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Engineering Structures 23 (2001) 643655

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Passive energy dissipation device for typical steel frame building


in Iran
*
M. Tehranizadeh
Professor of Civil Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, 37 Salmack Street, Vali Aasr Ave, Tajrish, Tehran, Iran

Received 19 July 1999; received in revised form 10 July 2000; accepted 10 July 2000

Abstract

In order to achieve economical earthquake-resistant constructions building structures must be constructed to dissipate a large
amount of seismic energy. Added damping and stiffness (ADAS) elements are designed to dissipate energy through the flexural
yielding deformation of mild-steel plates. In this paper, recent research findings on the effectiveness of using steel plate welded as
the added damping and stiffness (ADAS) device for earthquake-resistant structure on an interesting type of semi-rigid steel naming
connection which is commonly used in Iran (including in seismic zone) are presented. Experimental results indicate that a properly
designed (ADAS) device can sustain a large number of yielding reversals without any stiffness or strength degradation. A research
program was under taken to investigate the behavioral aspect of a half scale model of the 4-story structure frame upgraded with
ADAS elements and subjected to dynamic loads. 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: ADAS device; Khorjinee connection; Energy dissipation device

1. Introduction ductility [14]. Simply stated, the earthquake input


energy can now be absorbed by the deformation of these
The presence of some damping (energy dissipation) mechanical dampers as opposed to the yielding and con-
in conventional building has long been recognized and sequential damage of main structural members. Further-
accepted by practicing professional engineers. Although more, by incorporating mechanical damping devices in
the nature of the energy dissipation inherent in buildings a structural frame, it is possible to increase the energy
has not been explicitly identified, inherent equivalent dissipation capabilities of the structure while reducing
viscous damping in the range of two percent to five per- its accelerations and inertial loads. The end result is
cent of critical has become accepted in practice for linear improved seismic structural response due to a simul-
response analysis of typical buildings. In fact, most taneous reduction in base shear and interstory drift.
design spectra are developed assuming about five per- The amount of energy transmitted to a structure during
cent of critical viscous damping in the system. an earthquake depends mainly on the ratio of the funda-
The use of mechanical dampers provides the means mental period of the structure to the predominant period
for consuming the kinetic energy of a vibrating building of the ground motion. The damage experienced by a
without sacrificing the integrity of primary structure structure as a result of an earthquake is directly related
elements, and also represents an effective method for to the amount of hysteric energy absorbed by inelastic
reducing the possibility of resonant response. The devel- deformations of the various elements of the structure as
opment and characterization of these devices has lead to it deforms.
a seismic design philosophy based upon increasing the Conventional seismic design practice permits the
energy dissipation capacity of a structural frame as reduction of forces for design below the elastic level on
opposed to relying upon increased frame stiffness and the premise that inelastic action in a suitably designed
structure will provide that structure with significant
energy dissipation potential and enabled it to survive a
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +9821-8777-098; fax: +9821-8777- severe earthquake without collapse. This inelastic action
100. is typically intended to occur in specially detailed critical

0141-0296/01/$ - see front matter 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
PII: S 0 1 4 1 - 0 2 9 6 ( 0 0 ) 0 0 0 8 2 - 1
644 M. Tehranizadeh / Engineering Structures 23 (2001) 643655

