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The Art and Culture of Latin America

David Owsley Museum of Art, Ball State University


Educational Resource Packet
Contents
Contents......................................................................................... i Male and Female Figures......................................................... 22
Introduction................................................................................. 1 Standing Male Figures.............................................................. 23
Using the Packet.......................................................................... 2 Folk Art Objects from Mexico with Map..............................................24
Object Files Candelabrum.............................................................................. 25
Objects from South America with Map.................................................4 Jaguar Face Mask....................................................................... 26
Stirrup Vessel................................................................................ 5 Pagan Mask................................................................................. 27
Ocarina........................................................................................... 6 Folk Art Objects from Puerto Rico with Map......................................28
Jaguar/Man Mask........................................................................ 7 Three Kings on Horses.............................................................. 29
Objects from Central America with Map...............................................8 Teaching Activities
Jaguar Effigy Jar........................................................................... 9 Using the Teacher Instruction Pages...................................................30
Effigy Metate and Mano........................................................... 10 Introductory Exercise: Art and Culture teaching activity guide.......31
Vase.............................................................................................. 11 Introductory Exercise: Art and Culture student worksheet..............32
Tripod Cylinder Vase................................................................. 12 Social Institutions information page....................................................33
Pendant....................................................................................... 13 Three Questions Regarding Culture information page....................34
Pre-Columbian Objects from Mexico with Map.................................14 1 + 1 = Something New teaching activity guide.................................36
Center Marker from a Ball Court............................................. 15 1 + 1 = Something New student worksheet........................................37
Palma with Standing Figure.................................................... 16 Time Capsule teaching activity guide...................................................38
Hacha in the Form of a Jaguar Head...................................... 17 Time Capsule student worksheet..........................................................39
Knee Guard (Yuguito) with Twisted Human Face................ 18 Art or Artifact? You Be the Judge teaching activity guide................41
Yoke.............................................................................................. 19 Art or Artifact? You Be the Judge student worksheet........................42
Head of Huehueteotl, the Aged Fire God.............................. 20 Design an Art Gallery teaching activity guide....................................44
Xipe Totec (God of Flayed Skin)............................................... 21 Design an Art Gallery student worksheet............................................45

Art and Culture of Latin America David Owsley Museum of Art | EDUCATIONAL RESOURCE PACKET i
Do You See What I See? teaching activity guide.................................46 Vase............................................................................................................70

Do You See What I See? student worksheet.........................................47 Tripod Cylinder Vase...............................................................................71

Hey, Ocarina! teaching activity guide...................................................48 Pendant.....................................................................................................72

Every Object Has a Story teaching activity guide...............................49 Center Marker from a Ball Court...........................................................73

Every Object Has a Story student worksheet......................................50 Palma with Standing Figure..................................................................74

A Picture is Better than 1000 Words teaching activity guide...........51 Hacha in the Form of a Jaguar Head....................................................75

A Picture is Better than 1000 Words student worksheet...................52 Knee Guard (Yuguito) with Twisted Human Face..............................76

To Smuggle or Not to Smuggle? teaching activity guide..................54 Yoke............................................................................................................77

To Smuggle or Not to Smuggle? student worksheet.........................55 Head of Huehueteotl, the Aged Fire God............................................78

Tree of Life teaching activity guide.......................................................56 Xipe Totec (God of Flayed Skin)............................................................79

Tree of Life: Language Arts student worksheet..................................57 Male and Female Figures.......................................................................80

Tree of Life: Art student worksheet.......................................................58 Standing Male Figures............................................................................81

Twenty Questions: Identity Uncovered teaching activity guide......59 Candelabrum............................................................................................82

Twenty Questions: Identity Uncovered student worksheet.............60 Jaguar Face Mask.....................................................................................83

X Marks the Spot teaching activity guide............................................61 Pagan Mask...............................................................................................84

X Marks the Spot student worksheet....................................................62 Three Kings on Horses............................................................................85

Image Gallery Timeline....................................................................................... 86


Stirrup Vessel............................................................................................65 Indiana Curriculum Standards................................................ 90
Ocarina......................................................................................................66 Sources........................................................................................ 97
Jaguar/Man Mask....................................................................................67 Acknowledgments.................................................................. 100
Jaguar Effigy Jar.......................................................................................68

Effigy Metate and Mano.........................................................................69

Art and Culture of Latin America David Owsley Museum of Art | EDUCATIONAL RESOURCE PACKET ii
Introduction
The Art and Culture of Latin America
The ancient peoples of South America, Central America, and Mexico were and connect to the rest of the world. This packet is meant to challenge
developed societies both socially and politically. They were builders and students by asking them to uncover the cultural traditions in their own
farmers and storytellers. They were mathematicians, architects, planners, and society and comparing them to those of other societies. Ultimately students
artisans. They had families, traditions, languages, celebrations, and art that may shift their perspective from a largely ethnocentric world view and better
carried on for generations. Their lives were fused with the universe through understand the role of the artisan as a visual recorder of history.
their art and architecture, both of which expressed their beliefs about their
The objects chosen for this packet have the potential to encourage students
existence and religion. All of this was threatened when, at the end of the
to look and ask questions. These historical and aesthetic works of art have
fifteenth century, Europeans began to destroy these pre-existing civilizations
remarkably survived natural disasters, grave looting, and removal from
through forceful domination. A lesson in cultural responsibility can be learned
their original resting places. Think of what has been learned about ancient
from such historical events. The result of this European domination is visible in
civilizations of the Greeks, Romans, or Egyptians through the study of their
the transition from the ancient art of the Americas, known as pre-Columbian
artifacts and architecture. Students can bridge gaps between their own
art, to the Mexican folk art of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
culture and that of others by studying fragments which invite intrigue and
The intention of the Art and Culture of Latin America packet is not to turn mystery. By being introduced to cultures through art, students will experience
average high school students into pre-Columbian and Mexican folk art how art and artifacts have the unique ability to tell stories and reveal the
scholarsit is however an attempt to make them better thinkers, writers, and beliefs and practices of cultures. Utlimately, with guidance, students will
ultimately better learners committed to discovering how their lives compare understand the value of preserving art for the future.

Nicole Cardassilaris

Art and Culture of Latin America David Owsley Museum of Art | EDUCATIONAL RESOURCE PACKET 1
Using the Packet
Objectives Images
The packet is designed to engage students in meaningful experiences as they Images of objects in this packet are located in the section titled Object Files
learn about other cultures and perhaps develop a deeper understanding of (p. 3) with larger photos available in the Image Gallery (p. 64). These
their own. Through interdisciplinary study, students are encouraged to think may be copied for educational use by students.
critically and exercise analytical skills.
Text
Using this Packet for Instruction
Object Files (p. 3) include descriptive notes about each work of art or
The packet is not designed for a specific number of insructional class artifact along with a location map, and photographs.
periods and may be used to supplement your core classroom curriculum.
Activities
Multidisciplinary teaching activities address the subject areas of visual
arts, English language arts, social studies, and Spanish. A table of Indiana The activities and art projects are suggestions. The dynamics of every
Curriculum Standards (p. 90) identifies relevant standards for grades 6 classroom are different and therefore every teacher should organize each
through 12 within Indiana. Activities may be modified to address additional activity to meet the needs of her or his class. The activities encourage
standards. students to make comparisons, contrasts, and draw conclusions about what
we know and what we can learn through the study of Latin American art.
National standards related to specific subjects are available from the following
organizations: Museum visit

National Art Education Association The images provide a preview of objects the museum holds in its collection.
To see the objects in person will only strengthen connections made while
National Council for the Social Studies
using this packet. A museum visit may open possibilities for making new
American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages connections with the rest of the collection as well. To schedule a guided or
self-guided tour of the David Owsley Museum of Art at Ball State University,
National Council of Teachers of English
please visit the museum web site and submit an online tour request form.

Art and Culture of Latin America David Owsley Museum of Art | EDUCATIONAL RESOURCE PACKET 2
Object Files

Art and Culture of Latin America David Owsley Museum of Art | EDUCATIONAL RESOURCE PACKET 3
Objects from South America Guyana
Suriname
Venezuela French Guiana

Colombia

North Atlantic Ocean

Ecuador

Brazil
Peru

Bolivia

South Pacific Ocean


Paraguay

Chile

Argentina
Uruguay

South Atlantic Ocean

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South America Stirrup Vessel

Chimu pottery can be The arch-like handle


identified by a monkey, made it very easy to
or bird where the spout carry by hand or a
and arch-like handle belt on a ropeearly
meet. ergonomics! What
items do you own
that are practical and
decorative at the same
time?

Utilitarian vessels were really more common


than decorative vessels. Chimu pottery
Each culture in ancient Peru had their is generally highly polished as a result of
own distinct style for ceramics. Maybe burnishing. This was a time-consuming
you have heard of some of the other technique for the artisan. Chimu pottery was
cultures: Paracas, Nazca, Moche, Vicus, mostly mass produced through the use of
Recuay, Huari, Lambayeque, Chancay, press molds, leaving the artisan more time for
Aymara, and Inca. surface decoration.

No written words were left from ancient Despite its decorative qualities,
Peruvian civilizations, so to discover where the stirrup vessels were constructed with
different groups lived, how they interacted practicality in mind. The small opening
with one another, and how their societies helped keep liquids from evaporating
evolved, historians, archaeologists, and quickly in the hot Peruvian
anthropologists study the ceramics found in environment. The spout allowed the
tombs and graves. These objects are referred to Stirrup Vessel; 11001399 CE; earthenware; Chimu people,
pre-Columbian Peru; 1989.020.001; 9 1/4 x 8 1/16 x 6 11/16
liquid inside to pour out smoothly.
as funerary art.

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South America Ocarina

Shells, ocarinas, and whistles have been found buried alongside the
dead in grave sites. Many ancient cultures assumed that the souls of the
dead would require earthly possessions in the afterlife. It is possible the
instruments were left for the spirits to use for summoning rain.

This ocarina, with its conical


seashell shape, would have
been modeled by hand.
It was then painted with
a monochromatic slip
and incised with bands of
geometric designs.
An ocarina is a simple musical wind
instrument with a somewhat elongated
shape, a mouthpiece, and finger holes.
Ocarinas usually have four or five holes for Ocarina; 5001099 CE; earthenware; Narino culture, pre-Columbian Colombia;
1982.016.000; 9 1/2 x 7"
playing; this one has five.

The success of these ancient agricultural civilizations depended


greatly upon water, and ancient Columbians believed water
Ocarinas are one type of musical instrument used by
ceremonies could either summon or stop the rains. By observing
ancient Columbians. Musical activity took place only during
an astrological calendar, these peoples synchronized their
rituals and ceremonies. Other instruments included flutes,
ceremonies with seasonal cycles. Music and sometimes human
gourd rattles, bone rasps, upright drums, hand drums, bells,
sacrifice were used to venerate the gods who, they believed,
and trumpets made of conch shells, wood, or gourds.
would make the rains come.

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South America Jaguar/Man Mask

This mask comes from a northern corner of


what is now Ecuador, an area once inhabited by
the La Tolita culture. Ceramic from La Tolita is This mask from the La Tolita
characterized by the use of a sandy gray clay. culture in Ecuador shows a
face transforming from man to
jaguar. Sometimes referred to as
were-jaguars, such supernatural
creatures were associated with
shamanism. The nostrils are flared
and the open mouth bares fangs as
well as human teeth. The ears look
to be more human than feline while
the eyes are simply round double-
rimmed openings.

