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Welcome!

How to be an Expert in Process


Pipe & Pipe Fittings

1
You will learn

What is Process piping & important


What is Code, Standard & Specification
Piping Components use in process
piping such as Pipe, Pipe Fittings,
Branch connection, Flanges, Gasket
and Bolting.

4
You will learn
Materials (Metal, Non-Metal)
Manufacturing methods
Inspection and Testing requirements
Dimensions & Markings requirements
Code & Standard used
Common terminology used in industry
And much more.
5
Best way to move forward.
Watch Video tutorial
Solve quizzed at the end of lecture
If available
Check applicable Code & Standard
Check QA/QC & Inspection documents
Go and visit site and experience real materials

6
Ideal for.
Student who want career in Oil & Gas
or other process Industry
Career changer in Oil & Gas or other
process Industry
Construction professional working such
as Pipe fitter, welder, fabricator,
piping supervisor etc.
7
Ideal for.

Professional working in different


discipline such as operation,
maintenance, instrument, electrical,
administrative or any other field
This course does not covering Piping
System Design, fabrication and site
installation activities.

8
What we have learned?
About your tutor
Overview of course & What is
ahead in course
Why this course is ideal choices
for you
How you will maximize you
learning

9
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1
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How to be an Expert in Pipe & Fittings for Oil & Gas
career
You can boost your Oil & Gas Career in Just $10.
Huge 90% discount on Pipe & Pipe Fitting Course.
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oil-gas-career/?couponCode=FB10

2
Process
Piping
Source: Piping Component G_FORDHAM

By: Varun Patel, B.E- Mechanical, PMP


1
Process Industries

Source: Pixabay.com
2
What is Process Piping ?
Piping:
Assembly of piping components used to
convey, distribute, mix, separate,
discharge, meter, control, or stop fluid
flows.
Piping Systems:
Interconnected piping subject to the
same sets of design conditions.

5
What is Process Piping ?
Process:
A series of activities performed in
particular ordered to convert raw
material into an useful product
Process Piping is interconnected
piping used in process industries to
convert raw material in to useful
products.

6
What is Process Piping ?
A Piping under the purview
of ASME Code - B31.3 is
Process Piping
A Process Piping Systems
are design as per the
guidelines given in ASME
B31.3

7
ASME B31.3 Process Fluid Service
Category D Fluid Service
The fluid is nonflammable, nontoxic, and not damaging to
human tissue.
The design pressure does not exceed 150 psig (1035 kPa).
The design temperature is between -29C and 186C.
Category M Fluid Service
a fluid service in which the potential for personnel
exposure is judged to be significant and in which a single
exposure to a very small quantity of a toxic fluid, caused
by leakage, can produce serious irreversible harm to
persons on breathing or bodily contact, even when prompt
restorative measures are taken

10
Types of ASME B31.3 Process Fluid
High Pressure Fluid Service
High pressure fluids are those in which the Owner has
specified that the pressures will be in excess of that
allowed by the ASME B16.5 PN420 (Class 2500) rating for
the specified design temperature and material group.
Normal Fluid Service
Everything else that does not cover under Category D,
Category M and High Pressure fluid service.
ASME B31.3 covers most of the process fluid in this
Category
Gauge

11
Types of Process Fluid in Oil & Gas
Process fluid are mainly
classified as following;
Mainly Hydrocarbons services,
starting from Crude oil to final
distilled products

Gas such as Hydrogen, Nitrogen,


Oxygen and Instrument air etc..

Chemicals for dosing such as


chlorine, anti corrosion liquid
etc..

12
Property of Process fluid use in Oil & Gas

Flammable
Corrosive
Explosives
Volatile
Reactive
Hazardous to
human health
13
Material for process fluids
To handle different kind of process fluids in
different physical and chemical environments we
need different kind of piping materials.

Material that are able to withstand under various


design condition are chosen from based on many
process parameters.