regions of the structure, usually in the beams near or prototype devices (scale 1:1), similar to those that will
adjacent to the beam column joints. Inelastic behavior be used in the structure. Whittaker et al. [5] have
in these regions, while able to dissipate substantial presented an analytical procedure to define the load
energy, also often results in significant damage to the deformation curve of the ADAS device, assuming an
structural member, and although the regions maybe well equivalent X-triangular-shaped geometry. Although the
detailed, their hysteretic behavior will degrade with method is simple, its results are limited if more rigorous
repeated inelastic cycling. The interstory drifts required analyses are to be done. The use of a detailed finite
to achieve significant hysteretic energy dissipation in element mesh to model an ADAS device is reasonable
critical regions are generally large and usually result in to study the behavior of the device alone; however, it is
substantial damage to non-structural elements such as not practical for studying the nonlinear dynamic
infill walls, partitions, doorways and ceilings. behavior of multi-story structures with several ADAS
As a response to the shortcoming inherent in the devices. Recently, a microscopic mechanist approach
philosophy of conventional seismic design, a number of has been proposed for metallic dampers the applicability
innovative approaches have been developed. One of of which could be tested for the ADAS device.
these approaches involves adding energy absorbers to An idealization of the geometry of an ADAS device
structure. The aim of including energy absorbers in a is given in Fig. 1. Here, the layout of the ADAS is hour-
structure for earthquake resistance is to concentrate hys- glass shaped. These devices are made with tapered struc-
teretic behavior in specially designed and detailed tural steel plates designed to work primarily in double
regions of the structure and to avoid inelastic behavior in curvature, which makes their layout more efficient as
primary gravity load resisting structural elements (except these elements yield almost along their entire length.
perhaps under the most severe conditions). Because of its particular tapered shape, the compu-
Numerous different types of energy-absorbing devices tation of the stiffness and the plastic capacities of the
have been proposed for this purpose. In recent years, a ADAS device are nontrivial. Whittaker et al. [5] pro-
number of researchers have investigated techniques of posed a simple procedure to define the loaddeflection
increasing the building energy absorbing capacity curve for the ADAS devices, using an equivalent X-
through the use of steel plate added damping and stiff- shaped idealization of the plates [Fig. 1(b)], are inscribed
ness (ADAS) device [5]. These studies have confirmed inside the actual profile of the ADAS. Their method is
that the ADAS device using x-shaped steel plates is suit- based on the following assumptions: firstly, the X-plates
able for buildings to resist earthquake forces. are rigidly restrained at their ends; secondly, the X-plates
Since the bending curvature produced by a transverse deform in double curvature, antisymmetric all about their
force applying at the end of the triangular plate is uni- midheight; and finally, the equivalent width of the X-
form over the full height of the plate, the plate can plates at their ends is equal to half its height (b1eq=l/2).
deform well into the inelastic range without curvature The loaddeformation curve in shear of the ADAS can
concentration. The steel triangular-shaped plate has been be idealized as an elastic perfectly plastic curve [Fig.
successfully applied in the energy-absorbing restrainers 2(a)], or as a bilinear one [Fig. 2(b)], as recommended
for piping systems in nuclear power plants. Recent in the literature. In the procedure by Whittaker et al. [5]
research results have indicated that steel triangular- the yielding point is defined from the proposed equival-
shaped plates cast as the added damping and stiffness ent geometry.
device possess adequate stiffness and strength, however, Whittaker et al. [5] do not specify the expression they
the ductility and the energy dissipation capacities of the used to define the yielding displacements reported on
cast steel device may not be adequate to survive a severe
earthquake. Therefore, a combined experimental and
analytical investigation on the effectiveness of steel
welded triangular plate added damping and stiffness
(TADAS) device was conducted at National Taiwan
University [6]. Recently, advancement in detailing and
fabrication of welded TADAS device has also been
made and documented [7].

2. Basic mechanical characteristics of the ADAS


device

Up to now, the numerical modeling of the stiffness


and nonlinear behavior of the ADAS device has been
primarily based upon experimental data from test of Fig. 1. Added damping and stiffness (ADAS) element.
M. Tehranizadeh / Engineering Structures 23 (2001) 643655 645

nominal shape of the ADAS, therefore, the computed


shear capacity and stiffness is underestimated with
respect to their theoretically exact analytical values. In
addition, the modeling of the ADAS is based entirely on
a shear criterion, neglecting other effects that might be
relevant, such as the impact of axial forces and out-of-
plane bending. It was observed, from some test results,
Fig. 2. (a) Elastic-perfectly-plastic idealization; (b) bilinear idealiz- that axial forces can be an important factor in the
ation. Load-deformation curve in shear of the ADAS. dynamic behavior of the ADAS device when subjected
to large deformations, therefore, this effect needs to be
their analytical studies. However, it seems that these dis- evaluated both analytically and experimentally.
placements were computed from the double integration A more rigorous procedure to model the ADAS
of the average plastic curvature and the yield displace- devices is based upon the flexibility method. The method
ment y is is robust and can not only define the loaddeformation


