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Chapter - II

Methods & Approaches


of English Language
Teaching
Chapter 2

Methods and Approaches of English Language Teaching

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Methods of English Language Teaching

2.2.1 Grammar Translation Method

2.2.2 The Direct Method

2.2.3 Audiolingualism

2.2.4 Counseling Learning

2.2.5 Situational Language Learning

2.26 The Silent Way

2.2.7 Suggestopedia

2.2.8 Total Physical Response

2.3 Approaches of English Language Teaching:

2.3.1 Communicative Language Teaching

2.3.2 Competency-Based Language Teaching

2.3.3 Content-Based Instruction

2.3.4 Cooperative Learning

2.3.5 Lexical Approach

2.3.6 Multiple Intelligences

2.3.7 The Natural Approach

2.3.8 Neurolinguistic Programming

2.3.9 Task-Based Language Teaching

2.3.10 Whole Language

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3.1 Synthetic Phonics Method

3.1.1 ICT Based Synthetic Phonics Method

3.1.2 Importance of ICT Based Synthetic Phonics Method

4. Summary

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2.1 Introduction: If we survey methods and approaches of English

Language Teaching we can see that the History of English (1840-2010)

Language Teaching in the last hundred and seventy years is characterized by

number of effective ways of language teaching. Every method and every

approach has something new to offer. Every one of them has his own merits. The

age-old Grammar Translation Method reflected a scholarly view of language and

language study. It dominated the language teaching from the 1840s to the 1940s

all over the world. It had such a long run that with some changes it is still used in

some parts of the world particularly countries where English language teachers

with fine teaching skills are in short supply.

The early applied linguists such as Henry Sweet (1845-1912)* Otto

Jespersen (1860-1943) and Harold Palmer (1877-1949) elaborated principles

and theoretically accountable approaches to the design of language teaching.

From the 1940s various attempts have been made to conceptualize the nature of

methods and to find relationship between theory and practice within the method.

American applied linguist Edward Anthony proposed one such scheme

in 1963. He identified three levels of conceptualization and organization. He

terms them as approach, method and technique.

Note: * Henry Sweets reputation as the man who taught Europe phonetics was
reflected even in the literature. The main character Prof. Henry Higgins of
George Bernard Shaws play My Fair Lady has touches of Henry Sweet.

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Language teaching specialists such as Marcel, Predergast and Gouin

did a lot to promote alternative approaches to language teaching. They did not

get widespread attention. From the 1880s Henry Sweet in England, Wilhelm

Vietor in Germany, and Paul Parssy in France gave the intellectual leadership to

the reformist ideas of language teaching.

Henry Sweet (1845-1912) argued that sound methodological principles

should be based on a scientific analysis of language and a study of psychology.

He set forth principles for the development of teaching method. These included

1. Careful selection of what is to be taught

2. Imposing limits on what is to be taught

3. Arranging what is to be taught in terms of the four skills of listening,

speaking, reading and writing.

4. Grading materials from simple to complex.

In Germany the renowned scholar Wilhelm Vietor (1850-1918) used

linguistic theory to language teaching. His view was that training in phonetics

would enable teachers to pronounce the language accurately. Speech patterns,

rather than grammar, were the fundamental elements of language. He criticized

Grammar Translation Method and elaborated the use of new science of

phonetics.

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The principles put forth by the reformers provided the theoretical

foundations to the scientific approach of the study of language and learning of

language the discipline of applied linguistics. The reform movement led to

natural method and gradually led to the development of the Direct Method.

The Direct Method was quite successful in private language schools

but failed to consider the practical realities of the real classrooms.

The most active period in the history of approaches and methods was

from the 1950s to the 1980s. (1) First the Audiolingual Method and the Situational

Method came up. They were later replaced by communicative approach. During

the same period The Silent Way, the Natural Approach, The Total Physical

Response was also used for language teaching by some. In the 1990s Content

Based instruction, Task-Based Language Teaching, Competency-Based

Instruction were also used for teaching.