Lets learn about these types of material in next


lecture

14
What we have learned?
Pipe
Pipe fittings / components
Piping / Piping System
Process Piping

8
Code,
Standard &
Specification

1
What is Code, Standard & Specification ?
Standard
A standard can be defined as a set of
technical definitions and guidelines-how
to" instructions for designers and
manufacturers.
They serve as a common language to
defining quality and establishing safety
criteria.
Examples- ASTM standard, ISO standard.
2
What is Code, Standard & Specification ?
Why Standard is required ?
Standards are documents that establish
engineering or technical requirements
for products, practices, methods or
operations.
Build confidence about quality in users
Lower the cost of production as
requirements are standardize

3
What is Code, Standard & Specification ?
Code: A code is a standard that has
been adopted by one or more
governmental bodies and has the
force of law, or when it has been
incorporated into a business
contract

4
What is Code, Standard & Specification ?
Specification
Must meet requirements
Examples- Company Provided
specification, Product
specification

8
Piping Code & Standard
Provide a set of requirements for a safe,
reliable and economical installation and
operation throughout the life of process
plant
Provide consistent dimensions and ratings
so that components will fit together
Improve system reliability
Cost saving
9
ASME B31.3 Process Piping Code
ASME B31.3 Code Covers
Requirements for materials
Components,
Design,
Fabrication, assembly, erection,
Examination, inspection, and
testing of piping.

10
Dimension standard
Dimension Standard cover
Different standard for different components gives
product specific requirements
Pipe
Pipe sizes, inside and outside diameters, wall thickness,
schedules, end types, permissible variance, markings and
weight of pipe
ASME B36.10 - Welded & Seamless wrought iron pipes
ASME B36.19 - Stainless steel pipes
15
Dimension standard
Pipe Fittings
sizes, inside and outside diameters, wall thickness,
ratings, end preparation, various tolerances and marking
requirements
Butt welded fittings;
ASME B16.9 - Factory-Made Wrought Butt welding Fittings
ASME B16.28 - Wrought Steel Butt Welding Short Radius Elbows
and Returns
Socket & Threaded fittings
ASME B16.11- Forged Steel Fittings, Socket-Welding and Threaded
16
Dimension standard
Flange:
Pressure-temperature ratings, materials, various flange
dimensions, tolerances, marking. Flange bolting dimension and
gasket requirements are also included
NPS through NPS 24
ASME B16.5 - Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings
NPS 26 through NPS 60
ASME B16.47 - Large Diameter Steel Flanges

17
Dimension standard
Branch connection
Pressure-temperature ratings, size and types, materials,
dimensions, tolerances, marking and testing
MSS SP-97

Bolting
Included in Flange dimension standard
ASME B16.5 /B16.47

18
Dimension standard
Gasket:
Materials, dimensions, tolerances, and markings for metal
ring-joint gaskets, spiral-wound metal gaskets, and metal
jacketed gaskets and type of filler material used
ASME B16.20 - Metallic Gaskets for Pipe Flanges-Ring-
Joint, Spiral-Would, and Jacketed
ASME B16.21- Nonmetallic Flat Gaskets for Pipe Flanges

19
What we have learned?
Code, Standard &
Specification and why they
are required
Design standard
Material standard
Dimension standard
20
End of Lecture
Good Luck!
See you
in next lecture

21
Piping
Materials
Selection
Wiki Common user: Alexander AlUS

By: Varun Patel, B.E- Mechanical, PMP


1
Piping Material Selection Criteria
Process condition will impact selection of material
Service Fluids
Corrosive - Sea Water, H2S, Ammonia, Acids etc..
Non-Corrosive Lube oil, Air, Nitrogen etc.
Temperature
Cryogenic
Low temperature
Medium temperature
High temperature
2
Piping Material Selection Criteria
Process condition will impact selection of material
High or Low Pressure
Others factor that also considered
Cost
Availability
Weldability
Manufacturability

3
Piping Material Selection Criteria
Material property that considered before selection
Ultimate Tensile Strength
Yield Strength
Elasticity
% Elongation
Hardness
Toughness
Creep resistance
Fatigue Resistance
4
Classification of Piping Material
Piping Material

Metal Non-Metal Lined /Clad

Ferrous Non-Ferrous PVC / CPVC Rubber Lined

Cast Iron Copper Alloy HDPE PTFE Lined

Carbon Steel Nickel Alloy GRP/GRE FRP Lined

Aluminum
Alloy Steel Cement Glass Lined
Alloy

Stainless Steel Other Alloy Cement Lined


5
What we have learned?

Pipe material selection


criteria
Design condition
Property of material
Classification of piping
material

6
End of Lecture
Good Luck!
See you
in next lecture

7
Ferrous
Metal
Wiki Common user: Alexander AlUS

By: Varun Patel, B.E- Mechanical, PMP


1
Ferrous Metal
Metal which contains more iron than any other
single element falls under ferrous metal.
They are divided in following categories
Cast iron / Cast Steel
Carbon Steel
Stainless Steel
Alloy Steel
Fe
Iron

