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Guide for Design and Fabrication of Substrate

Suitable for Rubber Lining

I. Requests for design and fabrication

II. Standards for design and fabrication

Issue Date: Jan, 2016

TOTAL 10 pages
I. Requests for design and fabrication of substrate

1. Structure and shape

(1) The basic condition of designing the equipment is to be able to maintain its strength and stability upon the
extreme use condition and during transportation. Especially the crack may occur on those equipment that
produces hard-rubber lining depends on how it is handled during transportation and placement.
(2) As rubber lining work is performed by hand, it would be best to have equipment to be detachable easily
and simply for reaching by hand, viewing by eyes and to be easily maintenance and inspected. it is
desirable that equipment should be divided into simple shape so that all the area can be easily accessible
and checked visually, which allows easy maintenance and inspection.
Regarding the piping, please refer to diagram 3. Dimension Table of Piping to be lined.
(3) As for confined vessel, manhole should be installed for the safety of workers. Below are the minimum
standard for installation.

Vertical tank Horizontal tank

Tank capacity Diameter Place and Number Diameter Place and Number
(m3) of manhole of manhole of manhole of manhole
(mm) Shell Ceiling (mm) Shell Dish

Smaller than 50 450 1 1 450 1 2

50 to 100 500 2 1 500 1 2

100 to 600 600 2 1 600 1 2

Larger than 600 600 3 1 600 2 2

(4) In case where insert pipe is equipped with vessel stand, the pipe shall have rubber lining overlapped as
below figure. Please take care of the finish dimension after rubber lining.
(Example) Case of Rubber lining with thickness of 4mm

Rubber Lining 4mm

Insert Pipe

(5) Dimension of inner wall should be calculated by subtracting the thickness of rubber and gasket from the
size of pipe. Flange bolt holes on substrate should be enlarged according to the thickness of rubber liner.
In assembly test before rubber lining, attach a liner sheet having equivalent thickness of rubber liner and
(6) Make air vent holes (before welding) where it will be the doubled layer plates, such as nozzles,
reinforcement plate of manholes, and so on.

(7) The surface that to be lined should be kept as simple as possible. Those reinforcements should be
applied on the surface that will be no lining applied.
(8) Rubber lined vessel should not be heated from outside in order to prevent separation and floating of
rubber sheet. Heating from inside is recommended using heating pipes. When heating from inside,
heating pipes should have distance at least 100mm from rubber lining surface. When you blow steam,
make sure that rubber lining surface is not subjected to steam directly.

2. Welding and finishing

Pay close attention to welding process because it could affect the quality of rubber lining. Especially, weld line
is very important.
(1) Surface of rubber lining should be welded continuously and smoothly without any cavities or pinholes.
Please perform the liquid penetration test (PT) where it is required. As a rule, welding should be first
performed from rubber lined side. If thats not possible, large route gap and back chipping are necessary.
Flat area should be butt-welded, not be lap-welded.
(2) If cavities or pinholes are detected on the weld line, fill holes and finish by grinder after chipping weld.
(3) Welding lines should not cross each other and be spaced apart at least 5 times of steel plate thickness.
In addition, the distance between welding line and that of nozzles and manholes should be not less than 2
times of the maximum thickness of steel plate.
(4) When welding rounded corners and edges which is rubber lined, the surface should be as smooth as
possible. Weld convex part with a radius of 3R or more, and concave part with a radius of 10R or more.
(5) If round finish is not available at bolt holes or dispersion plate, chamfer the hole with a radius of about 1C.
(6) If equipment require machining after rubber lining, perform finish machining in fabrication process.
(7) [Figure-2] shows how to attach flanges to pipes or nozzles. This is the most efficient and easiest way.
Finish butt-welding joint by grinding if it is possible to polish the inner surface.

Flange Part

3R 3R

Branch pipe (small diameter) In case inside polishing

is not possible
Welding after machine finishing
(Root gap = 0)


(Placed on a stand) (Inner diameter of each pipe should be fit perfectly

before welding the pipes)