Cooperative Learning, Whole Language Approach, Multiple

Intelligences are also part of this Method Era.

Mainstream language teaching opted for Communicative Language

Teaching (CLT) as the basis for language teaching methodology in the 1980s

and it continues to be considered the most plausible basis for teaching of English

Language in the globalization period.

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An approach of Language Teaching has a common core set of

theories and principles for teaching. Variety of interpretations are possible while

applying these principles. It does give flexibility and freedom while applying them.

The different approaches can be summarized as below:

1. Communicative Language Teaching (CLT)

2. Competency-Based Language Teaching

3. Content-Based Language Teaching

4. Cooperative Learning

5. Lexical Approach

6. Multiple Intelligences

7. The Natural Approach

8. Neurolinguistic Programming

9. Task-Based Language Teaching

10. Whole Language

A method contains instructional design, detailed specification of

contents, roles of teachers and learners. The teaching procedures and

techniques are elaborated. Hence the methods are best learned through training.

The teachers role is to follow the method and apply it according to the rules.

There is not much scope for interpretation. The different methods are

summarized here.

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1. Grammar Translation Method

2. Direct Method

3. Audio Lingualism

4. Counseling-Learning

5. Situational Language Teaching

6. The Silent Way

7. Suggestopedia or Desuggestopedia

8. Total Physical Response

2.2 Methods of English Language Teaching

2.2.1 Grammar Translation Method: Grammar Translation Method or GTM

has been used by language teachers for many years. At one time it was called

the Classical Method since it was used in the teaching of the classical languages,

Latin and Greek. It was also referred as the Prussian Method in the United

States. It is a way of studying a language first through detailed analysis of its

grammar rules, followed by application of these rules to the task of translating

sentences and texts into and out of target language. It dominated European and

Foreign language teaching from the 1840s to the 1940s. (10) Even today in many

places it is used in some form or the other. The main features of this method are

as follows:

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1. The first language is maintained as the reference system in the acquisition of

the second language.

2. Reading and writing are the focus; not much attention is given to speaking or

listening.

3. Vocabulary selection is based mainly on the reading texts. Words are taught

through dictionary study, bilingual word list and memorization.

4. Much of a lesson is devoted to translating sentences into and out of the target

language. This focus on the sentence is the distinctive feature of the method.

5. Students are expected to attain high standards in translation. Accuracy is

emphasized.

6. Grammar is taught deductively. A syllabus is followed to teach grammar in an

organized and systematic way.

7. The students native language is the medium of instruction.

In the mid and late nineteenth century, opposition to Grammar Translation

Method developed in the European countries. This was called as Reform

Movement. This lead to the development of new ways of teaching languages.

2.2.2 The Direct Method: Since the GTM was not very effective in preparing

students to use the target language communicatively the Direct method

progressed. The Direct Method has one very basic rule. No translation is

allowed. The Direct Method receives its name from the fact that meaning is to be

conveyed directly in the target language through the use of demonstration and

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visual aids, with no recourse to the students native language. It was introduced

in France, Germany, and United States by the end of the nineteenth century. In

the United States it was referred to as the Berlitz Method. Eventually many other

countries also experimented with this method. The main principles of this method

can be cited as below:

1. Classroom instruction was conducted exclusively in the target language

2. Only everyday vocabulary and sentences were taught

3. Oral communication skills were built in a carefully graded progression

organized around question-and-answer exchanges between teachers and

students in small intensive classes.

4. Grammar was taught inductively

5. New teaching points were introduced orally.

6. Concrete vocabulary was taught through demonstration, objects and pictures;

abstract vocabulary was taught by association of ideas

7. Both speech and listening comprehension were taught

8. Correct pronunciation and grammar were emphasized.

The direct method was quite successful in private language schools,

where paying clients had high motivation and the teachers were with the English

mother tongue background. But it failed to deliver in the public schools. It

required teachers who were native speakers or had that level of fluency. It was

mainly dependent on the teachers skill and not so much on the text book. Many

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teachers were not proficient enough in the language. At times simple, brief

explanation of the students native language would have helped in the

comprehension. The strict adherence to avoid the use of native language was

counter productive.