2
Carbon Steel
It can further classified as under
Law carbon steel: Carbon - 0.05% to 0.25%
Medium Carbon Steel: Carbon - 0.25% to 0.5%
High Carbon Steel: Carbon - 0.5% to less than 2%

7
Carbon Steel
Commonly use carbon steel grade in Process piping
Pipe: ASTM A53 Gr A/B, A106 Gr A/B/C, API 5L Gr B
Wrought Fittings: ASTM A234 Gr.WPA/B, A420
Gr.WPL6
Forged Fittings: ASTM A105, A350 Gr LF1/LF2, A181

8
What you have learned?
Cast iron and Cast Steel
Carbon Steel & its Alloying
elements
Classification of carbon Steel
Common material grade for
carbon steel

9
End of Lecture
Good Luck!
See you
in next lecture

10
Alloy
Steel
Wiki Common user: Alexander AlUS

By: Varun Patel, B.E- Mechanical, PMP


1
Alloy Steel
Adding of alloying elements to improve the
characteristics of the material is termed as Alloy
Steel
Low alloy steel :Alloying elements < 5%
High alloy steel :Alloying elements > 5%

2
What you have learned?
Alloy Steel
Alloying elements
Purpose of Alloying elements
Use of Alloy Steel & common
grades

6
End of Lecture
Good Luck!
See you
in next lecture

7
Stainless
Steel
Wiki Common user: Alexander AlUS

By: Varun Patel, B.E- Mechanical, PMP


1
Stainless Steel
A steel with a minimum chromium content of 10.5 %
or more, and a maximum carbon content of less than
1.20%

2
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1
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Huge 90% discount on Pipe & Pipe Fitting Course.
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2
What you have learned?
What is Stainless Steel
Properties of Stainless Steel
Types of Stainless steel

5
End of Lecture
Good Luck!
See you
in next lecture

6
Stainless Steel Types
Duplex stainless steel
Contain both Austenite & Ferrite in microstructure
Offer benefits of both Austenite & Ferrite stainless steel
Good resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion
high strength and high resistance to stress corrosion
cracking
EX- UNS S32205, S31803, S32760
Used in sea water system, heat exchanger, structural
application etc.

11
Non-ferrous
Metal
Wiki Common user: Alexander AlUS

By: Varun Patel, B.E- Mechanical, PMP


1
Non-ferrous Metal
Contains no iron or insignificant amount
Metal such as Aluminum, Copper, Nickel, Titanium etc.
Material used in Process Ind.
Copper and Copper Alloys
Nickel and Nickel Alloys
Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys
Titanium and Titanium Alloys
Zirconium and Zirconium Alloys

2
What you have learned?
Non-ferrous Metal
Types of metal used in
Process Piping
Properties of these materials

8
End of Lecture
Good Luck!
See you
in next lecture

9
Non- Metallic
Material
Wiki Common user: Alexander AlUS

By: Varun Patel, B.E- Mechanical, PMP


1
Non Metallic Material
Commonly used non-metallic piping materials
PVC / CPVC
HDPE
GRE/GRP
Cement
These non metallic material offer some great
advantage over metallic piping but also have
some limitation.

2
PVC / CPVC

PVC / CPVC
PVC Polyvinyl Chloride
CPVC - Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride (higher strength at
elevated temperatures than PVC)
Tough and exceptionally resistant to chemical
attack

3
PVC / CPVC

PVC , CPVC required protection form ultraviolet


exposure if installed outdoor.
Start softening when subjected to high temperature.

4
PVC / CPVC
Pipe are manufactured by Extrusion process
Fittings, flanges and valves are manufactured by
injection moulding
Has many application in industries and in home
water piping.