Jaguars, native to the jungles of Central


and South America, are the largest feline in
the Western Hemisphere. These predators In ancient Latin American cultures,
have exceptionally powerful jaws capable of shamanism was a central institution
involving a complex belief system
biting through the skulls of their prey. Their
devised to make sense out of, and
images were symbols of strength and power possibly influence, forces in the
in many pre-Columbian cultures. natural and supernatural world. The
Jaguar/Man Mask; 600 BCE300 CE; terracotta; La Tolita, pre-Columbian Ecuador; shaman played a vital role in rituals
2008.004.000; 7 1/2 diameter associated with this belief system.

Indigenous cultures of ancient Mexico used masks


to mark special occasions. Ancient pre-Columbian
masks often depict mythological deities that were
central to cultural beliefs and practices.

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Objects from Central America

Belize Caribbean Sea

Guatemala
Honduras

El Salvador

Nicaragua
Pacific Ocean

Costa Rica

Panama
Gulf of
Panama

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Central America Jaguar Effigy Jar
This ceramic vessel has a polychrome, or multicolored, surface.
Being a tripod, this jar has three supporting legs. The two front
feet resemble jaguar paws, while the third is shaped like a tail.

The jar has been modeled with a feline head


and legs extending downward toward what
appear to be a set of front paws. The use of
the jaguar motif refers to a sun-devouring
Mesoamerican god.

The pattern of small shapes along the


legs is made of repeating silhouetted
jaguar heads. This design is thought
to depict the stars in the night sky.
Jaguar Effigy Jar; 12001399 CE; earthenware, polychrome;
unknown people, Guanacaste-Nicoya region, pre-Columbian
Costa Rica; 1996.019.008; 17 1/4 x 12 x 11 1/2

This jar comes from northwestern Costa Rica and is a classic


example of ceramics from the Guanacaste-Nicoya Region.
This area is known for its fine pottery and carved jades.

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Central America Effigy Metate and Mano

Metates such as this one were carved from one piece of stone, using only
stone or wooden tools along with an abrasive. Despite using very few The metate is carved in
tools, artisans achieved remarkably graceful curves and proportions. the shape of a jaguar,
a feared and revered
Metate = grinding surface beast of prey. Ancient
pre-Columbian
cultures traced their
lineage back to the
jaguar, which they
believed to be their
Igneous stone is formed in volcanic first ancestor.
action. The rocks form from the
solidified molten magma at or below
the surface of the earth.
A mano would have
been used on the metate
surface, like a rolling pin,
to grind seeds and grain.

Effigy Metate and Mano; 4th7th century CE; igneous stone and shell; unknown people, Nicoya Metates like this one
region, Western coast, pre-Columbian Costa Rica; L1992.018.02a-b 16 1/2 x 31 3/4 x 13
have been found in
Shells were symbolic of water, fertility, tombs throughout
as well as many pre-Columbian gods. The inclusion of decorative metates in burial offerings indicates their great Costa Rica; they vary
They were often used to decorate importance. They may have been used to prepare ritual meals for the living, greatly in terms of
ceremonial objects. serving a ceremonial purpose rather than a practical one. size and style.

Some items placed in tombs may have once been treasured possessions of
the deceased.

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Central America, Pre-Columbian Vase
Painting was an important form of artistic expression among
the Maya. Illustrations on vases such as this one are the best
examples of the Mayan painting that remain. This vessel
survived because it was most likely preserved in a tomb.

Ceramic cylinder vases feature illustrations


of ritual or mythological scenes. The male
figure, painted identically on opposite sides
of this vase, wears an elaborate headdress,
identifying him as a Mayan priest.

Ceramic vessels were painted with a clay slip


made of mineral pigments, such as iron ore,
and clay diluted with water. Before firing, a
vessel would be polished, or burnished, to a
fine sheen with a smooth instrument, usually
a stone. Slip painting and burnishing helped
to make the vase waterproof. It would then
be fired at low heat in a bonfire.

Vase; 250899 CE; earthenware; Maya people, pre-Columbian


Northern Guatemala; 1996.019.001; 7 3/4 x 6 3/8 x 6 3/8
Cylinder vases such as this one
Mayan artisans did not use a potter's wheel. They would craft vessels were used by Mayan rulers for
by building up long rope-shaped pieces of clay, called coils, into a drinking chocolate beverages.
cylinder. Then the artisan smoothed the sides by hand, sometimes
using a seashell, or pottery shard.

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Central America, Pre-Columbian Tripod Cylinder Vase

The vase, which was broken into


10 pieces, has been restored to its
original form.

This wide cylinder vase with short tripod legs


has been elaborately decorated with scenes
involving chiefs and deities. One figure appears
to be flying, while others are positioned on
altars or thrones. Tripod Cylinder Vase; 500-800 CE; earthenware; Maya people, Ulua Valley,
pre-Columbian Honduras; L2012.005.000; 7 5/8 x 8 1/2

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Central America Pendant
Ancient inhabitants of the Americas associated gold with great power
and a close alliance with the sun god. The precious metal acquired
cultural value when worked into images such as the figure shown here.

Much of the gold, discovered


The primary use of gold was for personal adornment.
by the Spanish following their
Pendants, emblems worn around the neck have been
conquest and colonization of the
worn by humans almost as long as beads. While some
Americas, was melted down and
objects are simply ornamental, most were crafted to
taken to Spain. Due to centuries,
embody complex religious iconography.
of looting and systematic grave
robbing, relatively few examples
of pre-Columbian gold artifacts
Gold was also important in the production of exist today.
funerary objects. Powerful individuals were buried
with gold objects and adornments.

The production of gold jewelry was most abundant Pendant; 10001499 CE; gold; Veraguas people, La Pena, near
Sona, pre-Columbian Panama; 1991.044.002; 3 1/16 x 2 3/8 x 3/8
in the Panamanian province of Veraguas. Goldsmiths
here, and in other areas of Central America, produced This pendant depicts a figure in an upright stance with human arms and
pendants, nose ornaments, beads, and masks of legs. The snout-like nose and mouth may identify the figure as a shaman,
superb quality. These artisans exhibited skill at both one believed to have spiritual powers. He wears a double-serpent headdress
casting and hammering of gold. and holds a pipe in his left hand and a rattle in his right. Serpent imagery,
commonly seen in pre-Columbian art, is associated with the underworld.

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Pre-Columbian Objects from Mexico
The area of Mexico that was once inhabited by pre-Columbian
cultures is called Mesoamerica.

Mexico

Gulf of Mexico

North Pacific Ocean

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Mexico, Pre-Columbian Center Marker from a Ball Court
The Mayan ballgame, played somewhat like modern-day soccer, took place
within long narrow courts. These courts varied in size however a few were as
long as a football field. Many versions of the game existed throughout Central
America, and Mexico. A form of the game is still played in these regions.

Bedecked in an elaborate
headdress and costume, the
figurine on this stone marker
The ballgame was socially, politically, and
appears to be caught in mid-
religiously important to the Maya. Players would
leap. In his outstreched hands,
maneuver a heavy rubber ball, measuring eight to
he grips what may be a large
eighteen inches in diameter, toward one of three
rubber ball; the type used in
center marking stones. A player scored by hitting
the Maya ballgame.
the marker with the ball. As with soccer, it was
illegal for a player to touch the ball with his hand
except to put it into play.

Center Marker from a Ball Court; 10th13th century CE; rhyolitic volcanic
stone; Maya people, lowlands region, Chiapas, pre-Columbian Mexico;
1990.031.000; 10 x 10 x 2

As the first organized game in the history of sports, the Mayan ballgame was more than Stakes were high for ball players who could be injured or
an exciting competition. It was a complex ritual tied to religious beliefs. The game had die following a blow from a heavy rubber ball. Winners
many levels of meaning associated with cosmic forces. Mayans believed the balance were honored with praise and even gifts while losers
of good and evil and the agricultural cycle could only be maintained through human were often ritually sacrificed.
sacrifice. The ballgame was one means by which such sacrifices were accomplished.

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Mexico, Pre-Columbian Palma with Standing Figure

Carved from stone, this small sculpture is called a palma due to its
distinctive blade or palm frond shape. It is possibly a non-functional
replica of a ball deflector worn by ballgame players.

Palmas, if used in actual games, were


presumably made of lighter weight materials
such as wood, straw, or leather and were
strapped to the protective yoke worn about a
player's waist. Worn in this manner, it could be
used to help control the ball and protect the
upper torso. Some scholars believe however that
palmas were purely ornaments for ritual use.

Other items associated with the Mesoamerican


ballgame, include yokes, hachas, and yuguitos, all
of which were likely worn by players during play
or for game-related ceremonies. Used for ritual or
burial purposes, stone versions of these objects
This palma bears the figure of a ball player,
attest to the profound importance of the game.
wearing a padded belt and high-top sandals.
Palma with Standing Figure; 600900 CE; basalt;
Veracruz, pre-Columbian Mexico; 2009.025.000; His right hand is raised in an anatomically
16" x 5" x 9" impossible position while he appears to offer
something in his left.

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Mexico, Pre-Columbian Hacha in the Form of a Jaguar Head

The word hacha means axe in Spanish. Shaped similarly


to axe blades, haches were often carved from thin slabs of
stone to resemble animal or human heads.

Some scholars believe hachas were attached to a Both sides of an hacha are
player's yoke and worn as a decorative accessory typically carved with the
during game related ceremonies. Other experts same image. Here we see
suggest that hachas were mounted on altars or the head of a jaguar; other
other architectural features. hachas were modeled
after the serpent, monkey,
parrot, bat, or human skull.

Hachas, ranging from about five to twenty inches in


height, may have been used in a variety of ways. The
bottom rear portion of most hachas, regardless of
size, appears to be designed to fit into some sort of
slot for support.

Hacha in the Form of a Jaguar Head; 550950 CE; granite; Veracruz, Pre-Columbian
Mexico; L2003.010.000; 8 1/2 x 9 1/4 x 1 1/4

Carved from granite, the hacha takes the form of a jaguar head with open
mouth and protruding tongue extending from the upper jaw. A hole, located
at the back of the head, along with the notch under the lower jaw were used for
attachment purposes.

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Mexico, Pre-Columbian Knee Guard (Yuguito) with Twisted Human Face

This yuguito, Spanish for little yoke, comes from the Olmec culture of south-
central Mexico. The Olmec, believed to be the first major civilization in Mexico,
provide earliest archaeological evidence of ballgame equipment.

Images painted on pottery


and carved into stone by
ancient artisans illustrate
various types of protective
Many yuguitos are carved with disfigured faces.
gear worn by players. Some
The features are often interpreted as facial
ball players are shown with
deformities or injuries resulting from being hit
a band wrapped around or
with a hard rubber ball. Carved on both ends,
under one knee.
this player has the forked tongue of a serpent.

Stone yuguitos may be


ritual equivalents of knee
protectors, or perhaps wrist
protectors, worn by ball
players. Yuguitos made of
stone would have been too
heavy to wear in play.

Knee Guard (Yuguito) with Twisted Human Face; 900600 BCE; stone, basaltic
andesite; Olmec culture, pre-Columbian Mexico, South Central lowlands;
2006.006.000; 7" x 7"

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Mexico, Pre-Columbian Yoke
Stone yokes, along with palmas and hachas, have been found in many
tombs and burial mounds. While it is difficult to determine exactly how
these objects were used, there is little doubt of their cultural significance.