curve in shear of the ADAS but can also define an
Mpx(z) ADAS element model that can be implemented in stan-
y dd (1)
EIx(z) z z dard structural analysis or finite element computer pro-
grams.
Where
b(z)t3
Ix(z) (2) 3. Proposed analytical method
12
b(z)t2 3.1. Stiffness formulation
Mpx(z)syZxsy (3)
4
The stiffness matrix of an elastic nonprismatic
Therefore, according to the method proposed by Whit- element, such as the plates that compose the ADAS
taker et al. [5] the plastic yielding displacement of each device, can be defined using the flexibility method. The
equivalent X-shaped plate is hourglass shape of each plate that composes the ADAS
[Fig. 1(a)] can be approximated using an exponential
3syl2 function as
PL (4)
4 Et
b(z)b1eaz 0zl/2 (7)
b(z)b2ea(zl/2) l/2zl (8)
The plastic shear capacity of each equivalent X-plate
of the ADAS is computed from the equilibrium equation
based upon the yielding moment capacity of the plate
[Eq. (3)], this is
2 b1
a ln
l b2 (9)

2Mpx syb1eqt2 A regression analysis of geometry of the ADAS


VPL (5)
l 2l devices tested at the University of California at Berkeley
and reported by Whittaker et al. [5] was conducted to
Hence, the elastic shear stiffness of each equivalent obtain the best fit for the proposed exponential function.
X-plate is calculated as The geometry of the ADAS device is closely represented
by the exponential functions. The width of the device is
VPL slightly underestimated near the fixed ends and at mid-
KPL (6)
PL span. This underestimation should not be critical because
the curvatures on those regions are small, as computed
and reported by Whittaker et al. [5]. The dimensions b1
For an ADAS device composed of n plates and ideal-
and b2 for the best fit of the proposed exponential func-
ized as proposed by Whittaker et al. [5], the plastic yield-
tion are defined by
ing displacement is the one computed from Eq. (4)
where as the plastic shear capacity and the elastic shear b10.60l (10)
stiffness are n times the ones computed from Eqs. (5)
b20.10l (11)
and (6), where n is the number of plate elements.
The procedure proposed by Whittaker et al. [5] is a
simple approximation, valid only for 2D modeling. Their The influence of various ADAS element parameters
equivalent X-plate idealization is inscribed inside the on the seismic response of building structures has been
646 M. Tehranizadeh / Engineering Structures 23 (2001) 643655

extensively analyzed [8]. In order to gain further insight component of a base isolation system in shake table
in to the effects of some important ADAS parameters tests [12].
on the seismic response of building frames, nonlinear
response spectra of SDOF system were studied [6,7]. For 4.2. Component tests
the purpose of discussion, an ADAS element is defined
as an ADAS device and two braces that support the Dynamic test of individual ADAS elements have been
device. The horizontal stiffness of the ADAS element, extensively performed [13]. Sinusoidal displacements
Kt , is a function of the lateral stiffness of the braces, were imposed on the elements, and the force and defor-
Kb and the device stiffness Ka . If the ratio of the hori- mation responses recorded. A typical hystersis loop from
zontal ADAS element stiffness, Kt, to the structural story one of the tests of 7-plate elements under sinusoidal dis-
stiffness, without the ADAS device and braces in place, placement, which has been done by Aiken et al. [13] is
Kf, is defined as SR [8], then: shown in (Fig. 4). The primary factors affecting ADAS
element behavior are device elastic stiffness (Ke), yield
Kt
SR (12) strength (Ry), and yield displacement (y).
Kf The tests showed that: ADAS elements are capable of
KbKa sustaining more than 100 loading cycles at a deformation
Kt (13) amplitude of 3y with stable response and no signs of
Kb+Ka
degradation; ADAS elements can safely be designed for
displacement ranges up to about 10y ; and failure of
one ADAS element was induced by 15 cycles of loading
at an amplitude of 14y. The tests also indicated the
4. Description and testing of ADAS elements importance of rigid boundary connections for success-
ful1 performance of ADAS elements. Tests performed
4.1. Description by indicated similar results.