5
What you have learned?
Types of Non Metallic Material
and their uses
Overview of properties and
Manufacturing methods

11
End of Lecture
Good Luck!
See you
in next lecture

12
Lined / Clad
Material
Wiki Common user: Alexander AlUS

By: Varun Patel, B.E- Mechanical, PMP


1
Lined Pipe
Mechanical bonding between pipe and line material
To get the benefit of anti-corrosion property of lined
material and strength of carbon steel
Commonly used lined material are
PTFE
Rubber
Glass
FRP (Fiber reinforced plastic)

2
What you have learned?
What is lined pipe
What is clad pipe
Types of lining / cladding
material
Advantage and limitation

6
End of Lecture
Good Luck!
See you
in next lecture

7
Pipe

Varun Patel, B.E- Mechanical, PMP


1
Pipe
A straight pressure tight cylindrical hallow,
used in piping system
Different types of pipes used in different design
conditions, considering technical and
commercial parameters
Pipes are mainly classified as follow ;

2
Pipe
Pipes are mainly classified as below;

Single
Seam
Straight
Seamless
SAW
Double
Pipe SAW
Seam
Helical/Spiral
Welded
SAW
ERW/EFW

3
Pipe Size
Pipe size are mentioned as nominal pipe size
(NPS),also mentioned as Diameter nominal (DN)
It is in-between of outer and inner diameter of
pipe
For NPS 14 and above NPS is same as outer
diameter
4
Pipe Size

ID will changed
with changed in
Pipe Schedule
number

5
Pipe length
Pipe are available in following lengths
Single random
4.8 m to 6.7 m with 5% of lengths 3.7 to 4.8 m
Double random
minimum average of 10.7 m and a minimum length
of 4.8 m with 5 % 4.8 m to 10.7 m
Fixed length as per purchase order

6
Pipe Thickness
Thickness are expressed in Schedule number
(5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160)
Also in STD, extra strong-XS, double extra
strong-XXS
Higher the schedule higher the thickness

7
Pipe Thickness
What is Schedule No?
A schedule number is the approximate value
of the equation = 1000 P/S
P is the service pressure in (psi)
S is the allowable stress in (psi)

8
Pipe Thickness
The outside diameter of each pipe size is
standardized. Therefore, inside diameter
depends upon the schedule number of pipe
ASME B36.10 provides standard dimension
requirements for Welded & Seamless wrought
iron pipes.

9
Pipe Thickness for Stainless Steel
Thickness are expressed in Schedule number
(5S, 10S, 40S, 80S)
Schedule no with S suffix are per ASME
B36.19M, and it is use with stainless steel pipe
only.

10
Pipe ends
Pipe can be
Plain end
Beveled end
Threaded end
Special end such as socket & spigot
with o-ring type gaskets

11
What you have learned?
Basic of Pipe
NPS & Schedule No.
Types of Pipe End

12
End of Lecture
Good Luck!
See you
in next lecture

13
Pipe
Material
Wiki Common user: Alexander AlUS

1
What you have learned?
Commonly used ASTM
material Grade of pipe

6
End of Lecture
Good Luck!
See you
in next lecture

7
Pipe
Manufacturing-1

1
Seamless Pipe
Strongest amongst all pipes.
Homogenous structure throughout pipe length.
Available in wide range of size.
Restriction on large size
Used in manufacturing of bends, elbow, tee.

2
Manufacturing of Seamless Pipe
Seamless pipe are manufacture by following methods
Mandrel
Piercing Method
Plug mill
Extrusion
Forging

3
Manufacturing of Seamless Pipe
Piercing Method

Billet

Heating in Furness Piercing

4
Extrusion

Force Pull

Hot Extrusion Hot / Cold Extrusion


8
Welded Pipe
Pipe are manufactured from Plate or Coil
Plate or coil rolled in circular section to weld
Can be welded with or without filler material
No restriction on large size
Used in manufacturing of bends, elbow
Weak in compare to seamless pipe due to joint
12
Plat Bending / Forming for Welded
Pipe

13
ERW or EFW Pipe
Water Cooling

Induction Weld
anodes
Online NDT
Weld Bead
Induction Heat
Trimmer
treatment
14
What we have learned?
Manufacturing methods
Seamless Pipe
Welded Pipe

19
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How to be an Expert in Pipe & Fittings for Oil & Gas
Click the link - https://www.udemy.com/process-pipe-fittings-for-oil-gas-
career/?couponCode=FB10