This yoke features three


Protective equipment was important in this
human faces along the
dangerous game. Players made contact with
outer portion of the
the ball at the hip, thigh, or upper arm.
stone while the open
ends remain smooth.
Traces of pigment
suggest this yoke was
once painted.

Yoke; 700900 CE; volcanic tuff with traces of cinnabar and other pigments; un-
known culture, Pre-Columbian Mexico, Gulf Coast; 2006.021.000; 4 1/2 x 12" x 18"

Yoke is the name given to the U-shaped objects worn as protective belts by
ballgame players. Pre-Columbian art suggests that players wore their most extensive
padding at their waist. Yokes worn during play were likely made of cloth, wood, or
leather. The stone versions we see today might have been worn by the players as well,
perhaps during ceremonies before or after the game.

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Mexico, Pre-Columbian Head of Huehueteotl, the Aged God

Carved in the round, the head of the fierce deity Huehueteotl orignally
belonged to a larger-than-life figure. The large head has bean-shaped
recessed eyes and an oval toothless mouth. Deep lines across the face
represent the wrinkles of the aged fire god.

Areas of red and white


Huehueteotl, the aged god, and
pigment indicate
Xiuhtecuhtli, the fire god, are believed
this stone head was
to be two aspects of the same deity.
originally painted.
Notice the large
tubular ear ornaments
Huehueteotl was an important and headband with
god associated with the cycle of center medallion.
the seasons and nature.

The top of the head is flat and would have


originally supported a bowl called a brazier
in which incense or offerings were burnt. Head of Huehueteotl, the Aged Fire God; 550950 CE; stone; Toltec culture, pre-Columbian Mexico,
Puebla-Oaxaca border; 2010.014.000; width 15 1/2

Most gods were perceived as having a human or animal form. Sculptural


representations of these deities were often interred in tombs as an offering to
the gods but were also used to decorate the exterior of temples.

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Mexico, Pre-Columbian Xipe Totec (God of Flayed Skin)

This fragment was part of a


larger effigy of Xipe Totec.
He wears a mask and collar
made from human skin.

Xipe Totec, the Aztec god of spring, was also referred Xipe Totec achieved a large cult
to as the god of flayed skin. The Aztecs believed following in Central Mexico. An
Xipe Totec renewed the earth each spring by giving important deity, Xipe Totec had
it a new "skin" of vegetation. Consequently, this multiple roles within Mesoamerican
important god was celebrated yearly through the mythology. In addition to being
ritual flaying of human sacrifices. Priests or warriors celebrated every spring, he was the
would wear the flayed skins of their victims for days. patron god of goldsmiths. and was
thought to possess the power to cure
eye ailments.
Prior to ritual flaying, a victim's
heart was ceremoniously
removed. Mesoamericans knew
the heart was a vital organ and
as such, was highly valued as a
sacrificial offering.

Xipe Totec (God of Flayed Skin); 14691481 CE; earthenware;


unknown people, Veracruz, pre-Columbian Mexico; 1996.019.005;
8 x 7 x 3 1/2

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Mexico, Pre-Columbian Male and Female Figures

West Mexico is comprised of several states and the three


most well-known for their art are Nayarit, Jalisco, and
Colima. The dress of these figures from the state of Nayarit
are unique to West Mexican ceramics.

Notice the exaggerated


The figures tell us something about facial features.
how the people in the Ixtlan del Rio
community of Nayarit dressed. The males
dressed in tunics and short breeches
while the women wore short skirts.

Both figures are highly decorated with These figures are


geometrically patterned clothing, hats, and found in shaft tombs
nose ornaments. They also appear to be and are often called
adorned with body paint or tatoos. effigies.

Male Figure; 99 BCE250 CE; earthenware; Female Figure; 99 BCE250 CE; earthenware;
unknown people; Ixtlan del Rio, Nayarit, unknown people, Ixtlan del Rio, Nayarit,
pre-Columbian north Mexico; 1996.019.007; pre-Columbian north Mexico; 1996.019.006;
15 7/8 x 9 1/2 x 4 3/4 14 7/8 x 81/2 x 5

Nayarit sculptors produced numerous male/female The vessel on the female's shoulder
couples. They may have served as portraits of symbolizes domestic duties, while the male
individuals with whom they were buried. figure holds an object with a wide blade.

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Mexico, Pre-Columbian Standing Male Figures
These figures are from Jaina, an island off the coast of Campeche, Mexico.
Jaina was an important ceremonial center and cemetery. The island location
was significance because, when viewed from the mainland, the island lay
directly in the path of the setting sun. The Maya believed the sun descended
to the underworld at night, therefore Jaina was an appropriate burial site.

Thousands of figures,
Brightly painted figurines from Jaina
ranging in size from about
Island depict many different people in the
4 to 9 inches high, have
community and surrounding areas: figures
been discovered on the
of women, chiefs, priests, warriors, and ball
island. Some were made in
players just to name a few.
molds while others were
shaped by hand.

Remarkably lifelike, ceramic


figures from Jaina Island
illustrate aspects of everyday
life and provide clues about Standing Male Figure; 550900 CE; ceramic; Maya Standing Male Figure; 550900 CE;
people, Jaina Island, Campeche, pre-Columbian ceramic; Maya people, Jaina Island,
Mayan culture. Mexico; 1997.027.014; 5 5/8 x 5 1/8 x 2 1/4 Campeche, pre-Columbian Mexico;
1980.015.001; 6 3/4 x 2 1/2 x 1 1/2

The figures show how the craftsman was concerned with showing
individual traits. Notice the similarities and differences.

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Folk Art Objects from Mexico

Mexico

Gulf of Mexico

North Pacific Ocean

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Mexico, Folk Art Candelabrum

Mary and Joseph travel to Bethlehem

Birth of Jesus Christ

Three Kings

Trees of life likely evolved from the bronze


and silver ceremonial incense burners and
Internationally known for decorative wares candleholders used in Catholic churches.
since the mid-nineteenth century, San Juan Wanting to create their own versions, local
Metepec in Mexico is the birth place of these artisans settled on clay because it was both
elaborate ceramic constructions. affordable and easy to work. Over time,
these objects became increasingly ornate.

Combining Native American and Spanish


motifs, the early work of the Metepec potters Many tree of life candelabra depict biblical
consisted of candelabra shapes which and religious themes such as Noahs ark, Saint
developed into todays intricate trees of life. James the apostle on a horse, skulls from the
Day of the Dead, or yoked oxen symbolizing
the spring planting festival of San Isidro
The tree was a powerful symbol in both Labrador.
Europe and Mesoamerica. Following the
Spanish conquest, Catholic practices
By the early 1970s, trees of life had become
converged with indigenous traditions.
quite popular. An expanding tourist market
led to increased production, with some
Candelabrum; 1960 CE; terracotta; paint, Izucar de Matamoros,
Puebla, Mexico; 1963.006.000; 46 x 25 1/2 x 7 1/2 artisans becoming full-time potters.

The largest trees of life are sometimes over nine feet tall!

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Mexico, Pre-Columbian Jaguar Face Mask

For centuries, Mexican festival performers have


donned masks to transform themselves into a
variety of characters.

This copper jaguar mask, made in the late


19th or early 20th century, is adorned
with colorfully painted features.
Masks, an integral part of Mexican festivals, emerged
from both native and Spanish traditions.

Many mythological characters


from Mesoamerican cultures
vanished, however a few, such
Spanish colonists promoted Christian beliefs as the jaguar, remained. In some
after their arrival in the 1500s. Religious dramas regions animal-masked dancers
were used to teach important biblical stories to concealed pagan rituals.
indigenous peoples. In time, a blending of faiths
occurred and masked dramas continued to be a
part of religious and civic practices.

Jaguar Face Mask; 18751925 CE; copper, polychrome; Guerro,


Puebla, Mexico; 1999.014.062;
14 x 12 x 9

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Mexico, Folk Art Pagan Mask

In recent years, materials such


as wood and metal have been
Masked performances continue to be popular in Mexico. replaced by lighter weight
Christian influence is evident in masks such as this one of alternatives such as papier
a king. This mask may have been worn for the Dance of mch, plastic, rubber, or
the Moors and Christians, a reenactment of the successful painted metal screening.
expulsion of the Moors from Spain in 1492.

A fondness for masks has led to a thriving folk


art industry in Mexico.

Pagan Mask; 19001930 CE; metal, paint, wood; Guanajuato,


Mexico; 1991.068.005; 17 x 9 1/2 x 8

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Objects from Puerto Rico

Atlantic Ocean

Puerto Rico

Caribbean Sea

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Puerto Rico, Folk Art Three Kings on Horses

The artist, Benigno Soto,


was a santero, or sculptor
of saints.
For centuries the Spanish had used
Christian imagery for both educational
and decorative purposes. Spanish
settlers brought this artistic tradition The tradition of santos is
to the New World. still strong today in Mexico,
Central America, and the
Southwestern U.S.
A traditional theme in the Christian
Christmas celebration is the offering of
gifts from the three magi (or kings) to
the Christ Child. The kings, Balthasar,
Melchior, and Gaspar are nearly always
mounted on horseback.

In the Puerto Rican tradition


of Christianity, saints are seen
as emissaries (kind of like
ambassadors) between God and Three Kings on Horses; early 20th century CE; Benigno Soto; paint, wood; Puerto Rico;
1983.002a-c; 9 1/8 x 13 x 6 1/2
man. When favors are asked of
saints and granted, the devout
Christian commissions a painted Santos like this one or other images of saints are placed in a safe place in
wooden statue of that saint from a a home at annual celebrations given in the saints honor. Each year the
local craftsman called a santero. wooden figure receives a new coat of paint. This yearly application of paint
can become so thick that it completely covers the carved facial features.

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Teaching Activities Using the Teacher Instruction Pages

English
Visual Language
Arts Arts
The title of the assignment is located in the upper left
corner. The same title appears on the corresponding Suggested usage indicates the subject(s) for
student worksheet. which the assignment is best suited. Social Studies

World Languages:
Learning goals Spanish (9-12)
associated with a
particular activity
Suggested
materials for the
assignment

These are only


Suggestions for
suggestions
guiding students
through the Each assignment
assignment may be changed
to suit your
needs

Suggestions for
extending and Introduces new
reinforcing the terms students
lesson plan should know to
complete their
assignment

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Introductory Exercise: Art and Culture Teaching Activity Guide
Objectives
Students will learn the various roles of archaeologists, historians, anthropologists, and
Materials
sociologists.
Copies of the following:
Students will become acquainted with learning about cultures through art as a primary source. Timeline (p. 86)

Three Questions Regarding Culture (p. 34)


Guidelines
1. Distribute copies of the handouts (see Materials). Inform students that the timeline is not Introductory Exercise: Art and Culture (p. 32)
intended to be conclusive, but only to represent major events, epochs, or eras. Social Institutions (p. 33)
2. The Introductory Exercise is designed for discussion purposes and for students to become Object Location Maps
acquainted with the packet materials.
Pages from the Object Files (p. 3)
3. The readings provide an introduction to social institutions and also various factors that
influence cultures as they develop and shift over time. Students will consider how these factors
Vocabulary
may have influenced pre-Columbian art and will look for evidence of social institutions in art Culture - The ideas, customs, skills, and arts
and artifacts. of a people or group, that are transferred to
succeeding generations.