3. Dimension of pipes
3-1. Standard size of pipes



A1 A3

90D Long elbow 45D Long elbow 90D Smooth bend 45D Smooth bend

B B L1 L

T-pipe Reducer Straight pipe

Long Elbow Smooth Bend (3DR) Straight pipe

Size T-pipe Reducer
90D 45D 90D 45D (Max.)
(B) (A) R1 A1 A2 R2 A3 A4 B L1 L
1B 25A 38.1 90 90 - - - 80 -
1-1/4B 32A 47.6 95 95 130 160 90 85 2750
1-1/2B 40A 57.2 100 100 150 180 100 90
2B 50A 76.2 115 115 180 210 110 100 130
2-1/2B 65A 95.3 130 130 230 260 130 115
3B 80A 114.3 150 150 270 300 150 125
3-1/2B 90A 133.4 170 170 - - - 135
4B 100A 152.4 190 190 - - - 145
5B 125A 190.5 195 195 - - - 165 200
6B 150A 228.6 230 230 - - - 190 220
8B 200A 304.8 310 310 - - - 225 230 5500
10B 250A 381.0 385 385 - - - 270 250
12B 300A 457.2 465 465 - - - 310 300
14B 350A 533.4 540 540 - - - 340 480
16B 400A 609.6 615 615 - - - 370 500
18B 450A 685.8 695 695 - - - 410 530
20B 500A 762.0 770 770 - - - 450
22B 550A 838.2 845 800 - - - 490 650
24B 600A 914.0 920 900 - - - 500
26B 650A 990.6 1000 1000 - - - 565
28B 700A 1066.8 1075 1000 - - - 570
30B 750A 1143.0 1150 1100 - - - 625
32B 800A 1219.2 1225 1200 - - - 640 9000
34B 850A 1295.4 1300 1300 - - - 700
36B 900A 1371.6 1380 1400 - - - 740
38B 950A 1447.8 1455 1400 - - - 780
40B 1000A 1524.0 1530 1500 - - - 820
*As for pipes of smaller than 500A, part pipes so that the size of divided pipes may be standard size as possible.
If you reduce the number of flanges, refer to 3-2. Maximum possible size of pipes as described in the next
*See 3-3. Notes.

3-2. Maximum possible size of pipes



E L3

90D Long elbow 45D Long elbow T-pipe

Size Size (Smaller diameter)

L1 L2
(1) L4

Reducer Straight pipe with branches

Long Elbow Reducer Straight

Size T-Pipe
90D 45D (1) (2) Branch Pipe
(B) (A) A1 E1 A2 E2 B L3 L1 L2 B L4
1B 25A 90 90 80 - - -
1-1/4B 32A 95 300 95 300 85 2750 2750 - -
1-1/2B 40A 100 100 90 - -
2B 50A 115 500 115 500 100 130 - -
2-1/2B 65A 130 2000 130 2000 115 - -
3B 80A 150 150 125 - -
3-1/2B 90A 170 170 135 - -
4B 100A 190 190 145 145
5B 125A 195 195 165 200 165 1000
6B 150A 230 230 190 220 190
8B 200A 310 310 225 5500 230 5500 225
10B 250A 385 385 270 250 270
12B 300A 465 465 310 300 310
14B 350A 540 540 340 480 340 1500
16B 400A 615 615 370 500 370
18B 450A 695 695 410 530 410
20B 500A 770 770 450 450
22B 550A 845 800 490 650 490 5500
24B 600A 920 5500 900 5500 500 500
26B 650A 1000 565 565
28B 700A 1075 570 (900) 570
30B 750A 1150 1100 625 625
32B 800A 1225 1200 640 9000 640 9000
34B 850A 1330 9000 1300 9000 700 700
36B 900A 1380 740 9000 740
38B 950A 1455 780 780
40B 1000A 1530 1500 820 820
*The maximum possible size of straight pipe and smooth bend is the same dimension as those described in 3-1.
Standard size of pipes.
* In column Reducer (1), (900) in L1 dimension becomes 9000 if the size of smaller diameter side is larger than
*See 3-3. Notes.

3-3. Notes
(1) The table above indicates the dimension of pipes.
(2) Diameter of pipe should be larger than 1B (25A).
(3) Use a reducer of standard size.
(4) The dimension in the table above is based on socket weld flanges of JIS-10K. If you need to use other
flanges, consult us in advance.
Do not use a flange with a gasket groove on the flange face.
(5) As for complicated shape of pipe, another consideration is required to determine the dimension.
(6) As for pipes of dilute sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid, elbows should be divided to be the standard
dimension as described above.
(7) Maximum possible size of 9000 is determined by assuming transported by 10-ton truck. If the size
exceeds 9000, consult us in advance.

3-4. S-shape pipe

Basically S-shape pipe should be divided into two bent pipes. However, some pipes may not be able to be
divided due to the relation of dimension of (A), (B) and (C). In such case, special consideration is required.


4. Other cautions
(1) Pipes of lining work should be using seamless steel tubes as much as possible.
(2) Use of long elbow is recommended for L-shape pipe.
(3) Substrate to be lined should not be coated with rust-proof grease or zinc plating.
(4) In case of using rivet, use flush rivet on rubber lined surface and smoothen the surface by full penetration
(5) Leave parting lines and guide lines for final inspection.
(6) The nozzle shape of a vessel is desirable to be like the one in figure 3. Nozzle diameter should be larger
than 25A. When use of nozzle 20A is necessary, designing the nozzle better be based on pipe diameter /
flange 25A.