1
This is just an outline of my online course
How to be an Expert in Pipe & Fittings for Oil & Gas
career
You can boost your Oil & Gas Career in Just $10.
Huge 90% discount on Pipe & Pipe Fitting Course.
Click the link to Enrolled now.
https://www.udemy.com/process-pipe-fittings-for-
oil-gas-career/?couponCode=FB10

2
End of Lecture
Good Luck!
See you
in next lecture

20
Pipe
Manufacturing-2

1
Heat Treatment for pipe
Hot finished Pipe
Temp. remain above heat treatment temperature
till final size and thickness achieved
No heat treatment required
Cold finished Pipe
Pipe are clod drawn
Heat treatment as per applicable ASTM standard

2
Hydrostatic Test
Ensure 100% leak proof pipe
Ensure ability withstand under pressure
Hydro test pressure is calculated based on
equation given in ASTM A530

8
Marking
Following shall be marked on pipe
Manufacturer logo
ASTM material code
Material Grade
Size
Thickness VP 8 Sch 80 A106 XYZ123 10.2m
Length
Heat No
Special marking WR or NH,
13
Marking
Marking can be by paint or by Hard punching
For stainless steel stenciling can be used
For carbon steel no hard punching below 6 mm
thickness
For stainless steel no hard punching below 12 mm
thickness

14
What we have learned?
Heat Treatment
Inspection and Testing
Markings

15
End of Lecture
Good Luck!
See you
in next lecture

16
Fittings

1
Fittings
Fittings are Piping component which helps in
Changes the direction of the flow
elbows, tee
Changes the size of the pipe
reducers, reducing tees, reducing couplings, reducing flanges
Joins together pipe
flanges, couplings

2
Fittings ends
Socket weld & Threaded end
ASME B16.11 - Forged steel socket welding &
threaded fittings

7
What we have learned?
Basic of Pipe
NPS / Schedule No.
Types of Pipe End

8
End of Lecture
Good Luck!
See you
in next lecture

9
Fittings
Material
Wiki Common user: Alexander AlUS

1
Material
Commonly used material for wrought fittings
Carbon Steel :- ASTM A234Gr.WPA/B, ASTM
A420 Gr.WPL6
Alloy Steel :- ASTM A234 WP1 /WP5 /WP7 /WP9
/WP11 /WP12 /WP22
Stainless Steel :- ASTM A403 WP304 /WP304L
/WP304H /WP316 / WP316L/ WP321/ WP347
5
Material
Commonly used material for forge fittings
Carbon Steel :- ASTM A181, ASTM A105, ASTM
A350 LF1/2
Alloy Steel :- ASTM A182F1 /F2 /F5 /F7 /F9/
F11 /F12 /F22
Stainless Steel :- ASTM A182F6 /F304 /F304L
/F304H /F316 /F316L/ F321/ F347/ F348
6
What we have learned?
Materials wrought & forged
fittings
Common ASTM material
grades

7
End of Lecture
Good Luck!
See you
in next lecture

8
Fittings
Manufacturing-1

1
Wrought Fitting Manufacturing
Methods
Hot forming or Extrusion Method
Hydraulic Bulge method Cold forming
UO Method / Single weld seam
Monaka Method / Double weld seam
Deep Drawing Method
Flare Method for Stub ends
4
ELBOWS: Extrusion method (Cold Forming)

Die
Push

10
Tees: Hydraulic Bulge method

Die

19
Reducers: Outer Die method

Die
24
CAPS: Deep Drawing method
Plate is cut out in a circle and formed by deep
drawing die

25
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career/?couponCode=FB10

1
This is just an outline of my online course
How to be an Expert in Pipe & Fittings for Oil & Gas
career
You can boost your Oil & Gas Career in Just $10.
Huge 90% discount on Pipe & Pipe Fitting Course.
Click the link to Enrolled now.
https://www.udemy.com/process-pipe-fittings-for-
oil-gas-career/?couponCode=FB10

2
What we have learned?
Manufacturing methods

27
End of Lecture
Good Luck!
See you
in next lecture

28
Fittings
Manufacturing-2

1
Heat Treatment for Fittings
Heat treatment as per applicable ASTM standard
Hot finished Fittings
Temp. remain within heat treatment temperature till
final size and thickness achieved
No heat treatment required
Cold finished Fittings
Fittings are clod drawn
heat treatment required
2
Marking
Marking can be by paint or by Hard punching
For stainless steel stenciling can be used
For carbon steel no hard punching below 6 mm
thickness
For stainless steel no hard punching below 12
mm thickness