Project Reinforcements Pre-Columbian - of or pertaining to the Americas


Schedule a tour of the art museum that focuses specifically on universal themes throughout before the arrival of Columbus.
the history of art, e.g. death, games, traditions, etc.
Archaeologist - Specialist who studies prehistoric
Invite speakers, not originally from the United States, to talk with students about the peoples and their cultures through the analysis of
similiarities and differences among cultures. their artifacts.

Ask students to create a list of family traditions practiced in their families, then in groups, have Historian - Person who researches and records
the students discuss the similarities and differences and how their families came to have these events of the past.
traditions. To narrow the discussion and assure comparative examples, consider a few options,
Anthropologist - One who studies the physical,
e.g. births, birthdays, meals, deaths, or holidays.
social, and cultural development of humans.

Sociologists - Those who study how human


society is organized through beliefs, values, and
social groups.
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Introductory Exercise: Art and Culture
Look at the Object Files, Timeline, Three Questions Regarding Culture, and Social Institutions.

Archaeologists and anthropologists study pre-Columbian cultures by investigating art and artifacts that were left behind. Many ancient cultures did not
produce written records, however important information about these civilizations is revealed in their artwork.

Explore both pre-Columbian and Mexican folk art from the Object Files. Consider clues provided by these objects. What do they tell us about the societies from
which they originated?

Review and discuss the following.

Discuss how the following factors may have influenced the art of pre-Columbian cultures.

Geography

Isolation

Discovery and Invention

Values and Beliefs

Do you see evidence of the following social institutions in the pre-Columbian or Mexican folk art objects?

Family

Religion

Education

Economics

Government

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Social Institutions
Introduction provide a forum for transferring accumulated knowledge and skills from one
generation to another. This sharing of knowledge also involves the transfer of
The study of sociology considers the groups in which we live. Sociology looks cultural customs and values, which contributes to the socialization of younger
at why we choose to live in groups and how we live within these groups. generations.
Every recorded society known to man has developed around at least five
social institutions: family, religion, education, economics, and government. Economics: In order to survive we need food to eat, water to drink, and
clothing and shelter to protect us from the natural environment. These can
These social institutions exist in the world today. Considering these constants be described as human needs that must be fulfilled in order to exist. Aside
that occur among cultures should help you understand why each and every from needs, humans want or desire things that are not necessariy needed
culture places such importance on religion, family, government, education, for survival. All of our needs, wants, and desires can only be fulfilled from
and economics. The traits of any culture reflect these institutions throughout resources found on earth, either naturally and/or through tools created by
time or place and are commonly referred to as cultural traits. man to shape natural resources. How we alter or use our resources is called
The Five Social Institutions economics. The primary function of economics in any society determines why
cultures are different from one another, why cultures change, and why some
Family: Families are fundamental social units in which individuals give and cultures resist change.
receive physical and emotional support. In most societies, the family is the
principle institution for the socialization of children. Nuclear families consist Government: People cannot exist as a group for any great period of time
of parents and children while extended families include other relatives such without a system of rules to provide order, stability, or structure. Progress
as aunts, uncles, and grandparents. is never made in a state of chaos. Governments provide a forum in which
the power of the people in that society may be exercised. One form of
Religion: Religion plays an important role in many cultures by establishing government is a democracy which gives the government limited authority
a common framework that helps make sense out of life and guide social to act on behalf of the people in that society. A dictatorship, the extreme
behavior. Shared belief systems are important when considering difficult opposite form of government to a democracy, takes power from the people
questions such as Why are we here on Earth? and What happens when we and acts on behalf of the people. The history of mankind has witnessed
die?. many examples of both extremes of governing. As Americans, we favor
Education: Humans do not come into this world as all-knowing creatures. We democracy, as do many other modern nations. But the past is full of examples
must acquire information and adapt behaviors according to our environment. of dictatorships, from pharoahs to kings to czars. The primary function of
The history of mankind has been accompanied by a progressive learning government in society is to provide a structure of order in which the other
experience from hunting and gathering to farming and industrialization. social institutions may function and flourish.
Virtually all human beings are teachers for other human beings, but as
society has become more specialized, we have created formal structures for
transmitting information and data. The primary function of education is to

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Three Questions Regarding Culture
The point of view for this exercise is that of sociologist, a social scientist who Why do cultures change?
examines and defines our world by the way we interact within groups such
Although there are other influences, these are a few of the most common:
as families, schools, work environments, citizens, churches, and society in
general. Discovery and Invention: Think about the U.S. in 1776 versus 2010, how
have inventions such as electric light bulbs, automobiles, TV, and computers
What makes cultures different from one another?
changed the country. Or consider the impact of the steam engine and the
Sociologists generally group the explanation of this response to four areas: changes brought about by the Industrial Revolution. The discovery of raw
materials can also lead to cultural change.
Geography: Geographical differences across the globe explain some cultural
differences. Aspects of the environment we inhabit, such as climate and War: Discuss how WWII led to more women in the workforce, or how the
topography, influence what we eat and how we live. Korean Conflict, or any war, led to medical or technological advances, etc.
Isolation: The more contact a group of people have with other groups, the Natural Disasters: Tornadoes, hurricanes, floods, and earthquakes all have
more similar they will eventually become. With less contact, the group is more the potential to bring about long term changes within communities.
likely to retain traits of its own region and history.
Law: How have laws which grant various groupswomen, African Americans,
Discovery and Invention: To understand this, simply consider the history of or even people 18 or older, the right to vote changed the U.S.? How did
gunpowder. While the Chinese may have been the first to invent explosives, school integration change the U.S.?
they used their invention to harmlessly entertain the Emperor with fireworks.
Social Movements: Discuss what the Civil Rights movement or Womens
The European Marco Polo took this knowledge back to the Europeans who
Liberation movement did to change U.S. Culture.
applied the discovery and invention to create explosive projectile weapons
and guns. Human Migration: This refers to large groups of immigrants who relocate
from one area to another. How does immigration impact communities?
Values and Beliefs: Religious beliefs such as polytheism or monotheism
Consider and discuss the impact of Mormons moving West in the 1840s,
affect the way people behave. Other types of cultural beliefs, such as those
African Americans leaving the South after the Civil War and moving North,
held by the Native Americans of the North American Plains, can have a
or even farmers of the Dust Bowl in the Midwest moving to California in the
devastating and lasting impact. These Native Americans believed that a
1930s.
warrior proved his courage by seeing how close he could get to his enemy or
even touching his enemy with an object called a coup stick. Europeans came
to the plains with fire sticks which allowed one to stand hundreds of yards
from an enemy and inflict a mortal wound. As a result, the Native Americans
looked at the Europeans as cowardly warriors.

continued on page 35
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Three Questions Regarding Culture
continued from page 34

Why do some cultures resist change? that rotates around the Earth. Science told Galileo his Heliocentric theory
was correct, but the church held to the Geocentric theory, based on faith.
Habit: How often do we simply continue to do things as they have been done
Galileo was forced to choose between his scientific facts or denounce those
in the past for no apparent reason? Discuss the reluctance some people have
facts for faith. The price was his very soul, for the Catholic Church threatened
in learning how to use a cell phone or computer.
to excommunicate Galileo if hed did not renounce this theory. We know now
Special Interests: Sometimes groups within a society believe they will that Galileo was correct with the Heliocentric theory, but he ultimately did
be negatively affected by change. Car manufacturers, for instance, have renounce his own work to remain a member of the Catholic Church.
been slow to move toward the production of fuel efficient automobiles or
Isolation: If cultures do not come into contact with one another, change is
those that are powered by alternative sources. The costs associated with
much less likely to occur. Consider how we do not challenge our family values
revolutionizing the automobile industry persuaded manufacturers to resist
or traditions until we encounter other families. Think about the influence
change as long as business was profitable. In recent years, auto sales dropped
that people who are different from you or unfamiliar with you have on you.
prompting major automobile companies to accept rather than reject change.
Consider the impact a foreign exchange student has on the students he or
Culture Lag: The argument made here is that a change will cause too many she interacts with at school. What if you turn off the TV, the radio, the phone,
other problems. The U.S. in the late 1970s was supposed to convert to the and go without the Internet for a week? What information would you be
metric system of measurement to operate harmoniously in international without and what effect would it have on you?
transactions. Do we operate on the metric system today? Why or why not?
The chief argument has always been culture lag!

Values and Beliefs: Values are the ideas which people hold important to their
way of life. Laws are made to protect those values. For example, the value of
human life is so important that we have laws to penalize those who commit
murder. Our beliefs, religious or otherwise, create the structure and rules for a
group of people. Americans believe freedom is essential to what it means to
be an American. At times, however, these values and beliefs may in fact keep
us from considering new data in our world. A classic example of this would
be Galileo and the Roman Catholic Church. After studying the stars, Galileo
determined that the Earth rotated around the Sun. The Roman Catholic
Church was of the belief that God created Man in his own image, Man resides
on Earth so the Earth must be the center of all things. Therefore it is the Sun

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1 + 1 = Something New Teaching Activity Guide
Objectives
Students will cite similarities and differences between two objects.
Materials
Students will practice written and verbal skills.
Copies of the following:
Guidelines Pages for one pre-Columbian art object and
1. Select one pre-Columbian object and one Mexican folk art object from the Object Files. Copy the one Mexican folk art object, selected from
corresponding Object File pages and distribute one of each to students. the Object Files (p. 3)

2. Hand out copies of the 1 + 1 = Something New student worksheet. 1 + 1 = Something New (p. 37)

3. Ask students to study the objects, noting similarities and differences on the worksheet.
Vocabulary
4. Ask students to create a new object which combines elements of both objects into one. The new
object should continue to express concepts and ideas of pre-Columbian art and Mexican folk art. pre-Columbian - Refers to the time preceding
the arrival of Christopher Columbus to North
Note: For the art classroom, this creation could be made as a drawing or as a three-dimensional American in 1492. Also used to identify the history
sculpture in clay or found objects. of American indigenous cultures before they
Spanish: Escriba las respuestas en Espaol! were conquered or signigicantly influenced by
Europeans.

Project Reinforcements
Schedule a tour of the art museum. Examine how art has changed through the ages and look
at how styles of one period influence the style of another period.

Create an art display with the new objects (drawings and sculptures) or ask each student to
present their new composition orally, explaining their creative process to the class.

Make a flip book, showing any object transforming into something else. Example: transform
something organic into something inorganic or vice versa.

Have the students apply the same concept to food. Choose two recipes from two different
countries and creatively combine the parts of the recipe to create a new and exciting dish to
share with the class.

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1 + 1 = Something New
Review the Object File pages for two objects, one from the pre-Columbian period and one that is an example of Mexican folk art. Use the columns below to
note the similarities and differences between these objects.

Pre-Columbian Art Object Mexican Folk Art Object


Object Title: Object Title:

Material(s): Material(s):

People or Artist: People or Artist:

Location: Location:

Date of Object: Date of Object:

List below the similarities and differences between these two objects (e.g. color, texture, uses)

Similarities Differences

Create a new object combining aspects from above. On the lines below, write the description of the new object. Be sure to describe the use of this new object.

