must have the approval of your committee to utilize any previously published and/or
multi-author published material as chapters/sections of your thesis or dissertation.
2. Thesis Manual requirements must be followed.
3. Manuscript must have the first chapter entitled INTRODUCTION and the last chapter entitled
SUMMARY and/or CONCLUSION. These two chapters contain the general introduction and the
general conclusion.
4. There will only be one Abstract (all-inclusive).
5. Acknowledgements for any of the chapters must be placed in the preliminary page
acknowledgments (not at the end of a chapter).
6. There will be only one reference section (all-inclusive) after the last chapter.
7. Any appendix material will follow the reference section. Do not leave appendix material
within the main body of the text.
8. Each paper or experiment may be included as a separate chapter. Each chapter may have
subdivisions such as Introduction, Materials and Methods, Discussion, Results, and Summary
and Conclusion. If there is an abstract within the paper, change the subheading to Overview or
Synopsis (or leave subsection untitled).
9. Consistency is needed across all chapters with placement of figure and table titles. Table and
figure numbering is most commonly done by chapter (example, 1.1, 1.2, etc.). Numbering may
also be consecutive from first chapter through the last (1, 2, 3, etc.). References should all be
consistently formatted and ordered. See Thesis Manual for Reference format requirements.
10. If the material in any chapter has been published, the student must obtain a letter of
permission from the publisher allowing the student to use the work in the thesis or dissertation.
Doctoral students should inform the publisher that ProQuest Learning and Information Company
will microform the dissertation and that copies of the dissertation will be sold on demand. A copy
of the letter must be provided to the Thesis Office. In addition, proper credit (as instructed in the
letter of permission) must be given in the text.
Journal Format Style
Journal format is the style required for formatting manuscripts being submitted for
publication consideration. This style is usually provided to authors through a section in one
of the journal issues called instructions for authors" or a style manual published by the
professional association.

Students sometimes have difficulty combining journal format with a style manual or the
university Guidelines. Just remember that you are preparing a document in final form (similar
to the printed journal article) not in manuscript form which, in essence, is a working copy
used by editors and typesetters to prepare the document in final form

Since styles within disciplines vary, pick one journal from your major area and use its
style for your entire thesis/dissertation. Do not mix styles from one journal to another
and do not copy format from another thesis.

The university Guidelines must always be followed for those items that are covered
in the Guidelines (for example, spacing of text and headings, use of bold or italic,
margins, placement of page numbers, and so on).

Using journal format requires that the instructions for authors be combined with the
university Guidelines.. For example, incorporate tables and figures into
the text or place them in appendices
.

Use the university Guidelines for: Spacing of everything in the preliminary pages,
text, appendix items, the reference list; margins; counting and placement of page
numbers; font requirements.

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