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PLN CONFERENCE 2016 1

DIRANA Measurement For Diagnostic Oil-


Paper Insulation System on Aged Inter Bus
Transformer 3x10 MVA
Eki Farlen S.T1, Ahmad Khoirul A.S2
1,2
PT PLN (Persero) APP Salatiga
Jalan Diponogoro No.149, Salatiga,Indonesia.
1
eki.farlen@yahoo.com

connecting generation to utilization. Today transformers are


Abstract Condition assessment of oil-paper-insulated power not automatically replaced if they have reached the end of
transformers, particularly of water content, is becoming their life span, but left in service as long as possible.
increasingly important for aged transformers. As insulation ages,
Nowadays, power transformers are operated at or above rated
it can produces water, which reduces its dielectric strength,
accelerates the cellulose ageing process, and causes gas bubbles to power. This accelerates the ageing process of the inner
form at high temperatures. This paper mainly asses the life insulation, particularly of the insulation paper, which cannot
condition of oil-paper insulation system of Inter Bus Transformer be easily replaced. In this effort of extending the life of
(IBT) 30 MVA, 150/30 kV in PT PLN-Substation Jelok that have existing power transformer, testing and diagnostics of power
been operating for 41 years, since 1974. transformer conditions become very important step whether it
Valuable information about the condition of high voltage
is possible to extend certain time of useful life beyond design
insulation may be obtained by measuring its dielectric response.
This paper describes in detail the interpretation of Dielectric life and save investment on new power transformer.
Response Analysis (DIRANA) measurements and the test result Condition assessment of oil-paper-insulated power
compared to other insulation test to get deep informations for transformers, particularly of water content, is becoming
diagnostic, such as Tan delta test, Oil Characteristic test and increasingly important for aged transformers [1]. Water
Dissolve Gas Analysis (DGA) test. This paper mainly discuss content is a key factor that should be considered to determine
about the parameter relationship between Moisture content,
the load capability of a power transformer. The presence of
Water Content, Acidity, Oil conductivity and Dissipation Factor.
The result and analysis show that IBT 30 MVA Jelok phase U water accelerates the ageing processes, being the thermal
and W had just been ageing due to high acidity level (>0.2 ageing rate of cellulose insulation proportional to its water
mgKOH/g) which cause high moisture in cellulose/paper (%) are content. More over an important water presence significantly
in wet category about 4.7% and 5% and water content in oil decreases the maximum operation temperature as bubbling
(ppm) about 3.13 ppm and 3.33 ppm at temperature 20oC. High risk appears for lower temperatures [2].
acidity level can make oxidation process and produce water in
Valuable information about the condition of high voltage
paper and particle which can decrease the value of Interfacial
Tension (IFT) below 22 mN/m (poor category) for both phase U insulation may be obtained by measuring its dielectric
and W. Even if paper insulation of transformer are in wet response. There are Some techniques for measure and
condition, dissipation factor and capacitance at the same diagnose dielectric, such as the Recovery Voltage
frequency (50 Hz) from both measurement DIRANA test and Measurement (RVM) or the Polarization Depolarization
Tangent delta test give the same result (almost), the results are Current Measurement (PDC) are based on the analysis of
0.69% and 0.71% (<1%), it may be acceptable and should not be
dielectric response in time domain. The analysis of the
investigated. The DGA results show that TDCG are in level one
(1) condition and there are no found a Key Gases, it means that dielectric response can also be done in frequency domain as
transformers had no failure during operation like arching, the Frequency Domain Spectroscopy (FDS) technique
partial discharge and thermal in oil or cellulose. proposes [2].
This paper mainly asses the life condition of oil-paper
Index Terms Testing, Diagnostic, Inter Bus Transformer, insulation system of Inter Bus Transformer (IBT) 30 MVA,
Oil-Paper Insulation, Moisture, Dissipation Factor 150/30 kV in PT PLN-Substation Jelok that have been
operating for 41 years, since 1974. Parameter such as
Moisture, Oil Conductivity and Dissipation Factor measured
I. INTRODUCTION using DIRANA measurement, and the result can be compared

P ower transformers are the most expensive links in the


chain of transmission network for electrical energy
to another insulation test like Oil Quality Test, Dissolve Gas
Analysis (DGA) and Tan Delta Test.
PLN CONFERENCE 2016 2