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Time Capsule Teaching Activity Guide
Objectives
Students will compare ancient artifacts with material possessions commonly used today.
In doing so, they may recognize certain aspects of human culture that persist throughout time. Materials
Copies of the following:
Students will consider the cultural context of or significance behind items used in modern
society. Object Files (p. 3)

Students will practice effective communication skills through writing. Time Capsule (p. 39)
Guidelines
1. Distribute copies of the Time Capsule worksheet.

2. Discuss the use of time capsules. Information about the 1939 World's Fair time capsule (and
another from 1964) is readily available online should you wish to explore the activity further.

3. Students will select three objects from the Object Files. They will then identify similar objects
that are used by people today. This may be done in pairs, small groups, or individually.

4. For each of the three modern day objects, students will provide three descriptive details that
would serve to inform future generations about the item's cultural significance. For example, a
modern day equivalent for an ancient headdress might be a military officer's hat or a baseball
cap featuring a team logo.

Project Reinforcements
Schedule a tour of the art museum to view objects from ancient cultures. Consider what we
know and what remains unknown about these civilizations.

Arrange to meet with an archaeologist or anthropologist to discuss the challenges associated


with identifying ancient artifacts and determining how they were used by their original
owners.

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Time Capsule
We can learn a lot about ancient societies from the artifacts they have left The capsule was filled with dozens of items including: eye glasses, an alarm
behind. By examining items from early burial sites, archaeologists and clock, a child's Mickey Mouse cup, a baseball, deck of cards, silverware, and
anthropologists uncover clues about ancient cultures. Recent generations an assortment of coins.
have attempted to convey cultural information to future generations
Photographs and printed materials including a dictionary, almanac,
through the use of time capsules.
magazines, and newspapers were added to provide further information
The Westinghouse Corporation designed and built a time capsule for the about the world as it existed in 1939.
1939 World's Fair, with the intention that it be opened 5,000 years later.
What would you choose to put in a time capsule?

Your class has been asked to select items to include in a time capsule that will be opened in 500 years.
Select three items from the Object Files to use as inspiration.

For each of the three selected objects, record the following:

the object name

the name of something similar that people use today (a modern-day equivalent)

three cultural aspects of the contemporary object that may be of interest to future civilizations
Object 1
Object Name

Modern-day equivalent

List three things about this modern object that would explain its cultural significance to future generations

1.

2.

3.

continued on page 40
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Time Capsule
continued from page 39

Object 2
Object Name

Modern-day equivalent

List three things about this modern object that would explain its cultural significance to future generations

1.

2.

3.

Object 3
Object Name

Modern-day equivalent

List three things about this modern object that would explain its cultural significance to future generations

1.

2.

3.

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Art or Artifact? You Be The Judge Teaching Activity Guide
Objectives
Students will use analytical skills to discover differences between the definitions of art and
artifact. Materials
Copies of the following:
Students will learn that museums house a variety of objects that help explain the history of art
and culture. Object Files (p. 3)

Art or Artifact? You Be The Judge (p. 42)


Guidelines
1. Students will define the words archaeology, art, artifact, and curator. dictionaries (optional)

2. Provide students with the selected pages from the Object Files. A variety of objects will make the
discussion more interesting. Vocabulary
Archaeology - The scientific study of the life
3. Provide students with a copy of the Art or Artifact? You Be the Judge student worksheet.
and culture of past civilizations, by excavation of
4. Ask students to complete the worksheet and share their results as a class in a discussion setting. ancient cities, relics, and artifacts.

Note: Students can work in small groups or individually. Art - Works produced through the application of
human creative skill and imaginagion.

Project Reinforcements Artifact - Any object made by human work,


especially a simple or primitive tool, weapon,
Schedule a meeting with the Curator of Education or Director of an art museum to learn about
vessel, etc.
the collections policy at the museum.
Curator - The person in charge of exhibitions,
Explore art movements in which design and functionality were being considered together.
research activities, and sometimes personnel in a
Look at the work of William Morris of the Arts and Crafts movement, Frank Lloyd Wright's
museum.
organic architecture, or the ergonomic furniture designs of Charles and Ray Eames.

Ask students to discuss the definitions of folk art and fine art. How are they different? How
are they exhibited differently in museums? How do auction prices differ between folk art and
other types of art.

Visit www.christies.com and/or www.sothebys.com to see how auctions work and how prices
vary on objects for sale.

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Art or Artifact? You Be The Judge

Define the following terms (you may want to use a dictionary):


archaeology

artifact

art

curator

Choose an object from the Object Files. Read the description and respond to the following questions:

1. You are on an archaeological dig funded by a museum and you have uncovered a(n) _______________________________ (title of chosen object) from
________________________ (country of origin). You believe that this object should be placed in an art museum as an artifact. Your project leader is only
looking for pieces that he considers art and might therefore discard this valuable object. He thinks that because it is an artifact, it is not art and the art
museum will not want the object. You begin to explain to him the differences between art and artifact hoping that he will see the artistic value of the object
anyway.

This object is or is not an artifact because:

This objects is or is not art because:

continued on page 43
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Art or Artifact? You Be The Judge
continued from page 42

2. You be the judge. The following objects will be excavated 10,000 years from now. Will these functional pieces and decorative pieces used
today be considered works of art in the future? Tell if each object will qualify as art or artifact. Why?

iPod

20 oz. plastic Mountain Dew bottle

Cell phone

Leonardo da Vincis Mona Lisa

Key chains

La-Z-Boy recliner

3. Imagine that you are a museum curator. A local wealthy art collector would like to donate this object (chosen in question one) to your
collection. Write three statements to convince your director (boss) to accept this donation. In your statements, include the ways in which it
benefits future education and the public.

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Design an Art Gallery Teaching Activity Guide
Objectives
Students will work cooperatively to complete the assignment.
Materials
Students will understand that an undertaking such as an art gallery or art museum requires
more than just an understanding about art. Copies of the following:
Pages from the Object Files (p. 3)
Guidelines
Create an Art Gallery (p. 43)
1. Students may work individually or in small groups.
Two-dimensional:
2. Provide students with copies of the Object Files.
18 x 24 white drawing paper or poster
3. Assign students the task of creating a gallery to display the objects from the Object Files.
board
4. Ask students to create a floor plan, a miniature gallery , or a life-size gallery. The gallery space
Rulers
must include: the objects in the Object Files, an introductory wall label to explain the contents
of the gallery, object labels for each object that will include the label information and a few Three-dimentional:
informative sentences about the objects.
Same as two-dimensional materials
5. You may want to have your students fill the role of a museum employee; for example, the
Clay, cardboard, scrap wood, paper
director, curator, preparator, assistant to the curator, or curator of education.
mache, etc.
Note: It is strongly suggested that the students visit the museum prior to completing this
worksheet and the assignment.

Project Reinforcements
Schedule a meeting with the exhibition preparator. Have the employee guide the students through the museum and possibly the museum storage area.
This will help students understand how an exhibition comes together.

Try making your own life-size art gallery and have a gallery opening. Send out invitations. Serve refreshments. Ask the school jazz band to perform. Create a
gallery guide and even give tours. The artwork in this gallery should be student work. It may be projects that they have completed from this packet or other
classroom work.

Create a mock auction. Use fake money to auction the artwork from this mock art gallery or from other assignments. Go to www.christies.com and/or
www.sothebys.com to see how an auction works.

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Design an Art Gallery
Your task is to create a floor plan for a gallery that will display the items from the Object Files.

Use the checklist below to assist you in planning the gallery space needed.

How many objects will you be displaying?

Which objects will you be using?

Determine which ones should be placed in display cases and which ones should be placed on pedestals. Consider the dimensions of each of the items
in the Object Files.

How many display cases will be needed?

Which objects will be shown in the display cases?

How many display pedestals will be needed?

Which objects will be displayed on pedestals?

With these guidelines, you are now ready to create your gallery floor plan or a miniature model of an art gallery. Your floor plan may be from an aerial view (like
a blueprint) or a perspective view (using a horizon line and one or two vanishing points).

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Do You See What I See? Teaching Activity Guide
Objectives
Students will exercise descriptive writing skills through observation.
Materials
Students will practice communication skills.
Copies of the following:

Guidelines Three pages selected from Object Files (p. 3)

1. Choose three objects from the Object Files. Do You See What I See? (p. 47)

2. Ask students to complete the worksheet. Students will write descriptions for each of the three
objects.

3. Have students read their descriptions and, as a class, they can create a description that best
depicts the objects.

Note: This would make an excellent journal assignment. Por la clase de Espaol: Escriba en
Espaol!

Project Reinforcements
Schedule a visit to the art museum. Look at the works of art and read the labels next to them.
Have students write about how the labels aided their viewing experience.

Write a comparison between two or more objects from the Object Files or the museum.

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Do You See What I See?
Look at three objects from the Object Files. Write a paragraph describing each object, providing enough detail for someone to recognize it.

Be prepared to read your description aloud to the class.

Object #1:

Object #2:

Object #3:

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Hey, Ocarina! Teaching Activity Guide
Objectives
Students will understand how the life and culture of ancient peoples is reflected in their
artwork. Materials
Copies of the following:
Students will analyze possible meanings associated with ancient symbols.
Ocarina Page from the Object Files (p. 3)
Guidelines
Video and book: Clay Whistles: The Voices of
1. Provide students with the Ocarina Object File page.
Clay by Janet Moniot
2. Discover possible meanings of this object by reading the object information and engaging the
Motif suggestions for incising or otherwise
students in conversation about it. Ask them What do you see here? accept all answers. Find
decorating the whistle or ocarina
a system of validating their answers that works in your classroom setting. For example: repeat
back their suggestions to the entire class, write a list as they speak or assign someone to write Clay
student responses on a surface the entire class can see.
Clay tools: dissecting needle, modeling tools,
3. Analyze the motifs used on the object and compare the motifs that other ancient peoples may fettling knife, pencils or dowel rods with on
have used in their artwork. end sharpened to a point.

4. Have students make at least three ocarinas. Provide students with copies of Moniots book, if
you have them, so they may look at the illustrations while they are working. Project Reinforcements
Schedule a visit to the art museum to see the
5. Watch the video (if it is available). ocarina in person.

Listen to music like The Night of the Maya by


composer Sylvester Revultos

Explore websites featuring pre-Columbian


or Mexican folk art. Look for patterns in the
artwork.

Assemble an ocarina band (could be lots of


fun; let students write their own music).

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Every Object Has a Story Teaching Activity Guide
Objectives
Students will exercise creative writing skills.
Materials
Students will use elements of story writing.
Copies of the following:
Object Files (p. 3)
Guidelines
Every Object Has a Story (p. 50)
1. Ask students to select an object from the Object Files.

2. Ask students to write a creative story about the object. Remind students that all good fiction
has elements of reality; encourage students to use information from the Object File sheet so
their story is not entirely fictional.

Note: Students could also create illustrations to go with their story.

Project Reinforcements
Schedule a guided tour of an art museum. Request a tour that focuses on art works that have
strong narratives associated with them.

Publish a catalog of the students' short stories, poetry, and illustrations.

Create a caf setting and have short story readings complete with coffee, cookies, and/or
pastries.

Read other short stories created around objects. Example: The Necklace by Guy de Maupassant.

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Every Object Has a Story
Select an object from the Object Files. Create a story that features this object.