The direct method can be regarded as the first Language Teaching

Method to have caught the attention of teachers and language teaching

specialists. It marked the beginning of the methods era.

2.2.3 The Audiolingual Method: The combination of structural linguistic theory,

contrastive analysis, aural-oral procedures, and behaviorist psychology led to the

Audiolingual Method. The term Audiolingualism was coined by Professor Nelson

Brooks in 1964. It changed the language teaching from an art into a science. The

method was widely adopted in United States and Canada. There are many

similarities between Situational Language Teaching (described in 2.2.5) and

Audiolingualism. Audiolingualism has strong ties to linguistics and behavioral

psychology. It reached its peak in the 1960s.

Audiolingualism was criticized on two counts. The theoretical

foundation was attacked as being unsound in terms of language theory and

learning theory. Practitioners found that it fell short of expectations. The skills

acquired failed to be transferred outside the classroom situation. The MIT linguist

Noam Chomsky(2) rejected the structuralist approach as well as the behaviourist

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theory of language learning. He argued that sentences are not learned by

imitation and repetition but generated from learners underlying competence.

Temporary relief was accepted in cognitive code learning. The lack of an

alternative to Audiolingualism led to a period of adaptation, innovation and

experimentation.

2.2.4 Counseling Learning: It is a process based method in which language

content is often secondary. This method is relatively underdeveloped in the

domain of language theory and the learning principles. It is different from theories

found in second language acquisition text books. The atmosphere of the

classroom is a crucial factor It has no language syllabus as such. Learners select

content for themselves by choosing topics they want to talk about. These are

then translated into the target language and used for interaction and language

practice.

It did not succeed in attracting the support of mainstream language

teaching.

2.2.5 Situational Language Learning and Oral Approach: This refers to an

approach developed by British applied linguists from the 1930s to the 1960s.

Palmer, Hornby and other British applied linguists evolved systematic principles

of selection, gradation, and presentation.

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The oral approach was the accepted British approach to English

language teaching by the 1950s. It is described in the standard methodology text

books of the period. In the 1960s Australian George Pittman and his colleagues

developed influential set of teaching materials based on this method. There were

widely used in Australia, New Guinea and the Pacific territories. The main

characteristics of the approach were as follows:

1. Language teaching begins with the spoken language. Material is

taught orally before it is presented in the written form.

2. The target language is the language of the classroom.

3. New language points are introduced and practiced situationally

4. Vocabulary selection procedures are followed to ensure that an

essential general service vocabulary is covered.

5. Items of grammar are graded following the principle that simple

forms should be taught before complex ones.

6. Reading and writing are introduced once a sufficient lexical and

grammatical basis is established.

The third principle became a key feature and the term situational

Language teaching came in practice.

2.2.6 The Silent Way: The silent way is the name of the method of language

teaching devised by Caleb Gattegno. It is based on the principle that the teacher

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should be silent as much as possible in the classroom but the learner should be

encouraged to produce as much language as possible. The learning hypotheses

can be stated as follows:

1. Learning is facilitated if the learner discovers or creates rather than

remembers and repeats what is to be learned.

2. Learning is facilitated by accompanying (mediating) physical objects.

3. Learning is facilitated by problem solving involving the material to be learned.

Silent way materials consist mainly of a set of coloured rods, colour-

coded pronunciation and vocabulary wall charts, a pointer and reading/writing

exercises, all of which are used to illustrate the relationships between sound and

meaning in the target language. The pronunciation charts called Fidels have

been devised for a number of languages and contain symbols in the target

language for all of the vowel and consonant sounds of the language. The

innovations in Gattegnos method are the ways in which classroom activities are

organized and the indirect role of the teacher. Gattegno believed that to teach

means to serve the learning process rather than to dominate it. Proponents of the

Silent Way claim its principles are far reaching, affecting not only education, but

the way one perceives the living of the life itself.