12
What we have learned?
Heat Treatment
Inspection and Testing
Markings

13
End of Lecture
Good Luck!
See you
in next lecture

14
Flange

By: Varun Patel, B.E- Mechanical, PMP


1
Flange
Second most used joining method after welding
Connect pipe with various equipment
Provide flexibility in maintenance
Cannot use in underground piping
Most common source of leak
Varity of flanges available to suit requirements

2
Flange Attachments Types
Threaded Flanges
Socket-Welded Flanges
Slip-On Flanges
Lapped Flanges
Weld Neck Flanges
Blind Flanges

3
Flange Facing Types
Flat Faced (FF)
Raised Face (RF)
Ring Joint (RTJ)
Tongue and groove (T&G)
Male and Female
These face can be smooth or serrated type

4
What we have learned?
Types Flange
Flange End Connection
Types of Flange Face

21
End of Lecture
Good Luck!
See you
in next lecture

22
Flange
Material
Wiki Common user: Alexander AlUS

1
Material of construction
Standard Flanges are made by forge materials
Carbon steel
Low alloy steel
Stainless steel
Combination of Exotic martials (Stub) and other
materials

2
What we have learned?
Materials for Flanges

5
End of Lecture
Good Luck!
See you
in next lecture

6
Flange
Manufacturing

1
Manufacturing
Flanges are manufactured by
forging
Large diameter flange are
made by ring rolling
methods
Final dimension are
achieved by machining
2
Hydrostatic Test

Not required unless specifically


requested by purchaser
Code mandate that flange shall
be able to withstand under
pressure test of rating of
finished

4
Marking
Following shall be marked on pipe
Manufacturer logo
ASTM material code
Material Grade
Service rating (Pressure Class)
Size
Thickness (Schedule)
VP 6 CL300 Sch80 A105 WNRF ABC12
Heat No
Special marking QT (Quenched and tempered) or W
(Repair by welding)
12
Marking
Marking can be by paint or by Hard punching
For stainless steel stenciling can be used
Flanged are marked in flange thickness area.

13
What we have learned?
Manufacturing methods
Heat Treatment
Inspection and Testing
Markings

14
End of Lecture
Good Luck!
See you
in next lecture

15
Branch
Connection

By: Varun Patel, B.E- Mechanical, PMP


1
Branch Connection
Reinforced branch Pipe to
pipe
Site fabricated branch
connections
Self reinforced branch
Specially design branch
connection which can be use
without reinforcing pad
Well-known as Olets
2
What we have learned?
Types of branch connection

10
End of Lecture
Good Luck!
See you
in next lecture

11
Branch Connection
Material

Wiki Common user: Alexander AlUS

1
Material of construction
Standard branch connection are made by forge
materials
Carbon steel
Low alloy steel
Stainless steel
ASME B31.3 provides list of acceptable forge material
used in process piping

2
What we have learned?
Materials for Standard Branch
connections

4
End of Lecture
Good Luck!
See you
in next lecture

5
Branch Connection
Manufacturing

1
Non Destructive testing
Ultrasonic
Magnetic particle test
Liquid penetrant test
Positive Material Identification

5
Distractive Testing
Tensile test
Hardness test
Impact test / Charpy V-Notch Test
Proof Test (Type Test) if specified

6
Marking
Following shall be marked on Olets
Manufacturer logo
ASTM material code
Material Grade
Service rating (Pressure Class)
Size
VP A105B CL3000 1 X Sch80 ABC12
Thickness (Schedule)
Heat No
Color code if specified
11
Marking
Marking by Hard punching
For stainless steel stenciling can be used
If ask by purchaser colour coding are also done

12
What we have learned?
Manufacturing methods
Heat Treatment
Inspection and Testing
Markings

13
End of Lecture
Good Luck!
See you
in next lecture

14
Gasket

By: Varun Patel, B.E- Mechanical, PMP


1
Gasket
Gasket is sealing material
placed between connecting
Flanges
create a static seal
Maintain leakage proof sealing
in all operating conditions