Suggestions for a creative story may include finding an object on an archaeological dig or placing yourself back in time with the object. Perhaps your story will
take place in the present and you have been given the object, or you bought the object, or the object has been passed through your family for generations.
Create a story using information from the Object File page you have chosen and your own observations. Twist: Personify the object and write the story from the
objects point of view!

Object Title:

Material(s):

People or Artist:

Location:

Date:

Look at the object you have chosen and record ten descriptive details.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

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A Picture is Better than 1000 Words Teaching Activity Guide
Objectives
Students will practice visual communication
Materials
Students will explore ancient writings of other cultures.
Copies of the following:
A Picture is Better than 1000 Words (p. 52)
Guidelines
1. Provide each student with the activity worksheet and read the scenario with the students. The Timeline (p. 86)

2. Find examples of ancient Egyptian, Mayan, Chinese, Japanese, and Native American Social Institutions (p. 33) information page
hieroglyphics or characters. Have students find these cultures on the Timeline to give them an
idea of their existence relative to one another. Vocabulary
Hieroglyphs - A picture or symbol representing a
3. Provide students with a copy of Social Institutions. Advise them to read it, then have them word, syllable or sound.
complete the worksheet.
Hieroglyphics - The system of writing in which
Project Reinforcements pictorial symbols are used.

Schedule a visit to an art museum. Students may look for images and colors that act as Linguistics - The science of language; the study
narrative symbols. of the structure and development of a particular
language, and its relationship to other languages.
Look at the work of Diego Rivera and Freda Kahlo; try to find references to Mexican folklore.

Examine the textile designs of Alexander Girard. His designs were largely inspired by the folk Scenario
art of Mexico and South America, which he collected. You are a famous linguistic researcher and
the U.S. government needs your help. A new
colony of people has been discovered and
communication must take place. The spoken and
written languages are different, and therefore we
cannot rely on the use of our alphabet to relay
any messages. The U.S. government has given
you a list of messages which they would like you
to convey. Your task is to create hieroglyphics to
relay the following messages

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A Picture is Better than 1000 Words
You are a famous linguistic researcher and the U.S. government needs your help. A new colony of people has been discovered and communication must take
place. Their spoken and written languages are different from ours, and therefore we cannot rely on the use of our alphabet to relay any messages. The U.S.
government has given you a list of messages which they would like you to convey. Your task is to create hieroglyphs to relay the following messages:

Draw your hieroglyphs in the boxes provided. It may take more than one hieroglyph to get your point across.

Hello or Greetings:

We are friendly:

We live in America:

America is a very large continent:

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A Picture is Better than 1000 Words
continued from page 52

Review the Social Institutions information sheet before creating the hieroglyphs. The following five categories will tell them about the structure of our culture.

Family:

Religion:

Education:

Economics:

Government:

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To Smuggle or Not to Smuggle? Teaching Activity Guide
Objectives
Students will exercise analytical skills.
Materials
Students will demonstrate decision making skills pertaining to an ethical dilemma.
Copies of the following:

Guidelines To Smuggle or Not to Smuggle? (p. 55)

1. Divide students into two or four groups depending on the size of your class, or students may
work individually (possibly as a journal entry).

2. Ask each group or student to read the scenario printed on the worksheet, or read it aloud with
them.

3. Tell students they will elect to defend one of the following positions: acquiring the sculpture or Scenario
opposing the sculpture's acquisition.
You and other members of your group are known
Note: Encourage students to explore websites or other information that might further their as The Friends of the Metropolitan Museum of
knowledge of pre-Columbian art and international laws regarding the exportation of art. Art in Middletown, U.S.A. The director of the
museum has called a meeting with the Friends
Project Reinforcements to pose the following situation: the museum
Schedule a tour of an art museum. Interview the director about art theft. has the opportunity to buy a very important
pre-Columbian sculpture. The director is not
Listen to experts debating similar ethical issues on television or radio programs. In May, 2011,
absolutely certain, but believes the object may
National Public Radio show Morning Edition aired a story about museums and questionable
have been looted from a grave site and smuggled
acquisitions practices titled Chasing Aphrodite and Other Dirty Art World Deals.
into the country. The director is concerned that
Investigate international laws regarding the exporting of art. Look at the Native American the private collector has obtained the sculpture
Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA). Research regulation and eventual banning illegally. The director asks your opinion. Should
of the potlatch ceremonies practiced by Native American groups along the Northwest Coast the museum acquire this work of art at a very
by the Canadian government in 1923. The Elgin Marbles are also a classic example to consider, reasonable price or pass on the purchase?
only these have not been repatriated to Greece.

Assemble a mock court scenario with witnesses, lawyers, a judge, and evidence. Videotape the
trial. Use an invented scenario or research one like the Elgin Marbles as your basis.

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To Smuggle or Not to Smuggle?

Choose a pre-Columbian object from the Object File Pages. Read the following scenario.

Scenario:
You and other members of your group are known as The Friends of the Metropolitan Museum of Art
in Middletown, U.S.A. The director of the museum has called a meeting with the Friends to pose the
following situation:

The museum has the opportunity to buy a very important pre-Columbian sculpture. The director is not
absolutely certain, but believes the object may have been looted from a grave site and smuggled into
the country. The director is concerned that the private collector has obtained the sculpture illegally. The
director asks your opinion. Should the museum acquire this work of art at a very reasonable price or pass
on the purchase?

Defend one of the following positions:


1. Acquire the object

2. Oppose the acquisition of the object

Consider the following when you create your argument:

This important object may be lost to the general public to enjoy if left in the hands of the collector.

If you purchase this object, are you simply encouraging the pillaging of archaeological sites?

If you buy this object and later find it was stolen, what are the obligations of the museum?

Should you consider buying the object and then attempt to sell it back to the country of origin?

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Tree of Life Teaching Activity Guide
Objectives
Students will become acquainted with traditions of other cultures
Materials
Students will examine literary terms.
Copies of the following:

Guidelines Tree of Life: Art (p. 58) or Tree of Life:


Language Arts (p. 57)
Art
Candelabrum (p. 82) page from the Object
1. Read the Object File for the Mexican folk art Candelabrum.
Files
2. Ask students to complete or answer the questions on the worksheet as a way to plan their project.
For a two-dimensional project - drawing
3. Two-Dimensional Project: materials/mixed media and 18 x 24 drawing
paper
Use a variety of drawing materials and mixed media to create a two-dimensional Tree of Life.
For a three-dimensional project - clay,
Students may want to use clippings from newspapers or magazines, possibly creating a collage
modeling tools, tempera paint, and ceramic
or drawing. Or, you could combine the techniques of collage and drawing.
sealer
Three-Dimensional Project:

Although the suggested material for his project is clay, a three-dimensional Tree of Life can be Vocabulary
made from found objects, wire, cardboard, etc.
Concrete Poetry: Poetry in which the text takes
Language Arts on a visual shape. Often this type of poetry cannot
be read aloud because the shape and text are
Use the worksheet and Object File pages to assist the students with constructing a concrete poem.
meant to be read as a visual whole. This is also
called Pattern Poetry or Visual Poetry.
Project Reinforcements
Visit the Image-Sound-Text website to see
Look at the quilts by Faith Ringgold that express African American heritage.
examples of visual poetry.
Study the totem art of northwest Native Americans to gain greater perspective on how cultures
use art to record their family history.

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Tree of Life: Language Arts

Read the Candelabrum Object File Page.

Write a concrete poem using the questions on this sheet as your guide.

Your concrete poem does not have to be in the exact shape of a tree. It may take on any visual shape that relates to
the subject of your poem.

In planning your tree, consider the following:

You will need to choose the content for your Tree of Life. Will it be based on religious ideas or
personal events?

With what event will you start your tree?

With what event will your tree end?

List landmark events and/or moments in your life that relate to the content of your Tree of Life.

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Tree of Life: Art

Read the Candelabrum Object File Page.

Create a Tree of Life using the questions on this sheet as your guide.

Your Tree of Life need not turn out to be in the exact shape of a tree. It may take on any visual shape that relates
to the subject for your Tree of Life.

In planning your poem, consider the following:

You will need to choose the content for your Tree of Life. Will it be based on religious ideas or
personal events?

With what event will you start your tree?

With what event will your tree end?

List landmark events and/or moments in your life that relate to the content of your Tree of Life.

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Twenty Questions: Identity Uncovered Teaching Activity Guide
Objectives
Students will practice analytical skills.
Materials
Students will exercise information gathering techniques.
Copies of the following:
Guidelines
Twenty Questions: Identity Uncovered (p.
1. Write the title of each object from the Object Files on its own slip of paper and place in a
60)
container.
Object Files (p. 3)
2. Pass out the Twenty Questions worksheet. Explain to students that in the game of Twenty
Questions they can ask only yes/no questions, and are limited to twenty questions. wide mouth container

3. Students could formulate questions on their own or as a group. Have students use the 20 slips of paper
worksheet to write down the questions as they ask them and record the yes or no responses.

4. You or one of the students should choose one of the slips of paper. Then, find the object on
the slip of paper in the Object Files, keeping it concealed so the others cannot see it. Acting as
the object, the student will be responsible for answering the twenty questions. (To make the
game more challenging, you may wish to return used slips back into the container so students
cannot eliminate choices as they are used.)

Spanish: Habla Espaol!


Project Reinforcements
Schedule a tour of the art museum to view objects that are currently on view.

Investigate other games people play. Reminisce about childhood games. How could these be used to
convey information?

Explore the Mesoamerican ballgame. Visit The Sport of Life and Death The Mesoamerican Ballgame
web site to learn more and see a game reenactment.

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Twenty Questions: Identity Uncovered
Select one object from the Object Files. Write twenty yes/no questions that will help your classmates identify your selected object. Examples: Are you from South
America? Are you made of clay? Can you be worn by a person?
Question Yes No
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

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X Marks the Spot Teaching Activity Guide
Objectives
Students will become acquainted with the process of planning a trip.
Materials
Students will exercise research skills.
Copies of the following:
Guidelines X Marks the Spot (p. 62)
1. Distribute copies of the worksheet and ask students to choose one or more objects from the
Object Files (p. 3)
Object Files that they find mysterious or interesting.
Object Location Maps for South America,
2. Ask students to complete the worksheet using available resources.
Central America, and Mexico
Note: The assignment will get completed more quickly and might be more fun if the students
Access to the Internet or library resources
use only the Internet. If that resource is not available, they could use a media center, library,
encyclopedia, or interview a local travel agent and pick up some colorful and informative Vocabulary
brochures.
Amenities: Attractive or desirable features of a
Project Reinforcements building or place that add to a persons physical
Schedule a trip to an art museum. See what objects come from the same area. comfort and convenience.

Interview a travel agent.

Investigate different travel magazines or Internet sites.

Plan a school trip to Mexico, Central America, or South America.