II. OIL-PAPER INSULATION TEST CONCEPT injected to the object so called the charging and discharging
currents to the insulation material. After Charging complete,
Any solid or liquid insulation can be modeled by a the material is shorted circuited and depolarization current
capacitance C, representing the "ideal" behavior of insulation, over the object should be registered. Even PDC measure in
and a resistor R, representing the electrical losses, see Fig 1. time domain, it can be transformed into frequency domain at
The dissipation factor or tan indicates the quality of range 10 Hz untill 0,1 Hz.
insulation materials by the tangent of the ratio of resistive B. FDS
current IR to capacitive current IC. The power factor is the
AC sinusoidal voltage of variable frequency is applied to
cosine of the ratio of resistive current I R to total current I. For
the object under test and the current flowing across the
small angles, dissipation and power factor are identical. insulation is registered. FDS method consists in making
While the conventional tests like power factor, dissipation discrete measurements in a frequency range between 5 kHz
factor and polarization index look on narrow frequency points
untill 10 Hz. With FDS method, the test object may be
or areas, the newer dielectric spectroscopy methods conduct
determined as dissipation factor or tangent , capacitance (C),
information over a very wide frequency range and thus enable
and Oil Conductivity within range frequency.
for the discrimination between different effects and more
The Dirana software takes also the conductivity of the oil
dependable information about the assed condition. and moisture into account at various influence of temperature
and X-Y Model. This makes the results for aged transformers
much more reliable compared to the standard model curves
which were used in the past. Interpretation the curve of Dirana
measurement is very simple, just to see the shifting an old and
a new measurement, between become higher or lower. Fig 3
describe dielectric response measurement graph.

Fig 1. Equivalent circuit for insulation material (left) and corresponding


vector diagram

Dielectric spectroscopy measurement conducts the


properties of insulation systems across a wide frequency range
of 5 kHz untill 10 Hz. This Measurements in time and
frequency domain have been used for one decade enables for
discrimination between different effects and for the
determination of moisture in the solid insulation [5]. Today, a
new device combines time and frequency domains in order to
have a very fast measurement, as well known as the Dielectric Fig 3. Dielectric response measurement graph, factors affecting the frequency-
Response Analyzer (DIRANA) which can assures an accurate dependent dissipation factor
measurement of water content. DIRANA combine two method
such as PDC and FDS at wide frequency range provides a high
III. MEASURING SETUP
degree of accuracy and precise measurements at all
temperature levels [3].

Fig 2. Process of dielectric response measurement in time and frequency


domain [4]
Fig 4. IBT 30 MVA at Substation Jelok

A. PDC
Inter Bus Transformer (IBT) in Substation Jelok have been
PDC method consists in the measurement of the operating for 41 years old. This IBT used for Step-Up from 30
polarization and depolarization currents that appear during kV to 150 kV that supply into subsystem jelok. The source of
processes in a dielectric material testing. A DC current
PLN CONFERENCE 2016 3

30 kV come from PLTA Jelok which has Power Capacity from Megger OTS100AF Technologies. The experimental
about 16 MW. Table I describe more about the spesification. arrangement is in accordance with IEC 60422.
In this experiment acidity of the sample oil was determined
TABLE I. by titration according to ASTM D 974. The acidity number
INTER BUS TRANSFORMER SPESIFICATIONS
indicates the number of mg potasium hydroxide (KOH) to
Brand Union neutralize per g sample oil. The end point of titration was
Year Manufacture 1974 determined using phenolptaline indicator.
Capacity 10 MVA
Voltage 30/150 kV D. Tangen Delta Test
Ampere Rating 577,4 / 115,5 A Conventional capacitance and dissipation factor
Cooler Onaf measurement were done by using Megger delta 4000, the test
Frequency 50 Hz AC voltage increased from 2 kV to 10 kV and frequency is
kept constant at 50 Hz. Connection configuration test is seem
A. DIRANA Test like diraa test, both HV and LV are shorted circuit and test
mode at Over All test for both two winding.
The measuring setup is done refer to Dirana User Manual
by Omicron [3]. IBT Jelok has two winding and the
connection configuration using CHL to specify the main
insulation (H-L) path, this measurement done by single test IV. TEST RESULTS
per phase, both high and low voltage side are short circuiting A. DIRANA Test
and connecting guard to the transformers tank, see Fig 5.
Guarding is required to prevent disturbances due to unwanted
current paths as caused by dirty bushings and unwanted
electromagnetic fields.