2.2.7 Suggestopedia: Suggestopedia is also known as Desuggestopedia. It is a

method developed by the Bulgarian psychiatrist educator Georgi Lazanov.

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Suggestopedia is a specific set of learning recommendations derived from

Suggestology. The most conspicuous feature of suggestopedia is the centrality of

music and musical rhythm to learning. It also gives importance to the decoration,

furniture and arrangement of the classroom and the authoritative behaviour of the

teacher. The emphasis on memorization of vocabulary pairs suggests a view of

language in which lexis is central. Lexical translation rather than contextualization

is stressed. According to Lozanov and others to make better use of our reserved

capacity, the limitations we think need to be desuggested. The application of the

study of suggestion to pedagogy eliminates the feeling that one cannot be

successful or the negative association. The students mental reserves are

stimulated.

2.2.8 Total Physical Response: Total Physical Response (TPR) is a language

teaching method built around the coordination of speech and action. It attempts

to teach language through physical (motor) activity. It is developed by James

Asher, Professor of Psychology at San Jose University, California. It draws on

developmental psychology, learning theory, and humanistic pedagogy and also

on language teaching procedures prepared by Harold and Dorothy Palmer in

1925. The acquisition of second language by an adult is a parallel process to a

childs first language acquisition. A baby spends many months listening to the

people around it long before it even says a word. The child has the time to try to

make sense out of the sounds it hears. No one tells the baby that it must speak.

The child chooses to speak when it is ready to do so.

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Learners in Total Physical Response have the primary roles of listener

and performer. They listen attentively and respond physically to commands given

by the teacher. They are encouraged to speak when they feel ready to speak

that is, when a sufficient basis in the language has been internalized. The

teacher plays an active and direct role in Total Physical Response. Teacher has

to provide the raw material for the cognitive map that the learners will construct

in their own minds. Asher stressed that TPR should be used in association with

other methods and teachniques. Practitioners of TPR agree that it is compatible

with other approaches to teaching.

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2.3 Approaches of English Language Teaching:

2.3.1 Communicative Language Teaching (CLT): Communicative

Competence is the main goal of this approach and interdependence of language

and communication is most important. The use of language by the learner in a

range of contexts is emphasized. This approach encourages active learner

involvement in a wide range of tasks and strategies for communication. Speaking

and listening in real settings is emphasized.

CLT appeared at a time when language teaching-learning in many

parts of the world was ready for a fundamental change. It brought a new

humanistic approach to teaching. It received the sanction and support of leading

applied linguists, language specialists, publishers as well as institutions such as

the British Council.

Since its inception CLT has passed through different phases. In its first

phase, a primary concern was the need to develop a syllabus that was

compatible with the notion of communicative competence. This led to proposals

for the organization of syllabuses in terms of notions and functions rather than

grammatical structures.

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In the second phase CLT focused on procedures for identifying

learners needs. This resulted in proposals to make needs analysis an essential

component of communicative methodology. In the third phase CLT focused on

the kinds of classroom activities that could be used as the basis of a

communicative methodology, such as group work, task-work, and information-

gap activities.(3)

There are five core characteristics that underlie current applications

of communicative methodology.

1. Appropriateness: Language use reflects the situation of its use and must be

appropriate to that situation depending on the setting, the roles of

participants, and the purpose of the communication. Thus learners may need

to be able to use formal as well as casual style of speaking.

2. Message Focus: Learners need to be able to create and understand

messages, that is, real meanings. Hence the focus on information sharing

and information transfer in CLT activities.

3. Psycholingustic Processing: CLT activities seek to engage learners in the use

of cognitive and other processes that are important factors in second

language acquisition.

4. Risk Taking: Learners are encouraged to make guesses and learn from their

errors. By going beyond what they have been taught, they are encouraged to

employ a variety of communication strategies.