Scenario
You are a travel agent and one of your frequent customers, Mrs. Nezbit, needs your assistance. Mrs.
Nezbit has an artifact and a very long story about how it belonged to her Great Aunt Sally who
was a world traveler. Sally was a progressive woman for her time and would have been a famous
archaeologist, except for the fact that her hair had to be in rollers every Friday and her knee highs
would never stay up and she only wore skirts, you know, and the heat of the desertwell . You
politely interrupt and ask if perhaps she would like to visit this objects original location. You will
convince Mrs. Nezbit that seeing the environment from which the object originated would enhance
what she already knows about the past culture and would help her better understand the object.
Your task is to plan an informative and fun trip for Mrs. Nezbit (and maybe Great Aunt Sally).
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X Marks the Spot
Choose an object or objects from the Object Files and read the following scenario:

You are a travel agent and one of your frequent customers, Mrs. Nezbit, needs your assistance. Mrs. Nezbit has an artifact and a very
long story about how it belonged to her Great Aunt Sally who was a world traveler. Sally was a progressive woman for her time and
would have been a famous archaeologist, except for the fact that her hair had to be in rollers every Friday and her knee highs would
never stay up and she only wore skirts, you know, and the heat of the desertwell . You politely interrupt and ask if perhaps she
would like to visit this objects original location. You will convince Mrs. Nezbit that seeing the environment from which the object
originated would enhance what she already knows about the past culture and would help her better understand the object. Your task is
to plan an informative and fun trip for Mrs. Nezbit (and maybe Great Aunt Sally).

Object Title:

Material:

People or Artist:

Location:

Date of Object:

Planning the Trip

Where is Mrs. Nezbit going? Location.

At what airport will she land?

What airlines could she use?

In what season of the year does Mrs. Nezbit wish to travel?

What is the best season to visit this location?

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X Marks the Spot
continued from page 62

Where will Mrs. Nezbit stay while visiting?

What amenities accompany these accommodations?

How long will she be visiting?

How would she go about getting a passport?

Are there any bus tours available?

How much do bus tours cost?

What museums will Mrs. Nezbit visit?

How much do the museum entrance fees cost?

What archaeological sites will Mrs. Nezbit visit?

What kinds of foods might she eat?

What will the weather be like during her visit?

What kinds of clothing should Mrs. Nezbit pack?

Are there any points of interest or local specialties (food, clothing, art)?

Are there any tourist advisories for this area?

Approximately how much will it cost to take this trip?

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Image Gallery

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Image Gallery Stirrup Vessel

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Image Gallery Ocarina

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Image Gallery Jaguar/Man Mask

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Image Gallery Jaguar Effigy Jar

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Image Gallery Effigy Metate and Mano

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Image Gallery Vase

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Image Gallery Tripod Cylinder Vase

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Image Gallery Pendant

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Image Gallery Center Marker from a Ball Court

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Image Gallery Palma with Standing Figure

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Image Gallery Hacha in the Form of a Jaguar Head

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Image Gallery Knee Guard (Yuguito) with Twisted Human Face

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Image Gallery Yoke

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Image Gallery Head of Huehueteotl, the Aged Fire God

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Image Gallery Xipe Totec (God of Flayed Skin)

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Image Gallery Male and Female Figures

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Image Gallery Standing Male Figures

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Image Gallery Candelabrum

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Image Gallery Jaguar Face Mask

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Image Gallery Pagan Mask

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Image Gallery Three Kings on Horses

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Timeline

continued on page 87
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Timeline
continued from page 86

continued on page 88
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Timeline
continued from page 87

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Timeline (expanded form)
Indiana Curriculum Standards
Activity Name English Language Arts Social Studies World Languages: Visual Arts
Spanish (9-12)
Introductory Exercise: 6.2.3, 6.7.17 6.1.1, 6.1.2, 6.1.18, 6.1.20, 6.1.21, 9.1.4, 9.1.8, 9.2.1, 9.3.5, 9.4.2, 9.4.3, 6-8.RT.4
6.1.22, 6.1.23, 6.1.24, 6.3.4, 6.3.10, 9.5.1, 9.5.2, 9.6.1, 9.6.2, 9.7.2, 9.7.7
Art and Culture 7.2.2, 7.7.12 6.3.11, 6.3.14 6.1.1, 6.1.7, 6.3.2, 6.4.3, 6.5.2
10.1.4, 10.1.8, 10.2.1, 10.3.5, 10.4.2,
8.7.15 WG.2.2, WG.2.3 10.4.3, 10.4.5, 10.5.1, 10.5.2, 10.6.1, 7.1.1, 7.1.3, 7.1.6, 7.2.2, 7.3.2, 7.4.3
10.6.2, 10.7.2
9.2.3, 9.7.7 WH.1.2, WH.1.3, WH.2.3, WH.3.15, 8.1.1, 8.1.3, 8.1.6, 8.3.2, 8.4.3
WH.3.16, WH.6.1, WH.6.7, WH.9.1, 11.1.2, 11.1.6, 11.2.1, 11.4.1, 11.4.2,
10.2.2, 10.7.7 H.1.1, H.1.2, H.1.3, H.2.1, H.2.2, H.3.2,
WH.9.2 11.4.3, 11.4.4, 11.4.7, 11.5.1, 11.5.2,
H.5.3, H.8.1
11.7.17 11.6.1, 11.6.2, 11.7.2

12.7.17 12.1.1, 12.1.2, 12.1.6, 12.2.1, 12.4.1,


12.4.2, 12.4.3, 12.4.4, 12.4.5, 12.5.1,
12.5.2, 12.6.1, 12.6.2, 12.7.2

1 + 1 = Something New 6.5.2, 6.5.7, 6.6.1, 6.6.2, 6.6.4, 6.6.5, 9.2.1, 9.3.4, 9.3.5, 9.4.2, 9.5.1, 9.6.1, 6.1.1, 6.1.7, 6.6.1, 6.6.3, 6.7.4, 6.8.2
6.6.6 9.6.2, 9.7.2, 9.8.3
7.1.1, 7.1.2, 7.1.3, 7.1.6, 7.6.3, 7.7.4,
7.4.3, 7.5.7, 7.6.8, 7.6.10 10.1.8, 10.2.1, 10.3.5, 10.4.2, 10.5.1, 7.8.2, 7.8.4
10.6.1, 10.6.2, 10.7.2
8.2.5, 8.2.9, 8.5.7, 8.6.1, 8.6.5, 8.6.6, 8.1.1, 8.1.6, 8.2.2, 8.6.1, 8.6.3, 8.7.4,
8.6.7 11.1.6, 11.2.1, 11.4.2, 11.5.1, 11.6.1, 8.8.2
11.6.2
9.2.8, 9.4.6, 9.5.3, 9.5.8, 9.6.1, 9.6.2, H.1.2, H.2.1, H.6.2, H.6.4, H.7.3, H.8.1
9.6.3 12.1.3, 12.1.6, 12.2.1, 12.3.2, 12.4.2,
12.5.2, 12.6.1, 12.6.2
10.2.2, 10.2.5, 10.4.3, 10.5.3, 10.5.7,
10.5.8, 10.6.1, 10.6.3

11.5.4, 11.5.6, 11.6.1, 11.6.2, 11.6.4

12.5.6, 12.6.1, 12.6.2, 12.6.4

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Activity Name English Language Arts Social Studies World Languages: Visual Arts
Spanish (9-12)
Time Capsule 6.2.3, 6.2.7, 6.5.2, 6.5.7, 6.6.1, 6.6.4, WH.9.2, WH.9.5 9.2.1, 9.3.4, 9.3.5, 9.4.2, 9.5.1, 9.5.2, 6-8.WT.1, 6-8.WT.7, 6-8.WT.9
6.6.5 9.6.1, 9.6.2, 9.8.3
GHW.1.4, GHW.4.4 6.1.1, 6.1.3, 6.3.2, 6.4.3, 6.8.1
7.2.2, 7.4.3, 7.5.7, 7.6.5, 7.6.8, 7.6.9, 10.1.8, 10.2.1, 10.2.3, 10.3.4, 10.3.5,
7.6.10 10.4.1, 10.4.2, 10.4.4, 10.5.1, 10.5.2, 7.1.1,7.1.2, 7.1.3, 7.3.2, 7.4.3
10.6.1, 10.7.2
8.2.5, 8.2.9, 8.4.11, 8.5.4, 8.5.6, 8.5.7, 8.1.1, 8.3.1, 8.3.2, 8.4.3
8.6.1, 8.6.5, 8.6.6, 8.6.7, 11.1.3,11.1.6, 11.2.1, 11.3.4, 11.4.1,
H.1.1, H.1.2, H.1.3, H.2.1, H.3.1, H.3.2
11.4.2, 11.4.4, 11.4.6, 11.4.7, 11.5.1,
9.2.3, 9.2.8, 9.4.3, 9.4.4, 9.4.6, 9.5.4, 11.5.2, 11.6.1, 11.6.2, 11.7.2, 11.7.5
9.5.7, 9.5.8, 9.6.1, 9.6.2, 9.6.3
12.1.3, 12.1.6, 12.2.1, 12.3.4, 12.4.1,
10.2.2, 10.2.5, 10.4.3, 10.4.6, 10.5.3, 12.4.2, 12.4.4, 12.4.6, 12.5.1, 12.5.2,
10.5.4, 10.5.7, 10.5.8, 10.6.1, 10.6.2, 12.6.1, 12.6.2, 12.7.5, 12.7.6
10.6.3

11.4.2,11.4.3, 11.4.4, 11.5.4, 11.5.6,


11.6.1, 11.6.2, 11.6.4

12.2.3, 12.4.3, 12.4.4, 12.5.4, 12.5.6,


12.6.1, 12.6.2, 12.6.4

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Indiana Curriculum Standards
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Activity Name English Language Arts Social Studies World Languages: Visual Arts
Spanish (9-12)
Art or Artifact? You Be 6.1.5, 6.2.3, 6.2.7, 6.4.1, 6.4.3, 6.5.2, 6.1.20, 6.3.11 9.1.3, 9.2.1, 9.2.4, 9.3.4, 9.3.5, 9.4.2, 6-8.WT.1, 6-8.WT.9
6.5.5, 6.5.6, 6.5.7, 6.6.1, 6.6.2, 6.6.4, 9.5.1, 9.5.2, 9.6.1, 9.6.2, 9.7.2, 9.7.7,
The Judge 6.6.5, 6.6.6 WH.9.2, WH.9.4, WH.9.6 9.8.3 6.1.1, 6.3.2, 6.4.3, 6.5.2, 6.5.3

7.1.3, 7.4.3, 7.5.4, 7.5.7, 7.6.5, 7.6.7, 10.1.8, 10.2.1, 10.3.2, 10.3.4, 10.3.5, 7.1.1, 7.1.3, 7.1.6, 7.3.1, 7.3.2, 7.4.2,
7.6.8, 7.6.9, 7.6.10 10.4.3, 10.4.2, 10.4.4, 10.4.5, 10.5.1, 7.4.3, 7.5.3
10.5.2, 10.6.1, 10.6.2, 10.8.2
8.2.9, 8.4.1, 8.4.2, 8.4.3, 8.5.4, 8.5.6, 8.1.1, 8.1.2, 8.1.3, 8.3.1, 8.3.2, 8.4.2,
8.5.7, 8.6.1, 8.6.5, 8.6.6, 8.6.7 11.1.2, 11.1.3, 11.1.6, 11.2.1, 11.3.2, 8.4.3, 8.5.2, 8.5.3
11.3.4, 11.4.2, 11.4.4, 11.4.6, 11.4.7,
9.2.3, 9.2.4, 9.2.8, 9.4.1, 9.4.3, 9.4.6, H.1.2, H.2.3, H.4.2, H.5.1, H.5.3
11.5.1, 11.5.2, 11.6.1, 11.6.2
9.5.3, 9.5.4, 9.5.7, 9.6.1, 9.6.2, 9.6.3
12.1.2, 12.1.3, 12.1.6, 12.2.1, 12.3.2,
10.2.2, 10.2.5, 10.4.1, 10.4.3, 10.4.6, 12.3.4, 12.4.1, 12.4.2, 12.4.4, 12.4.6,
10.5.3, 10.5.4, 10.5.7, 10.6.1, 10.6.2, 12.5.1, 12.5.2, 12.6.1, 12.6.2
10.6.3