ADAS elements consists of multiple X-shaped mild 4.3. Device design parameters
steel plates configured in parallel between top and bot-
tom boundary connections (Fig. 3). The ADS elements The principal parameters that characterize the energy
used in the test program described here were made from dissipation capacity of yielding devices are the yield
A-36 steel and consisted of either four, or five plates. force Ry yield displacement, y, and maximum displace-
The particular advantage of an X-plate is that, when ment. For the devices available, virtually any desired
deformed in double curvature, the plate deformation is combination of Ry and y values is feasible. Because of
uniform over its height, and when deformed into its plas- the high strain fatigue associated with yielding devices,
tic regime, the yielding will be uniformly distributed. A they are deformation limited, and this is typically
rectangular plate, when deformed plastically in double described by ductility, m=/y and limiting values of
curvature, will yield only at its ends. This concentration ductility are typically prescribed, depending on the
is particularly undesirable both in terms of the amount severity of the ground motion used for design. Finally,
of energy that can be absorbed by such a deformation
pattern and by its inherent lack of stability and repeat-
ability in the plastic range.
The X-plate is a development from triangular plate
devices, which were developed in New Zealand [9,10]
and were first developed as a piping support element
[11]. X-plates have been used as the energy-dissipating

Fig. 3. Added damping and stiffness (ADAS) element. Fig. 4. Plate ADAS element hysteric behavior.
M. Tehranizadeh / Engineering Structures 23 (2001) 643655 647

yielding devices exhibit some strain hardening as illus-


trated in Fig. 5. The strain hardening ratio, SHR, is typi-
cally small (0.010.1) and its effect on the response of
structures with yielding device dampers is to reduce lat-
eral deformations and increase the forces in a structure.
The presence of strain hardening calls in the same way
as increasing the yield force.
The devicesstructure interactive parameters that are
important for earthquake response are; (1) the ratio of
the bracing stiffness to the device stiffness Kb/Ka ; (2)
the ratio of the brace and device stiffness to the stiffness
Kt
of the structure, SR= ; and (3) the ratio of force in the
Kf
device to Kf the force in the structure, FR=Ry/P.
The importance of the ratio of the brace stiff nesses
to the device stiffness (Kb/Ka) varies significantly, Fig. 6. Equivalent viscous damping for dual system.
depending on the specific supplemental device and the
permissible magnitude of interstory drift. The specific
importance of the Kb/Ka ratio is revealed by considering Hanson [8] have concluded that SR2 is a desirable
extreme values for the brace stiffness (Kb). If Kb is very value for design applications. Fig. 6 corroborates those
large, the device deformation is equal to the interstory findings.
drift deformation and the energy dissipation is maxim- Increasing values of FR generally increase the equiv-
ized. If the brace is very flexible, e.g. Kb0, the device alent viscous damping as revealed in Fig. 6. However,
is not deformed and there is no energy dissipation. A the figures also show that if FR is too large for a given
value of Kb2Ka has been found to be practical for the SR value, then equivalent viscous damping will be
design of yielding devices. This produces a reasonably reduced from its potential maximum. Fig. 6 can be used
efficient system, and this stiffness ratio of 2 is about as a guide for establishing an appropriate FR value fol-
consistent with brace member sizes established from lowing the selectionof a practical value.
strength design considerations. It is clear from Eq. (13),
however, that the efficiency in driving supplemental
damping devices can be improved by increasing the 5. Force vibration tests of a 1/2 scaled model of 4-
Kb/Ka stiffness ratio. story steel ADAS structure with Khorjinee
Fig. 6 clearly reveals the importance of SR for increas- connection
ing the damping in a structure with yielding devices. The
potential for increasing damping varies directly with 5.1. Model design and Khorjinee connection
increasing SR values. Thus, the highest SR value feasible characteristic
is best. For practical design applications, however, it is
difficult to achieve SR values of 3 or 4. From the results Semi-rigid connections in steel structures due to sim-
of extensive nonlinear computer simulation analyses per- ple details and possibility of tuning the connections
formed on a variety of multistory structures Xia and stiffness which can optimize the distribution of moment
between connected elements has taken considerable
attention in recent years. A special type of semi-rigid
beam-to-column connections named as Khorjinee con-
nection has been developed in the past 50 years by prac-
ticing engineers in Iran because of its simplicity and
economic advantages. In these connections, a pair of
continues beams cross several columns and connect to
the sides of columns by means of angle sections (Fig.
7). This type of construction which saves on erection
time and labor cost, but also the limitations on the avail-
ability and the cost of deep rolled sections in the Country
makes the use of two parallel beams instead of one
deeper beam. Out-of-plane partial beam-to-column
transfer of bending moments and early onset of failure
in the angles are most likely the cause of failure under
Fig. 5. Idealized yielding device hystersis loops. lateral forces in this connection.
648 M. Tehranizadeh / Engineering Structures 23 (2001) 643655

Fig. 7. Typical shape of a Khorjinee connection, (a pair of continuous


beams cross the column and connect to the sides of column by means
of angle sections).