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5. Free Practice: CLT encourages the use of holistic practice involving the

simultaneous use of a variety of sub-skills, rather than practicing individual

skills one piece at a time.

In the present scenario it may be said that CLT continues in its

classic form as is visible in the huge range of course books and other teaching

resources based on principles of CLT. In addition, it has influenced many other

language teaching approaches and methods that subscribe to a similar

philosophy of language teaching.

2.3.2 Competency-Based Language Teaching (CBLT):The focus on this

approach is on the outcome of learning rather than methods of teaching. It draws

on contemporary theories of language and second language acquisition as a

basis for teaching proposal; It emerged within mainstream education and was

later applied to second language teaching. It is an application of the principles of

Competency-Based Education to language teaching. This approach was widely

adopted by the end of the 1970s, particular as the basis for the design of work

related and survival oriented language teaching programs for adults.

Auerbach(4) identifies eight key features for CBLT.

1. A focus on successful functioning in society: The goal is to enable students to

become capable of coping with the demands of the world.

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2. A focus on life skills: Students are taught those language skills required by

the situations in which they will function.

3. Task or performance-centered orientation: The emphasis is on behaviour

rather than knowledge. What counts is what students can do as a result of

instruction.

4. Modularized Instruction: Language learning is broken down into manageable

and immediately meaningful parts. Objectives are broken into narrowly

focused sub-objectives so that both teachers and students can get a clear

sense of progress.

5. Specified Outcomes: Students know exactly what outcomes are expected of

them. Outcomes are specified in terms of behavioral objectives.

6. Continuous and ongoing assessment: Program evaluation is based on test

results and is considered objectively quantifiable.

7. Demonstrated mastery of performance objectives: Rather than the traditional

paper-and-pencil test, assessment is based on the ability to demonstrate pre-

specified behaviours.

8. Individualised, student-centered instruction:

Australian Migrant Education program one of the largest providers of

language training to immigrants in the world has applied this program since the

mid-1970s. Since then it has undergone number of reorientations.

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Thus CBLT has been embraced by the large sections of ESL

profession. It has criticisms both practical and philosophical. The teaching

typically focuses on behaviour and performance rather than on the development

of thinking skills.

2.3.3 Content-Based Instruction: Krahnke(5) defines content-Based

Instruction (CBI) as follows. It is the teaching of content or information in the

language being learned with little or no direct or explicit effort to teach the

language itself separately from the content being taught.

Content-Based approach has been widely used in a variety of different

settings since the 1980s. Besides applications in ESP (English for Social

Purposes), EOP (English for Occupational Purposes) it is widely used in K-12

programs for ESL (English as second language) in university foreign language

programs. It advocates claim that it leads to more successful program outcomes

than alternative language teaching approaches. Critics say that most language

teachers have been trained to teach language as a skill rather than a content

subject.

2.3.4 Cooperative Language Learning: Cooperative Language Learning

(CLL) is part of a more general instructional approach also known as

collaborative learning (CL). It makes maximum use of cooperative activities

involving pairs and small group of learners in the class-room. The early twentieth

century U.S. educator John Dewey is credited with promoting the idea of building

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cooperation in learning into regular class-rooms on a regular and systematic

basis. It was more developed in the United States in the 1960s and 1970s as a

response to the forced integration of public schools. Educators were concerned

that traditional models of classroom learning were teacher fronted and favoured

majority students. They believed that minority students might fall behind higher-

achieving students. It is viewed as learner-centered approach to teaching. In

language teaching its goals are :

1. To provide opportunities for naturalistic second language

acquisition through the use of interactive pair and group activities.

2. To provide teachers with a methodology that can be applied in a

variety of curriculum settings

3. To enable focused attention to particular lexical items, language

structures, and communicative functions through the use of

interactive tasks.

4. To provide opportunities for learners to develop successful learning

and communication strategies

5. To enhance learner motivation and reduce learner stress and to

create a positive affective class climate.