11.4.1, 11.4.3, 11.4.4, 11.5.6, 11.5.9,


11.6.1, 11.6.2, 11.6.4

12.4.1, 12.4.3, 12.4.4, 12.5.6, 12.5.9,


12.6.1, 12.6.2, 12.6.4

Design an Art Gallery 6-8.RT.3, 6-8.WT.7

7.1.2, 7.8.4

8.1.6

H.5.2, H.6.2, H.8.1, H.8.3

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Activity Name English Language Arts Social Studies World Languages: Visual Arts
Spanish (9-12)
Do You See What I See? 6.2.7, 6.5.2, 6.5.7, 6.6.4, 6.6.5, 6.7.17 9.1.8, 9.2.1, 9.3.2, 9.3.3, 9.3.4, 9.3.5, 6.3.2
9.4.2, 9.5.1, 9.6.1, 9.6.2, 9.7.2
7.2.7, 7.4.3, 7.5.7, 7.6.5, 7.6.8, 7.6.9, 7.3.2
7.7.12 10.1.8, 10.2.1, 10.3.2, 10.3.3, 10.3.4,
10.3.5, 10.4.2, 10.5.1, 10.6.1, 10.6.2, 8.3.2
8.2.9, 8.5.6, 8.5.7, 8.6.1, 8.6.5, 8.6.6, 10.7.2
8.6.7, 8.7.15 H.3.2
11.1.2, 11.1.3, 11.1.6, 11.2.1, 11.3.2,
9.2.8, 9.4.3, 9.5.3, 9.5.7, 9.5.8, 9.6.1, 11.3.3, 11.3.4, 11.4.2, 11.5.1, 11.6.1,
9.6.2, 9.6.3, 9.7.15 11.6.2, 11.7.2
10.2.2, 10.2.5, 10.4.3, 10.5.3, 10.5.7, 12.1.2, 12.1.3, 12.1.6, 12.2.1, 12.3.3,
10.5.8, 10.6.1, 10.6.2, 10.6.3, 10.7.15 12.3.4, 12.6.1, 12.6.2, 12.7.2
11.4.3, 11.5.6, 11.5.9, 11.6.1, 11.6.2,
11.6.4

12.4.3,12.5.6, 12.5.9, 12.6.1, 12.6.2,


12.6.4

Hey, Ocarina! 6-8.RT.1, 6-8.RT.4

6.1.7, 6.6.1, 6.6.3, 6.7.1, 6.7.3, 6.7.4

7.6.1, 7.7.1, 7.7.3, 7.7.4

8.1.1, 8.2.2, 8.3.2, 8.6.1, 8.6.3, 8.6.4,


8.7.1, 8.7.3, 8.7.4

H.1.1, H.1.2, H.3.1, H.3.2, H.6.1, H.6.4,


H.7.1, H.7.3, H.8.1

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Indiana Curriculum Standards
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Activity Name English Language Arts Social Studies World Languages: Visual Arts
Spanish (9-12)
Every Object Has a 6.4.2, 6.4.5, 6.4.8, 6.4.9, 6.4.10, 6.5.1, 6.1.7
6.5.6, 6.6.1, 6.6.2, 6.6.3, 6.6.4, 6.6.5,
Story 6.6.6 7.3.2

7.4.4, 7.4.8, 7.4.9, 7.4.10, 7.5.6, 7.6.1, 8.3.2


7.6.5, 7.6.8, 7.6.9, 7.6.10
H.3.2
8.4.7, 8.4.8, 8.4.9, 8.4.10, 8.5.1, 8.5.6,
8.6.1, 8.6.5, 8.6.6, 8.6.7

9.4.3, 9.4.10, 9.4.11, 9.4.12, 9.4.13,


9.5.1, 9.5.7, 9.6.2, 9.6.3

10.4.3, 10.4.10, 10.5.1,10.5.7, 10.6.1,


10.6.2, 10.6.3

11.4.3, 11.4.6, 11.4.10, 11.4.11,


11.4.12, 11.6.1, 11.6.2, 11.6.4

12.4.3, 12.4.6, 12.4.10, 12.4.11,


12.4.12, 12.5.1, 12.5.6, 12.6.1, 12.6.2,
12.6.4

A Picture is Better Than 7.1.3 6-8.RT.4


a Thousand Words WH.9.2, WH.9.4 6.6.1, 6.6.3, 6.7.1, 6.7.3, 6.7.4., 6.8.2

7.1.2, 7.1.3, 7.6.1, 7.6.2, 7.6.3, 7.7.1,


7.7.3, 7.7.4

8.1.3, 8.1.6, 8.6.1, 8.6.2, 8.6.3, 8.7.1,


8.7.2, 8.7.3, 8.7.4, 8.8.2

H.1.1, H.1.2, H.1.3, H.6.2, H.6.3, H.7.1,


H.7.2, H.7.3, H.8.2

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Activity Name English Language Arts Social Studies World Languages: Visual Arts
Spanish (9-12)
To Smuggle or Not to 6.2.3, 6.7.4, 6.7.5, 6.7.6, 6.7.13, 6.7.14 6.1.24 6-8.WT.1, 6-8.WT.7, 6-8.WT.9,
Smuggle 7.2.2, 7.7.3, 7.7.4, 7.7.5, 7.7.11 WH.9.2, WH.9.4, WH.9.5, WH.9.6 6.1.1, 6.4.3

8.2.5, 8.7.2, 8.7.4, 8.7.5, 8.7.13 7.1.1, 7.1.6, 7.4.3

9.2.3, 9.2.4, 9.7.6, 9.7.7, 9.7.18 8.1.1, 8.1.6, 8.4.3, 8.5.2, 8.5.3

10.2.2, 10.7.2, 10.7.3, 10.7.6, 10.7.18 H.5.3

11.2.3, 11.7.4, 11.7.6, 11.7.17

12.2.3, 12.7.4, 12.7.6, 12.7.17

Tree of Life: Language 6.4.1, 6.5.6, 6.6.5


Arts 7.4.1, 7.5.1, 7.5.6, 7.6.9

8.4.1, 8.5.1, 8.5.6, 8.6.7

9.4.1, 9.4.3, 9.5.1, 9.5.7, 9.6.3

10.4.1, 10.4.3, 10.5.1, 10.5.7, 10.6.3

11.4.1, 11.5.1, 11.5.6, 11.6.2

12.4.1, 12.5.1, 12.5.3, 12.5.6, 12.6.2

Tree of Life: Art 6.1.1, 6.6.1, 6.6.2, 6.6.3, 6.7.3, 6.7.4

7.6.1, 7.6.2, 7.6.3, 7.7.3, 7.7.4

8.6.1, 8.6.2, 8.6.3, 8.7.3, 8.7.4

H.6.2, H.6.3, H.7.2, H.8.1

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Activity Name English Language Arts Social Studies World Languages: Visual Arts
Spanish (9-12)
Twenty Questions: 6.2.7, 6.6.1, 6.6.4, 6.6.5 WG.1.7 9.1.6, 9.1.8, 9.2.1, 9.3.2, 9.3.3, 9.3.4, 6.3.2
9.3.5, 9.4.2, 9.5.1, 9.6.1, 9.6.2, 9.7.2
Identity Uncovered 7.2.7, 7.6.8, 7.6.9 WH.9.2, WH.9.5 7.3.2
10.1.6, 10.1.8, 10.2.1, 10.3.2, 10.3.3,
8.2.9, 8.6.5, 8.6.6, 8.6.7 10.3.4, 10.3.5, 10.4.2, 10.5.1, 10.6.1, 8.3.2
10.6.2, 10.7.2
9.2.3, 9.2.8, 9.6.3 H.3.2
11.1.2, 11.1.3, 11.1.6, 11.2.1, 11.3.2,
10.2.5, 10.6.3
11.3.3, 11.3.4, 11.4.2, 11.5.1, 11.6.1,
11.6.1, 11.6.2 11.7.2

12.6.1, 12.6.2 12.1.2, 12.1.3, 12.1.6, 12.2.1, 12.3.3,


12.3.4, 12.4.2, 12.5.2, 12.6.1, 12.6.2,
12.7.2

X Marks the Spot 6.1.4, 6.2.4, 6.4.5, 6.4.6, 6.5.3, 6.5.7, 6.1.23 9.1.6, 9.2.1, 9.3.4, 9.5.2, 9.6.1, 9.6.2,
6.6.1, 6.6.4, 6.6.5 9.7.2, 9.7.3
WG.1.7
7.2.2, 7.4.5, 7.5.3, 7.5.7, 7.6.5, 7.6.8, 10.1.4, 10.1.5, 10.1.6, 10.6.2, 10.1.8,
7.6.9 10.2.1, 10.2.2, 10.3.4, 10.5.2, 10.6.1,
10.7.2, 10.7.3
8.2.5, 8.2.9, 8.4.11, 8.5.3, 8.5.6, 8.5.7,
8.6.5, 8.6.6, 8.6.7 11.1.3, 11.1.6, 11.2.1, 11.2.2, 11.3.4,
11.5.2, 11.6.1, 11.6.2, 11.7.2, 11.7.3
9.2.4, 9.4.3, 9.4.4, 9.4.6, 9.5.8, 9.5.9,
9.6.1, 9.6.2, 9.6.3 12.1.3, 12.1.6, 12.2.1, 12.2.2, 12.3.4,
12.5.2, 12.6.1, 12.6.2, 12.7.2, 12.7.3
10.4.3, 10.4.4, 10.4.6, 10.5.7, 10.5.9,
10.6.1, 10.6.2, 10.6.3

11.2.3, 11.4.7, 11.4.8, 11.5.6, 11.5.10,


11.6.1, 11.6.2

12.4.7, 12.4.8, 12.5.6, 12.5.10, 12.6.1,


12.6.2, 12.6.4

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Acknowledgments

Many thanks to current and former staff of the David Owsley Museum of Art, Ball State University for their
contributions to the development of this educational resource.

Peter Blume, director

Nicole Cardassilaris, former education intern

Nancy Huth, former assistant director and curator of education

Tania Said, director of education

Written by Nicole Cardassilaris, Ellen Hendricks (1952-2010), and Cathy Bretz

Photography by Steve Talley

Designed and edited by Cathy Bretz, education program coordinator, David Owsley Museum of Art

Much appreciation to local educators for their expertise in reviewing the text.

Karen Dowling, instructor of Spanish and education, Taylor University, Upland, Indiana

Patricia Ervin, instructor of geography, economics and U.S. history, Delta High School, Muncie, Indiana

Britt Husman, instructor of visual arts, Southside High School, Muncie, Indiana
Stacy Morton, instructor of visual arts, Burris Laboratory School, Muncie, Indiana

Judith Sponseller, instructor of Spanish, Burris Laboratory School, Muncie, Indiana

Art and Culture of Latin America David Owsley Museum of Art | EDUCATIONAL RESOURCE PACKET 100