However the experiences of recent earthquakes in


Iran, especially the Manjil earthquake of 20 June 1990,
shows the poor behavior of the Khorjinee connection and
that most of the common steel structures fail due to its
joint failure. Theoretical and experimental researches has
been performed to study the static behavior of this con-
nection as well as its workability, stiffness and strength
using different models [1416]. It was found that the
behavior of this widely used connection cannot be mod-
eled by classical semi-rigid connection models and that
a special model has to be assumed that satisfies its Fig. 8. The 1/2 scaled model of 4-story steel structure with Khor-
dynamic behavior [17]. For purpose of studying the jinee connections.
dynamic behavior of a typical steel structure a 1/2 scaled
model of a 4-story steel structure with Khorjinee connec-
tion and jack-arch masonry floors has been designed,
constructed and tested by a pair of harmonic force
vibration exciters at International Institute of Earthquake
Engineering and Seismology (IIEES) structural labora-
tory as shown in Fig. 8. For purpose of vulnerability
analysis and proposing the retrofitting scheme, the model
was constructed based on the common practice of Iran-
ian steelworkers. The structural response is being moni-
tored and measured simultaneously by an 8 forced bal-
ance accelerometers and recorded by 8-channel digital
data acquisition system.

5.2. Force vibration tests and results

The effectiveness of ADAS device for buildings in Fig. 9. The 1/2-scaled model of 4-story upgraded structure with the
ADAS devices.
high seismic risk areas were further investigated using
force vibration testing procedure for a 1/2 scaled model
of 4-story steel structure with Khorjinee connection as as close to unity as possible. However several constraints
shown in Fig. 9. Figs. 3 and 10 show the dimensions control the scaling factor which in this case are: (1) the
and member sizes of the test structure. The steel of size of the strong floor which in our case was only 33
ADAS devices used in different levels is of A36 and m, (2) the smallest size of available rolled section which
their properties are given in Table 1. in Iran is INP-180 (an I-beam with a section modulus
In the case of experimental studies of a model struc- of S=20.0 cm3) and (3) having at least three frames each
ture, it is desirable to choose a scaling factor, which is with at least two spans in order to create the Khorjinee
M. Tehranizadeh / Engineering Structures 23 (2001) 643655 649

Iranian Building Code load requirement and modeling


technique requires 7.0 t of added mass on each floor.
Throughout this project in order to develop a new algor-
ithm for system identification, the added mass were
added at three different stages (1.0, 3.0, and 7.0 t).
The first and second mode frequencies of the structure
without the ADAS devices activated are 1.1 and 3.7 Hz
respectively, while the first and second mode periods of
the structure with the ADAS devices are 1.62 and 5.25
Hz respectively.
Force vibration tests were conducted on the 4-story
steel structure both with the ADAS upgrade and then
again in its bare configuration (no any ADAS elements).
This provided experimental data for direct comparisons
of the semi-rigid Khorjinee steel earning connection at
Fig. 10. Dimension and member sizes of the 1/2-scaled model of 4- the ADAS-frame. The first phase of the experimental
story steel structure with Khorjinee connection. work involved system. Identification tests for the Khor-
jinee steel framing connection without any bracing sys-
Table 1 tem and ADAS elements. The acceleration response
Properties of the plate devices for the ADAS elements spectrum of various levels of the structure has been per-
formed. Figs. 11 and 12 show the acceleration response
l (cm) b1 (cm) b2 (cm) b(z) (cm) t mm
2 spectra for the third and fourth floors of the structure, it
a= ln(b1/b2) can be seen that the acceleration of all stories reaches
l
its maximum at frequency near 1st mode (1.1 Hz) and
10.0 6.0 1.0 0.912 0.392e0.912z 0 2.0
l near the 2nd mode (3.7 Hz). Table 2 indicates the
z maximum acceleration and displacement in various lev-
2
els of the structure.
Although numerous force vibration tests of both struc-
connection. Considering these constraints, a scaling fac- tures were performed, only three tests will be discussed
tor of 2 and a floor system similar to that shown in Fig. in detail here. For the case of chevron bracing and the
8 with center-to-center distance of columns (in the y- ADAS elements four different tests C, D, E and F have
direction) of 2 m have been selected. The minimum two been implemented so that the dynamic load gradually
span requirement of each frame called for a total of 4 increase from C to F tests. Figs. 13 and 14 show the
m for the width of each frame and in order to compen- acceleration response spectra for the third and fourth
sate for the 1-m shortening of our strong floor, three floors of the both structures according to experimental
heavy H-sections were bolted down to the strong floor.
The three frames were erected on these H-sections. The
center-to-center distance of columns in the x-direction
became 1.5 m. Nine joists with a distance of 0.5 m filled
with scaled masonry blocks in the form of an arch
covered the space between each frame.
The ADAS elements were installed at the top of chev-
ron brace sub-assemblages that were added to the semi-
rigid Khorjinee, steel-earning connection. The sizes of
the ADAS elements were varied up the structure, with
5-plate devices at the first and second floors, 4-plate
devices at the third and fourth floors.
For forced vibration test of the model, a pair of har-
monic force exciters was utilized with capability of
inducing transnational and torsional dynamic force at the
top floor of the structure. The exciters can be adjusted
to produce a maximum force of 16.1f2 kgf, where f is
the operating frequency that can vary from 1 to 20 Hz.
The responses were measured by 8-channel on-line data
acquisition system with force balance accelerometers. Fig. 11. Acceleration response spectrum for the third floor of the
The 1/2-scaled model of the 4-story structure based on structure without the ADAS device.
650 M. Tehranizadeh / Engineering Structures 23 (2001) 643655