(7) Stamp product number in periphery of flange where it is required to be identifiable.

(8) Be careful not to overtighten soft rubber gasket. Basically, compression ratio of 25% is enough.
(9) Mild steel such as SS, SM and SB are commonly used as the base material of substrate. If cast iron or
cast steel is used, make sure to select high-purity material, and the casting surface should be smooth
without any flaw. Furthermore if special steel or other material is to be used, consult us in advance.
(10) Make sure the rotor is well balanced at the fabrication stage. Because it could be more difficult to adjust
the rotation balance after rubber lining applied. (We adjust dynamic and static balance weighing up to
(11) The shape of baffles are desirable to be like the one in [Figure-4].

Air vent hole Air vent hole

View on Allow A


II. Standards for design and fabrication of Substrate

Followings are our standards for substrate fabrication. However, this may not be applied to your equipment in
some cases such as stated by regulations, specified in drawing and specifically by client. Inspection of substrate
shall be performed in accordance with our own standards unless otherwise specified.

1. General equipment
Item Guideline
Material should be specified in drawings.
Material Mill sheet (inspection certificate) is required only when specified.
Surface of material should be inspected by human eye.
Edge preparation Edge preparation should be specified in drawings.
1. Diameter tolerance should be within a range of 0.5% in plus or minus of
If diameter tolerance exceeds plus or minus 10mm, it should be within plus or
minus 10mm.
2. Tolerance of overall length should be within;
3mm (Length is less than 1m)
5mm (Length is more than 1m)
3. Thickness of shell plate, head plate, nozzle and flanges should be within
specified tolerance.
4. Height of nozzle and manholes should be within mm.
5. Fall angle of nozzle should be within plus or minus 1 degree from the reference
6. Inclination angle of nozzle flange should be plus or minus 1/2 degree.
7. Tolerance of mounting position of nozzle should be within plus or minus 3mm.
Level gauge should be installed.
8. Tolerance of pitch of bolt holes on a foundation should be within plus or minus
9. Strain tolerance of the bottom plate is as follows.
Main dimension (mm) Tolerance (mm)
Less than 1000 5
1000 to 3000 10
3000 to 5000 15
Larger than 5000 Maximum 20
10. Machine finishing should be performed in accordance with JIS standard.
When jointing steel plates with different thickness, be sure each of inner diameters fit
perfectly. Thickness difference at joint part should be less than 25% of the thickness
of the plate. The face of shell flange should be machine finished to make the surface
smooth enough to withstand test pressure.
1. Any defects (such as cavities, pinholes, etc.) are detected on weld lines.
2. No undercut.
3. No remarkable damage or faults on the surface.
4. Leave parting lines and guide lines.
Water pressure test, airtight test and vacuum test shall be carried out as specified in
drawings. (Airtight test shall be done by compressed air.)
Pressure test
Airtight test should be executed if it is difficult to perform water pressure test. In this
case, test pressure shall be 1.25 times of the maximum working pressure.
* When assembling the substrate at site, refer to separate standard.

2. Pipes
Item Figure Tolerance (a) Remarks

t 10mm
(Weld bead more than 50
edge) Reinforcement

a a = D 0.01mm
*D: Diameter

Longitudinal direction

a 1mm.
(The surface should be
finished with a grinder
after welding.)

In case inner surface
Discrepancy Circumferential direction grinding is available
a 1mm In case thickness is different
(The surface should be
finished with a grinder
a after welding.)
t1 t2
In case inner surface
grinding is not
a 0.5mm (t1 t2) 10
(Root opening is zero
and there is no
welding dripping)

25A550A Standards of 600A shall be

W 1.5mm applied for pipes with special
W a 0.2mm thickness.

Height of bead
More than 600A

Rubber lining side T 6mm

a 1.0mm
6mm < T 12mm
a 1.5mm
12mm < T 25mm
a 2.5mm

Item Figure Tolerance (a) Remarks

L < 1m L
a = +0mm
-3mm L
L L 1m
a = +0mm L L

Parting b1 or b2
dimension a = +0mm
of T-pipe -3mm
b1 b2

a a
a 1.5mm
Inclination angle a 2.0mm
of flange 250A500A
a a 3.0mm
a 5.0mm

Position of bolt
a = 1.5mm

Discrepancy of
bolt holes of end a = 1.5mm
flanges a