CLL is thus an approach that crosses both mainstream and second

and foreign language teaching.

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2.3.5 Lexical Approach: A Lexical approach in language teaching is

derived from the belief that the building blocks of language learning and

communication are not grammar, functions, notions but lexis that is words and

word combinations. The role of lexical units has been stressed in both first and

second language research. These have been referred by many different labels.

Materials and teaching resources to support lexical approaches in language

teaching are of at least four types.

Type 1: It consists of complete course packages including texts, tapes

teachers manuals.

Type 2: This consists of collections of vocabulary teaching activities

Type 3: This consists of printout versions of computer corpora collections

packaged in text format.

Type 4: These are computer concordancing programs and attached data sets

to allow students to set up and carry out their own analyses. These are

typically packaged in CD-ROM form or can be downloaded from the

internet.

The status of lexis in language teaching is enhanced by recognition of

multiword units in language learning and communication. However, it still lacks

the full characterization of an approach or method. It remains to be demonstrated

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how a lexically based theory of language and language learning can be applied

at the levels of design and procedure in language teaching.

2.3.6 Multiple Intelligences (MI): The philosophy behind Multiple Intelligences is

that human intelligence has multiple dimensions which need to be acknowledged

and developed in education. Traditional IQ or intelligence tests are based on a

test called Stanford-Binet, founded on the idea that intelligence is a single,

unchanged, inborn capacity. M.I. movement is based on the work of Howard

Gardener(6) of the Harvard Graduate School of Education.

Teachers have always known that their students have different

strengths. For instance some students are better visual learners than aural

learners. They learn better when they are able to read new material rather than

simply listen to it. It has been estimated that for up to 25 percent of the

population, the mode of instruction does make a difference in their success as

learners.

The work of Howard Gardner on MI has been influential in language

teaching circles. Gardner has theorized that individuals have at least eight

distinct intelligences that can be developed over a lifetime. These are stated

here:

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1. Logical/mathematical the ability to use numbers effectively to see abstract

patterns, and to reason well.

2. Visual/spatial the ability to orient oneself in the environment, to create mental

images, and a sensitivity to shape, size, color.

3. Body/kinesthetic the ability to use ones body to express oneself and to solve

problems.

4. Musical/rhythmic an ability to recognize total patterns and a sensitivity to

rhythm, pitch, melody.

5. Interpersonal the ability to understand another persons moods, feelings

motivations and intentions.

6. Intrapersonal the ability to understand oneself and to practice self-discipline.

7. Verbal/linguistic the ability to use language effectively and creatively.

8. Naturalist the ability to understand and organize the patterns of nature.

The idea of MI has attracted the interest of many educators as well as

the general public schools that use MI theory encourage learning that

goes beyond traditional books, pens. There is no syllabus as such

either prescribed or recommended in respect to MI based language

teaching.

The MI classroom is one designed to support development of the

whole person and the environment and its activities are intended to enable

students to become more well rounded individuals and more successful learners

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in general. Some linguistic activities are as follows: student speeches, story-

telling, debates, journal keeping, small and large group discussions, work sheets,

word games, listening to cassettes or talking books etc. The literature on MI

provides a rich source of classroom ideas and can help teachers think about

instruction in their classes in unique ways.

2.3.7 The Natural Approach: Tracy Terrell, a teacher of Spanish in

California outlined a proposal for language teaching called The Natural

Approach.

Stephen Krashen an applied linguist at the University of Southern

California joined hands with Tracy Terrell and published a book The Natural

Approach in 1983. This contains theoretical sections prepared by Krashen and

sections on implementation and class-room procedures by Terrell.

Krashen and Terrell see communication as the primary function of language and

their approach focuses on teaching communicative abilities

The implications for language teaching. These are

1. As much comprehensible input as possible must be presented.

2. Whatever helps comprehension is important. Visual aids are useful, as is

exposure to a wide range of vocabulary rather than study of syntactic structure.

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3. The focus in the classroom should be on listening and reading; speaking

should be allowed to emerge.