Fig. 14. Acceleration response spectrum for the 4th floor of both
structures with and without ADAS in test C.

tiple x-shaped mild steel plate deformed in to its plastic


Fig. 12. Acceleration response spectrum for the fourth floor of the
regime and the yielding was distributed, consequently
structure without devices.
the stiffness of the structure decreases.
The peak interstory drift index for the Khorjinee
steel framing connection was 0.58% in forced vibration
test type F, while for the ADAS-frame it was 0.30%.
Displacement responses at different levels of the struc-
ture under various dynamic loads and the first mode fre-
quency of the structure for various types of tests at
second floor for both structures are compared in Figs.
17 and 18 respectively. As shown in Fig. 17 the elastic
frame responses under the dynamic loads were greatly
reduced when ADAS devices were activated. The
addition of the ADAS-bracing assemblage significantly
improved the overall performance of the structure and
Fig. 13. Acceleration response spectrum for the 3rd floor of the both enabled it to withstand much bigger dynamic loads with
structures in test C with and without ADAS.
acceptable drift response.

data of tests. It can be seen that the addition of the chev-


ron bracing and the ADAS elements increased the 6. Characteristic of analytical model
Khorjinee steel framing connection first-mode fre-
quency from 1.1 to 1.62 Hz. The response envelope for In the case of an analytical study of a model structure,
the structure subjected to this input presented in Table 3. the full scale of the experimental model, for seismic per-
The first-mode frequency of the structure with ADAS formance enhancement both with the ADAS upgrade
devices activated in test E respect to the test C reduces and then again in its bare configuration (no ADAS
to 1.54 Hz. As it can be observed from the Table 4 and elements) have been considered. The geometric specifi-
also from (Figs. 15 and 16) the response envelope of all cations of the analytical model are given in Table 5. The
levels of the structure increase while the input increases, model has been analyzed and the results are carried out
but the first-mode frequency decreases, because the mul- and presented by tables and graphs. The size of the

Table 2
Response envelope in various levels of the structure without the ADAS devices

Specifications Experimental data for the structure without ADAS elements

Story level 1st floor 2nd floor 3rd floor 4th floor
1st mode frequency 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1
Maximum story acceleration (cm/s2) 0.01264 0.04966 0.06609 0.0820
Peak interstory drift index 0.00026 0.0010 0.00138 0.0017
M. Tehranizadeh / Engineering Structures 23 (2001) 643655 651

Table 3
Response envelope in various levels of the upgraded structure in test C

Specifications Experimental data of test C for the upgraded structure

Story level 1st floor 2nd floor 3rd floor 4th floor
1st mode frequency 1.62 1.62 1.62 1.62
Maximum story acceleration (cm/s2) 0.0198 0.0349 0.04068 0.04290
Peak interstory drift index 0.000191 0.000337 0.000393 0.0041