Fig 5. Measurement configuration for two winding at main insulation CHL

The frequency range from 1 kHz untill 100 Hz, for FDS Fig 6. Dirana test result IBT Phase U
start from 1 kHz untill 0,1 Hz and PDC frequency below 0.1
Hz untill 100 Hz.
B. DGA Test
The Dissolved Gas in the mixture was measured using a gas
chromatograph HP 6890 according to Gas Extraction from Oil
(ANSI/IEEE Standard C57.104-1991 and ASTM Test method
D-3612). The gas chromatograph is run for about 60 minutes
for each sample. A chromatogram which indicates the species
and the concentration of gas can be obtained. The data of the
dissolved gasses were analyzed using total combustible gas
(TCG) method Key Gases method.
C. Oil Quality Test
Water content was measured using Megger KF 875 with
Karl Fischer method refer to standard IEC 60422, this
standard need correction reref to temperature at 20oC based on
factor correction in IEC 60184.
The breakdown voltage were measured using bispherical
standard cell with spacing of 2.5 mm in Liquid Dielectric Test
Fig 7. Dirana test result IBT Phase V
PLN CONFERENCE 2016 4

C. Tangen Delta Test

TABLE IV
TRANSFORMER TWO-WINDING OVERALL TEST RESULT

U V W
Insulation DF C DF C DF C
No Tested % (pF) % (pF) % (pF)
1 CHG+CHL 0.63 3450.98 0.41 3462.18 0.62 3427.17
2 CHG 0.6 1645.77 0.40 1620.67 0.54 1632.25
3 CHL 0.67 1813.56 0.43 1850.13 0.69 1803.01
4 CLG+CHL 0.67 3745.99 0.47 3772.48 0.70 3771.58
5 CLG 0.67 1940.50 0.51 1930.21 0.71 1976.40
6 CHL 0.67 1814.32 0.43 1851.22 0.69 1803.69

Fig 8. Dirana test result IBT Phase W


V. DISCUSSION

B. DGA and Oil Characteristic Test The dielectric response of oil-paper-insulated power
transformers consists of three components: The dielectric
response of the cellulose insulation (paper, pressboard), the
TABLE II
OIL CHARACTERISTIC TEST RESULT dielectric response of the oil and the interfacial polarization
effect. The superposition of these three components follows in
the dielectric response. Moisture, temperature, insulation
Result/Phase Standard geometry and oil conductivity.
No Property (IEC 60422)
Phase A. Moisture Content Analysis
U V W U V W
1 Breakdown 51.4 73.4 71 G G G Moisture in oil is measured in parts per million (PPM) using
Voltage the weight of moisture divided by the weight of oil (kg/g) and
(kV/2,5 mm) unit for moisture concentration in paper is typically expressed
2 Water Cotent 3.16 2.28 3.33 G G G in %, which is weight of the moisture divided by weight of dry
(ppm) @ 20oC
3 Acidity 0.34 0.09 0.16 P G E oil-free pressboard. Water content oil (ppm) were measured by
(mgKOH/g) Karl Fischer method, oil sample test in Lab at 70oC and must
4 Interfacial 21.8 23.7 20.5 P E p be corrected into 20oC. On the other hand, moisture in
Tension cellulose (paper/pressboard) were measured by DIRANA on
(mN/m)
site test, moisture can be determined at low frequency,
5 Sediment 0.02 0.02 0.03 G G G
(Wt%) whether transformer in wet or dry condition.
G : Good, E : Enough, P : Poor

TABLE V
TABLE III WATER CONTENT IN OIL AND MOISTURE CELLULOSE AT
DGA TEST RESULTS DIFFERENT TEMPERATURE

Result per Phase Condition/Level Temperature 20oC Temperature 70oC


Parameter Water Moisture Water Moisture
(IEEE std. C57-104.1991)
(ppm) No Phase Content Oil Cellulose Content Oil Cellulose
U V W 1 2 3 4
(PPM) (%) (PPM) (%)
H2 0 0 0 100 101- 701- >1800
700 1800
CH4 0 0 0 120 121- 401- >1000 1 U 3.16 4.7 23.21 0.9
400 1000
C2H6 74 49,6 40 65 66- 101-150 >150 2 V 2.28 4 20.88 1
100
C2H4 0 0 0 50 51- 101-200 >200 3 W 3.33 5 24.48 1.4
100
C2H2 0 0 0 35 36-50 51-80 >80
CO 66 71 89 350 351- 571- >1400
570 1400 Table V describe both result of measurement, moisture
CO2 172 164 164 2500 2500- 4001- >10000 cellulose have relationship with water content in oil, by
4000 10000
applying the water content in oil (ppm) to a moisture
TDCG 140 121 129 720 721- 1921- >4630
1920 4630 equilibrium diagram at Fig 9, a rough estimation of moisture
PLN CONFERENCE 2016 5