4. In order to lower the affective filter, student work should centre on meaningful

communication rather than on form; input should be interesting and so contribute

to a relaxed classroom atmosphere.

Thus in conclusion like communicative language teaching the Natural Approach

is evolutionary rather than revolutionary in its procedure.

2.3.8 Neurolinguistic Programming: Neurolinguistic Programming NLP is

a set of general communication techniques, NLP practitioners generally are

required to take training in how to use the techniques in their respective fields.

NLP technique was first developed by John Grindler (a phychologist) and

Richard Bandler (a student of linguistics) in the mid 1970s. They were essentially

interested in discovering how successful communicators achieved their success.

They developed NLP as a system of techniques therapists could use in building

rapport with clients, helping them achieve goals and bring about personal

change.

The neuro part of NLP is concerned with how we experience the world

through our five senses and represent it in our minds through our neurological

processes. The linguistic part of NLP is concerned with the way the language we

use shapes as well as reflects our experience of the world. If we change the way

we speak and think about things, we can change our behaviour. We can also use

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language to help other people who want to change. The programming part of

NLP is concerned with training ourselves to think, speak and act in new and

positive ways in order to release our potential and reach those heights of

achievement which we previously only dreamt of.

In conclusion NLP is not a teaching method but it is a humanistic

philosophy based on popular psychology. It is believed that if language teachers

adopt and use the principles of NLP they will become more effective teachers.

2.3.9 Task-based Language teaching: Task-based Language Teaching

(TBLT) is basically a theory of learning rather than a theory of language. It is a

logical development of Communicative Language Teaching. The principles

involved are:

1. Activities that involve real communication are essential for language learning

2. Activities in which language is used for carrying out meaningful tasks promote

learning.

3. Language that is meaningful to the learner supports the learning process.

TBLT proposes the notion of task as a central unit of planning and

teaching. Nunan 1989 gives the definition The communicative task is a piece of

classroom work which involves learners in comprehending, manipulating,

producing or interacting in the target language while their attention is principally

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focused on meaning rather than form. The task should also have a sense of

completeness, being able to stand alone as a communicative act in its own right.

Tasks have long been part of the mainstream language teaching

techniques. TBLT, however, offers a different rationally for the use of tasks as

well as different criteria for the design and use of tasks. The dependence on

tasks as the primary source of pedagogical input in teaching distinguishes it from

other language teaching approaches.

2.3.10 Whole Language: The term whole language was created in the 1980s

by a group of U.S. Educators concerned with the teaching of reading and writing

(the teaching of literacy). In the 1990s it became popular in the U.S. as a

motivating way of teaching language art skills to primary school children. It is

designed to help children and adults learn a second language in the same way

that children learn their first language.

Whole language is said to be personalized, self directed, pluralistic.

The teacher is seen as a facilitator and active participant in the learning

community. The teacher creates a climate that will support collaborative learning.

The learner is a collaborator, collaborating with fellow students, with the teachers

and with writers of texts. The whole language movement is not a teaching

method but an approach to learning that sees language as a whole entity. Each

language teacher is free to implement the approach according to the needs of

particular classes.

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3.1 Synthetic Phonics Method:

Human speech has evolved over thousands of years. Writing systems

are relatively recent. Different writing systems (scripts) have been invented in

different parts of the world at different times in History. As a matter of fact the

number of writing systems are fewer as compared to the speech system. The

writing system like the traditional Chinese writing system represents a whole

word with a single symbol. Such writing systems are called logographies.

Reading in a logographic system is slow and laborious. The writing systems that

use a symbol to represent a phoneme are called alphabetic writing systems.

They are more efficient but vary in complexity. The regular alphabetic systems

make language easier to learn. In such type of system the letter-phoneme

correspondence is very close. A good example of this is phonemic orthography

of Serbian. It is described as write as you speak and read as is written. Finnish,

Spanish are also extremely regular. Similar is the case with many Indian

languages using Devanagari. English is regular to some degree. Many words in

English are irregular or exception words and are not spelled the way they

sound. English therefore is an example of a complex orthography. The forty five

phonemes are expressed with twenty six letters.