Table 4
Response envelope in various levels of the upgraded structure in test E

Specifications Experimental data of test E for the upgraded structure

Story level 1st floor 2nd floor 3rd floor 4th floor
1st mode frequency 1.54 1.54 1.54 1.54
Maximum story acceleration (cm/s2) 0.5209 0.78139 0.11867 0.12738
Peak interstory drift index 0.000568 0.000846 0.001285 0.001379

Fig. 15. Acceleration response spectrum for the 3rd floor of both
structures with and without ADAS in test E.

ADAS elements were varied up to the model structure Fig. 16. Acceleration response spectrum for 4th floor of both struc-
and the properties of the ADAS devices are those tures with and without ADAS in test E.
reported as experimental and are given in Table 1.
It can be deduced by comparing Tables 1 and 5 that
the columns, beams and braces have much more strength In order to evaluate the effectiveness of an ADAS-
than the ADAS devices; thus, the nonlinear action upgraded structure (Fig. 7) a DRAIN-2DX model for the
should be concentrated in the energy dissipation devices, 3D analytical model was prepared. A 2D ADAS element
as wanted in the forced vibration tests. was developed for DRAIN-2DX by modifying an exist-
Semi-rigid connections can be divided in two groups ing prismatic beam-column element to predict the seis-
of continuous and discrete connections. In order to mic response at all levels of earthquake ground motion.
model the continuous semi-rigid Khorjinee connection a The response envelopes for the structure subjected to
spring element at the connection of the beam and column three severs following time scaled earthquake records as
has been used. This element works between beam and shown in Figs. 19 and 20.
column and has very large flexural stiffness in two direc-
tions and a torsional stiffness equal to K=GJ/L. The 1. Naghan earthquake 1977, PGA=0.35 g
model structure with the assumed connection stiffness 2. Tabas earthquake 1978, PGA=0.35 g
has been analyzed. 3. El Centro earthquake 1940, PGA=0.35 g
652 M. Tehranizadeh / Engineering Structures 23 (2001) 643655

Code), where R is the reduction factor for the different


structural systems.
The response envelope for the structures under the
three different earthquakes is presented in Table 6. This
table shows that the maximum interstory drifts of ADAS
frame is under allowable drift (1.6 cm). The numerical
results show that, the application of ADAS devices in
chevron braced names causes 68, 63 and 42% reduction
in maximum lateral displacement under El Centro, Tabas
and Naghan earthquakes respectively. Maximum story
shear and overturning moment for both with and without
ADAS device models are also given in Table 6. It can
be seen that, the displacement, velocity and acceleration
responses of ADAS frames in all cases are less than
Fig. 17. Displacement response at different levels of the structure
frames without ADAS devices for all different time dur-
under A, E and F dynamic tests (A; structure without ADAS devices
E and F; upgraded structures with ADAS device). ation of earthquake. Response to the Naghan earthquake
is compared in Fig. 21.
These results show that installation of ADAS devices
in hinge braced frames causes 4060% improvement in
response. The structure will remain in the elastic region
due to this amount of reduction in displacement and
internal forces of structural members.

7. Conclusions

This paper studies an experimental and analytical


investigation on the application of ADAS devices as
energy dissipation devices on an interesting type of
semi-rigid steel earning connection under dynamic loads.
The effectiveness of the ADAS devices was evaluated
by comparing the response of the structure containing
Fig. 18. First frequency of the chevron bracing and the ADAS the ADAS elements with the response of the same struc-
elements for four different C,D,E and F tests at second floor, (the ture with its bare configuration (no any ADAS
dynamic load gradually increase from C to F tests).
elements). The benefits of the energy dissipaters have
been clearly demonstrated by these comparisons, and
Have been carried out. The structural members design also by associated analytical studies. The improvements
of the analytical models has been accomplished based on in performance have been shown to stem primarily from
the specifications of Iranian Building Code (Iran 2800). the increase in energy dissipation available with in the
Analytical results show that the ADAS devices are structure.
very effective in the reducing seismic structural response The seismic performance of a half scale model of the
at all levels of earthquake ground motion, since in all 4-story structure frame upgraded with ADAS elements
cases the maximum interstory drifts of ADAS frame was considerably improved in its lateral-resisting sys-
models are below the allowable maximum drift, (the tem. The dissipation characteristics of the ADAS
maximum interstory drift index is 0.03/R in Iran 2800 elements are reliable, and the devices become more