2
Spiral Wound Gasket
Outer Ring

Winding Inner Ring


Material
10
What we have learned?
Types of Gasket
Various Construction

13
End of Lecture
Good Luck!
See you
in next lecture

14
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2
Gasket
Material
Wiki Common user: Alexander AlUS

1
Non-Metallic Gasket

Resilient or pliable material


Commonly used materials
Compressed Non-Asbestos fiber
PTFE
Rubber
Mica
Ceramic fiber

2
What we have learned?
Materials for Gasket

6
End of Lecture
Good Luck!
See you
in next lecture

7
Gasket
Manufacturing

1
Manufacturing of Gasket
Non-metal gasket are manufactured as long sheet
and cut as per requirements
Spiral wound gasket are made by winding of metal
and filler material on winding machine
Winded material are tack welded to inner and
outer ring of gasket

2
Manufacturing of Gasket
Metallic gasket are made from forged ring or cut
from the metal sheet and machined to achieve
final surface finish and dimension

3
Dimension

ASME B16.20-Metallic Gaskets for Pipe Flanges,


Ring-Joint, Spiral Wound and Jacketed
ASME B16.21-Nonmetallic Flat Gaskets for Pipe
Flanges

4
Inspection and Testing
Gasket Material shall be tested for
Hardness
Creep test
Thickness
Density
Compression
Recovery
Blowout resistance
5
Inspection and Testing
Following to be check for finished gasket
(Type test)
Tensile
Sealability
Flexibility
Corrosion resistance
Decomposition

6
Marking

Manufacturer logo
Manufacturing Code
Size and Pressure Class
Filler and winding material
Inner and Outer ring material

7
Marking- Colour Code

Spiral Wound Gasket are painted accordance with


ASME B16.20.
The solid colour on the centering ring indicates the
metallic winding material
The stripped colour indicates the non-metallic
filler used between the metal winding.

8
Marking- Colour Code

Source: Flexitallic
9
What we have learned?
Manufacturing method
Dimension Standard
Inspection & testing
Marking & Colour Code

10
End of Lecture
Good Luck!
See you
in next lecture

11
Bolting

Varun Patel, B.E- Mechanical, PMP


1
Bolting
Bolting is a term that includes stud, bolts, nuts, and
washers
Also Known as fastener

2
Washers
Conical or Belleville Springs washers
Keep bolted joints tight
High spring loads with small deflections
Used in area where vibration, differential thermal expansion,
and bolt creep present

10
What we have learned?
What is Stud, Bolt, Nut & washers
Use of Stud, Bolt, Nut & washers
Types of Stud, Bolt, Nut
&washers

11
End of Lecture
Good Luck!
See you
in next lecture

12
Bolting
Material
Wiki Common user: Alexander AlUS
Material of construction

Carbon steel
Low alloy steel
Stainless steel
Exotic material, such as Monel, Inconel, Nickel alloy
Material of construction
These material further divide in
High Strength
Intermediate strength
Low Strength
List of ASTM Material grade used for manufacturing
stud are listed in ASME B16.5
Coating
Bolting are also coted with different materials to
improve its corrosion resistance and reduce
maintenance
Chrome plated
Galvanized
Xylan coated
PTFE coated
What we have learned?
Materials for Stud, Bolt, Nut
&washers
Different type of coating
End of Lecture
Good Luck!
See you
in next lecture
Bolting
Manufacturing

1
Manufacturing of Stud & Bolt
Rolling / Forming
Most common method for threading on stud and bolt
Cylindrical bar placed between two die and bar are rolled in
between the die
Used for stud and threaded portion of bolt

Wiki Common user: Wizard191


3
Manufacturing of Stud & Bolt
Machining
Threads are cut by lathe machine on blank
Hexagonal head of nut are also machine chamfered

4
Manufacturing of Stud & Bolt
Forging / Die punching
Blank bar are placed between die and force applied to
produced threads in blank
Head of bolt are also made by die punching
Forging can be done by Hot & Cold forging methods

Wiki Common user: Wizard191


5
What we have learned?
Manufacturing Methods
Testing Requirements
Types of Testing
Visual & Dimension Inspection
Product Marking

18
End of Lecture
Good Luck!
See you
in next lecture

19
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Huge 90% discount on Pipe & Pipe Fitting Course.
Click the link to Enrolled now.
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