There are 45 phonemes in the English language and that the 26 letters

in English can represent the 45 phonemes in about 350 ways. This poses a

problem for the teacher trying to help children to learn to read English text.

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There are two major approaches to teaching children the alphabetic

principle of English language: analytic and synthetic phonics.

Analytic phonics: For many years analytic phonics has formed part of

the early years reading programme. Teaching starts at the whole word level. It

involves a look and say approach. It is generally taught in parallel with graded

reading books.

Synthetic phonics: It is generally taught before children are introduced

to books or reading. It involves teaching small groups of letters very rapidly and

children are shown how letter sounds can be co-articulated to pronounce

unfamiliar words.

Synthetic Phonics refers to an approach to the teaching of reading in

which phonemes (sounds) associated with particular graphemes (letters) are

pronounced in isolation and blended together (synthesized). For example,

children are taught to take a single syllable word such as cat apart into its three

letters, pronounce a phoneme for each letter in turn /k, ae, t/ and blend the

phonemes together to form a word. Synthetic phonics for writing reverses the

sequence. Children are taught to say the word they wish to write, segment it into

its phonemes and say them in turn for example /d, o, g/ and write a grapheme for

each phoneme in turn to produce the written word., dog.

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3.1.1 ICT Based Synthetic Phonics Method:

In this method the use of Information and Communication

Technologies makes the teaching learning process an interactive process.

Synthetic Phonics Method of teaching English is in the audio-visual form in a

multimedia program. The digital content helps the process in multiple ways.

1. The interactive method is interesting to the beginner learner of the language.

2. The method is engaging because of the visual effect

3. The pace can be decided by the pace of the learners capabilities.

4. The sounds and the letter correspondence (graphemes phonemes

correspondence) can be repeated for the learners as is necessary

5. The blending and the segmenting process is explained by the audio visual

impact

6. The games are based is such a way that they enrich all the four skills of

language learning word recognition, spelling ability, reading comprehension

and listening comprehension.

3.1.2 Importance of ICT Based Synthetic Phonics Method:

The importance of English language as a language for global

communication has been established beyond doubt. Hence demand for English

language instructions are expected to go up with time. A large number of people

do not have English as their mother-tongue. Truly capable English language

teachers or instructors are difficult to find and match the required number of

demand. It is for this reason that the ICT Based Synthetic Phonics Method will

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play a key role. Interactive instruction through a multimedia like use of computer,

DVD, internet can reach to for many places and for many people in todays

electronically interconnected world. The ICT based Synthetic Phonics Method

studied in this research will have a broader application in future.

4. Summary:

Every method and every approach of teaching of English have their

own merits. Every method and every approach has something new to offer.

Growth of English as a world language (EWL) has led to greater diversification in

the contexts and situations in which it is learned and used. English no longer

belongs to a few countries like U.K. or U.S.A. It is a necessary resource for

global communication. Hence throughout the globe it is learnt as EWL (English

as world language) and not as EFL (English as a foreign language) or ESL

(English as a second language).

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References

1. Jack Richards and Theodore S. Rodgers (2001) Approaches and Methods


in Language Teaching .Cambridge University Press

2. Noam Chomsky(1966) Linguistic Theory, Chomsky Selected Readings.


London Oxford University Press Pg. no 152-159.

3. Prabhu N.S(1987) Second language Pedagogy, Oxford:Oxford University


Press

4. Auerbach E.R(1986) Comptency-based ESL: One step forward or two


steps back? TESOL Quarterly 20(3): Pg. No 411-430.

5. Krahnke K.(1987) Approaches to syllabus Design for Foreign Language


Teaching. New York Prentice Hall.

6. Gardener H. (1993) Multiple Intelligences: The Theory and Practice, New


York: Basic Books.

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