Table 5
Geometric properties of the full scale of the experimental model

Floor Column Beam Bracing


Sx (cm3) A (cm2) Sx (cm3) A (cm2) Sx=Sy(cm3) A (cm2)

4 61.9 39.2 320.0 30.36 5.29 6.91


3 61.9 39.2 320.0 30.56 5.29 6.91
2 61.9 39.2 320.0 30.56 5.29 6.91
1 61.9 39.2 320.0 30.56 5.29 6.91
M. Tehranizadeh / Engineering Structures 23 (2001) 643655 653

Fig. 20. Response spectra of El Centro, Tabas and Naghan earth-


quakes scaled to 0.35 g.

Fig. 19. Time histories of El Centro, Tabas and Naghan earthquakes


scaled to 0.35 g. effective at absorbing energy as the intensity of the input
motion increases.
The research program demonstrated that ADAS
elements possess characteristics that make them suitable
for use as energy dissipation devices in new and existing
buildings. One practical configuration for installing
654 M. Tehranizadeh / Engineering Structures 23 (2001) 643655

Table 6
Response envelope for the Khorjinee and ADAS structures under El Centro, Tabas and Naghan earthquakes respectively

El Centro earthquake Tabas earthquake Naghan earthquake


Response Floor Khorjinee ADAS structure Khorjinee ADAS structure Khorjinee ADAS structure
structure sructure structure

Maximum story shear 4 310.0 112.0 320.0 105.0 301.0 104.0


(KN)
3 392.0 135.0 412.0 124.0 383.0 127.0
2 480.0 162.0 545.0 154.0 473.0 125.0
1 541.0 198.0 493.0 197.0 496.0 164.0
Maximum overturning 4 1303.0 424.0 1126.0 330.0 997.0 312.0
moment (KN-m)
3 2395.0 808.0 2003.0 705.0 2012.0 673.0
2 3810.0 1157.0 3412.0 1025.0 3204.0 946.0
1 5009.0 1609.0 5020.0 1602.0 4265.0 1212.0
Maximum lateral 4 11.0 3.5 5.2 1.9 3.3 1.9
displacement (cm)
3 8.6 3.2 4.2 1.5 2.8 1.6
2 3.7 2.9 3.1 1.3 2.4 1.4
1 2.0 1.3 2.1 1.1 1.0 0.6
Interstory drift (cm) 4 2.4 0.3 1.0 0.4 0.5 0.3
3 4.9 0.3 1.1 0.2 0.4 0.8
2 1.7 0.6 1.0 0.2 1.4 0.8
1 2.0 1.3 2.1 1.1 1.0 0.6

ADAS devices in a new and existing Khorjinee frame


is in conjunction with a chevron brace assemblage as
was used in the test structure studied to reduce its seis-
mic response and control low-cycle fatigue which is a
main factor for the failure of this kind of the structure.
The devicestructure interactive parameters are
important for earthquake response. The specific impor-
tance of the ratio of the bracing stiffness to the device
stiffness Kb/Ka is revealed by considering extreme values
for the brace stiffness (Kb).
A value of Kb2Ka has been found to be practical for
the design of yielding devices. This produces a reason-
ably efficient system, and this stiffness ratio of 2 is about
consistent with brace member sizes established from
strength design considerations.
The ratio of the brace and device stiffness to the stiff-
ness of the structure , SR=Kt/Kf2 has been found to be
desirable value for design applications.
From the experimental data of the tests it can be seen
that the addition of the chevron and the ADAS elements
increased the Khorjinee steel framing connection first-
mode frequency, but while the input increases the fast-
mode frequency decreases, because the multiple x-
shaped mild steel plate deformed in to its plastic regime
and the yielding was distributed, consequently the stiff-
ness of the structure decreases.
Results of tests of a structure indicate the benefit of
the addition of ADAS elements and bracing to the lateral
system in improving its seismic resistance.
Fig. 21. Comparison of displacement responses for the Khorjinee and
ADAS structures under Naghan earthquake.
M. Tehranizadeh / Engineering Structures 23 (2001) 643655 655

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