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3.

8 Work, Energy and Power

Work is the result of multiplying a force exerted on a body by the distance that the
body is displaced.
W Fd

Energy is the capacity to do work.

Two General Categories for Classifying Energy:

Potential Energy the energy that a body has because of its position or configuration.
mgh
P.E.
gc

Kinetic Energy - energy due to motion.


mv 2
K .E .
2gc

Power is defined as the work done per unit time.


W
P
t
but : W Fd
Fd
P
t
d
and : v
t
P Fv

Solved Problems:

1. If the mass of a typical neutron is 1.66 x 10 -24 g and the velocity is approximately
2200 m/sec, what is the kinetic energy of this neutron in electron?

Solution:
KE 1 mv 2 where : m = 1.66 x 10-24 g
2
v2 = (2200 x 100)2 = 4.84 x 1010 (cm/sec)2

KE 1 (1.66 x 10 24 )(4.84 x 1010 ) 4.0172 x 10 14 ergs


2
electron - volts
4.0172 x10 14 ergs x
1.6 x 10 -12 ergs
KE 0.0251075 ev
2. A person pulls an 80 kg crate 20 m across a level floor using a rope that is 30 above
the horizontal. The person exerts a force of 150 N on the rope. How much work is
done?

150N
Solution: 150N

30

20 m

W= Fx cos = (150N)(20m)(cos 30)


W= 2.6 x 103 J = 2.6 kJ

3. A 100 lb wooden box is pushed across a horizontal floor with a force of 50 lb. The
coefficient of friction is k=0.40. (a) Find the work done in pushing the box 60 ft. (b) How
much work went into overcoming friction and how much into accelerating the box?

Solution:
a) Work done by the applied force of 50 lb is

W= Fx= (50 lb)(60 ft) = 3.0 x 103 ft-lb

b) Since the normal force here is the boxs weight w, the frictional force is

F = k FN = k w = (0.40)(100 lb) = 40 lb

The work done to overcome this force is:

W = Fx = (40 lb)(60 ft) = 2400 ft-lb

Hence the work that went into accelerating the box was

3000 ft-lb 2400 ft-lb = 600 ft-lb

4. How much work is done in lifting a 300 lb load of bricks to a height of 60 ft on a


building under construction?

Solution:
mg = w = 300 and h = 60 ft, so,

W = mgh = wh = (300 lb)(60 ft) = 18,000 ft-lb


5. Eating banana enables a person to perform about 4.0 x 10 4 J of work. To what height
does eating a banana enable a 60 kg woman to climb?

Solution:
From W = mgh we have
W 4.0 x 104 J
h =mg =(60 kg)(9.8m/s2) = 68 m

6. An electric motor with an output of 15 kW provides power for the elevator of a six-
story building. If the total mass of the loaded elevator is 1000 kg, what is the minimum
time needed for it to rise the 30 m from the ground floor to the top floor?

Solution:
The work done in raising the elevator through a height h is:

W = mgh

Since P = W/t, the time needed for the motor to raise the elevator by 30 m is:
W mgh (1000kg)(9.8 m/s2)(30m)
t= P =P = 15000 W = 20 s

7. A swimmer develops an average power of 200 W as she covers 100 m in 80.0 s.


What is the resistive force exerted by the water on her?

Solution:
The swimmers speed is v = 100m/80.0 s = 1.25 m/s. Since P = Fv:

P 200W
F 160 N , Which is about 36 lb.
v 1.25m / s

8. A trash compactor with a -hp motor can apply a crushing force of 1 ton (2000 lb).
How fast does its ram move, assuming 80% efficiency?

Solution:
The power developed by the motor is:
ft lb / s
Pin (1 / 4hp) 550 138 ft lb / s
hp
Pout ( Eff )( Pin ) (0.80)(138 ft lb / s ) 110 ft lb / s

Because P =Fv the rams speed is:


Pout 110 ft lb / s
v 0.055 ft / s
F 2000lb
ft in
v 0.055 12 0.66in / s
s ft

9. A 1.0-lb hammer head strikes a nail at a speed of 10 ft/s and drives it exactly in.
into a wooden board. What is the average force on the nail?
Solution: F x
m
v

wv 2 (1.0lb)(10 ft / s ) 2
F 75lb
2 gx 2 1
( 2)(32 ft / s ) ft
48

10. What is the power output of the engine of a 1200-kg car if the car con go from 25
km/h to 100 km/h in 12 s?

Solution:
The work needed to accelerate the car is

W = KE2 KE1 = 46.4 x 104 J 2.9 x 104 J = 43.5 x 104 J

The power needed to provide this amount of work in 12s is

W 43.5 x10 4 J
P 3.63x10 4 W 36.3kW
t 12 s
hp
P (36.3kW )1.34 49hp
kW
11. Find the maximum shear stress and the maximum normal stress on the object
shown.

Solution:
4000psi

5000psi

20,000psi

20,000psi

5000psi 4000psi

By the sign convention of the figure, the 4000 psi is negative. The
maximum shear stress is:

max 1
2 20,000 (4000) 2 (2)(5000) 2 13,000 psi

The maximum normal stress is:

max 1 2 20,000 (4000) 13,000 21,000 psi(tension)

12. 70-kg swami lies on a bed of nails, 1.0 cm apart whose points each have an area
of 1.0 mm2. If the area of the swamis body in contact with the bed is 0.50 m 2 and the
threshold stress for pain is 1 Mpa (106 Pa), how disagreeable is the experience for the
swami?

Solution:
The bed has 1 nail/cm2. Because the area in contact with the nails is 0.50 m 2
= 5000 cm2, the swamis weight of mg = 686 N is supported by 5000 nails. Each
nails area is 1.0 mm2 = 1.0 x 10-6 m2, so the stress each nail exerts on swami is

F 686 N
p 6 2
1.37 x10 5 Pa 0.137 MPa
A (5000)(1.0 x10 m )
This is well below the 1-Mpa threshold for pain.

13. A copper wire 1.00 mm in diameter and 2.0 m long is used to support a mass of 5.0
kg. By how much does the wire stretch under this load?

Solution:
L0 F
L
YA
Here, because the radius of a wire 1.00 mm in diameter is 5.0 x 10 -4 m, we have

L0 2.0m
F mg (5.0kg )(9.8m / s 2 ) 49 N
Y 1.1x1011 N / m 2
A r 2 (5.0 x10 4 m) 2 7.85x10 7 m 2

(2.0m)(49 N )
L 1.1x10 3 m 1.1mm
(1.1x10 N / m 2 )(7.85x10 7 m 2 )
11

14. A sagging floor is jacked up and a steel girder 10.0 ft long whose cross-sectional
area is 6.0 in2 is put in place underneath. When the jack is removed, a sensitive strain
gauge shows that the girder has been compresses by 0.0080 in. Find the load the
girder is supporting.

Solution:

L0 (10.0 ft )(12.0in. / ft ) 120in.


L lb 0.0080in
F YA 29 x10 6 2 (6.0in 2 ) 11,600lb 5.8tons
L0 in 120in