content in paper can be made using Ommens curve for The conductivity of oil is influenced by acids and given in
moisture equiblirium in a oil-paper insulation system. Siemens per meter, that is S/m or 1/m. New oils have an
For example: IBT Phase U, the result oil test from lab show acidity below 0.05 mg KOH/g oil. It increases with ageing to
that while oil temperature at 70oC, water content is about 0.5 and above [8]. Based on result show that oil conductivity
24.48 ppm and moisture cellulose from dirana measurement is for all phase are 18 pS/m, 10 pS/m and 16 pS/m. Oil
about 1.4% (dry category) at the same temperature, let see conductivity level are still in good category because a
ommens curve at Fig 9, red line describe that plot (moisture conductivity above 20 pS/m at ambient temperature points on
and water content from measurement) are almost close to a progressed ageing state [8].
ommens curve. Another example for IBT Phase V also give Not only acidity level but also Interfacial Tension (IFT) can
the close plot to the curve, 20.88 ppm to 1% (dry category). be one of major factor that cause ageing process in oil
In contrast, when temperature at 20oC, water content in oil transformer [6]. See Table II, the value of IFT for Phase U and
around 3.16 ppm and moisture in paper are 4.7% (wet W are in poor category, below 22 mN/m (IEC 60422).
category). But, when we see the curve, water content at 3.16 Validity from the result of measurement which determine
ppm a rough estimation moisture in paper between 2-2.5% oxidation level in oil can be confirmed by Tabel VI.
(moderately wet), this method overestimates moisture in
paper. There are two factor possibility that make this TABLE VI
comparion to be difference interpretation : CLARIFICATION OF VALIDITY DATA BETWEEN ACIDITY AND IFT
MEASUREMENT [6]

1. Because of ageing in oil and paper shifts the Category Acidity Content IFT
equilibrium curves. This case especially happen if the (mgKOH/g) (mN/m)
acidity or oil conductivity are high [8]. It will be 1 < 0.05 20-43
discussed more in dept in chapter acidity analysis 2 0.051-0.1 17-34
2. Since the water content in oil in ppm strictly depends 3 > 0.11 15-27
on temperature, during transportation to the laboratory,
oil sample expose to the air temperature can easily From Table VI we know that IBT Phase U and W are in
increase or decreas water content because of category 3 (poor), it is clear that high acidity content and low
environtment temperature and make the test uncorrect interfacial tensions that cause shift moisture equilibrium curve
[8] and overestimate moisture in paper (wet category).
C. Dissipation Factor Analysis
The principle of measurement between Frequency Domain
Spectroscopy (FDS) and Tangen Delta are almost the same
method, the test object may be determined as dissipation
factor and capacitance (C). Based on the result measurement,
Tabel VIII, at the same frequency 50 Hz, dissipation factor
and capacitance from both measurement DIRANA test and
Tangent delta test give the same result (almost). Even if
voltage sweep from both measurement method are different,
Dirana test output 200 Volt, but in Tangen delta test output 10
kV. Dissipation factors between 0.005 and 0.01 may be
acceptable, But Dissipation factors >0.01 should be
investigated.

TABLE VII
COMPARISON OF MEASUREMENT CHL DISSIPATION FACTOR

Phase Dirana Tan


Fig 9. Ommens curve for moisture equiblirium in a oil-paper insulation
system [7] DF C DF C
(@50Hz) (@50Hz)
U 0.69% 1.922 nF 0.67% 1.813 nF
B. Acidity Analysis V 0.44% 2.25 nF 0.43% 1.851 nF
The Result of acidity IBT Phase U are above standard IEC W 0.71% 1.882 nF 0.69% 1.803 nF
60422 (min 0,2 mgKOH/g) with poor and enough category
around 0,34 mgKOH/g & 0.16 mgKOH/g, see Table II. As
mentioned above that overestimate moisture in paper are due D. DGA Analysis
to high acidity levels, which is caused by oil oxidation
There are four method that can be used for interpretation of
process, if it is mixed with water content at a certain
DGA result. But, we only discuss with TDCG method and
temperature so that will decreas the quality of the paper
Key Gas method. The result of DGA test in Table III show
insulation and can cause corrosion at copper [6].
that Total Dissolved Combustible Gas (TDCG) IBT for all
PLN CONFERENCE 2016 6

