Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 3

House Drain- portion of the plumbing system that receives discharges of all soil and waste SIZE OF STORM

SIZE OF STORM DRAIN Mercury


stacks within the building Nitrate Poisoning caused by presence of excessive nitrate in water.
Combined Drain- receives discharges of sanitary waste as well as storm water Infant Methemoglobinemia associated with high concentration of nitrate-nitrogen in
Sanitary Drain- receives the discharge of sanitary and domestic wastes only water.
Storm Drain- conveys all storm clear water, or surface waste water except sanitary wastes Dental Fluorosis mottled enamel from too much fluoride in water.
Industrial Drain- receives discharge from industrial equipment that contain some Water-Washed Diseases- Scarcity and inaccessibility of water make washing and personal
objectionable acid wastes cleanliness difficult and infrequent. Such diseases are scabies, skin and eye infections, etc.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Water-Based Diseases- Water provides the habitat for intermediate host organisms in
FIXTURE UNITS VALUES which some parasites pass part of their life cycle. These parasites causes helminthic
diseases to humans by having contact with water or by ingestion of water plants or fish.
Water-Related Diseases- Water may provide a habitat for water-related insect vectors of
diseases. Mosquitoes breed in water an the adult mosquitoes may transmit malaria,
filariasis, dengue, yellow fever and japanese encephalitis.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
USES & IMPORTANCE OF WATER
LEVELS OF WATER SUPPLY SERVICE
Domestic
Level I Point Source- A protected well (improved dug or shallow/ deep well), developed
Industrial & Commercial
spring, or a rainwater cistern with outlet but without distribution system. A level I water
Agricultural
facility normally serves around 15 to 25 households and its outreach must not be more
Recreational
than 250 meters from the farthest user.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Level II Communal Faucet System or Stand Post- This level refers to a system composed
Mills-Reincke Phenomena- It states that the provision of filtered or treated water to a
of a source, reservoir, piped distribution network and communal faucet located not more
community, there is a reduction not only in death rates due to typhoid fever and other
than 25 meters from the farthest house. The system is designed to deliver 40-80 liters of
enteric diseases but also in death rates due to non-enteric diseases (non-intestinal).
water per capita per day or an average of 100 households, with one faucet serving 4 to 6
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
households.
DISEASES RELATED TO WATER
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Level III Waterworks System- This is a system with a source, transmission pipes,
Water-Borne Diseases
SIZE OF SANITARY DRAINS reservoir and with piped distribution network for household taps. It is generally suited for
Water-Washed Diseases
densely-populated areas.
Water-Based Diseases
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Water-Related Diseases
Chlorination- disinfecting community water supplies. The two most common field
Water-Borne Diseases
methods used are:
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Orthotolodine Test- The test is carried out in the field using commercial visual
Diseases transmitted by drinking water which are contaminated. It can be classified broadly
comparators. The method is suitable for chlorine residuals not exceeding to 10 mg/l.
into two general categories: microbic or non-microbic.
Diethylparaphenylenediamine (DPD)- The residual chlorine is measured in terms of the
Microbic Diseases caused by some specific organism.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- color produced using a calometric method (using visual comparator kit).
Non-Microbic Diseases those that arise due to presence or excess of certain chemical
HOUSE DRAIN APPLIANCES -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
substances in water.
Area Drain- consists of a running trap installed under the basement floor to protect it Chlorine Demand- To ensure satisfactory disinfection of water enough chlorine must be
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
from freezing added to satisfy all of these demands for hypochlorous acid and have some hypochlorous
MICROBIC DISEASES
Floor Drain- used to receive water to be drained from the floor into the plumbing system acid remaining.
TYPES OF PATHOGENS PRESENT IN WATER
Yard Catch Basin- used to catch surface drained water from cemented courts, driveways Free Residual Chlorine- The hypochlorous acid remaining after the demand has been
Bacteria can enter a new host by:
and yards satisfied.
Ingestion (food, water, soil)
Garage Catch Basin- convey wastes from garage -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Inhalation (aerosol particles)
Grease Basin- used in kitchens serving hotels, dining rooms, restaurants PRECAST SEWERS
Rubbing the eye with fecally contaminated fingers.
House Trap- installed in the house drain inside the foundation wall of the building The pipe materials which are used to transport water may also be used to collect
e.g. typhoid fever, bacillary dysentery, cholera, etc.
Back Flow Valve- prevent the reversal of flow wastewater. It is more usual, however to employ less expensive materials since sewers
Viruses infect the intestinal tract of man.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- rarely are required to withstand any internal pressure iron and steel pipes are used to
Infect the new host by ingestion or inhalation
HOUSE SEWER- portion of the horizontal drainage system which starts from the outer convey sewage only under unusual loading conditions or for force main in which sewage
Cannot multiply outside a host cell
face of the building and terminate at the main sewer in the street or septic tank flow is pressurized.
e.g. poliomyelitis, infectious hepatitis, etc.
SPLASH PAN- collector of water coming down from the downspout leading the CLAY PIPE
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
accumulated water away from the house at a relatively low rate of flow CONCRETE PIPE
Protozoa harbour in the intestinal tract of man and animals, where they cause diarrheal
PLASTIC TRUSS PIPE
disease or amoebic dysentery.
SOLID-WALL PLASTIC PIPE
Helminths classified in two groups:
CORRUGATED METAL PIPE
Roundworms round in cross-section
IRON PIPE
Tapeworms flat in cross-section
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
e.g. ascariasis, trichuriasis, etc.
BUILT-IN-PLACE SEWERS- sanitary sewage can generally be conveyed by conduits which do
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
not exceed the range of sizes available in clay pipe.
NON-MICROBIC DISEASES
CORROSION OF SEWERS- Organic material is likely to accumulate in sanitary sewers as a
Heavy Metal Poisoning
result of decomposition at low flow velocities and coagulation of grease at the junction of
Lead the most dangerous metal, because it is toxic over a period of time at quiet low
the water surface and the pipe
levels which are undetectable by taste or appearance.