Phase are still in Level 1 condition (IEEE std.C57-104.1991). [5] M. Koch, M. Krger : Moisture Determination by Improved On-Site
Diagnostics, TechCon Asia Pacific, Sydney 2008
Overall individual combustible gas are in level 1 condition,
[6] Team SK 520/DIR, 2014: Buku Pedoman Pemeliharaan Trafo
except for IBT phase U which has Ethane (C2H6) in level 2 Tenaga, PT PLN, Jakarta.
condition (53.06%). It means that tansformer are in normal [7] S.R. Lindgren, A.V. Mamishev, Y.Du,IEE, Moisture Equiblirium in
condition but still in need monitor every single gas. Transformer Paper-Oil Systems, Electrical Insulation Magazine,
January 1999-Vol 15. No.1
[8] M. Koch, A. Kraetge, S. (2010, February). Measuring and Analyzing
TABLE VIII
the Dielectric Response of Power Transformers, Omicron Electronic,
FAULT GAS BASED ON KEY GAS METHOD
Austria

Key U V W Eki Farlen S.T was born in Serang, 24


Gas PPM % PPM % PPM % March 1991, received his Bachelor
CO 89.46 69.06 71.39 58.98 65.75 46.94 Degree in Physics Engineering from
H2 - - - - - -
Gadjah Mada University, Jogjakarta,
Indonesia in 2014. Then, he currently
CH4 - - - - - -
work in PT PLN (Persero) since March
C2H6 40.08 30.94 49.66 41.02 74.31 53.06
2015 till now as Assistant Maintenance
C2H4 - - - - - - Engineer Substation. His research
C2H2 - - - - - - interests include diagnosis of power transformer, condition
monitoring and high voltage insulation system.

Based on Table VIII show that there are no found Key


Gases, it means that transformers had no failure during Ahmad Khoirul A.S was born in
operation like arching, partial discharge, thermal in oil and Salatiga, 1990, gainned his first
cellulose. diploma in electrical engineering in
Transmission & Live Maintenance
Academy Semarang in 2008. he
VI. CONCLUSION currently work in PT PLN (Persero)
since 2008 till now as Supervisor
The result and analysis show that IBT 30 MVA Jelok phase Maintenance Engineer of Transmission
U and W had just been ageing due to high acidity level (>0.2 Line. His job interests include high
mgKOH/g) which cause high moisture in cellulose/paper (%) voltage transmission line equipment and insulation cable.
are in wet category about 4.7% and 5% and water content in
oil (ppm) about 3.13 ppm and 3.33 ppm at temperature 20oC.
High acidity level can make oxidation process and produce
water in paper and particle which can decrease the value of
Interfacial Tension (IFT) below 22 mN/m (poor category) for
both phase U and W. Even if paper insulation of transformer
are in wet condition, dissipation factor and capacitance at the
same frequency (50 Hz) from both measurement DIRANA
test and Tangent delta test give the same result (almost), the
results are 0.69% and 0.71% (<1%), it may be acceptable and
should not be investigated. The DGA results show that TDCG
are in level one (1) condition and there are no found a Key
Gases, it means that transformers had no failure during
operation like arching, partial discharge and thermal in oil or
cellulose.

REFERENCES

[1] M. Koch, M. Krueger, M. Puetter.Advanced Insulation Diagnostic by


Dielectric Spectroscopy. Omicron Electronics, Austria.
[2] B. Garcia, B. Valecillos, J. C. Burgos, Determination of Water Content
in Transformer Solid Insulation by Frequency Domain Spectroscopy,
Int. Conf. on Electric Power Systems, High Voltages, Electric
Machines, Tenerife, Spain, December 16-18, 2005 (pp18-23)
[3] Omicron, Dielectric Response Analysis and Moisture in Oil-Paper
Dielectrics OMICRON electronics Corp. USA
[4] M. Koch, M.Kruger, A. Kraetge : Improved Moisture Analysis Of
Power Transformers Using Dielectric Response Methods, Omicron
electronic, Austria.